Preprint Article Version 1 This version is not peer-reviewed

Characterization of Phosphorus in Subtropical Coastal Sand Dune Forest Soils

Version 1 : Received: 12 September 2018 / Approved: 12 September 2018 / Online: 12 September 2018 (12:35:31 CEST)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Lin, C.-W.; Tian, G.; Pai, C.-W.; Chiu, C.-Y. Characterization of Phosphorus in Subtropical Coastal Sand Dune Forest Soils. Forests 2018, 9, 710. Lin, C.-W.; Tian, G.; Pai, C.-W.; Chiu, C.-Y. Characterization of Phosphorus in Subtropical Coastal Sand Dune Forest Soils. Forests 2018, 9, 710.

Journal reference: Forests 2018, 9, 710
DOI: 10.3390/f9110710

Abstract

Continuous research into the availability of phosphorus (P) in forest soil is critical for sustainable management of forest ecosystems. In this study, we used sequential chemical extraction and 31P-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P-NMR) to evaluate the form and distribution of inorganic P (Pi) and organic P (Po) in Casuarina forest soils of a subtropical coastal sand dune at Houlong in Taiwan. The soil samples were collected from humic (+2-0 cm) and mineral layers (mineral-I: 0-10, mineral-II: 10-20 cm) at two topographic locations (upland and lowland) by elevation. Sequential chemical extraction revealed that the NaOH-Po fraction, as moderately recalcitrant P, was the dominant form in humic and mineral-I layers in both upland and lowland soils, whereas the cHCl-Pi fraction was the dominant form in the mineral-II layer. Resistant P content, including NaOH-Pi, HCl-Pi, cHCl-Pi, and cHCl-Po fractions, was higher in the upland than lowland in the corresponding layers; however, labile P content, NaHCO3-Po, showed the opposite pattern. Content of resistant Pi (NaOH-Pi, HCl-Pi, and cHCl-Pi) increased significantly with depth, but that of labile Pi (resin-Pi and NaHCO3-Pi) and recalcitrant Po (NaHCO3-Po, NaOH-Po, and cHCl-Po) decreased significantly with depth at both locations. 31P-NMR spectroscopy revealed inorganic orthophosphate and monoesters-P as the major forms in this area. The proportions of Pi and Po evaluated by sequential chemical extraction and 31P-NMR spectroscopy were basically consistent. The results indicated that the soils were in weathered conditions. Furthermore, the P distribution and forms significantly differed between the upland and lowland by variation in elevation and eolian aggradation effects in this coastal sand dune landscape.

Subject Areas

sequential chemical extraction; 31P-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P-NMR); phosphorus; coastal sand dune; Casuarina forests

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