Preprint Article Version 1 This version is not peer-reviewed

Evaluation of the Actual Chlorine Concentration and the Required Time for Pulp Dissolution Using Different Naocl Irrigating Solutions

Version 1 : Received: 5 July 2018 / Approved: 6 July 2018 / Online: 6 July 2018 (17:07:21 CEST)

How to cite: Iandolo, A.; Dagna, A.; Beltrami, R.; Poggio, C.; Malvano, M.; Amato, A.; Abdellatif, D. Evaluation of the Actual Chlorine Concentration and the Required Time for Pulp Dissolution Using Different Naocl Irrigating Solutions. Preprints 2018, 2018070125 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201807.0125.v1). Iandolo, A.; Dagna, A.; Beltrami, R.; Poggio, C.; Malvano, M.; Amato, A.; Abdellatif, D. Evaluation of the Actual Chlorine Concentration and the Required Time for Pulp Dissolution Using Different Naocl Irrigating Solutions. Preprints 2018, 2018070125 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201807.0125.v1).

Abstract

INTRODUCTION The goal of root canal treatment is to shape and clean the endodontic space, reducing the bacterial load and removing the pulp tissue. Obviously, the action of the endodontic instruments is limited to the main canals, regardless of the complexity of the endodontic space. Consequently, finding the best possible cleaning technique, which can be obtained chemically using irrigation solutions, is a fundamental aid in the endodontic therapy. One of the most commonly used root canal irrigant is sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), available in various commercial formulations. The effectiveness of NaOCl is undeniable. However, the action of dissolution of the pulp tissue is merely dependent on the concentration and the characteristics of the irrigant itself. AIM The aim of this study is to evaluate the effective concentration of different commercial formulas of sodium hypochlorite, by evaluating the percentage of total chlorine in each product. The dissolution capacity of the pulp tissue of each of the tested products was then analyzed by measuring the required time. MATERIALS AND METHODS Three commercial types of sodium hypochlorite were selected for this study: 5% NaOCl (ACE, Procter & Gamble), 5% NaOCl (N5, Simit Dental) and 6% NaOCl (CanalPro, Coltene). For each product, 10 packages were used, from which samples of the product were taken and 30 x 5 ml tubes were filled. All samples were divided into 3 groups and were analyzed using the DIN EN ISO 7393-2 method and the percentage of total chlorine (expressed as a percentage) was calculated. 40 samples of vital pulp were obtained from teeth freshly extracted for periodontal reasons and stored in physiological solution. In order to unify the size and weight of the samples (0.0001 mg), a microtome and a precision balance (Pro Explorer Ohaus) were used. Each sample, carefully examined by stereomicroscope (40x), was placed in artificial plastic containers and submerged in 0.1 ml of irrigating solution at room temperature (26 ° C). A fourth control group used saline solution as irrigant. Simultaneously with the insertion of the irrigating solution, a digital stopwatch was activated and the time necessary for the complete dissolution of the pulp sample was measured. The data obtained were subjected to statistical analysis. RESULTS The average percentages of chlorine detected for each group were: 4.26% (ACE), 5.16% (N5) and 5.97% (CanalPro). The Kruskal-Wallis test showed statistically significant differences between the different commercial formulations of hypochlorite (P <0.05). CanalPro showed the lowest values, while ACE showed the highest values of dissolution time of the pulp. DISCUSSION The analysis of the total chlorine percentage found that the actual concentration of the sodium hypochlorite in the samples is close to the values declared by the manufacturers both in the case of N5 and CanalPro. On the contrary, the concentration detected in the samples of common bench bleach (ACE) is significantly lower, which has average values less than 5%. This explains the longer time taken for the complete dissolution of the pulp tissue. The average dissolution time of the pulp samples was in fact inversely proportional to the concentration detected in the tested irrigants, so that a lower time corresponds to a higher concentration.

Subject Areas

Endodontic treatment, Irrigant activation, bacteria, biofilm, Sodium Hypochlorite

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