Preprint Article Version 2 This version is not peer-reviewed

Biomineralization of Carbonate Minerals Induced by the Halophilic Chromohalobacter israelensis under High Salt Concentrations: Implications for Natural Environments

Zuozhen Han, Dan Li and Hui Zhao contributed equally to this paper and were considered as co-first authors.
Version 1 : Received: 8 March 2017 / Approved: 8 March 2017 / Online: 8 March 2017 (05:00:01 CET)
Version 2 : Received: 26 April 2017 / Approved: 26 April 2017 / Online: 26 April 2017 (12:15:58 CEST)

How to cite: Han, Z.; Li, D.; Zhao, H.; Yan, H.; Li, P. Biomineralization of Carbonate Minerals Induced by the Halophilic Chromohalobacter israelensis under High Salt Concentrations: Implications for Natural Environments. Preprints 2017, 2017030043 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201703.0043.v2). Han, Z.; Li, D.; Zhao, H.; Yan, H.; Li, P. Biomineralization of Carbonate Minerals Induced by the Halophilic Chromohalobacter israelensis under High Salt Concentrations: Implications for Natural Environments. Preprints 2017, 2017030043 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201703.0043.v2).

Abstract

The mechanism underlying microbiologically induced carbonate precipitation have not been thoroughly characterized, although numerous scholars and experts have specifically investigated questions regarding minerals induced by bacteria. The study of the precipitation of carbonate minerals induced by halophilic bacteria has aroused wide concern. The present study aimed to investigate the characterization and process of biomineralization in high salt systems by a halophilic bacterium, Chromohalobacter israelensis strain LD532 (GenBank: KX766026), which was isolated from the Yinjiashan Saltern in China. Carbonate minerals induced by LD532 were investigated in several sets of comparative experiments that employed magnesium sulfate and magnesium chloride as Mg resources. Magnesium calcite and aragonite were induced by LD532 bacteria, whereas these minerals did not appear in the control group. The mineral phases, micromorphologies, and crystal structures were analysed using X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray detection. The carbonic anhydrase and urease secreted by strain LD532 through metabolism increased the pH value of the liquid medium and promoted the process of carbonate precipitation. Further study using high resolution transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray detection and analysis of ultrathin slices showed that the nucleation sites of carbonate minerals were located on extracellular polymeric substances and the membranes of intracellular vesicles of LD532 bacteria, which provided favourable conditions for the growth of carbonate mineral crystals. The morphologies and compositions of minerals formed in solutions of MgSO4 and MgCl2 display significant differences, indicating that different sources of Mg2+ may also affect the physiological and biochemical activities of microorganisms and thus mineral deposition. This study will be of some interest for the interpretation of carbonate biomineralization in natural salt environments and has some value as a reference in understanding sedimentary carbonates in ancient marine environments, such as tidal flats.

Subject Areas

biomineralization; halophilic bacteria; precipitation; carbonate minerals; Mg/Ca ratios; nucleation sites

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