ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0129.v1
Online: 7 July 2020 (16:26:57 CEST)
The effect of the COVID-19 pandemic in a developing country like Bangladesh is enormous. A research conducted by South Asian network of Economic Modelling predicted that the pandemic could double the poverty. But it is not that only the socioeconomic condition is dropping in Bangladesh, the impact of COVID-19 pandemic is manifold. The poor condition of Bangladesh's health sector has also been exposed due to the pandemic. People are not getting proper treatment due to lack of isolation beds, oxygen, ICU etc. The health sector of Bangladesh is not much developed and now with this pandemic it has become impossible to provide treatment facility for all the patients. Education sector, which is the backbone of a country,has also been greatly affected by the pandemic. We know that different types of cultural occasions are an inherited tradition of Bangladesh, COVID-19 have not even spared these traditions, all the cultural programes and festivals have been cancelled due to this pandemic.In this paper, our aim is to present the present status of all these sectors.
Thu, 19 July 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0366.v1
Online: 19 July 2018 (15:43:50 CEST)
This paper investigates how Islamic tolerance contributes to solve religious conflict today that has impacted on various aspects such as economic collapse, insecurity in life, lack of professional society, academic retrogressions, and so on. Knowledge of these issues has become an urgent to build a community that is full of peace, harmony and unity. The paper suggests that Quranic views on tolerance should be understood and practiced in order to avoid disunity in society which is due to failure to appreciate tolerance values in association. The paper concludes problems or misunderstandings always occur in different religious societies, since every religion has its own teachings and principles, as well as each of them is interpreted in different ways.
Thu, 23 November 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0151.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: psychopharmacology; mental health; addiction; biopsychology
Online: 23 November 2017 (08:51:06 CET)
This study investigated the psychosocial factors influencing substance abuse among undergraduates. The study was conducted in Ekiti State university Ado Ekiti. 150 participants who are undergraduates of the university were used in this research. They consist of 82 males and 68 females selected from all faculties in the institution. 3 questionnaires were administered to respondent to measure the factors influencing substance abuse and the level at which they are abused. Independent T-test, multiple regression and Pearson Correlation method were used to analyze the data collected. Five hypotheses were tested: hypothesis 1, 2, 3 and 4 were significant while hypothesis 5 was insignificant. It was observed that there was significant influence of religiosity on substance abuse among undergraduates, the result also revealed that there was a significant influence of self-esteem on substance abuse among undergraduates, it also revealed that religiosity and self-esteem jointly predicted substance abuse among undergraduates, likewise the result also show that there was significant influence of sex on substance abuse among undergraduates and finally the result revealed there was no significant relationship between religiosity and self-esteem among undergraduates. The results were discussed in line with relevant empirical literatures, while conclusion and recommendations subsequently followed.
Fri, 9 September 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0012.v2
Online: 9 September 2016 (07:42:15 CEST)
Solid waste management in Accra is a major challenge to the Metropolitan Authorities and inhabitants. The rapidly increasing population coupled with poor capacity of the municipal and private waste management companies to management waste effectively has created issues of environmental concern. Due to poor waste managements systems, most household dispose waste indiscriminately leading to floods and health issues. The study showed that about 60% of household waste is organic materials which has the potential to be converted to compost for agriculture purpose. Meanwhile plastics and rubbers which litters the environment as well as blocking major storm drains and gutters hence creating huge environmental hazard is made of 11% of the total component of most household waste generated daily. The study also revealed that among the methods of disposing waste, dumping waste in skip containers located at authorized places was the preferred means of disposing waste by household though others also dispose waste by other means such as burying and burning. Inadequate skip containers per population of household in an area coupled with irregularity of tracks picking these containers makes skip containers dumping site ugly scene, hence creating health issues. Among the constraints that impact negatively on sustainable waste management in Accra Metropolis, economic constraints was perceived as the main challenge which affect efficient waste management. Currently the country is going through serious economic challenges so government does not release money timely to fund projects which waste management is key. Most donor partners that use to support the government with funds have either reduced or redrawn their services as they have no confidence in the state of Ghana economy. Aside the constrains, the study also indicated that factors such as poor public attitude towards waste management, poor enforcement of sanitation by-laws, inadequate and untimely release of government funds were also seen as the main factors affecting waste management.
Fri, 24 July 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0599.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: crisis self-efficacy; work commitment; education workers; public schools; COVID-19 pandemic
Online: 24 July 2020 (14:47:56 CEST)
COVID-19 pandemic has affected the public educational sectors in terms of adjustment in educational modalities of instructional delivery, school operations, and policies. With this emerging paradigm shift, teachers' crisis self-efficacy and work commitment are relevant for research. This study's main objective was to determine the significant influence of crisis self-efficacy on the work commitment of public school teachers in Region XI (Davao Region), Philippines, during the COVID-19 pandemic. The sample consisted of 1,340 public school teachers across the Davao Region. The researchers collected the data through adapted questionnaires contextualized to the local setting and administered through online Google forms with appended consent. Mean, standard deviation, Pearson r, and regression analysis were used to analyze data. Results revealed that crisis self-efficacy significantly influences the work commitment of public school teachers during the COVID-19 pandemic. Uncertainty management during this crisis, in particular, best predicts teachers’ work commitment. Data also showed a high level of crisis self-efficacy in terms of action, preventive, achievement and uncertainty management, and high level of teachers’ work commitment in terms of commitment to school, commitment to students, commitment to teaching, and commitment to profession. Correlation results also showed a link between crisis self-efficacy and the work commitment of teachers amid pandemic. Finally, the study concluded with practical recommendations and directions for future research.
Wed, 19 August 2020
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: COVID-19; Economic; Environment; Development; Social; Tourism
Online: 19 August 2020 (17:22:04 CEST)
The Corona Virus (COVID-19) pandemic situation has posed significant effect on tourism industry. Tourism destinations have embraced emergency health care measures and restrictions imposed on human movement around the world. Beaches and resorts are empty, peoples’ movements are stopped and travelling between territories is strictly controlled. The COVID-19 lockdown around the world has imposed negative impact on the livelihood of people and world economy as well. The present study attempts to find out the scopes for sustainable tourism development in near future from the consequences of social, economic, and environment in COVID-19 pandemic situation.
Tue, 9 April 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0114.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: International development, urban planning culture, social maladies, local authority, Chipata District, Zambia
Online: 9 April 2019 (12:53:50 CEST)
Since the public inauguration of the URP (Urban and Regional Planning) Bill in 2009, which is now law (The Urban and Regional Planning Act No. 3 of 2015), urban planning in Zambia has undergone changes. In partnership with the Volunteer Service Overseas (VSO) Federation, the Zambian parliament put into effect pilot urban planning assistance programs to assist districts around the country, including Chipata District in 2011, transition to a more decentralized, integrated and locally-defined approach to urban planning. However, the presence of discrimination, corruption, and negative attitudes towards urban planning engagement, social maladies prominently displayed in Zambian society, pose challenges to implementing the ideal goals of the 2009 URP Bill. The extreme, widespread poverty in Zambia merely exacerbates the propensity towards corrupt and discriminatory behavior, and influences poor attitudes toward urban planning engagement. This paper describes the projects undertaken by the VSO volunteer from the USA between 2011 and 2012 in the light of the specific urban problems facing Chipata District, and discusses the ways the social maladies play out in Zambian society to pose challenges to implementing the recommended changes to the planning system scribed in the 2009 URP Bill.
Tue, 5 May 2020
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0050.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: COVID-19 Pandemic; Review Literature; Psychosocial Support System; Public Health Administration
Online: 5 May 2020 (02:23:47 CEST)
The state of community lock-down due to COVID-19 pandemic caused restricted movements of people. There are existing evidence of the negative impact of quarantine and isolation to the mental health of a person in different contexts. A scoping review of literature using Google Scholar was conducted to discover records about the public mental health while in a community quarantine due to COVID-19 pandemic. A methodological approach suggested by Arksey and O’Malley was utilized. It comprised (a) identifying the research questions, (b) identifying relevant literatures, (c) selecting literature, (d) charting the extracted data, and (e) summarizing, analyzing, and reporting the results. As of April 17, 2020, there were only 4 original articles found that discuss psychosocial aspect of the COVID-19 crisis. After an online survey, they present evidence that (1) there is an outward change in the people’s behavior toward self-care during the pandemic and (2) trusting the community governing bodies can minimize the level of anxiety and stress. Other literatures found are original articles in preprint (n=8), letters, commentaries, editorial (n=6), review paper (n=4), and WHO guideline (n=1). It is evident that the psychosocial aspect of COVID-19 crisis needs more attention from the scholars and a large research gap can be lessened trough expansion of online platforms.
Wed, 26 July 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0071.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: social exchange theory; structural equation modeling; tourism development
Online: 26 July 2017 (06:32:58 CEST)
Background: Tourism is one of the prominent industry that has a capability to generate handsome income for developed as well as developing countries. However, the study to investigate specifically the perception of local residents towards tourism is still lacking. The perception of the locals is important since it could determine the extent of their support for tourism development. Plus, previous research found that male residents are more support better towards the tourism development. Thus, this factor is adapted as well in this study to examine whether this gender may influence to the tourism industry. 2) Methods: This study used Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) technique for determining the structural estimates between constructs. 3) Results: The respondents agree that positive perception, negative perception and tourism impact has a significant impact on support for tourism development in which has been recognized as Social Exchange Theory model. Moreover, the finding also revealed that gender has a potential to moderates the causal effect of tourism impact on tourism development. 4) Conclusion: The resident understand the tourism sector could strengthen economic nation but they also want the natural resources should be protected.
Thu, 11 August 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0116.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: gaelic football; Australian rules football; performance analysis; player recruitment
Online: 11 August 2016 (10:32:35 CEST)
It has often been said that Gaelic football (GF) and Australian Rules Football (ARF) are similar sports, and amateur Gaelic footballers have been recruited to play in the professional Australian Football League. Using Wilcoxons’s test, the significant (p < 0.05) factors differentiating winning and losing performance in ARF were indirectly compared to the differentiating factors between winning and losing in GF. Of the 15 key performance indicators (KPIs) that were seen to be significant between ARF teams, six (40 %) were also seen to be significant in discriminating between winning and losing GF teams. A Mann-Whitney U test was then completed to directly compare ARF and GF, twenty-six of the 30 KPIs were seen to be significantly different to each other (p < 0.05). The findings suggest that recruiting a Gaelic footballer based on the belief that their Gaelic background will aid their transition to ARF is not an appropriate decision. Instead, staying with more traditional methods of talent identification – for example anthropometric measurements – is advocated until further research is undertaken in this area.
