Preprint Article Version 1 NOT YET PEER-REVIEWED

Multi-range Conditional Random Field for Classifying Railway Electrification System Objects

  1. Department of Earth and Space Science and Engineering, York University, 4700 Keele Street, Toronto, ON M3J 1P3, Canada
  2. Logistics System Research Team, Korea Railroad Research Institute, 176, Cheoldobangmulgwan-ro, Uiwang-si 437-757, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea
Version 1 : Received: 25 September 2016 / Approved: 26 September 2016 / Online: 26 September 2016 (09:33:05 CEST)

How to cite: Jung, J.; Chen, L.; Sohn, G.; Luo, C.; Won, J. Multi-range Conditional Random Field for Classifying Railway Electrification System Objects. Preprints 2016, 2016090088 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201609.0088.v1). Jung, J.; Chen, L.; Sohn, G.; Luo, C.; Won, J. Multi-range Conditional Random Field for Classifying Railway Electrification System Objects. Preprints 2016, 2016090088 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201609.0088.v1).

Abstract

Railway has been used as one of the most crucial means of transportation in public mobility and economic development. For efficiently operating railways, the electrification system in railway infrastructure, which supplies electric power to trains, is essential facilities for stable train operation. Due to its important role, the electrification system needs to be rigorously and regularly inspected and managed. This paper presents a supervised learning method to classify Mobile Laser Scanning (MLS) data into ten target classes representing overhead wires, movable brackets and poles, which are recognized key objects in the electrification system. In general, the layout of railway electrification system shows a strong regularity of spatial relations among object classes. The proposed classifier is developed based on Conditional Random Field (CRF), which characterizes not only labeling homogeneity at short range, but also the layout compatibility between different object classes at long range in the probabilistic graphical model. This multi-range CRF model consists of a unary term and three pairwise contextual terms. In order to gain computational efficiency, MLS point clouds is converted into a set of line segments where the labeling process is applied. Support Vector Machine (SVM) is used as a local classifier considering only node features for producing the unary potentials of CRF model. As the short-range pairwise contextual term, Potts model is applied to enforce a local smoothness in short-range graph. While, long-range pairwise potentials are designed to enhance spatial regularities of both horizontal and vertical layouts among railway objects. We formulate two long-range pairwise potentials as the log posterior probability obtained by Naïve Bayes classifier. The directional layout compatibilities are characterized in probability look-up tables which represent co-occurrence rate of spatial relations in horizontal and vertical directions. The likelihood function is formulated by multivariate Gaussian distributions. In the proposed multi-range CRF model, the weight parameters to balance four sub-terms are estimated by applying the Stochastic Gradient Descent (SGD). The results show that the proposed multi-range CRF can effectively classify detailed railway elements, representing the average recall of 97.66% and the average precision of 97.07% for all classes.

Subject Areas

classification; railway; power line; mobile laser scanning data; conditional random field; layout compatibility

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