Preprint Review Version 2 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

COVID-19: A Conundrum to Decipher

Version 1 : Received: 31 March 2020 / Approved: 2 April 2020 / Online: 2 April 2020 (12:20:19 CEST)
Version 2 : Received: 2 April 2020 / Approved: 3 April 2020 / Online: 3 April 2020 (15:23:50 CEST)

How to cite: Deshmukh, V.; Tripathi, S.C.; Pandey, A.; Deshmukh, V.; Patil, A.; Sontakke, B.; Vykoukal, J. COVID-19: A Conundrum to Decipher. Preprints 2020, 2020040019. Deshmukh, V.; Tripathi, S.C.; Pandey, A.; Deshmukh, V.; Patil, A.; Sontakke, B.; Vykoukal, J. COVID-19: A Conundrum to Decipher. Preprints 2020, 2020040019.


OBJECTIVE: Recent worldwide outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of respiratory coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is a current, ongoing life-threatening crisis and international public health emergency. The early diagnosis and management of the disease remains a major challenge. In this review, we aim to summarize the updated epidemiology, causes, clinical manifestation and diagnosis, as well as prevention and control of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2.MATERIALS AND METHODS: A broad search of the literature was performed in “PubMed” “Medline” “Web of knowledge”, and “Google Scholar” World Health Organization-WHO” using the keywords “severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus”, “2019-nCoV”, “COVID-19, “SARS”, “SARS-CoV-2” “Epidemiology” “Transmission” “Pathogenesis” “Clinical Characteristics”. We reviewed and documented the information obtained from literature on epidemiology, pathogenesis and clinical appearances of SARS-CoV-2 infection.RESULTS: The global cases of COVID-19 as of April 2, 2020 have risen to more than 900,000 and morbidity has reached more than 47,000. The incidence rate for COVID-19 has been predicted to be higher than the previous outbreaks of other coronavirus family members, including those of SARS-CoV and the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV). The main clinical presentation of SARS-CoV-2 infection ranges from asymptomatic stages to severe lower respiratory infection in the form of pneumonia. Most of the patients also presented with fever, cough, sore throat, headache, fatigue, myalgia and breathlessness.Individuals at higher risk for severe illness include elderly people and patients with a weakened immune system or that are suffering from a underlying chronic medical condition like hypertension, diabetes, cancer, respiratory illness or cardiovascular diseases.CONCLUSIONS: SARS-Cov-2 has emerged as a worldwide threat, currently affecting 170 countries and territories across the globe. There is still much to be understood regarding SARS-CoV-2 about its virology, epidemiology and clinical management strategies; this knowledge will be essential to both manage the current pandemic and to conceive comprehensive measures to prevent such outbreaks in the future.


COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; Coronavirus; 2019-nCoV; SARS


Biology and Life Sciences, Virology

Comments (2)

Comment 1
Received: 3 April 2020
Commenter: Satyendra C. Tripathi
Commenter's Conflict of Interests: Author
Comment: We have added additional paragraph for mode of transmission comparing the SARS-CoV-2 to SARS-CoV-1 and MERS-CoV under the section 3 “Comparison of SARS-CoV-2 with other family members infective to humans”.
We have also added separate paragraph at the end of section 6.1 discussing the relationship of SARS-CoV-2, hypertension and NSAIDs. A separate table (Table II) for list of drugs frequently used in clinical trials has been added too.
We have revised it with grammatical and other changes to make it more interesting and readable.
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Comment 2
Received: 10 June 2021
The commenter has declared there is no conflict of interests.
Comment: The peer reviewed version is available here
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