Preprint Article Version 2 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Agency in Human-Smart Device Relationships: An Exploratory Study

Version 1 : Received: 19 September 2020 / Approved: 21 September 2020 / Online: 21 September 2020 (04:32:42 CEST)
Version 2 : Received: 21 September 2020 / Approved: 22 September 2020 / Online: 22 September 2020 (03:45:51 CEST)

How to cite: Toivonen, H.; Lelli, F. Agency in Human-Smart Device Relationships: An Exploratory Study. Preprints 2020, 2020090495. Toivonen, H.; Lelli, F. Agency in Human-Smart Device Relationships: An Exploratory Study. Preprints 2020, 2020090495.


In this paper, we investigate the relationship people have with their smart devices. We use the concept of agency to capture aspects of users’ sense of mastery as they relate to their device. This study gives preliminary evidence of the existence of two independent dimensions of agency for modeling the interaction between humans and smart devices: (i) user agency and (ii) device agency. These constructs emerged from an exploratory factorial analysis conducted on a survey data collected from 587 participants. In addition, we investigate the correlation between user agency and device agency with background variables of the respondents. Finally, we argue that mapping the users’ dynamics with their device into user agency and device agency fosters a better understanding of the needs of the users and helps in designing interfaces tailored for the specific capabilities and expectations of the users.

Supplementary and Associated Material Francesco Lelli Author's website Heidi Toivonen Author's website


agency; smart devices; IoT; device agency; user agency; human computer interaction; HCI; questionnaire; exploratory analysis; anova


Computer Science and Mathematics, Information Systems

Comments (1)

Comment 1
Received: 22 September 2020
Commenter: Francesco Lelli
Commenter's Conflict of Interests: Author
Comment: Change authors order and pointer to the survay
+ Respond to this comment

We encourage comments and feedback from a broad range of readers. See criteria for comments and our Diversity statement.

Leave a public comment
Send a private comment to the author(s)
* All users must log in before leaving a comment
Views 0
Downloads 0
Comments 1
Metrics 0

Notify me about updates to this article or when a peer-reviewed version is published.
We use cookies on our website to ensure you get the best experience.
Read more about our cookies here.