Preprint Article Version 1 NOT YET PEER-REVIEWED

Kriging with Unknown Variance Components for Regional Ionospheric Reconstruction

Version 1 : Received: 2 December 2016 / Approved: 2 December 2016 / Online: 2 December 2016 (17:13:10 CET)

How to cite: Huang, L.; Zhang, H.; Xu, P.; Geng, J.; Wang, C.; Liu, J. Kriging with Unknown Variance Components for Regional Ionospheric Reconstruction. Preprints 2016, 2016120018 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201612.0018.v1). Huang, L.; Zhang, H.; Xu, P.; Geng, J.; Wang, C.; Liu, J. Kriging with Unknown Variance Components for Regional Ionospheric Reconstruction. Preprints 2016, 2016120018 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201612.0018.v1).

Abstract

Ionospheric delay has been a critical issue that limits the accuracy of GNSS precise positioning and navigation for single-frequency users, especially in mid- and low-latitude regions where irregularity of ionosphere is often significant. Kriging spatial interpolation techniques have been recently introduced to model the spatial correlation and variability of ionosphere, which intrinsically assume that the ionosphere field is stochastically stationary but does not take the random observational errors into account. In this paper, by treating the spatial statistical information on ionosphere as prior knowledge and based on TEC semivariogram analysis, we use Kriging techniques to spatially interpolate TEC values. By assuming that the stochastic models of both the ionospheric signals and measurement errors are only known up to some unknown factors, we propose a new Kriging spatial interpolation method with unknown variance components for both the signals of ionosphere and TEC measurements. Variance component estimation has been integrated with Kriging to reconstruct regional ionospherical delay. The method has been applied to data from the Crustal Movement Observation Network of China (CMONOC) and compared with the ordinary Kriging and polynomial interpolations with spherical cap harmonic functions, polynomial functions and low-degree spherical harmonic functions. The results have shown that the interpolation accuracy of the new proposed method is better than the ordinary Kriging and polynomial interpolation by about 1.2 TECU and 0.7 TECU, respectively. The root mean squared error of the proposed new Kriging with variance components is within 1.5 TECU and is smaller than those from other methods under comparison by about 1 TECU. When compared with ionospheric grid points, the mean squared error of the proposed method is within 6 TECU and smaller than Kriging, indicating that the proposed method can produce more accurate ionospheric delays and better estimation accuracy.

Subject Areas

ionospheric delay, Kriging spatial interpolation, semivariogram, variance component estimation, CMONOC

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