Preprint Article Version 1 NOT YET PEER-REVIEWED

Biomineralization of Calcium and Magnesium Carbonate Minerals Induced by Bacillus licheniformis and Its Application in Water Softening

Version 1 : Received: 21 January 2017 / Approved: 22 January 2017 / Online: 22 January 2017 (04:58:39 CET)

How to cite: Zhao, Y.; Zhao, H. Biomineralization of Calcium and Magnesium Carbonate Minerals Induced by Bacillus licheniformis and Its Application in Water Softening. Preprints 2017, 2017010096 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201701.0096.v1). Zhao, Y.; Zhao, H. Biomineralization of Calcium and Magnesium Carbonate Minerals Induced by Bacillus licheniformis and Its Application in Water Softening. Preprints 2017, 2017010096 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201701.0096.v1).

Abstract

Reducing the hardness of hard water is of great concern nowadays due to some adverse effects on water pipes, boilers and soap consumption. Using the method of biomineralization to precipitate calcium and magnesium ions to become carbonate minerals was one of the most important innovations for reducing the hardness of hard water. The present study sought to explore the physical and chemical conditions of carbonates bio-precipitation and the potential use of Bacillus licheniformis SRB2 strain (GenBank: KM884945.1) isolated from sludge sample of Moshui River (Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao, China) in reducing the hardness of hard waters by the induction of carbonate minerals. In this study, B. licheniformis SRB2 strain was identified based on the morphological, biochemical and 16S rDNA gene sequence homology analysis. The carbonate minerals induced by B. licheniformis bacteria in the liquid culture medium with 3% NaCl and Mg/Ca molar ratio of 0, 6, 8, 10 and 12 were investigated. The culture medium was inoculated with the bacterial liquid seed was set as the experimental group and the other culture medium was inoculated with the same volume of distilled water was set as the control group. The mineral phases, micromorphologies, and crystal structures were analyzed using X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive X-ray detector, high resolution transmission electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction. The bacterial concentrations and pH values of the solution were measured by a spectrophotometer and a pH meter, respectively. The urease secreted by B. licheniformis SRB2 was found to greatly increase the pH values of the liquid medium, which favored the formation of calcium carbonate.As a result, Mg2+ and Ca2+ ion concentrations decreased greatly due to the biomineralization of calcium carbonate and nesquehonite minerals in the presence of B. licheniformis SRB2 bacterium. There were only few calcium carbonates and no nesquehonite minerals in the control groups. It was also found that the minerals of nesquehonite induced by B. licheniformis SRB2 had a phenomenon of preferred orientation. What was more, even though Mg2+ ions inhibited the precipitation of Ca2+ ions, but under the action of B. licheniformis SRB2 bacteria, the inhibition effect was significantly declined. The bio-precipitation of calcium carbonate and nesquehonite minerals may represent a new method of pretreatment for the hardness reduction of hard water. The accomplished study is of certain interest for interpretation of the carbonates biomineralization in natural environment, and maybe also has a certain application value in the former processing of hard water

Subject Areas

biomineralization; calcium ions; magnesium ions; Bacillus lichemiformis; carbonates

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