Article
Version 13
Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

# A Proof of the Riemann Hypothesis Based on A New Expression of the Completed Zeta Function

Version 1
: Received: 2 August 2021 / Approved: 5 August 2021 / Online: 5 August 2021 (12:21:56 CEST)

Version 2 : Received: 6 August 2021 / Approved: 9 August 2021 / Online: 9 August 2021 (12:41:53 CEST)

Version 3 : Received: 20 August 2021 / Approved: 20 August 2021 / Online: 20 August 2021 (11:52:39 CEST)

Version 4 : Received: 23 August 2021 / Approved: 24 August 2021 / Online: 24 August 2021 (11:48:54 CEST)

Version 5 : Received: 27 August 2021 / Approved: 30 August 2021 / Online: 30 August 2021 (10:33:44 CEST)

Version 6 : Received: 20 September 2021 / Approved: 22 September 2021 / Online: 22 September 2021 (10:16:56 CEST)

Version 7 : Received: 24 September 2021 / Approved: 27 September 2021 / Online: 27 September 2021 (12:22:55 CEST)

Version 8 : Received: 4 October 2021 / Approved: 5 October 2021 / Online: 5 October 2021 (12:40:07 CEST)

Version 9 : Received: 11 October 2021 / Approved: 14 October 2021 / Online: 14 October 2021 (14:14:19 CEST)

Version 10 : Received: 23 October 2021 / Approved: 25 October 2021 / Online: 25 October 2021 (13:31:43 CEST)

Version 11 : Received: 11 November 2021 / Approved: 12 November 2021 / Online: 12 November 2021 (14:54:48 CET)

Version 12 : Received: 26 November 2021 / Approved: 26 November 2021 / Online: 26 November 2021 (10:15:27 CET)

Version 13 : Received: 8 December 2021 / Approved: 9 December 2021 / Online: 9 December 2021 (10:23:43 CET)

Version 14 : Received: 20 December 2021 / Approved: 21 December 2021 / Online: 21 December 2021 (12:30:36 CET)

Version 15 : Received: 13 January 2022 / Approved: 13 January 2022 / Online: 13 January 2022 (13:21:18 CET)

Version 2 : Received: 6 August 2021 / Approved: 9 August 2021 / Online: 9 August 2021 (12:41:53 CEST)

Version 3 : Received: 20 August 2021 / Approved: 20 August 2021 / Online: 20 August 2021 (11:52:39 CEST)

Version 4 : Received: 23 August 2021 / Approved: 24 August 2021 / Online: 24 August 2021 (11:48:54 CEST)

Version 5 : Received: 27 August 2021 / Approved: 30 August 2021 / Online: 30 August 2021 (10:33:44 CEST)

Version 6 : Received: 20 September 2021 / Approved: 22 September 2021 / Online: 22 September 2021 (10:16:56 CEST)

Version 7 : Received: 24 September 2021 / Approved: 27 September 2021 / Online: 27 September 2021 (12:22:55 CEST)

Version 8 : Received: 4 October 2021 / Approved: 5 October 2021 / Online: 5 October 2021 (12:40:07 CEST)

Version 9 : Received: 11 October 2021 / Approved: 14 October 2021 / Online: 14 October 2021 (14:14:19 CEST)

Version 10 : Received: 23 October 2021 / Approved: 25 October 2021 / Online: 25 October 2021 (13:31:43 CEST)

Version 11 : Received: 11 November 2021 / Approved: 12 November 2021 / Online: 12 November 2021 (14:54:48 CET)

Version 12 : Received: 26 November 2021 / Approved: 26 November 2021 / Online: 26 November 2021 (10:15:27 CET)

Version 13 : Received: 8 December 2021 / Approved: 9 December 2021 / Online: 9 December 2021 (10:23:43 CET)

Version 14 : Received: 20 December 2021 / Approved: 21 December 2021 / Online: 21 December 2021 (12:30:36 CET)

Version 15 : Received: 13 January 2022 / Approved: 13 January 2022 / Online: 13 January 2022 (13:21:18 CET)

How to cite:
Zhang, W. A Proof of the Riemann Hypothesis Based on A New Expression of the Completed Zeta Function. *Preprints* **2021**, 2021080146 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202108.0146.v13).
Zhang, W. A Proof of the Riemann Hypothesis Based on A New Expression of the Completed Zeta Function. Preprints 2021, 2021080146 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202108.0146.v13).

## Abstract

The completed zeta function $\xi(s)$ is expanded in MacLaurin series (infinite polynomial), which can be further expressed as infinite product (Hadamard product) of quadratic factors by its complex conjugate zeros $\alpha_i\pm j\beta_i, \beta_i\neq 0, i\in \mathbb{N}$ ($\mathbb{N}$ is the set of natural numbers, from $1$ to infinity). Then, according to the functional equation $\xi(s)=\xi(1-s)$, we have $$\xi(0)\prod_{i=1}^{\infty}\frac{\beta_i^2}{\alpha_i^2+\beta_i^2}\Big{(}1+\frac{(s-\alpha_i)^2}{\beta_i^2}\Big{)} =\xi(0)\prod_{i=1}^{\infty}\frac{\beta_i^2}{\alpha_i^2+\beta_i^2}\Big{(}1+\frac{(1-s-\alpha_i)^2}{\beta_i^2}\Big{)}$$ which, by Lemma 3 and Corollary 1, is equivalent to $$(s-\alpha_i)^2 = (1-s-\alpha_i)^2, i \in \mathbb{N}$$ with solution $\alpha_i= \frac{1}{2}, i\in \mathbb{N}$ (another solution $s=\frac{1}{2}$ is invalid due to obvious contradiction). Thus, a proof of the Riemann Hypothesis is achieved.

## Keywords

Riemann Hypothesis (RH); Proof ; Completed zeta function

## Subject

MATHEMATICS & COMPUTER SCIENCE, Algebra & Number Theory

Copyright: This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

## Comments (1)

We encourage comments and feedback from a broad range of readers. See criteria for comments and our diversity statement.

Leave a public commentSend a private comment to the author(s)

Commenter: Zhang Weicun

Commenter's Conflict of Interests: Author