Mon, 29 August 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0226.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: educational impacts; emotional impacts; behavioral impacts; psychological impacts; physical impacts; religious impacts
Online: 29 August 2016 (12:24:27 CEST)
Cartoons in the era of digital media are among the most prevalent medium of entertainment for the children, parents also encourage them to view such contents to engage the children which make an area need to be explained exhaustively by adopting new approaches. There are lot of studies in the past conducted to explain the impacts of the cartoons on the children however, it is remarkable fact that there is lack of the studies in the literature which directly address the observation about the above mentioned impacts in view of the teacher’s. This study deals with the educational, emotional, behavioral and Religious etc. impacts of cartoons on kids in view of teachers of the primary schools as they are considered as the one who can observer these impacts in a profound way. of the of Multan. Different areas of impacts have been analyzed in this study by using survey technique and analysis is conducted and presented in the teacher’s views in this study to examine what they feel that how cartoons are effecting the personalities of the children.
Mon, 7 May 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0115.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: heroin users; junkies; cinematic representations; social constructionism; cultural criminology
Online: 7 May 2018 (11:05:31 CEST)
This article responds to an identified and significant gap in the existing scholarly canon to consider the extent to which cinematic representations construct heroin users—the ‘junkie’—as a criminalised ‘Other’ which confer legitimacy on the notion that such are criminogenic and deviant. Positioned within the disciplinary bounds of cultural criminology, this article focuses on five films - Sid and Nancy (1986); The Basketball Diaries (1995); Trainspotting (1996); Requiem for a Dream (2000); and, T2 Trainspotting (2017). Drawing together Hall’s (1997) theories of representation and Hjelm’s (2014) theories of social constructionism, the findings from a narrative analysis of each of the films—individually and comparatively—explores the following themes, junkies: as criminogenic; as dangerous underclass; as embodying decay and depravity; and in relation to female junkies, as junkie whores. In doing so, this article elucidates new thinking and ideas about cinematic representations of junkies and how this shapes and influences social norms and mores.
Thu, 18 August 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0172.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: hydropower; political ecology; social and environmental impacts; Cambodia; China
Online: 18 August 2016 (05:47:15 CEST)
Given the opportunities offered by foreign investment in energy infrastructure mostly by Chinese firms, the Government of Cambodia is giving high priority to developing hydropower resources for reducing energy poverty and powering economic growth. Using a “Political ecology of the Asian drivers” framework, this paper assesses China’s involvement in the development of large dams’ in Cambodia and its impacts on the access of natural resources such as water and energy by dam builders, local communities and the government. This analysis is based on 61 interviews and 10 focus group discussions with affected communities, institutional actors, Chinese dam builders and financiers in relation to the first large Chinese dam built in Cambodia, the Kamchay dam. Based on the results of the analysis this paper makes recommendations on how to improve the planning, implementation and governance of large dams to ensure that the dams’ benefits are shared more equally.
Sun, 26 February 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0089.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: EVs; PHEVs; penetration; adoption; barriers; preference; willingness; attitude
Online: 26 February 2017 (10:33:14 CET)
China planned to promote the large-scale adoption of Electric Vehicles (EVs) in the thirteenth five-year plan, however, this target faces many obstacles. This paper was trying to analyze the main barriers to widespread adoption of EVs through a survey in Shenzhen, which has the biggest EVs market share in China major cities. Based on previous scholarly findings, this paper conducted a new study which collected 406 approved questionnaires among 500 participants. The study proposed five hypotheses to examine the main barriers to widespread adoption of EVs. The analysis conducted by statistical methods: two-way frequency tables, chi-square test, and factor analysis. The results noted that perception of EVs advantages and recharging access remained the main barriers to EVs large-scale penetration. Besides, financial incentives drop would not cause a significant decline of EVs adoption in future. The study proposed suggestions to carmaker and government policy administrator on the analysis and discussion.
Thu, 7 July 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0006.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: adaptation; Brazil; climate change policy; mitigation; risks
Online: 7 July 2016 (10:54:49 CEST)
Subnational governments play a key role responding to climate change risks in terms of policy strategies and instruments. This article analyzes how Brazilian municipal and state governments have developed and implemented public policies to mitigate and to adapt to climate change risks. We surveyed all cities’ and states’ climate policies within the country. The methodological approach includes five main points of analysis: 1. mitigation targets and intentions; 2. adaptation actions; 3. stakeholders’ participation; 4. policy implementation; 5. participation in networks related to climate change. Our results suggest that even though subnational climate policies in Brazil are isolated initiatives within the national context, they play an important role responding to climate change risks in different scales and levels. The strongest Brazilian policies with both mitigation and adaptation actions counted on previous mobilization for the climate issue involving different stakeholders from several segments of the society. These governments have also participated in transnational cooperation networks related to climate change.
Sun, 17 May 2020
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0287.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: COVID-19; small scale fisheries; artisarnal fishers; coastal communities; marine protected area; Malaysia; fisheries; impacts
Online: 17 May 2020 (08:46:10 CEST)
As early as February 2020, many countries have started imposing measures to curb the spread of Covid-19. Despite the right intention, it is a challenging moment for the people, especially the rural population living in the coastal areas. The document presents the preliminary findings on the impacts of Covid-19 on the small scale fisheries in Tun Mustapha Park, Sabah, Malaysia.
Sat, 6 August 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0066.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: learning management system; integrated planning and advising system; information system; field education; social work; graduate education
Online: 6 August 2016 (11:28:58 CEST)
In graduate programs such as social work, field education is the signature pedagogy of education. As such, student placement with an appropriate field education agency is critical to ensure academic success and career readiness. A variety of Learning Management System (LMS) and Integrated Planning and Advising Service (IPAS) technologies have been developed to fully integrate technology into the educational system and streamline and improve the learning experience for students, educators, and administrators. Few (if any) of the existing solutions have capabilities to match students with field educators on the basis of an individual student’s completed coursework and area of specialization, as well as field educator needs and opportunities. This paper describes our experience developing a custom LMS/IPAS system—the School of Social Work information System (SSWiS)—that was designed specifically for student learning, faculty advising, and academic administration within our social work graduate program. We present the challenges that motivated the design of the SSWiS before describing the architecture and functionality of our solution. We then discuss our preliminary evaluation results. We conclude with a discussion of the benefits and limitations of our system in the context of today’s technical needs in graduate education in social work and other fields.
Thu, 11 August 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0129.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: parabolic Volterra integro-differential equations; memory kernel; Laplace transform; Fourier transform; convolution theorem; analytical solution
Online: 11 August 2016 (11:47:10 CEST)
This article focuses on obtaining the analytical solutions for parabolic Volterra integro- differential equations in d-dimensional with different types frictional memory kernel. Based on theories of Laplace transform, Fourier transform, the properties of Fox-H function and convolution theorem, analytical solutions of the equations in the infinite domain are derived under three frictional memory kernel functions respectively. The analytical solutions are expressed by infinite series, the generalized multi-parameter Mittag-Leffler function, Fox-H function and convolution form of Fourier transform. In addition, the graphical representations of the analytical solution under different parameters are given for one-dimensional parabolic Volterra integro-differential equation with power-law memory kernel. It can be seen that the solution curves subject to Gaussian decay at any given moment.
Wed, 11 January 2017
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: green infrastructure; sustainable urban development; urban planning; landscape representations
Online: 11 January 2017 (07:44:52 CET)
In the quest for more sustainable urban landscape development, the concept of ‘green infrastructure’ (GI) has become central in policy documents and as a multifunctional general planning tool. GI is not however a simple and unambiguous solution. While there in policy documents are claims for more and connected GI, actual urban development takes another direction. The densifying imperative is hard to combine with an increased and more connected GI. This paper argues for a critical and diversified approach to the concept of GI, to facilitate its implementation in urban planning and management. While GI most often is seen as a common asset and a public good, the actual land use negotiations and management responsibilities cannot be limited to a public service discourse, but should address more clearly a variety of actors. Linguistic as well as spatial definitions of the two relevant dichotomies of ‘green-grey’ and ‘public-private’ are crucial in GI location, design, construction and management, it is argued. Overarching representations of GI will be needed, but also – and linked to it – a spatial storm water plan and an overall plan for public space. The development over time will need an intersectorial implementation and management program. Thus some of the GI intentions may be implemented in planning processes, some through reorganisation and redesign of public space, and some by agreements with landowners.
Tue, 9 August 2016
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0097.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: vulnerability; resilience; rice value chains; climate change; Sub-Saharan Africa
Online: 9 August 2016 (12:09:07 CEST)
Abstract: Rice is one of the most important food crops in sub-Saharan Africa. Climate change, variability, and economic globalization threaten to disrupt rice value chains across the subcontinent, undermining their important role in economic development, food security, and poverty reduction. This paper maps existing research on the vulnerability of rice value chains, synthesizes the evidence and the risks posed by climate change and economic globalization, and discusses agriculture and rural development policies and their relevance for the vulnerability of rice value chains in sub-Saharan Africa. Important avenues for future research are identified. These include the impacts of multiple, simultaneous pressures on rice value chains, the effects of climate change and variability on parts of the value chain other than production, and the forms and extent to which different development policies hinder or enhance the resilience of rice value chains in the face of climatic and other pressures.
Mon, 4 December 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0020.v1
Online: 4 December 2017 (08:27:41 CET)
This article will examine the ambivalence in the views of Jewish authorities towards suicide. There are Jewish rulings which forbid the taking of one's own life, including requested euthanasia. There are seemingly contrary rulings which tolerate and sometimes admire suicide, particularly under conditions of religious persecution. The article will attempt an overview of suicide rates in Jewish communities, indicating variations in different circumstances. The question of whether religiosity affects suicide will be raised and examined. These variations—and of course other factors—may offer some clues to the precursors of suicide, and the processes which may be involved. The causal and risk factors in self-harm among Jews will also be examined. The article then turns to post-suicide events, behaviours and attitudes in Jewish communities.
