Working Paper Hypothesis Version 2 This version is not peer-reviewed

Could Unconventional Immunomodulatory Agents Help Alleviate COVID-19 Symptoms and Severity?

Version 1 : Received: 1 April 2020 / Approved: 2 April 2020 / Online: 2 April 2020 (11:28:57 CEST)
Version 2 : Received: 27 April 2020 / Approved: 27 April 2020 / Online: 27 April 2020 (09:55:03 CEST)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.


Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS coronavirus 2 or SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of the respiratory infection known as COVID-19. From an immunopathological standpoint, coronaviruses such as SARS-CoV-2 induce an increase in a variety of T-helper 1 (Th1) and inflammatory cytokines and chemokines including interleukins IL-1, IL-6, CCL2 protein and CXCL10 protein. In the absence of proven antiviral agents or an effective vaccine, substances with immunomodulatory activity may be able to inhibit inflammatory and Th1 cytokines and/or yield an anti-inflammatory and/or Th2 immune response to counteract COVID-19 symptoms and severity. This report briefly describes four unconventional but commercially accessible immunomodulatory agents that could be employed in clinical trials to evaluate their effectiveness at alleviating disease symptoms and severity: Low-dose oral interferon-alpha, microdose DNA, low-dose thimerosal and phytocannabinoids.


COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2, Immunomodulators


Biology and Life Sciences, Virology

Comments (1)

Comment 1
Received: 27 April 2020
Commenter: Stephen Mamber
Commenter's Conflict of Interests: Author
Comment: Accepted for publication in mSphere. Added four references after making changes suggested by reviewer and other edits. Added an additional author.
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