Working Paper Article Version 3 This version is not peer-reviewed

Age-Related Compensation: Neuromusculoskeletal Capacity, Reserve & Movement Objectives

Version 1 : Received: 8 January 2020 / Approved: 9 January 2020 / Online: 9 January 2020 (14:03:05 CET)
Version 2 : Received: 1 April 2020 / Approved: 2 April 2020 / Online: 2 April 2020 (11:15:35 CEST)
Version 3 : Received: 11 March 2021 / Approved: 15 March 2021 / Online: 15 March 2021 (13:04:44 CET)

How to cite: van der Kruk, E.; Silverman, A.K.; Koizia, L.; Reilly, P.; Fertleman, M.; Bull, A.M.J. Age-Related Compensation: Neuromusculoskeletal Capacity, Reserve & Movement Objectives. Preprints 2020, 2020010090 van der Kruk, E.; Silverman, A.K.; Koizia, L.; Reilly, P.; Fertleman, M.; Bull, A.M.J. Age-Related Compensation: Neuromusculoskeletal Capacity, Reserve & Movement Objectives. Preprints 2020, 2020010090

Abstract

The prevention, mitigation and treatment of movement impairments, ideally, requires early diagnosis or identification. As the human movement system has physiological and functional redundancy, movement limitations do not promptly arise at the onset of physical decline. A such, prediction of movement limitations is complex: it is unclear how much decline can be tolerated before movement limitations start. Currently, the term ‘homeostatic reserve’ or ‘physiological reserve’ is used to refer to the redundancy of the human biological system, but these terms do not describe the redundancy in the muscle architecture of the human body. The result of functional redundancy is compensation. Although compensation is an early predictor of movement limitations, clear definitions are lacking and the topic is underexposed in literature. The aim of this article is to provide a definition of compensation and emphasize its importance. Compensation is defined as an alteration in the movement trajectory and/or altering muscle recruitment to complete a movement task. Compensation for capacity is the result of a lack in neuromusculoskeletal reserve, where reserve is defined as the difference between the capacity (physiological abilities of the neuromusculoskeletal system) and the task demand. Compensation for movement objectives is a result of a shift in weighting of movement objectives, reflecting changing priorities. Studying compensation in biomechanics requires altered protocols in experimental set-ups, musculoskeletal models that are not reliant on prescribed movement, and inclusion of alternative movement objectives in optimal control theory.

Subject Areas

Mobility impairments; Neuromusculoskeletal models; Rehabilitation; optimal control theory; frailty; redundancy

Comments (1)

Comment 1
Received: 15 March 2021
Commenter: Eline van der Kruk
Commenter's Conflict of Interests: Author
Comment: Instead of focussing on the framework (CaReMOoC), we have rephrased the now accepted manuscript to focus on compensation, bringing the same message. Definitions and terminology on compensation as a result of functional redundancy are lacking and we feel that the topic is underexposed in literature. In the previous manuscript, we tried to address this by phrasing a framework. However, the eventual aim of this short communication is to point out this pitfall and provide meaningful definitions of compensation, which is why we refocussed the article.
+ Respond to this comment

We encourage comments and feedback from a broad range of readers. See criteria for comments and our diversity statement.

Leave a public comment
Send a private comment to the author(s)
Views 0
Downloads 0
Comments 1
Metrics 0


×
Alerts
Notify me about updates to this article or when a peer-reviewed version is published.
We use cookies on our website to ensure you get the best experience.
Read more about our cookies here.