Mon, 8 January 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0064.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: restoration experience; Biophilia Hypothesis; Stress Recovery Theory (SRT); Attention Restoration Theory (ART); Supportive Environment Theory (SET)
Online: 8 January 2018 (10:58:02 CET)
Contact with nature is suggested to be as an important resource for human health and well-being. Stress alleviation and reduction of mental fatigue are main instances of improvement of human health and well-being in contact with nature. Although the term restoration experience in contact with nature has been used repeatedly for concepts of stress alleviation and reduction of mental fatigue, these refer to different sets of theories and research studies. In this paper, by reviewing the nature-health related theories of Biophilia, Stress Recovery Theory, Attention Restoration Theory and Supportive Environment Theory (SET), the similarities and differences between these two concepts have been discussed. Moreover, the measurement approach instruments based on different study methodologies and aims are provided. This paper could provide information for future studies with focus on factors to be of benefit for restoration experience in design and planning of natural landscape environments with the aim of health and well-being development.
Thu, 13 September 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0233.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Citizen, behavior, smart citizen, technology, lapor sleman mobile application.
Online: 13 September 2018 (11:18:21 CEST)
Indonesia is among the countries developing the concept of smart city. The national government envisions Indonesia 2030 which shall implement the smart city towards sustainable development. Many regions in Indonesia have already implemented the concept of smart city, but still on the level of smart government and smart technology, lacking on the smart citizen component of a smart city. This paper aims to analyze the citizens behavior of using technology on Sleman smart citizen 2021 through the lapor sleman mobile application. This research uses mixed method of quantitative and qualitative approaches in examining the data. The authors distributed 100 questionares and conducted interviews to the government which is department of communication and information, Sleman and the several community that ever use the lapor sleman application. The result of the study reveals the following: firstly, performance expectancy, social influence, and behavioral intention are three independent variables which affect the users’ behavior. Secondly, the behavioral intention has the biggest significant effect on users’ behavior. Thirdly, the citizen behavior of using technology has affect the making a smart citizen. Therefore, using technology in term of lapor sleman mobile application can make the citizens as active participants in public life, in terms of social cooperation, freedom of expression and flexibility. However, there are still many problems in the use of lapor sleman mobile application such as the limited access to only android smartphones, lack of technical know-how, and people’s reluctance to use the lapor sleman mobile application.
Thu, 13 August 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0298.v1
Online: 13 August 2020 (10:22:24 CEST)
Green development ensures the socioeconomic development that incorporates environmental issues while remaining economically viable for owners and tenants. Government as the authority of the state should provide favorable incentives, policy and regulatory pressure for green development. The present study aims to investigate the government policies and regulations for green development in Bangladesh and make a critical discussion of the initiatives. The study is descriptive in nature and collects secondary information. Evidence suggests that environmental degradation and climate change related risks and vulnerabilities have intensified in Bangladesh. The government of Bangladesh (GOB) is concerned about green development and formulates various Acts, regulations and policy initiatives since 2010. Major green development initiatives observed in the financial institutions due to the mandatory requirements by Bangladesh Bank but green bond and green insurance in capital market are yet to be developed. The GOB required taking proper policy initiatives for the garments and leather industries to ensure pollution free production system which ensures green trade initiatives. The environmental taxes and ecological compensation mechanisms should be revised. Urban green space and Government green procurement are still less concerning matter. The GOB should make effective collaboration with all related stakeholders to ensure the green development.
Sun, 27 November 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0131.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: adaptation; mental model refinement; food systems; knowledge management participatory modeling; system dynamics; systems thinking
Online: 27 November 2016 (04:12:49 CET)
Food systems will need to undergo considerable transformation. To be better prepared for and resilient to uncertainty and disturbances in the future, resource users and managers need to further develop knowledge about the food and farming system, with its dominating feedback structures and complexities, and to test robust and integrated system-based solutions. This paper investigates how participatory system dynamics modeling can be adapted to groups at the community level with low or no formal educational background. The paper also analyzes the refinement of workshop participants’ mental models as a consequence of a participatory system dynamics intervention. For this purpose, we ran two workshops with small-scale farmers in Zambia. Analysis of workshop data and post-workshop interviews shows that participatory system dynamics is well adaptable to support an audience-specific learning-by-doing approach. The use of pictures, objects and water glasses in combination with the basic aspects of causal loop diagramming makes for a well-balanced toolbox. Participants acquire understanding that is also relevant beyond systems thinking in that is offers a range of practical insights such as a critical evaluation of common food security strategies.
Wed, 1 February 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0001.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Floods; victims; perception and knowledge; individual characteristic
Online: 1 February 2017 (10:39:55 CET)
This study aims to unravel the paradox of perceptions and knowledge of the flood victims towards the causes of the disaster in both internal and external context. Internal context comprises of a comparison of perceptions and knowledge based on individual characteristics (age, gender, education and income). Whereas, the external context includes the factors of the awareness of the victims towards the amount of rainfall, the impact of land use changes as well as the negligence of the responsible parties. The main objective of this study is to determine the differences of perception and knowledge of December 2014 flood victims in Kelantan towards the factors that lead to the flood. This disaster had resulted in huge amount of money loss as well as traumatize the victims in which can be felt to this day. Since that incident, there were various points of view and different perceptions in finding the cause of the disaster occurred. Besides that, the study found that the level of perception and knowledge as to the cause of the disaster is different in the internal context (individual characteristics). This difference has a significant influence on the awareness of the causes of the floods that occurred in the external context. Significant relationships at the level of p <0.05 has existed between perception and knowledge of the causes of the disaster victims affected by environmental changes in the last 10 years. This indicates that although the victim is aware of the physical environment changes happening around them, but all that is seen as not a major contributing factor to the cause of the floods in Kelantan in 2014.
Thu, 23 August 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0420.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: communication model, volcanic eruption, contingency planning, risk management, Sinabung
Online: 23 August 2018 (16:06:15 CEST)
This study aims to find a communication model of contingency plan for disaster risk management of Sinabung Volcano eruption, in North Sumatera. The object of the research is communication and coordination across the government, non-government organization, and community. This study used planning theory, the concept of communication planning, and types of disaster management plan as tools for analysing. Descriptive qualitative is used as the method. Data collection was obtained from the focus group discussion (FGD), in-depth interviews, observation, and study documentation. There are three stages in descriptive qualitative research that is data reduction, data presentation, and conclusion. An analysis was conducted qualitatively on the program and competence actors. The results found the communication model of disaster risk management through documents of contingency planning to overcome the threat of Mount Sinabung eruption. During the emergency response period a core model was used to reduce the impact of the Mount Sinabung eruption. The contingency plan becomes the Karo District Government’s document. This document were authorized by an authorized official and is ready to be applied to the Emergency Response Operation Plan. Plans for emergency response operations are carried out based on information regarding damage and the need to obtain results of a quick review. Contingency plans are submitted to the legislature for political commitment and support and budget allocation.
Mon, 5 September 2016
CONFERENCE PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0012.v1
Online: 5 September 2016 (11:28:07 CEST)
Solid waste management in Accra is a major challenge to the Metropolitan Authorities and inhabitants. The rapidly increasing population coupled with poor capacity of the municipal and private waste management companies to management waste effectively has created issues of environmental concern. Due to poor wastement managements systems, most household dispose waste discriminately leading to floods and health issues. The study showed that about 60% of household waste is organic materials which has the potential to be converted to compost for agriculture purpose. Meanwhile plastics and rubbers which litters the environment as well as blocking major storm drains and gutters hence creating huge environmental hazard is made of 11% of the total component of most household waste generated daily. The study also revealed that among the methods of disposing waste, dumping waste in skip containers located at authorized places was the preferred means of disposing waste by household though others also dispose waste by other means such as burying and burning. Inadequate skip containers per population of household in an area coupled with irregularity of tracks picking these containers makes skip containers dumping site ugly scene, hence creating health issues. Among the constraints that impact negatively on sustainable waste management in Accra Metropolis, economic constraints was perceived as the main challenge which affect efficient waste management as currently the country is going through serious economic challenges so government does not release money timely to fund projects which waste management is key. Most donor partners that use to support the government with funds have either reduced or redrawn their services as they have no confidence in the state of Ghana economy. Aside the constrains, the study also indicated that factors such as poor public attitude towards waste management, poor enforcement of sanitation by-laws, inadequate and untimely release of government funds were also seen as the main factors affecting waste management.
Wed, 26 October 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0111.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Heatwaves; health protection; perception; key informant interviews
Online: 26 October 2016 (09:52:01 CEST)
National heatwave plans are aimed at reducing the avoidable human health consequences due to heatwaves, by providing warnings to and improving communication between relevant stakeholders. The aim of this study was to assess the perceptions of key stakeholders within plans in Belgium and the Netherlands on their responsibilities, the partnerships, and the effectiveness of the local implementation in Brussels and Amsterdam. Key informant interviews were held with stakeholders that had an important role in development of the heatwave plan in these countries, or its implementation in Brussels or Amsterdam. Care organisations, including hospitals and elderly care organisations, had a lack of familiarity with the national heatwave plan in both cities, and prioritised heat the lowest. Some groups of individuals, specifically socially isolated individuals, are not sufficiently addressed by the current national heatwave plans and most local plans. Stakeholders reported that responsibilities were not clearly described and that the national plan does not describe tasks on a local level. We recommend to urgently increase awareness on the impact of heat on health among care organisations. More emphasis needs to be given to the variety of heat risk groups. Stakeholders should be involved in the development of updates of the plans.
Wed, 5 September 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0094.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Small-scale bean farmers, marketing arrangements, formal and informal marketing, intensification models
Online: 5 September 2018 (11:30:25 CEST)
This case study assessed marketing arrangements used by small scale farmers in the Lake Basin and Lower Eastern bean corridors of Kenya to determine which markets work for rural producers and what changes are needed to produce and supply sufficient quantities for trade. Using exploratory research, data was collected through focus group discussions with six farmer groups representing a total of 1255 bean farmers and key informant interviews with extension staff. The results indicated that 94% of the farmers produced beans before identifying buyers with only 6% participating in group marketing. Though spot-market transactions with brokers and traders provided ready cash for the farmers, formal buyers were perceived to be more reliable but difficult to find and, operated stringent requirements which were a barrier to entry. A theory of change to integrate smallholders into formal markets to sustainably produce and supply sufficient volumes for trade should entail a transformation agenda at four levels of the value chain: intensification of production through pure stand models with greater use of certified high yielding varieties; stable price guarantees; a market-driven research and extension service and; an enabling political, policy and business environment in the bean value chain. Further research is needed to pilot these changes in a case control study.
