Preprint Article Version 2 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Elementary Charge and Electron: One Entity Two Identities

Version 1 : Received: 26 April 2021 / Approved: 27 April 2021 / Online: 27 April 2021 (12:39:26 CEST)
Version 2 : Received: 3 March 2023 / Approved: 3 March 2023 / Online: 3 March 2023 (14:01:25 CET)

How to cite: Kirimi, M. Elementary Charge and Electron: One Entity Two Identities. Preprints 2021, 2021040716. Kirimi, M. Elementary Charge and Electron: One Entity Two Identities. Preprints 2021, 2021040716.


Our knowledge of electricity is based on two parallel lines of research: one focusing on ‘charge’, the other on ‘electron’. The distinction is blurred. The difficulty is that the fundamental nature of elementary charge is unknown. Here I present evidence that charge is a resting electron and electron is a moving charge – one physical entity two behavioural identities. That is, charge is nonrelativistic electron and electron is relativistic charge. Charges obey the laws of static electricity (electrostatics); electrons obey the laws of moving electricity (electrodynamics). Whether positive or negative, a charge is ejected from the atom at tremendous speed, losing the characteristics of ‘a charge’ and gaining those of ‘an electron’. I conclude that an atom, hence nature in general, contains an equal number of positive and negative electrons, recognised at rest as opposite charges. This solves the mystery of the electron-positron numerical asymmetry. It means that static positions and negatrons (charges) play equivalent roles as subatomic building blocks of matter, revealing a new atomic structure.


Charge; electricity; electron; electrodynamics; electrostatics; elementary charge


Physical Sciences, Particle and Field Physics

Comments (1)

Comment 1
Received: 3 March 2023
Commenter: Misheck Kirimi
Commenter's Conflict of Interests: Author
Comment: A number concepts heve been made clearer, the article made shorter and more concise, and some grammatical errors corrected.
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