Ibrahim, S.S.; Mukhtar, M.M.; Muhammad, A.; Wondji, C.S. 2La Paracentric Chromosomal Inversion and Overexpressed Metabolic Genes Enhance Thermotolerance and Pyrethroid Resistance in the Major Malaria Vector Anopheles gambiae. Biology2021, 10, 518.
Ibrahim, S.S.; Mukhtar, M.M.; Muhammad, A.; Wondji, C.S. 2La Paracentric Chromosomal Inversion and Overexpressed Metabolic Genes Enhance Thermotolerance and Pyrethroid Resistance in the Major Malaria Vector Anopheles gambiae. Biology 2021, 10, 518.
Climate change is impacting the spread/intensity of vector-borne diseases, including malaria, and accelerating evolutionary/adaptive changes in vector species. These changes including chromoso-mal inversions and overexpression and/or changes in allele frequencies of thermotoler-ance-associated genes, may facilitate insecticide resistance through pleiotropy. This study investi-gated the impact of thermotolerance on pyrethroid resistance in four populations of malaria vector An. gambiae, from savanna/sub-Sahel of northern Nigeria. Anopheles coluzzii and An. gambiae were the only malaria vectors found, sympatric in all the sites, with the former species predominant. High thermotolerance was observed, with no mortality at 38°C, and LT50 of ~44°C. Significantly high permethrin resistance was observed (mortality <50%) in heat-hardened (44°C) larvae from two sites, BUK and Pantami, compared with control, and heat-hardened adult females from Auyo (mortality = 3.00%±1.20, χ2 = 5.83, p<0.01) compared with control (12.00%±4.65). The 2La chromosomal inver-sion was detected at ~50% in larvae and 58% in adult females. Significant association was observed (OR = 7.2, p<0.03) between permethrin resistance and 2La/+a rearrangement compared with 2L+a/+a, in BUK larvae. For all sites permethrin resistance correlated with 2La/a homozygosity in adult fe-males [OR = 5.02, p=0.01). qRT-PCR identified 6 genes commonly induced/overexpressed, including heat shock protein 70 (AGAP004581) which was 2468x and 5x overexpressed in heat-hardened and permethrin-resistant females, respectively, trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (AGAP008227), and ionotropic glutamate receptor genes, IR25a (AGAP010272) and IR21a (AGAP008511). This study highlights challenges associated with insecticide-based malaria vector control, and the epidemiological significance of taking climate variables into account for design/choice of control measures.
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