Wed, 6 September 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0019.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Educational Tourism; Tourism Supply and Demand; Experience; Tourism Activities
Online: 6 September 2017 (11:58:11 CEST)
The Smart Park (well-known as Taman Pintar) as a major educational tourism destination in Jogjakarta offers a variety of tourism attractions that are very interesting for tourists. The main purpose of tourists visiting Smart Park is to get an educational tourism experience. A subjective experience raises a specific challenge for Smart Park toward the status of competitive destination. The purpose of this study is to analyze the aspects of educational tourism experience that are affected by tourism demand and supply. Data were collected by survey technique to 150 respondents and analyzed using path analysis. The results of analysis show that tourism demand and supply contributed to the variation of tourism activities by 45.1%, while the remaining was explained by other variables, such as National Budget, Local Budget, ticket sale, and cooperation with some stakeholders. Tourism supply had a higher effect than tourism demand. Tourism demand did not partially affect tourism experience. However, the results of the path analysis indicate that tourism supply had direct and indirect effects on tourism experience through the variation of tourism activities with indirect effect being dominant. In the management of Smart Park, there is still a gap between tourism demand and supply, so that the environment of tourism experience has not been created maximally.
Mon, 27 March 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0197.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: carbon intensity; coal consumption; co-integration test; Granger causality; error correction model
Online: 27 March 2017 (10:33:34 CEST)
Co-integration and Causality was built to conduct studies on causality relation between carbon intensity and coal consumption leading to providing important basis for the transition to a low carbon economy. The EG two-step method was performed to study the relation between carbon intensity and coal consumption of China during 1990-2015 and the co-integration and Granger test was constructed to build up the co-integration and error correction models for analysis of the interaction between carbon intensity and coal consumption. The results showed that in long term there is a stable co-integration relation and a positive correlation between carbon intensity and coal consumption; whereas fluctuations exist in short term and there is a one-way Granger causality of carbon intensity with respect to coal consumption.
Fri, 31 August 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0546.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Sub-Saharan Africa; Transition Management; WASH; informal settlements; sustainability transitions
Online: 31 August 2018 (11:22:13 CEST)
The unsustainability of the services related to water, sanitation and hygiene in informal settlements in Sub-Saharan Africa services is deeply embedded in current societal and governance structures, cultures and practices; it is context-dependent and involves numerous actors with different interests. The field of sustainability transitions research addresses such persistent and large scale societal challenges, with transition management being one of its widely applied governance approach. By drawing on an analysis of the root causes of unsustainability and unreliability of WASH services in three case studies in Sub-Saharan Africa (Arusha-Tanzania, Dodowa-Ghana, Kampala-Uganda), we explore how a transition management approach can be designed to support a transition towards sustainable Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) in Sub-Saharan Africa. We distinguish the following contextual dimensions related to the unsustainability of WASH services: a) Multiplicity of WASH practices, structures and arrangements, b) Governance capacities for WASH services and maintenance, c) Landownership for sustainable access to WASH, d) Public participation in decision-making related to WASH, e) socio-economic structures governing access to WASH. These dimensions prompt the identification of conceptual and application challenges for transition management. Based on these challenges, recommendations were formulated for the design of a prescriptive transition management process that is not only functional but also emancipatory of character.
Sat, 15 February 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0201.v1
Online: 15 February 2020 (14:56:38 CET)
Aim of this study is to gather information regarding the sustainability development goals from the public as well as the organizations of Pakistan. A sample of 500 respondents each from five main cities including employs and general public is selected for their opinion regarding sustainability development goal. The level of awareness as well as level of commitment towards the fulfilment of Sustainable Development Goals varies across the cities of Pakistan due to difference in literacy level. The commitment to achieve Sustainable Development Goals of the organizations across the selected cities varies according to the nature of the business, volume and the membership with the United Nations. This study provides the policy makers with the ground level data regarding the awareness and commitment of Pakistan based organizations and public towards SDGs fulfilment. A glance towards the attitudes of the people towards the subject matter could also be seen through this study. This a comprehensive study conducted at federal and provincial level of Pakistan which has yielded ground realities towards the implementation of SDGs. The results could be used for policy making and planning at national level and also serve as bench mark for other countries.
Sat, 15 July 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0038.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: migrant; public health; health education; health records; China
Online: 15 July 2017 (00:36:36 CEST)
Background: Internal migrants had obstacles in accessing local public health services in China. This study aimed to estimate the utilization of local public health services and its determinants among internal migrants. Methods: Data were from the 2014 and 2015 nationally representative cross-sectional survey of internal migrants in China. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to estimate the relationship between socioeconomic, migration, demographic characteristics and public health services utilization. Results: Internal migrants in more developed eastern regions used less public health services. Those with higher socioeconomic status were more likely to use public health services. The broader and shorter they migrated, the less they used public health services. Compared to migration within the city, migration across provinces is negatively associated with health records (OR=0.88, 95% CI: 0.86-0.90), health education (OR=0.97, 95% CI: 0.94-1.00), and health education on NCDs (OR=0.92, 95% CI: 0.89-0.95) or through Internet channel (OR=0.96, 95% CI: 0.94-0.99). Conclusion: Public health services coverage for internal migrants has seen great improvement due to government subsides. Internal migrants with lower socioeconomic status and across provinces need to be targeted. More attention should be given to the local government in the developed eastern regions in order to narrow the regional gaps.
Fri, 15 May 2020
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0261.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: domestic violence during lockdown; healthcare denial; poor adherence to self-quarantine; natural Disasters amid Covid-19; repatriation of migrant workers; supply chain crisis
Online: 15 May 2020 (18:09:10 CEST)
COVID-19 has affected 212 countries around the world, killing nearly 300,000 and infecting more than 4.4 million by May 14, 2020. Bangladesh, a South Asian low-middle-income economy, has experienced a demographic and epidemiological transition with rapid urbanization and a gradual increase in life expectancy. It is the seventh most populous country in the world and population of the country is expected to be nearly double by 2050. The increasing burden of communicable diseases in Bangladesh can be attributable to rapid urbanization and nearly 50% of all slum dwellers of the country live in Dhaka division. In 2017, National Rapid Response Team of IEDCR investigated 26 incidents of disease outbreak. The joint survey of the Power and Participation Research Centre and BRAC Institute of Governance and Development reveals that per capita daily income of urban slum and rural poor drops by 80% due to present countrywide shutdown enforced by the government to halt the spread of Covid-19. 40%-50% of these population took loans to meet the daily expenses. However, the country has just 127,000 hospital beds, 91,000 of them in government-run hospitals. Researchers say, the country’s economy is economy is losing BDT 33 billion every day from its service and agriculture sectors during the nationwide shutdown.
Mon, 17 December 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0176.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: affluence; business as usual; climate change; planetary boundaries; population; societal impact; sustainability
Online: 17 December 2018 (07:18:52 CET)
The IPAT equation provides a simple but powerful model for understanding sustainability, particularly from the challenge posed by the Anthropocene—how to reduce personal or societal impact. Impact is calculated by multiplying population, affluence and technology, and a ‘reduction coefficient’ e is used to explore targeted reductions in impact of different entities to cap total (summed) impact. The model offers two solutions. First, that all three factors are essential in determining total impact; a focus on just one or two is not justifiable without credibly addressing the other(s). Second, by presenting reduction of impact as a proportion of current activity, the solution becomes accessible to an individual actor (e.g., an individual, family, organization, or country). Application of the model is illustrated based on household weekly food consumption from cultures around the world. The model helps unify a) disparate perspectives on population, affluence and technology, which currently oppose one another from a basis of belief or dogma, and b) different sectors (e.g., food production, energy, climate impacts and others), as well as actors, so they can jointly identify strategies to resolve their contributions to approaching larger scale sustainability.
Mon, 24 April 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0149.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: SBM model; industrial specialization; industrial clustering; urban land utilization efficiency
Online: 24 April 2017 (11:14:45 CEST)
In this paper, a land utilization efficiency evaluation model, which takes environmental loss into consideration, has been structured via taking advantage of the slack-based measure (SBM) model. Meanwhile, based on the panel data from 280 prefecture-level cities in China from 2003 to 2013, the paper thoroughly probed into, and discussed, the effect imposed by industry clustering and specialization on the utilization efficiency of urban land. Research results indicate several conclusions, as follows: (1) Taking environmental loss into account, the land utilization efficiency of prefecture-level cities in China is generally low. During the research period, the average value of the land utilization efficiency of prefecture-level cities in China is only 0.349, with, first, a declining trend, and then a rise. Geographically speaking, the land utilization efficiency presents a “depression in the center” phenomenon which means the land utilization efficiency of prefecture-level cities in the central China are relatively lower than in the east and west. Now, the difference among the urban land utilization efficiency in China significantly reflects the distinctions among Eastern, Western, and Central China. Moreover, the contribution degree of the difference of the land utilization efficiency among cities of central China to the aggregation difference shows an ascending momentum. Additionally, the relation between the population scale and land utilization efficiency in cities manifests as a U shape; (2) theoretically speaking, the relation between industry clustering and urban land utilization efficiency presents an inverted-U shape. However, this kind of relation is not significant in Western and Central China and medium-sized cities. Moreover, most of cities are still relatively far away from the inflection point or the critical value; and (3) the industry professional level has imposed a positive influence on urban land utilization efficiency. However, that influence is not significant in Eastern China and large cities. Consequently, strengthening the industry professional development of Western and Central China and small and medium-sized cities, facilitating diversified development of industries in Eastern China and large cities, and accelerating industrial clustering, all of these measures above will be conducive to improving urban land utilization efficiency in China.
Mon, 19 June 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0082.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Islamophobia; British politics; Coalition Government; Conservative Party; discrimination; Muslims; minority communities
Online: 19 June 2017 (13:18:48 CEST)
Soon after the Conservative-led Coalition government came to power in 2010, Baroness Sayeeda Warsi announced that Islamophobia had passed the ‘dinner-table test’ in contemporary Britain. Resultantly, the need to address Islamophobia was identified as a priority for the Coalition. This article critically analyses how the Coalition sought to achieve this and the extent to which it was successful. Focusing on the period 2010-5, this article initially frames what is meant by Islamophobia before briefly setting out how it had been responded to by previous British governments. As regards the Coalition, a threefold approach is adopted that considers the All-Party Parliamentary Group on Islamophobia, the Cross-Government Working Group on Anti-Muslim Hate and the political discourses used by the Coalition about Muslims and Islam more generally. Concluding that the Coalition failed to meet the high expectations set by Warsi’s speech, this article considers why this might have been so.
