Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

The Flatness Problem and the Varying Physical Constants

Version 1 : Received: 6 August 2019 / Approved: 7 August 2019 / Online: 7 August 2019 (09:55:42 CEST)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Gupta, R.P. The Flatness Problem and the Variable Physical Constants. Galaxies 2019, 7, 77. Gupta, R.P. The Flatness Problem and the Variable Physical Constants. Galaxies 2019, 7, 77.


We have used the varying physical constant approach to resolve the flatness problem in cosmology. Friedmann equations are modified to include variability of speed of light, gravitational constant, cosmological constant and the curvature constant. The continuity equation obtained with such modifications includes scale factor dependent cosmological term as well as the curvature term along with the standard energy-momentum term. The result is that as the scale factor tends to zero (i.e. as the big-bang is approached) the universe becomes strongly curved rather than flatter and flatter in the standard cosmology. We have used the supernovae 1a redshift versus distance modulus data to determine the curvature variation parameter of the new model, which yields a better fit to the data than the standard ΛCDM model. The universe is found to be open type with radius of curvature Rc = 1.64 (1+z)-3.3 c0/H0, where z is the redshift, c0 is the current speed of light and H0 is the Hubble constant.


flatness problem; variable physical constants; inflation; cosmology theory; dark energy


Physical Sciences, Astronomy and Astrophysics

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