Preprint Review Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

How is the Digital Surgical Environment Evolving? The Role of Augmented Reality in Surgery and Surgical Training

Version 1 : Received: 1 October 2021 / Approved: 4 October 2021 / Online: 4 October 2021 (11:04:55 CEST)

How to cite: Georgi, M.; Patel, S.; Tandon, D.; Gupta, A.; Light, A.; Nathan, A. How is the Digital Surgical Environment Evolving? The Role of Augmented Reality in Surgery and Surgical Training. Preprints 2021, 2021100048 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202110.0048.v1). Georgi, M.; Patel, S.; Tandon, D.; Gupta, A.; Light, A.; Nathan, A. How is the Digital Surgical Environment Evolving? The Role of Augmented Reality in Surgery and Surgical Training. Preprints 2021, 2021100048 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202110.0048.v1).

Abstract

Background Augmented reality (AR) in surgery can offer an enhanced view of reality through the superimposition of computer-generated digital images on the real environment. It allows surgeons to integrate image visualisation, improving operative efficiency, surgical outcomes, surgical training and patient education. This review aims to evaluate the current status of augmented reality in surgery, surgical training and potential future applications. Methods We performed a non-systematic review of available literature from January 2005 to August 2021 by searching PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane library using a combination of terms “augmented reality”, “virtual reality”, “surgery”, “simulation” and “training”. Articles considered for this review were identified by relevant search criteria including title, keywords, abstract, and full-text. Conclusions AR technologies present an exciting new trend with multiple potential applications in surgery. Intraoperative AR systems have shown promise in specialties involving fine movement of organs during surgical procedures, including Neurosurgery, Ears, Nose and Throat and Orthopaedic Surgery. AR has also exhibited the potential to enhance surgical training and improve knowledge acquisition; it can foster international collaborations via telesurgery and telepresence. In the near future, AR will likely work in symbiosis with surgeons, serving as a complex computer-human coalition which can improve patient outcomes, patient education and surgical training.

Keywords

Augmented reality (AR); Virtual reality (VR); Simulation; Training; Navigation

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