Thu, 29 March 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0251.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: self-disclosure; social networking sites; flow; privacy concerns; structural equation modeling; Ghana
Online: 29 March 2018 (14:35:35 CEST)
Social media and other web 2.0 tools have provided users the platform to interact and also disclose personal information not only with their friends and acquaintances, but also with relative strangers with unprecedented ease. This has enhanced the ability of people to share more about themselves, their families, and their friends through a variety of media including text, photo, and video, thus developing and sustaining social and business relationships. The purpose of the paper is to identify the factors that predict self-disclosure on social networking sites within the Ghanaian context. Data was collected from 452 students in three leading universities in Ghana and analyzed with Partial Least Square-Structural Equation Modeling. Results from the study revealed that all variables in the proposed model with the exception of interaction and perceived control were significant predictors of self-disclosure with privacy risk being the most significant predictor. In all, the model accounted for 54.6 percent of the variance in self disclosure. The implications and limitations of the current study are discussed and directions for future research proposed.
Mon, 12 March 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0086.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM); system thinking; water security; Awash basin; Ethiopia
Online: 12 March 2018 (07:18:33 CET)
Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) is one of the system thinking approaches emerged in the 1990s. Since then it has been applied in various countries and contexts. However, the implementation of the IWRM is contested. There are paucity of literature and guidelines as to how the concept can be operationalized. In Ethiopia, there is no evidence that IWRM is successfully instituted. Particularly, IWRM has never been implemented in the Awash River Basin. The study generated data from household and institutional surveys, in-depth interviews, focused group discussions, workshops, and secondary sources. Multiple sources of data were triangulated and thematically summarized. We found that pragmatic water resources management through system approach helps to recognize river basin as a bigger system in which the natural and human systems function. This resolves the problem of fragmentations among among various actors, sectors, interest and priorities. That it facilitates the coordination of various subsystems. The operationalization of IWRM as a system to secure water resources require the establishment and/or strengthening of the interactions of various systems, subsystems, and the elements within the entire basin system. Finally, enabling institutional environments should be considered as a medium of realizing IWRM.
Sat, 3 December 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0021.v1
Online: 3 December 2016 (10:07:44 CET)
In this study we were interested in the behaviors of individuals who preserve the social and organizational environment by ensuring sustainability. More specifically we are interested in allegiants behaviors. Numerous studies have highlighted the normative character of allegiance. To confer an object the status of social norm means to assign value (in terms of desirability and utility) to that object. Therefore we questioned the value attributed to allegiance. 170 employees were questioned on the desirability and utility they attribute to a future work colleague (future peer or future subordinate) starting from the answers the latter was supposed to have given to a questionnaire on allegiance. It was observed that desirability and utility make reference to two independent dimensions, utility being often more important. It was also noted there is greater severity assigned to endo-group targets (future peers) than to exo-group targets (future subordinates). Finally, it was noted there was not so much a valuation of allegiant targets, but rather a rejection of rebel targets, which raises the question of the bi-dimensionality of the valuation-devaluation process.
Tue, 16 May 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0124.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: rural-urban fringe; walkability; road intersections; decision support methods; Electre Tri
Online: 16 May 2017 (13:50:46 CEST)
The study investigates the influence of road intersections on pedestrian accessibility in urban-rural fringe areas. An evaluation method to support planners and decision makers in the classification of crossing areas according to their effect on walking and in the prioritization of improvement interventions is proposed. In these peripheral parts of towns, pedestrians are almost ignored and people depend on car use for any necessity. Initiatives to improve livability can include the design of walkable friendly environments aiming at offering potential users good levels of security, comfort and convenience when walking to destinations. These spatial requirements have to be provided along road segments and even more on crossing areas which represent sensitive points of the entire connection system with a hindering influence on people’s propensity to walk. Starting with spatial basic interventions aiming at enhancing the continuity, safety and quality of pedestrian paths it is possible to reduce the physical and perceptual distance which separates fringe contexts from the rest of the city leading to a progressive integration of urban functions.
Thu, 8 June 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0045.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Virtual water; Agriculture; Staples; Water resources per capita
Online: 8 June 2017 (18:06:51 CEST)
Lack of water resources in Iran, especially in recent years, has faced the agricultural sector as the most important consumer of water resources, with serious challenges. In Iran, the agricultural sector accounted for more than 90% of water consumption. However, the focus on domestic production and self-sufficiency policy in staples (wheat, barley, maize and rice) has been emphasized in general agriculture's policy. This study was conducted to estimate the imported virtual water from the imports of basic products in Iran using defined indicators during 1961-2013. Also this study investigated the possibility of achieving self-sufficiency due to the limited water resources in Iran. The results of this study showed with the increase in cereal imports, virtual water imports from 0.28 billion cubic meters in 1961 increased to 17.6 billion cubic meters in 2013 and on average about 60% of virtual water imports in strategic products is related to wheat imports during the past 53 years. Other products in cereal (barley, maize and rice) are also indicative of the general trend of increasing imports of virtual water in development plans. The estimated long-run elasticity of virtual water imports in the cereal group compared with the country's water resources also showed that with a one percent reduction in renewable water resources of the country, the virtual water import in the main cereal group will increase equivalent to 2.89 percent and the determination coefficient more than 90 percent also confirms this negative relationship. According to this result and the emphasis on the fact that renewable water resources per capita in the country is falling increasingly, it cannot be expected that domestic production could compensate for the imports of the cereal group and virtual water imports with current technology, without increasing the water productivity and without additional harm to water resources.
Mon, 3 April 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0008.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Ecological sustainability; Landscape connectivity, Green spaces, Resident perception, Master-planned community, Phoenix
Online: 3 April 2017 (17:03:32 CEST)
Green spaces in residential community is important, yet understudied, feature as an urban ecological system. While large urban parks and remnant wildlands in urban areas tend to receive a public attention from conservation and management perspectives, less is known for the importance of spatial and ecological characteristics of the community-scale landscapes. This study investigates natural elements in four planned communities in Phoenix metropolitan area, Arizona, two of which represent conventional type of neighborhood and the other two exemplify the community development with a proclaimed vision of sustainability. These distinct type of communities, which capture variations in age, location, open space type, and a cross-section of housing density, are compared with regard to landscape connectivity as a means of gauging ecological condition for community sustainability. Using Geographical Information System and landscape connectivity indices, each community’s landscape features including size, physical connectedness and ecological potential were examined. Furthermore, a questionnaire survey was performed to examine the perceptional differences between the two types of community residents. The findings demonstrate that the green spaces in conventional communities are more physically connected than the counterparts, but the naturalness and ecological quality manifested by the amount of the land that may serve as potential urban desert habitats were higher in the sustainable communities. The results of the survey indicated that the respondents inhabiting in sustainable communities possess a higher level of satisfaction than the people in conventional type of community due mainly to the amount of, easy access to, and perceived ecological values of, green spaces in their neighborhoods and surrounding areas. The study concludes that careful community design with ecological consideration can help create sustainable communities which can benefit both site-scale ecosystems and perceived human well-being.
Thu, 13 August 2020
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0294.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: approaches; extension services; market system; pluralistic; rural development; smallholder
Online: 13 August 2020 (08:07:40 CEST)
Agricultural extension and advisory services in Africa have significant impact on food security as well as economic and social development. Recent moves towards a pluralistic delivery system, including the emergence of private-sector led initiatives in many countries are subject of policy and academic discourse. Our study used an adapted, fit-for-purpose market systems development framework to review available research in extension and advisory services in selected sub-Sahara Africa countries. Using a literature survey methodology, we report evidence of multiple actors in extension delivery, findings that point towards evolution towards mixed delivery as well as objectives. While there are significant uptake of cost-recovery approaches among commercially-oriented farmers, many smallholder farmers still depended on donor-funded services. Our review adds to existing knowledge through incorporating a market systems development framework, which extends the often-used willingness to pay approach, and highlights the need for merger of the public and private-sector objectives to achieve developmental outcomes.
Fri, 15 November 2019
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: effective communication; community pharmacy; pharmacist’s role; modern society; modern services; on-line pharmacy; pharmacy educational methodologies; communication skills improvement; pharmacist’s professionalism; efficient consultancy service
Online: 15 November 2019 (03:33:33 CET)
Ever since pharmacy has become a profession, pharmacist's role has been continuously subjected to changes due to specific influences from historical, socio-economic, political, and scientific context. Nowadays the classic perception of pharmaceutical profession in Community Pharmacy is facing worldwide extinction due to many factors. Modern services, such as online, mail-order, and telephone-order pharmacies are increasingly gaining ground thanks to their ability to facilitate customer demand. However, at the same time, they are endangering “face-to-face” contact, affecting the building of customer loyalty based on direct “human” interaction, and consequently reducing pharmacists to mere commercial figures. Communication is in fact emphasized as the essential element to build a solid and appropriate interpersonal relationship with the client, to make the consultancy process effective, and to strengthen pharmacist's professionalism in community pharmacy. The aim of this work is to analyze pharmacist’s role in modern society by pinpointing the factors affecting pharmacy profession practice. Specific purpose will be improving both the academic training of future professionals and their capacity to approach public relations through a deepened study and practice of behavioral, communication, educational, and sociological methodologies and techniques that would allow the development of more effective communication skills useful for providing an efficient consultancy service.
Mon, 31 July 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0097.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: urban sustainability; California; landscape decision-making; urban environment; water use behaviors; social-ecological systems
Online: 31 July 2017 (16:45:57 CEST)
Urban development and planning are increasingly centered on matters of sustainability, balancing economic development with ecosystem services and biotic structures within urban environments. In addition to these institutional and structural factors, the decision-making process within individual households must be understood to address rising concerns about water use. Therefore, individual characteristics and preferences that influence the use of water also warrant examination. In response to a survey of occupants of single-family residences in the Fresno Clovis Metropolitan Area of California, contextual interviews and focus group interviews with a homeowner sub-sample, we find evidence of an interplay of social-structural, institutional, and cultural factors involved in influencing individual water use behaviors and landscape decision making. The complexity of residential behaviors and decision-making poses some potential issues with regards to the interactions between individual households and institutional actors in matters of water usage and landscaping, as survey respondents indicate relatively little confidence in institutions and groups to make wise water policy decisions. We conclude that the promotion and implementation of sustainable water use practices will require not only environmental education for the citizenry, but also a tailoring of information for environmental educational initiatives that address the particularities of individual neighborhoods and communities.
