Jaouannet, M.; Pavaux, A.-S.; Pagnotta, S.; Pierre, O.; Michelet, C.; Marro, S.; Keller, H.; Lemée, R.; Coustau, C. Atypical Membrane-Anchored Cytokine MIF in a Marine Dinoflagellate. Microorganisms2020, 8, 1263.
Jaouannet, M.; Pavaux, A.-S.; Pagnotta, S.; Pierre, O.; Michelet, C.; Marro, S.; Keller, H.; Lemée, R.; Coustau, C. Atypical Membrane-Anchored Cytokine MIF in a Marine Dinoflagellate. Microorganisms 2020, 8, 1263.
Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factors (MIF) are pivotal cytokines/chemokines for vertebrate immune systems. MIFs are typically soluble single-domain proteins that are conserved across plant, fungal, protist, and metazoan kingdoms but their functions have not been determined in most phylogenetic groups. Here we describe an atypical multidomain MIF protein. The marine dinoflagellate Lingulodinium polyedra produces a transmembrane protein with an extra-cytoplasmic MIF domain, which localizes to cell wall-associated membranes and vesicular bodies. This protein is also present in the membranes of extracellular vesicles accumulating at the secretory pores of the cells. Upon exposure to biotic stress, L. polyedra exhibits reduced expression of the MIF gene and reduced abundance of the surface-associated protein. These findings indicate that the transmembrane MIF may contribute to intercellular communication and/or interactions between free-living organisms in multispecies planktonic communities and raise the question of possible analogies in MIF functions between cells of metazoan organisms and protist communities.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.