Preprint Article Version 1 This version is not peer-reviewed

Histamine Antagonists to Temper the Cytokine Overproduction in Gastrointestinal Cells Infected by SARS-CoV-2

Version 1 : Received: 30 April 2020 / Approved: 30 April 2020 / Online: 30 April 2020 (17:14:34 CEST)

How to cite: Geurdes, H.; Koutsaroff, I. Histamine Antagonists to Temper the Cytokine Overproduction in Gastrointestinal Cells Infected by SARS-CoV-2. Preprints 2020, 2020040542 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202004.0542.v1). Geurdes, H.; Koutsaroff, I. Histamine Antagonists to Temper the Cytokine Overproduction in Gastrointestinal Cells Infected by SARS-CoV-2. Preprints 2020, 2020040542 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202004.0542.v1).

Abstract

The premise regarding COVID-19 disease is that it is a spectrum which begins with infection with viral SARS-CoV-2 exposure via airborne or oral virus particles. The individual response to it depends on many factors including co-morbid conditions. An important aspect of SARS-CoV-2 virus infection is the cytokine storm that develops after the infection. The immuno-chemical chaos created in this cytokine storm is to the benefit of the virus. In this meta analysis the authors explore ways to let the cytokine storm die down by looking into the role of histamine. Histamine is a metabolic product of the essential aminoacid histidine. Histamine has 4 known receptors: H1, H2, H3 and H4. The immunoglobulines IgE and IgM are indicative for a COVID-19 infection. This immune response is related to inflammation. Inflammation, in turn, runs mainly via histamine after e.g. virus inoculation. The goal of the meta-study is to gather evidence to primarily block the H4 receptor (H4R) in gastrointestinal cells to diminish the cytokine overproduction in the $\approx$ 30\% of the patients suffering from gastrointestinal problems caused by SARS-CoV-2. Our concept is as follows. If we can strike a careful balance between hampering the gastrointestinal spreading of the virus and histamine antagonists to tackle the cytokine storm, then the natural immunity can later on come on line again and attack the virus without being led astray by cytokine chaos. We will concentrate on H4R but also look at H1R and H2R related effects. The proposed substances in our systemic approach can be balanced for an effective early treatment. The nature of our work is by its method and results theoretical. In that respect we also may note the structural chemistry indol skeleton resemblance among a number of different drugs.

Subject Areas

Cytokine storm; IL-1 and IL-6 production via SARS-CoV-2; gastrointestinal H4R receptor antagonists

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