Mon, 3 September 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0017.v1
Online: 3 September 2018 (09:39:24 CEST)
Universities, like cities, have embraced novel technologies and data-based solutions to improve their campuses with ‘smart’ becoming a welcomed concept. Campuses in many ways are small-scale cities. They increasingly seek to address similar challenges and to deliver improved experiences to their users. How can data be used in making this vision a reality? What can we learn from smart campuses that can be scale up to smart cities? A short research study was conducted over a three-month period at a public university in the United Kingdom employing stakeholder interviews and user surveys, aiming at gaining insight into these questions. Based on the study, the authors suggest that making data publicly available could bring many benefits to different groups of stakeholders and campus users. These benefits come with risks and challenges such as data privacy and protection and infrastructure hurdles. However, if these challenges can be overcome, open data could contribute significantly to improving campuses and user experiences, and potentially set an example for smart cities.
Mon, 26 February 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0164.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: social isolation; subjective health; instrumental variables
Online: 26 February 2018 (11:32:20 CET)
We investigate the relationship between social isolation and subjective health, considering that this relationship is potentially affected by endogeneity due to the presence of self-reported measures. Thus, if an increase in social isolation may impact the perception on health, alternative paths of causality may also be hypothesized. Using data from round 7 of the European Social Survey, we estimate an instrumental variable model in which isolation is explained as being a member of an ethnic minority and having experienced some serious family conflicts in the past. Our results confirm that changes in social isolation influence subjective general health. In particular, greater isolation produces a strong and significant deterioration of the perceived health status. With respect to the literature on social isolation and health, we try to advance it by supporting a path of causality running from social isolation to subjective health.
Wed, 24 May 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0140.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: common lands; baldios; wild mushrooms; non-timber forest products; Portugal; community; community forestry; forest governance
Online: 24 May 2017 (17:01:57 CEST)
Forest community connections are crucial to ensure forest stewardship and sustainability. We explored the potential of mushrooming to enable such connections in contexts where these connections have been historically broken, alienating local people from forests. Taking the case of the recent devolution of a community forest (baldios) in central Portugal to the local population, we present a five-year pilot project to rework mycology from a mushroom-centered approach to a mushroom-in-baldios approach. Mushrooms were used as an entry-point to connect the forest ecology with the challenges of governance and community building. The devised activities provided an opportunity for people inside and outside the local community to adventure into the woods and find out more about their socio-ecological history, develop communal and convivial relationships and engage in the responsible gathering of wild mushrooms. However, the hosting of mushroomers to know, value and engage with the community forest recovery has constantly working against the enclosure of mushrooms to provide marketable forms of leisure. The outcome of these activities depends on the relationships established between mushrooms, mycologists, local administrators, commoners and poachers, all operating within a framework that favors the eradication of resources instead of long-term relationships that sustain places.
Wed, 22 August 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0394.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: fine dust pollution; ozone layer and climate change; global environmental problems, statistical reasoning, air pollution assessment, desertification, particulate matter (PM)
Online: 22 August 2018 (10:22:38 CEST)
Abstract: The frequency and intensity of air pollution are two of most critical issues the world faces in dealing with global environmental problems. They are both important areas that need to be improved. Our previous research  examines the assessment of fine dust pollution in Baekryeong island by statistical reasoning through one specific example of inland city (Yanggu) in Republic of Korea; however, given that Baekryeong Island is a remote island, there has been little focus on in-depth examination of its effect on the high density of fine dust in Baekryeong Island. The purpose of this article is twofold: (i) to examine the effect of a remote island on the high density of fine dust on Baekryeong Island using statistical reasoning and to provide a more specific statistical basis for the claim that one of the non-negligible factors influencing the high density of fine dust on Baekryeong Island is the geographic proximity to China; and (ii) to present brief discussion of fundamental cause of fine dust and global air pollution issues, which are not discussed in .
Tue, 24 January 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0106.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: completed suicide; hanging out; self-Immolation; Bushehr; Iran
Online: 24 January 2017 (04:16:45 CET)
Background: Suicide is a major health problem. The aim of this study was a comparative study of the causes and methods of completed suicide referred to legal Medicine Organization in Bushehr Province during the years 2006- 2015. Methods: This consideration has been done as a retrospective cross-sectional study; the data were collected by the check list. After coordination to the medico legal 343 cases of completed suicide lead to death over a ten year period from 2006 to 2015 were extracted and the data were analyses by SPSS software. Results: The rate of completed suicide was 2.43 and 1.12 suicides per 100,000 people in male and female, respectively. The mean age were 29.25 and 27.61 years in male and female, respectively p>0.05. A higher completed suicide rate was found among single people. The most common ways of a suicide among people who live in Bushehr were hanging out 184(53.6%), self-Immolation 83(24.2%) and firearms 37(10.8%). Motive of suicide was psychological disorders, Physical disease, Conflict with family and substance abuse. 43(12.5%) people smoking and 22(6.4%) people were both smoking and opioid. During the ten year period of studied, throughout the all years that frequency of hanging out has been higher than others. Conclusion: Due to the high incidence of completed suicide in young people and unmarried individuals also hanging out in male and self-burning in females are prevalent. So determination of preventive measures appears to be necessary. Social factors such as psychological disorders and family conflicts have a noticeable role from .Bushehr people.
Wed, 22 April 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0398.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: COVID-19; Perception-based questionnaire; principal component analysis (PCA); Linear regression model; social panic; social conflict
Online: 22 April 2020 (09:55:38 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic situation, disease intensity, weak healthcare facilities, unawareness, and misinformation led people to fear and anxiety in Bangladesh. This study intended to get peoples’ perception on psychosocial, socio-economic and environmental crisis amidst the pandemi. An online questionnaire was surveyed nationwide (respondents no.1066). Datasets were analyzed through the Principal Component Analysis (PCA), hierarchical Cluster Analysis (CA), Pearson’s correlation matrix (PCM), Linear regression analysis (LRA), and psychometric characteristics were included in the Classical Test Theory (CTT) analysis. There were good associations among the psychosocial, socio-economic and environmental parameters. A significant association between fear of COVID-19 with struggling healthcare system (p<0.05) was found. Also, negative association between fragile health system and government’s ability to deal with the pandemic (p<0.05) revealing poor governance. Again, a positive association of shutdown and social distancing with fear of losing life, and due to lack of health treatment (p<0.05) reveals that shut down hampers normal activities which may lead to mental and economic stress. However, a positive association of socio-economic impact of the shutdown with poor people’s suffering, the price hike of basic need, hamper of formal education (p<0.05) may lead to severe socio-economic and health crisis. There is a possibility of climate-induced disaster during/after the pandemic, which will create severe food insecurity (p<0.01). Daily wage earners and poors will suffer most by food and nutritional deficiency, and the country may face huge economic burden. Proper risk assessment and communications is needed to alleviate fear and anxiety. Thus, financial support and mental boosting is required.
Tue, 10 April 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0118.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: child protection; poverty; inequality; neoliberalism; new paradigm
Online: 10 April 2018 (08:21:26 CEST)
This article sets out to deconstruct and challenge the psychologised and pathologising approach that has come to dominate child protection practice in Aotearoa-New Zealand and comparable societies in neoliberal times. Within a risk and protection focused paradigm circumstances and behaviours associated with material deprivation are construed as indicators of heightened danger and harm as opposed to a means of better understanding family life. In this way, although poverty may be classified as an issue that is worthy of attention in the realm of broader economic and social policy, structural inequality is rendered largely irrelevant to the practice of statutory child protection. This article sets out to trouble this construction. It will be argued that understandings of how the effects of material inequality are played out in the lives of children and their families are critical to the development of more effective child protection social work. This ‘life-world’ is generally populated by young women parenting in poverty. Poverty exacerbates the everyday struggle of parenting - it shames and dis-empowers; reducing confidence and perceptions of competence (Gupta, 2015). A paradigm shift is needed. Child protection policy and practice needs to re-engage with the every-day struggles that accompany the lives of socially marginalised families in increasingly stratified late capitalist society. The future of social work in child protection depends on it.
Tue, 29 August 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0085.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: perceived sensory dimension (PSD); restoration experience; perceived restorativeness; structural equation modeling; mediation effect
Online: 29 August 2017 (07:26:56 CEST)
Restoration experience is a positive response against the ever-increasing problem of stress. It is recovery of attentional capacity, clearing random thoughts and feelings of relaxation and calmness. Although there is a body of research on investigating the impact of open green space characteristics on psycho- logical restoration through attention restoration theory and supportive environment theory, there is little knowledge on how the interaction among these characteristics could promote restorative outcomes. To address this problem, using Perceived Sensory Dimension (PSD) for open green space qualities and Perceived Restorativeness (PR) as the property of restorative environment, this study assessed the extent to which the PSD and PR impact on restoration experience. Using 444 screened surveys, a Partial Least Square Structural Equation Model (PLS-SEM) was developed and the validity and reliability of it, was demonstrated. Extensive analysis of the results showed how environmental qualities can promote restoration experience using a sample of university students. These results provide information for landscape architecture and planning researchers to promote the development of open spaces as a resource of psychological restoration and stress relief.
