Hayakawa, K.; Tang, N.; Xing, W.; Oanh, P.K.; Hara, A.; Nakamura, H. Concentrations and Sources of Atmospheric PM, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Nitropolycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Kanazawa, Japan. Atmosphere2021, 12, 256.
Hayakawa, K.; Tang, N.; Xing, W.; Oanh, P.K.; Hara, A.; Nakamura, H. Concentrations and Sources of Atmospheric PM, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Nitropolycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Kanazawa, Japan. Atmosphere 2021, 12, 256.
PM2.5 and PM>2.5 were separately collected in Kanazawa, Japan in every season from the spring of 2017 to the winter of 2018, and nine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and six nitropolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) were determined by HPLC with fluorescence and chemiluminescence detections, respectively. Atmospheric concentrations of both PAHs and NPAHs showed seasonal changes (highest in the winter and lowest in the summer), which were different from the variations of TSP and PM2.5 (highest in the spring). Contributions of major sources to combustion-derived particulate (Pc) in PM2.5 were calculated by the NP-method using pyrene and 1-nitropyrene as representative markers of PAHs and NPAHs, respectively. The annual average concentration of Pc accounted for only 2.1% of PM2.5, but showed the same seasonal variation as PAHs. The sources of Pc were automobiles (31%) and coal heating facilities/industries (69%). The source of Pyr was almost entirely coal heating facilities/industries (98%). A backward trajectory analysis showed that automobile-derived Pc was mainly from Kanazawa and its surroundings and that coal heating facilities-derived Pc was transported from city areas in central and northern China in the winter and during the Asian dust event in the spring. These results show that large amounts of PAHs were long-range transported from China in the winter. Even in spring when the coal heating season was over in China, PAHs came over to Japan after Asian dust storms passed through Chinese city areas. The main contributor of NPAHs was automobiles in Kanazawa and its surroundings. The recent Pc concentrations were much lower than those in 1999. This decrease was mostly attributed to the decrease in the contribution of automobiles. Thus, changes of atmospheric concentrations of Pc, PAHs and NPAHs in Kanazawa were strongly affected not only by the local emissions but also long-range transport from China.
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