Working Paper Review Version 1 This version is not peer-reviewed

Integrating Conflicting Cancer Theories by Recognizing the Roles of Epigenetic and Genetic Alterations in the Immediate-Cancer-Causing Genes that Establish Cellular Immortality and Autonomy

Version 1 : Received: 27 November 2020 / Approved: 30 November 2020 / Online: 30 November 2020 (08:26:34 CET)

How to cite: Zhu, S.; Wang, J.; Zhou, H.; Zhao, Y.; He, Y.; Zellmer, L.; Luo, Z.; Wei, S.; Deng, F.; Huang, H.; Liao, D.J. Integrating Conflicting Cancer Theories by Recognizing the Roles of Epigenetic and Genetic Alterations in the Immediate-Cancer-Causing Genes that Establish Cellular Immortality and Autonomy. Preprints 2020, 2020110708 Zhu, S.; Wang, J.; Zhou, H.; Zhao, Y.; He, Y.; Zellmer, L.; Luo, Z.; Wei, S.; Deng, F.; Huang, H.; Liao, D.J. Integrating Conflicting Cancer Theories by Recognizing the Roles of Epigenetic and Genetic Alterations in the Immediate-Cancer-Causing Genes that Establish Cellular Immortality and Autonomy. Preprints 2020, 2020110708

Abstract

There are many theories of carcinogenesis arguing against the orthodox mutation theory, debating on such as “epigenetic alteration” that is inheritable and yet, theoretically, reversible. Our integrated theory describes that any extracellular, intracellular, or intranuclear stressors, mutagenic or not, can initiate a lengthy tumorigenesis to engender a benign or malignant tumor, but the aberrations directly establishing cellular immortality and autonomy may be epigenetic or genetic alterations in the genomic DNA. A neoplasm is considered a semi-new organism with autonomy; it therefore should have genetic mutations to be “new”. We may be able to direct cancer cells towards differentiation as a remedy, because the extracellular milieu may control the phenotype of a cell and the tissue or organ made of the cell’s progenies, and the cytoplasm of a cell may override the nucleus in the phenotypic control. However, the nucleus retains the capacity to manifest itself if allowed by the microenvironment, which then allows the already reversed cells to revert back to tumor cells again. Neoplasms are malignant if they bear epigenetic or genetic anomalies in mutator genes defined as those whose alterations allow or accelerate alterations to occur in other genes, whereas neoplasms are benign if they bear epigenetic or genetic aberrations only in non-mutator genes. It is imperative to identify the immediate tumor-causing cellular alterations defined as those directly responsible for immortality and autonomy, and for treatment purposes to identify the extracellular and intracellular factors that control the phenotype of cancer cells.

Subject Areas

Mutation; Epigenetic; Genetic; Neoplastic transformation; Stem cell; Tumor classification

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