Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Maternal Distress and Social Support are Linked to Human Milk Immune Properties

Version 1 : Received: 14 April 2021 / Approved: 15 April 2021 / Online: 15 April 2021 (11:07:47 CEST)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Ziomkiewicz, A.; Apanasewicz, A.; Danel, D.P.; Babiszewska, M.; Piosek, M.; Orczyk-Pawiłowicz, M. Maternal Distress and Social Support Are Linked to Human Milk Immune Properties. Nutrients 2021, 13, 1857. Ziomkiewicz, A.; Apanasewicz, A.; Danel, D.P.; Babiszewska, M.; Piosek, M.; Orczyk-Pawiłowicz, M. Maternal Distress and Social Support Are Linked to Human Milk Immune Properties. Nutrients 2021, 13, 1857.

Journal reference: Nutrients 2021, 13, 1857
DOI: 10.3390/nu13061857

Abstract

Possible alterations of maternal immune function due to psychological stress may reflect immunoactive factor levels in breast milk. This study aimed to assess the association between maternal distress and breast milk levels of secretory IgA (SIgA), IgM, IgG, and lactoferrin (LF). We hypothesized this association is moderated by maternal social support achieved from others during lactation. The study group included 103 lactating mothers and their healthy 5-months-old infants. Maternal distress was determined based on the State Anxiety Inventory and the level of salivary cortisol. Social support was assessed using Berlin Social Support Scales. Breast milk samples were collected to test for SIgA, IgM, IgG, and LF using the ELISA method. Milk immunoactive factors were regressed against maternal anxiety, social support, salivary cortisol, and infant gestational age using the general regression model. Maternal anxiety was negatively associated with milk levels of LF (β=-0.22, p<0.05) and SIgA (β=-0.29, p<0.01), while social support was positively associated with milk IgG (β=0.25, p<0.05). Neither anxiety nor social support was related to milk IgM. No association was found between the level of maternal salivary cortisol and immunoactive factors in milk. Our results suggest that maternal psychological well-being and social support may affect milk immune properties.

Subject Areas

breast milk immunoactive factors; cortisol; maternal stress; social support

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