Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an adaptable bacterial pathogen that infects various organs, including the respiratory tract, vascular system, urinary tract, and central nervous system leading to high morbidity and mortality. Our primary focus of this study was to characterize P. aeruginosa clinical strains on the basis of pigment color production, determine its association to multidrug resistance behavior and ability to form biofilm. We identified yellow (30.1%), green (39.8%) and no pigment (30.1%) producing strains from a total of 143 clinical isolates. Yellow pigment producing strains presented significant resistance to a class of antibiotics including β-lactam (91.5%), aminoglycosides (70.5%), and carbapenems (51.9%) compared to green and non-pigmented strains. Importantly, 16.3% of yellow pigment producing strains was resistant to colistin where only 2.3% of non-pigmented and 1.8% of green pigmented strains were resistant to this agent. Moreover, yellow pigment producing strain were frequent producers of β-lactamase group of enzymes, ESBL (55.6%), MBL (55.6%), and AmpC (50%) and displayed higher frequency of efflux positive group (64.2%) compared to green (7.14%) and non-pigmented one (28.5%). Notably, green pigment producing strains when compared to non-pigmented groups also displayed antibiotic susceptibility behavior similar to yellow pigment producing strains. Although yellow pigment producing strains were strong biofilm producers, no significant association was identified between pigment and biofilm formation. Among pigmented and non-pigmented strains, majority of yellow pigment producing strains have shown MIC levels greater than the green and non-pigmented strains. Our study has demonstrated the impact of pigment coloration on susceptibility to antimicrobial agents where yellow pigment producing strains represent considerably a serious problem as due to lack of alternative agents against such transformed strain may collectively be associated with multidrug resistance development.
Pigment; β-lactamase; MIC; Biofilm; Efflux
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