Preprint Review Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Beyond Lipid-Lowering: Effects of Statins on Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Diseases and Cancer

Version 1 : Received: 30 December 2021 / Approved: 31 December 2021 / Online: 31 December 2021 (11:36:31 CET)

How to cite: Morofuji, Y.; Nakagawa, S.; Ujifuku, K.; Fujimoto, T.; Otsuka, K.; Niwa, M.; Tsutsumi, K. Beyond Lipid-Lowering: Effects of Statins on Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Diseases and Cancer. Preprints 2021, 2021120514 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202112.0514.v1). Morofuji, Y.; Nakagawa, S.; Ujifuku, K.; Fujimoto, T.; Otsuka, K.; Niwa, M.; Tsutsumi, K. Beyond Lipid-Lowering: Effects of Statins on Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Diseases and Cancer. Preprints 2021, 2021120514 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202112.0514.v1).

Abstract

The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors, also known as statins, are administered as first-line therapy for hypercholesterolemia, both as primary and secondary prevention. Besides the lipid-lowering effect, statins have been suggested to inhibit the development of cardiovascular disease through anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, vascular endothelial function-improving, plaque-stabilizing, and platelet aggregation-inhibiting effects. The preventive effect of statins on atherothrombotic stroke has been well established, but statins can influence other cerebrovascular diseases. This suggests that statins have many neuroprotective effects in addition to lowering cholesterol. Furthermore, research suggests that statins cause pro-apoptotic, growth-inhibitory, and pro-differentiation effects in various malignancies. Preclinical and clinical evidence suggests that statins inhibit tumor growth and induce apoptosis in specific cancer cell types. The pleiotropic effects of statins on cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases have been well established; however, the effects of statins on cancer patients have not been fully elucidated and are still controversial. This review discusses the recent evidence on the effects of statins on cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases and cancer. Additionally, this study describes the pharmacological action of statins, focusing on the aspect of ‘beyond lipid-lowering.’

Keywords

cancer; cerebrovascular diseases; cardiovascular diseases; pleiotropic effect; statin

Subject

MEDICINE & PHARMACOLOGY, Pharmacology & Toxicology

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