Preprint Article Version 1 NOT YET PEER-REVIEWED

Mixing Time—Experimental Determination and Applications to the Modelling of Crystallisation Phenomena

  1. Synthesis and Solid State Pharmaceutical Centre, University of Limerick, Limerick, Ireland
Version 1 : Received: 2 November 2016 / Approved: 3 November 2016 / Online: 3 November 2016 (09:22:18 CET)

How to cite: Nikolić, D.; Cogoni, G.; Frawley, P. Mixing Time—Experimental Determination and Applications to the Modelling of Crystallisation Phenomena. Preprints 2016, 2016110022 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201611.0022.v1). Nikolić, D.; Cogoni, G.; Frawley, P. Mixing Time—Experimental Determination and Applications to the Modelling of Crystallisation Phenomena. Preprints 2016, 2016110022 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201611.0022.v1).

Abstract

Performing optimisation and scale-up studies of crystallisation systems requires accurate and computationally efficient mathematical models. The assumption of the ideal mixing conditions in batch reactors typically produce inaccurate results while the computational expense of CFD models is still prohibitively high. Therefore, in this work, a new intermediary approach is proposed that takes into account the non-ideal mixing conditions in the reactor and requires less computational resources than full CFD simulations. Starting with the Danckwerts concept of the intensity of segregation, an analogy between its application to chemical reactions and the kinetics of the crystallisation phenomena (such as nucleation and growth) has been made. As a result, the modified kinetics expressions have been derived which incorporate the effect of non-idealities present in stirred reactors. This way, based on the experimental measurements of the mixing time using the Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) technique, computationally more efficient mathematical models can be developed in two ways: (1) the accurate semi-empirical correlations are available for standard mixing configurations with the most often used types of impellers, (2) CFD simulations can be utilised for estimation of the mixing time; in this case it is necessary to simulate only the mixing process. The benefits offered by the LIF experimental technique have been demonstrated and some frequent problems in its application analysed. The mixing time results for configurations with and without baffles for three types of impellers and four different rotational speeds have been presented. The false shorter mixing times in the non-baffled configurations have been observed and this phenomena explained by the existence of two segregated zones in the reactor and confirmed by additional experiments. The precise measurements in these cases have been shown as difficult using the LIF technique, particularly for higher rpms. The experimental data has been compared to the preliminary simulation results obtained from the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics method and the standard k-ε turbulence model with the modest success. The shortcomings of the SPH model have been recognized and the directions for the future work discussed.

Subject Areas

mixing time; LIF; CFD; SPH; stirred tank

Readers' Comments and Ratings (0)

Discuss and rate this article
Views 76
Downloads 93
Comments 0
Metrics 0
Discuss and rate this article

×
Alerts
Notify me about updates to this article or when a peer-reviewed version is published.