Neocarya macrophylla (Sabine) Prance (Nm, Chrysobalanaceae) is used traditionally as food, for medicinal spiritual and industrial purposes. It is also used as soap, dye, glue, fodder, termite repellent, firewood and for structural materials. Few studies on the physicochemical, nutritional contents, phytochemical and pharmacological activities have validated the benefits of Nm to humanity as food, in cosmetics and pharmaceutical products. The major bioactive constituents identified in the plant so far are steroids and flavonoids (such as stigmasterol, quercetin, catechin and its related glycosides). Extracts of the plant have shown good antivenom, antimicrobial, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antimycobacterial, anthelmintic and antioxidant activities. Acute toxicity studies conducted have confirmed the plant to be toxic. More studies on the plant are required in order to exploit other biological activities as claimed by traditional healers and also to isolate more bioactive compounds. In addition, the safety and tolerability assessment of Nm should be undertaken due to its widespread usage.
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