Preprint Article Version 1 NOT YET PEER-REVIEWED

Perinatal Risk Factors and Genu Valgum Conduce to the Onset of "Growing Pains" in Early Childhood

  1. Department of Trauma and Orthopaedics, Thriasio General Hospital – NHS, G. Gennimata av, Magoula 19600, Athens, Greece
  2. Second Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Konstantopoulio General Hospital and Medical School, University of Athens, Athens 14233, Greece
  3. Third Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, KAT General Hospital and Medical School, University of Athens, Kifissia 14561, Athens, Greece
Version 1 : Received: 10 August 2016 / Approved: 10 August 2016 / Online: 10 August 2016 (15:20:53 CEST)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Kaspiris, A.; Chronopoulos, E.; Vasiliadis, E. Perinatal Risk Factors and Genu Valgum Conducive to the Onset of Growing Pains in Early Childhood. Children 2016, 3, 34. Kaspiris, A.; Chronopoulos, E.; Vasiliadis, E. Perinatal Risk Factors and Genu Valgum Conducive to the Onset of Growing Pains in Early Childhood. Children 2016, 3, 34.

Journal reference: Children 2016, 3, 34
DOI: 10.3390/children3040034

Abstract

The most prevalent musculoskeletal disorder of childhood with unclear aetiology is Growing Pains (GPs). Anatomic deformities and factors that change bone turnover are implicated in GPs pathophysiology. Perinatal risk factors alter the bone metabolism affecting the bone mineral density and content. The aim of our study was to analyze the relationship between GPs, knock knees and perinatal factors. The examined population consisted of 276 children aged 3-7 years. Among them 10 pairs of dizygotic twins were evaluated. The data were collected by using a combination of semi-structured questionnaires, clinical examinations and medical charts of the children and the obstetric history of the mothers. 78 children presented GPs meeting Peterson’s criteria. Genu valgum severity was a significant factor for GPs manifestation and for their increased frequency and intensity. Subsequently, perinatal factors regarding gestational age, Apgar score, head circumference (lower than 33cm) and birth length or weight (smaller than 50 cm and 3000gr, respectively) made a remarkable contribution to the development of GPs. Conversely, antenatal corticosteroid treatment, increased maternal age and maternal smoking during pregnancy were not predictive for the disorder. Our data are potentially supportive for the “bone strength” theory and for the contribution of anatomical disturbances in GPs appearance.

Subject Areas

Growing pains; genu valgum; perinatal factors; bone metabolism

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