Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Outcomes and Timing of Bedside Percutaneous Tracheostomy of COVID-19 Patients Over a Year in Intensive Care Unit

Version 1 : Received: 28 June 2021 / Approved: 1 July 2021 / Online: 1 July 2021 (11:04:34 CEST)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Tetaj, N.; Maritti, M.; Stazi, G.; Marini, M.C.; Centanni, D.; Garotto, G.; Caravella, I.; Dantimi, C.; Fusetti, M.; Santagata, C.; Macchione, M.; De Angelis, G.; Giansante, F.; Busso, D.; Di Lorenzo, R.; Scarcia, S.; Carucci, A.; Cabas, R.; Gaviano, I.; Petrosillo, N.; Antinori, A.; Palmieri, F.; D’Offizi, G.; Ianniello, S.; Campioni, P.; Pugliese, F.; Vaia, F.; Nicastri, E.; Ippolito, G.; Marchioni, L.; ICU COVID-19 Study Group. Outcomes and Timing of Bedside Percutaneous Tracheostomy of COVID-19 Patients over a Year in the Intensive Care Unit. J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10, 3335. Tetaj, N.; Maritti, M.; Stazi, G.; Marini, M.C.; Centanni, D.; Garotto, G.; Caravella, I.; Dantimi, C.; Fusetti, M.; Santagata, C.; Macchione, M.; De Angelis, G.; Giansante, F.; Busso, D.; Di Lorenzo, R.; Scarcia, S.; Carucci, A.; Cabas, R.; Gaviano, I.; Petrosillo, N.; Antinori, A.; Palmieri, F.; D’Offizi, G.; Ianniello, S.; Campioni, P.; Pugliese, F.; Vaia, F.; Nicastri, E.; Ippolito, G.; Marchioni, L.; ICU COVID-19 Study Group. Outcomes and Timing of Bedside Percutaneous Tracheostomy of COVID-19 Patients over a Year in the Intensive Care Unit. J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10, 3335.

Journal reference: J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10, 3335
DOI: 10.3390/jcm10153335

Abstract

(1) Background: Benefits and timing of percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy (PDT) in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) COVID-19 patients are still controversial. PDT is considered a high risk procedure for transmission of SARS CoV-2 to health care workers (HCWs). The present study analyzed optimal timing of PDT, clinical outcomes of patients undergoing PDT and safety of HCWs performing PDT. (2) Methods: 133 COVID-19 patients underwent PDT in our ICU from April 1, 2020 to March 31, 2021, 23 patients were excluded and 110 patients were enrolled. A trained medical team was dedicated to the PDT procedure. Demographic, clinical history and outcome data were collected. Patients who underwent PDT were stratified into two groups: early group, PDT ≤ 12 days from orotracheal-intubation (OTI) and late group, >12 days from OTI; HCW surveillance program was performed. (3) Results: Early group included 57 patients and late group included 53 patients. Early group patients showed shorter ICU length of stay and fewer days of mechanical ventilation than the late group (p<0.001). At day 7 after tracheostomy, early group patients required fewer intravenous anesthetic drugs and experienced an improvement of ventilation parameters, PaO2/FiO2-Ratio, PEEP and FiO2 (p<0.001). No difference in case fatality ratio between the two groups was reported. No SARS-CoV-2 infection was reported in HCWs performing PDT. (4) Conclusions: PDT was safe and effective for COVID-19 patients, since it improved respiratory support parameters, reduced ICU length of stay and duration of mechanical ventilation, and optimized the weaning process. The procedure was safe for all HCWs involved in the dedicated medical team. The development of standardized early PDT protocols should be implemented and PDT procedure could be considered as first line approach in ICU COVID-19 requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation.

Keywords

Intensive care unit; percutaneous tracheostomy; COVID-19; early tracheostomy; late tracheostomy; ICU length of stay; health care workers; mechanical ventilation.

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