Thu, 23 February 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0089.v1
Online: 23 February 2017 (18:15:47 CET)
China planned to promote the large scale adoption of Electric Vehicles (EVs) in the thirteenth five year plans, however, this target faces numerous obstacles. This paper was trying to analyze the main barriers to wide spread adoption of EVs through a survey in Shenzhen, which has the largest EVs market share in China major cities. On the basis of previous scholarly findings,a new survey was conducted and 406 approved questionnaires were collected among 500 participants. Five hypotheses were established that examine four types of barriers to spread adoption of EVs:Preference, willingness and attitudes, public policy and financial incentives, innovation awareness and concerns of EVs technology, the analysis conducted by statistic methods(two-way frequency contingency tables, primary components and factor analysis )and the results provide the limited support for the hypotheses. Furthermore, some results positively supported the hypotheses and showed differences with previous scholarly findings, however,the findings of the study may not be a stagnant phenomenon, and more variables should be explored to accurately evaluate EVs penetration situations in China
Wed, 11 July 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0192.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Everglades National Park; stakeholders’ perceptions; social and environmental changes; sustainable management
Online: 11 July 2018 (06:23:56 CEST)
Over the last few decades, urban expansion and population shifts have modified the existing landscape throughout the U.S. Protected areas and development are compatible lenses, yet stakeholders’ involvement in decision-making is often missing from environmental governance. We examine how stakeholders living and working in proximity to Everglades National Park (EVER) perceive environmental and social changes to the park and community park relations. EVER was selected as a study site for several reasons: proximity to urban areas, rich biological diversity, largest subtropical wilderness in the U.S., International Biosphere Reserve, World Heritage Site, and prominence as a tourist destination for the region. Forty-one semi-structured interviews were conducted with neighborhood groups, representatives from gateway communities, and conservation organizations. An analysis of the interview data generated six research themes: loss of native species, urban development, a shortage and contamination of water, hurricanes, climate change, and increased recreation use. The results of this study add to the literature by providing a better understanding of the relationships stakeholders have with national parks. The results will provide useable knowledge that may help stakeholders and public land managers design strategies related for sustainable plans for the park and its surrounding communities.
Tue, 7 August 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0138.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: politics of representation; media; Islam; media representation; Muslims; Islamophobia.; racism; anti-Muslim racism; love jihad; triple talaq; Muslims in India
Online: 7 August 2018 (08:27:03 CEST)
A cursory look at Indian prime time news tells us much about the tone and tenor of the people associated with it. Exaggerations, hyperbole, and tempers run wild and news anchors flail in theatrical rage. News channels and news editors display their ideological affiliations subliminally. These affiliations — a factor of personal political stance, funding bodies, and investors — lead to partisan bias in the framing of news and, in some cases, can easily translate into racial prejudice. In this paper, I examine news coverage related to Muslims in India. I study the coverage of two issues specifically– love jihad and triple talaq –in prime time English news of two channels – Times Now and Republic TV. My analysis of the content, tone, and tenor of their coverage shows that these channels propagate associations between Islam and backwardness, ignorance and violence through consistent employment of the following tropes – ‘Muslim women need to be saved from Muslim men’, ‘Hindu women need to be saved from Muslim men’, and ‘Muslims are not fully Indian – they are anti-national’. I place this study of news media within the current political climate in India and briefly touch on the conversations it guides and provokes. This is also a call for further analysis on this subject to examine and evaluate how discourse manipulates public conversations and policy decisions.
Thu, 26 April 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0329.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: school connectedness; substance abuse; LGBTQ youth; bullying
Online: 26 April 2018 (04:47:30 CEST)
Transgender youth experience elevated levels of victimization and may therefore report greater drug use than their cisgender peers, yet little is known about protective factors like school belonging that may mediate this relationship. Further, scant research has explored the experiences of youth at the intersection of transgender identity and youth of color status or low socioeconomic status, especially with respect to these multiple minority statuses’ associations with peer victimization, drug use, and school belonging. Using data from the California Healthy Kids Survey, the current study employs structural equation modeling to explore the relationships among school belonging, peer victimization, and drug use for transgender youth. Findings indicate that school belonging does mediate the pathway between peer victimization and drug use for transgender youth and that although youth of color experience greater victimization, they do not engage in greater drug use than their white transgender peers. Based on these results, those concerned with the healthy futures of transgender youth should advocate for more open and affirming school climates that engender a sense of belonging and treat transgender youth with dignity and fairness.
Mon, 12 August 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0144.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: India; Companies Act 2013; business-society nexus; corporate responsibility; Content Configuration Analysis
Online: 12 August 2019 (13:57:39 CEST)
Developing prosperous and inclusive societies requires a reformulation of the business-society nexus toward sustainability. This means that all economically motivated behaviors of firms need to also consider their social and environmental impact, and all social and environmental policies need to also consider their impact on the economy. With the Companies Act 2013, the Indian government adopted a legislative approach to reconfigure the business-society nexus. Mandating what has been considered discretionary elicited an extensive academic debate. We employ Content Configuration Analysis on 70 local and international English-language book chapters, research articles, reports, reviews, and expert commentaries published between 2013 and 2019 to develop a typology of the advantages and disadvantages associated with the Companies Act 2013. We find that, among the large set of arguments for and against the Act, specific arguments extolling its advantages concurrently appear as disadvantages in other texts. This paradox is indicative of the difficulties of satisfying stakeholder expectations, as well as the complexities corporate responsibility programs face in India. By systematizing the opportunities and challenges associated with the Companies Act 2013, we reveal how, similar to China, context and culture influence India’s socioeconomic development trajectory beyond the conventional market economy canon.
Tue, 31 October 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0189.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: British politics; Christianity; David Cameron; religion; identity; United Kingdom; doing god; British Muslims
Online: 31 October 2017 (03:22:05 CET)
In the British setting, the deployment of the phrase ‘doing god’ has become increasingly common to refer to an emerging trend whereby religion has acquired an increasingly prominent role in political spaces and discourses. This was particularly prominent while David Cameron was Prime Minister and leader of the Conservative Party. While historically, religion has not had a prominent place in either the former Prime Minister David Cameron. Here, the findings from critical analyzing a series of Cameron’s public pronouncements about religion—and Christianity in particular—is set out to try and better understand his own adherence to Christianity (the personal) how this intersected with his politics and role as Prime Minister (the political), and more importantly how this shaped his views about Britain being a Christian country (the national). Contextualised within the embryonic scholarly literature relating to the phenomenon of ‘doing god’ in the contemporary British setting, this article concludes by considering alternative and analogous frames through which greater elucidation of the true motivations of his pronouncements might be understood.
Thu, 5 April 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0062.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: collaboration; leadership; push-pull technology; sustainability; transdisciplinary research; Ethiopia
Online: 5 April 2018 (04:47:49 CEST)
Transdisciplinary research approach requires that different scientists with their discipline-specific theories, concepts and methods find ways to work together with other societal players to solve a real-life problem. In order to put this into practice, Trans-disciplinary Action Research (TDR) approach was applied in this study using Push pull technology (PPT) as a boundary object. The study was conducted in Bako Tibe, Jimma arjo and Yayu Woredas (Districts) in the Oromia region of Ethiopia from August 2014 to April 2015. PPT is a biological based mechanism developed by researchers for stemborer pest control in maize. It involves inter-cropping maize with a stemborer moth-repellent silverleaf or Greenleaf Desmodium (push), and planting an attractive trap crop, Napier or Brachiaria grass (pull), around the maize crop. On farm PPT implementation was used to provide an opportunity for collaboration, interaction and learning among heterogeneous set of stakeholders comprising of researchers from Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural research and the practitioners from the ministry of agriculture and smallholder farmers/traders. The data was collected using mixed methods approach comprising of key informant interviews, Focus Group discussions, workshops, on-farm practical demonstrations and participant observations. The findings shows that; collaborative leadership provides a chance for the stakeholders to participate in the technology learning and decision making by enabling them to jointly contribute skills towards development, refinement and adaptation of PPT. In situations where there are conflicts, they are embraced and become opportunities for in-depth learning, finding solutions and adaptation rather than being sources of contradictions or misunderstandings. Leadership roles taken by farmers play a key role in terms of ability to reflect on their own practices and drawing on scientific explanations from researchers. It also enables them take lead in new technology implementation and information sharing in free and easy manner with fellow farmers and other stakeholders. Although PPT perennial nature of cropping provides opportunities for continuous stakeholder interaction and learning, it requires a personally committed leadership and formal institutional engagements for the sustainability of its activities spanning over several cropping seasons. Market forces and the involvement of private sector players also has a role to achieve this as shown from the involvement of individual farmers and traders in Desmodium and Brachiaria seed production, collection and distribution.
Tue, 17 July 2018
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0303.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: community engagement; health disparities; precision medicine; participant recruitment
Online: 17 July 2018 (10:21:34 CEST)
In response to the National Institutes of Health (NIH) All of Us Medicine Research Initiative, the Precision Medicine Research (PreMeR) Diversity Consortium was formed by four institutions from the Research Centers in Minority Institutions (RCMI) Translational Research Network (RTRN). This synergistic approach proposed evidence-based, best practices used by experienced researchers to engage, recruit and retain diverse populations in the All of Us initiative. Conceptualization of the proposed approach was aided by social influence theories to better understand how people’s beliefs and opinions should be modified to affect change leading to action . The Social-Ecological Model (SEM), for Health Promotion , from Stokols  and Community-Based Participatory (CBPR) Models, guided proposed engagement, recruitment, and retention strategies contextualized with the individual, interpersonal, organizational, community, and policy spheres of influence. The PreMeR produced a partnership to evaluate and improve the effectiveness of current engagement, recruitment, and retention strategies for minority participation in scientific studies. This approach illustrates the need to incorporate multiple methods of engagement to reach a diverse audience to participate in scientific research. Engagement, recruitment, and retention strategies in community and biomedical research must be viewed as community engaged public health interventions, utilizing the same theoretical principles and approaches.
Wed, 14 March 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0100.v1
Online: 14 March 2018 (07:50:44 CET)
Nietzsche is almost always regarded as one of the thinkers who advocate extreme individualism, totally indifferent to or exclusively polemical towards the public human dimension. While this is very difficult to contradict, if we read his texts carefully we can see how his constant celebration of the individual runs parallel to an acute awareness of living in a new era, which he defined as ‘the century of the multitude and the masses’. The herd, conformism, mediocrity, public opinion: a civilisation in which community attempts suffocate all individual inspiration, and which therefore seems to row in the opposite direction. Although Nietzsche often uses collective life merely as a negative pole for more effectively emphasising the individual, his provocative words—pushed to the limits of the inexorable victory of the herd and of the paradoxical impossibility of all that is ‘public’—offer us a direct testimony of the tragic way of life of the man of his time. This provides us with an extremely clear and interesting phenomenological cross-section of the social sphere, as well as a very finely tuned and valuable seismograph for the continual monitoring of our everyday coexistence with and perception of the constantly incumbent dangers of its degeneration.
