Working Paper Article Version 1 This version is not peer-reviewed

Allelic Polymorphism of Anthrax Toxin Synthesis Genes: Phylogenetic and Phylogeographic Aspects

Version 1 : Received: 27 August 2021 / Approved: 31 August 2021 / Online: 31 August 2021 (11:41:51 CEST)

How to cite: Timofeev, V.; Goncharova, Y.; Bahtejeva, I.; Titareva, G.; Kravchenko, T.; Dyatlov, I. Allelic Polymorphism of Anthrax Toxin Synthesis Genes: Phylogenetic and Phylogeographic Aspects. Preprints 2021, 2021080568 Timofeev, V.; Goncharova, Y.; Bahtejeva, I.; Titareva, G.; Kravchenko, T.; Dyatlov, I. Allelic Polymorphism of Anthrax Toxin Synthesis Genes: Phylogenetic and Phylogeographic Aspects. Preprints 2021, 2021080568

Abstract

Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, has two virulence plasmids: pXO1 and pXO2. Plasmid pXO2 carries the genes of an antiphagocytic capsule synthesis. Plasmid pXO1 carries the genes pagA, lef, and cya encoding anthrax toxins, as well as atxA, which encodes the main regulator of pathogenicity factor expression. In the present paper, we evaluated the polymorphism of the pagA, lef, cya, and atxA genes for 85 B. anthracis strains belonging to different evolutionary lineages and canSNP groups and three B. cereus strains possessing pXO1-like plasmids. We found 19 genotypes (GT) strongly correlated with the main evolutionary lineages; they were mainly correlated with the canSNP group within these lines. In some cases, one GT combined the strains of several canSNP groups, and some canSNP groups were divided into several GTs. The most interesting of such cases were 1) the formation of a separate GT by strains of the A.Br.008/009 group isolated in the former USSR; 2) the presence of a unique GT in some American strains of the A.Br.Aust94 group; 3) the division of the A.Br.001/002 group into two subgroups, one of which may be a transitional link to the group A.Br.Ames; 4) the fact that European isolates of the B.Br.CNEVA group and Arctic strains of the B.Br.001/002 group have a common GT.

Keywords

Bacillus anthracis; pathogenicity factors; genotyping.

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