Preprint Case Report Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

The Complexity of Remote Teaching in Emergency Situations: Initial Basic Principles to Avoiding Technological Boundaries

Version 1 : Received: 22 March 2021 / Approved: 23 March 2021 / Online: 23 March 2021 (11:14:16 CET)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

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Journal reference: Heliyon 2021, 7, e07788
DOI: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2021.e07788


Considering the challenges of sustainable education in emergency remote teaching (ERT) during the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, this study provides basic principles for future ERT implementation based on the experience of higher education in Indonesia. Seven local expert distance educators reviewed the ERT principles, participating in the early stages to check the relevance, content validity, and readability of the five principles proposed in the context of Indonesian education. After an extensive expert review, the ERT principles were evaluated using quantitative data through an online survey (82 students and 45 faculty members). In addition, open-ended questionnaire responses, experiences, and challenges encountered by 21 respondents (College Dean, Associate Dean of Academics, and faculty quality assurance of seven universities/colleges in three provinces in Indonesia) in ERT were used and analyzed. This study suggests that ERT should be designed based on the principles of simplicity, accessibility, affordability, flexibility, and empathy in all learning activities in unfavorable situations. This study complements previous work and can thus be used for generalized principles for teaching activities in similar emergencies, especially in developing countries.


emergency remote teaching; student-centered; COVID-19; Indonesia



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