Sung, P.S.; Jang, J.W. Natural Killer Cell Dysfunction in Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Pathogenesis and Clinical Implications. Int. J. Mol. Sci.2018, 19, 3648.
Sung, P.S.; Jang, J.W. Natural Killer Cell Dysfunction in Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Pathogenesis and Clinical Implications. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 3648.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is currently the third leading cause of malignancy-related mortalities worldwide. Natural killer (NK) cells are involved in the critical role of first line immunological defense against cancer development. Defects in NK cell functions are recognized as important mechanisms for immune evasion of tumor cells. NK cell function appears to be attenuated in HCC, and many previous reports suggested that NK cells play a critical role in controlling HCC, suggesting that boosting the activity of dysfunctional NK cells can enhance tumor cell killing. However, the detailed mechanisms of NK cell dysfunction in tumor microenvironment of HCC remain largely unknown. A better understanding of the mechanisms of NK cell dysfunction in HCC will help in the NK cell-mediated eradication of cancer cells and prolong patient survival. In this review, we describe the various mechanisms underlying NK cell dysfunction in HCC. Further, we summarize current advances in the approaches to enhance endogenous NK cell function and in adoptive NK cell therapies, to cure this difficult-to-treat cancer.
hepatocellular carcinoma; natural killer cell
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.