Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Focality Oriented Selection of Current Dose for Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation

Version 1 : Received: 22 June 2021 / Approved: 23 June 2021 / Online: 23 June 2021 (12:51:30 CEST)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Kashyap, R.; Bhattacharjee, S.; Arumugam, R.; Bharath, R.D.; Udupa, K.; Oishi, K.; Desmond, J.E.; Chen, S.H.A.; Guan, C. Focality-Oriented Selection of Current Dose for Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation. J. Pers. Med. 2021, 11, 940. Kashyap, R.; Bhattacharjee, S.; Arumugam, R.; Bharath, R.D.; Udupa, K.; Oishi, K.; Desmond, J.E.; Chen, S.H.A.; Guan, C. Focality-Oriented Selection of Current Dose for Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation. J. Pers. Med. 2021, 11, 940.

Journal reference: J. Pers. Med. 2021, 11, 940
DOI: 10.3390/jpm11090940

Abstract

Background: In Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) the injected current gets distributed across the brain areas. The motive is to stimulate the target region-of-interest (ROI), while minimizing the current in non-target ROIs. For this purpose, determining the appropriate current-dose for an individual is difficult. Aim: To introduce Dose-Target-Determination-Index (DTDI) to quantify the focality of tDCS and examine the dose-focality relationship in three different populations. Method: Here, we extended our previous toolbox i-SATA to the MNI reference space. After a tDCS montage is simulated for a current-dose, the i-SATA(MNI) computes the average (over voxels) current density for every region in the brain. DTDI is the ratio of average current density at target ROI to the ROI with maximum value (peak region). Ideally target ROI should be the peak region, so DTDI shall range from 0 to 1. Higher the value, the better the dose. We estimated the variation of DTDI within and across individuals using T1-weighted brain images of 45 males and females distributed equally across three age groups- (a) Young adults (20 ≥ x ˂ 40 years), (b) Mid adults (40 ≥ x ˂ 60 years), and (c) Older adults (60 ≥ x ˂ 80 years). DTDI’s were evaluated for the frontal montage with electrodes at F3 and right supra-orbital for three current doses 1mA, 2mA, and 3mA with the target ROI at left middle frontal gyrus. Result: As the dose is incremented, DTDI may show (a) increase, (b) decrease, and (c) no change across the individuals. The focality decreases with age and the decline is stronger in males. Higher current dose at older age can enhance the focality of stimulation. Conclusion: DTDI provides information on which tDCS current dose will optimize the focality of stimulation. DTDI recommended dose should be prioritised based on the age (> 40 years) and sex (especially males) of an individual. The toolbox i-SATA(MNI) is freely available.

Keywords

Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS); Realistic volumetric Approach-based Simulator for Transcranial electric stimulation (ROAST); Systematic Approach for tDCS Analysis (SATA); Current dose

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