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Fluorescent Aptamers for Detection and Treatment of Pathogenic Bacteria and Cancer
: Received: 22 January 2021 / Approved: 25 January 2021 / Online: 25 January 2021 (10:18:16 CET)
A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.
Journal reference: Methods in Microbiology 2021
Issues presented by the application of monoclonal antibodies in diagnostic assays and as curative agents can make the use of such molecules cost-prohibitive and sometimes even unsafe. This has warranted the development of short single-stranded oligonucleotides known as Aptamers. The structural malleability of these short DNA or RNA nucleotide segments allows them to exist in distinct conformations. SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment) is a multi-step process for synthesis of aptamers. Each step of this procedure is governed by a diverse set of factors that influence production efficiency, binding affinity, and specificity of the oligonucleotides. Headway in aptamer research has been made in recent years by the introduction of newer iterations of the SELEX process. A greater number of studies are now being carried out to incorporate aptamers into existing disease detection tools and therapies. An overview has been given first on the key aptamer properties and the process of their production (with its newer iterations), contrasting each of them with that of monoclonal antibodies. Possible manifold applications afforded due to unique aptamer characteristics are also discussed. A keen review is further provided on the design, development and use of fluorescent aptamers in bioimaging, sequencing or profiling, and treatment of pathogenic bacteria and tumor cells.
aptamer; aptasensor; diagnosis; imaging; sequencing; therapeutics; probes; fluorescence; pathogenic bacteria; cancer cells; monoclonal antibodies; SELEX; nucleic acids
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