Sun, 12 August 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0213.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: FDI, M&Q, energy, supply chain, inbound investment, outbound investment, BRI.
Online: 12 August 2018 (19:19:40 CEST)
Global financial investments in energy production and consumption are significant since all aspects of a country's economic activity, and development require energy resources. In this paper, we assess the investment trends in the global energy sector during, before and after financial crises of 2008 using two data sources: (1) Dealogic database providing cross‐border mergers and acquisitions (M&As), and (2) fDi Intelligence fDi Markets database providing greenfield (GF) foreign direct investments (FDIs). We highlight the changing role of China and compare its M&A and GF FDI activities to those of the United States, Germany, UK, Japan and others during this period. We analyze the investments along each segment of the energy supply chain of these countries to highlight the geographical origin and destination, sectoral distribution, and cross‐border M&As and GF FDI activities. Our paper shows that while energy accounts for nearly 25% of all GF FDI, it only accounts for 4.82% of total M&A FDI activity in the period 1996-2016. China's outbound FDI in the energy sector started its ascent around the time of the global recession and had accelerated in the post-recession phase. In the energy sector, the development of China's outbound cross‐border M&As is similar to USA or UK, located mostly in the developed countries in the west, while their outbound GF investments are spread across many countries around the world. Also, China's outbound energy M&As are concentrated in certain segments (extraction, and electricity generation) while their GF covers all segments of the energy supply chain.
Wed, 2 May 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0043.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: organic private labels, competitive advantage, retailing
Online: 2 May 2018 (13:09:27 CEST)
The main aim of the study was to analyze/determine how international modern retailers’ chains can achieve a competitive advantage by introducing private labels (PLs) in the organic category and in turn stimulate consumption of food produced with respect of sustainability principles. Following a review of the relevant literature data collection process involved two steps. First, to select retailers with organic private labels (OPLs) and producers delivering products under OPLs, there were conducted in-depth semi-structured interviews with the representatives of the management board of 17 enterprises. A group of 6 enterprises was selected, including 3 retailers having OPLs, 2 producers delivering products under OPLs and one enterprise that was categorized as producer and distributor. Based on the results of the interviews, six sources of the competitive advantage of the OPLs were identified and further discussed. Second, to analyze more in depth assortment-based competitive advantage of the OPLs, 8 enterprises (5 retailers having OPLs, 2 producers delivering products under OPLs and one enterprise categorized as a producer and distributor) were approached for the interviews. To explore price-related competitive advantage three products offered under the premium PLs, the economy PLs, the organic PLs, the producer brands and the imported brands were selected for the subsequent analysis. Increasing competition in the food retailing sector pose many challenges on the retailers and stimulate them to develop the PLs that is in line with global trends. In case of the OPLs, the more popular strategy while introducing them is to differentiate the PLs with quality and image related attributes comparable to leading producer brands. Retail chains introducing the OPLs achieve the competitive advantage related to six sources: price, range of assortment, type of PLs, image of retailer, sustainability and specific process and product related attributes of organic food. Additionally the retailers use their reputation and image of retailers’ brand to guarantee the quality of new organic products introduced under the PLs. To achieve or maintain the competitive advantage, retailers tend to introduce the OPLs positioned as value added PLs. They perceive the OPLs as a way to influence the consumers' decision to buy and increase their loyalty towards store brands. The strategies of the retailers evolve and the largest retailers decided to create the premium OPLs, the others focus on introduction of the international OPLs or aim at development of new PLs based on the analysis of consumers' preferences. There are several factors behind the decision to introduce or extend the premium OPLs i.e. to expand the assortment of organic products and green products line, to increase category margins and to enhance retailer’s image among customers. Other large retailers create the OPLs with special product line design focusing on health- and environmental related attributes and high quality guaranteed by the organic regulations and the certification. The process of the introducing the premium PLs should be influenced by the inherent characteristic of organic food and its production methods that respect the principles of the sustainable development.
Tue, 13 March 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0073.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: ISIS, ISIL, DAESH, insurgency, conflict, security, non-state actor, emerging-state actor, combat simulator, geospatial, national security.
Online: 13 March 2018 (14:37:09 CET)
This paper seeks to explain the rapid growth of the Islamic State of Iraq & Syria (ISIS) and approach the question of “what is” the Islamic State? The paper offers several contributions. First is the proposal of a dynamic hypothesis that ISIS is an emerging-state actor and differs notably from traditional non-state actors and insurgencies. The theory consists of both a causal loop diagram and key propositions. A detailed system dynamics simulation (E-SAM) was constructed to test the theory. The propositions of emerging-state actor theory are constructed as synthetic experiments within the simulation and confirm evidence of emerging-state actor behavior. E-SAM’s novelty is its combination of combat simulation with endogenous geospatial feedback, ethnographic behavior in choosing sides in conflict, and details internal simulation of key actor mechanisms such as financing, recruiting and governance. E-SAM can be loaded with scenarios to simulate non-state actors in different geospatial domains: ISIS in Libya, Boko Haram in Nigeria, Taliban in Afghanistan and even expatriated ISIS fighters returning to pursue new conflicts such as in Indonesia.
Sat, 30 June 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0498.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: India; active commuting; public transit; physical activity; built environment
Online: 30 June 2018 (14:55:26 CEST)
Background: Few studies have assessed built environment correlates of active commuting in low-and-middle-income countries, but the different context could yield distinct findings. This cross-sectional study investigated associations between home neighbourhood environment characteristics and active commuting in Chennai, India. Methods: Adults (N = 370, 47.2% female, mean age = 37.9 years) were recruited from 155 wards in the metropolitan area of Chennai in southern India between January and June 2015. Participants self-reported their usual mode of commute to work, with responses recoded into three categories: (1) multi-modal or active commuting (walking and bicycling); (2) public transit; and (3) private transport. Environmental attributes around participants’ homes were assessed using the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale-India (NEWS-India). Associations between environmental characteristics and likelihood of active commuting and public transit use were modelled using logistic regression with private transport (driving alone or carpool) as the reference category, adjusting for age, gender, and household car ownership. Results: Consistent with other international studies, participants living in neighbourhoods with a mix of land-uses and a transit stop within a 10-minute walk from home were more likely to use active commuting (both p < 0.01). Land-use mix was significantly associated with the use of public transit compared to private transport (aOR = 5.2, p = 0.002). Contrary to findings in high-income countries, the odds of active commuting were reduced with improved safety from crime (aOR = 0.2, p = 0.003), aesthetics (aOR = 0.2, p = 0.05) and street connectivity (aOR = 0.2, p = 0.003). Conclusions: Different environmental attributes were associated with active commuting, suggesting that these relationships are complex and may distinctly differ from those in high-income countries. Unexpected inverse associations of perceived safety from crime and aesthetics with active commuting emphasize the need for high quality epidemiologic studies with greater context-specificity in the study of physical activity in LMICs. Findings have public health implications for India and suggest that caution should be taken when translating evidence across countries.
Fri, 25 August 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0085.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: perceived sensory dimension (PSD); restoration experience; perceived restorativeness; university campus open space; university students
Online: 25 August 2017 (07:48:48 CEST)
Salutogenic landscape with its health-promoting qualities is a solution for ever-increasing problem of stress for university students as a vulnerable group. Based on nature related theories, natural environments could have a salutary effect on psychological restoration through stress alleviation. There is a body of research on investigating the impact of open green space characteristics for increasing of psychological restoration through framework of attention restoration theory and supportive environment theory. However, there is little knowledge on how the interaction among these characteristics could promote perceived restoration experience (PRE). To address this problem, using perceived sensory dimension (PSD) for open green space qualities and Perceived Restorativeness (PR) as properties of restorative environments, this study assessed the extent to which the PSD and PR impact on PRE. Using 444 screened data, the mediation effect of PR on the association of PSD to PRE is shown as well as the validity and reliability of proposed relationships. `Serene', `space', `prospect', `rich in species' and `nature' were the most influential PSDs on PRE through their higher effect on perceived characteristics of `fascination' and `compatibility'. These results provide information within landscape architecture and planning to promote the development of open spaces as resources for psychological restoration and stress relief.
Sat, 9 May 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0159.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: awareness; livestock farmer; ICT-source; market information; rural; smallholder
Online: 9 May 2020 (08:46:42 CEST)
The utility of ICTs for providing market information to rural smallholder farmers is growing rapidly, and access to reliable information and sources is considered crucial for beneficial market interaction. This study explored critical factors contributing to usage of electronic sources for market information search among rural smallholder livestock farmers. Using data collected from 129 respondents through a non-random sampling technique; descriptive and regression analysis was applied to identify key factors responsible for their awareness and use of ICT-based market information sources. Level of education was found to be a driver of awareness of ICT-based sources, and use of these sources was influenced by farmer-specific characteristics such as household size, education, income, membership of cooperatives and herd-size. The key ICT tools used was radio and mobile phones, widely available in the study area. Identified constraints to use of these ICTs include cost and patchy network signals in some areas. Policy interventions to reduce cost of mobile phone services and expansion of base stations; including practical recommendations for improved programming in radio and television offerings, are considered indispensable for greater uptake of e-information sources among smallholder livestock farmers.
Thu, 28 June 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0475.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: sustainable development goals, urban sustainable development, indicators, evolution of sustainability assessment
Online: 28 June 2018 (15:20:59 CEST)
With growing urbanisation the sustainability of cities has become increasingly important. Although cities have been using indicators for a long time it is only in the last decades that attempts have been made to collate indicators into indicator sets with the aim of reflecting the many different aspects that need to be covered to assess the sustainability of a city. The aim of this paper is to review how indicators for monitoring sustainable urban development have evolved over time and compare them to the indicators suggested by the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The review reveals that previous indicator sets emphasised environmental sustainability, health and economic growth. It is also shown that indicator sets that pre-date the SDGs lacked dimensions such as gender equality and reduced inequalities. In all, the SDG indicators provide the possibility of a more balanced and integrated approach to urban sustainability monitoring. At the same time, a methodology is needed to facilitate the adaptation process of localising the SDGS, targets and indicators. Challenges of local application include their large number, their generic characteristics and the need to complement them with specific indicators that are more relevant at the city level.
Fri, 21 April 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0140.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: common lands; baldios; wild mushrooms; non-timber forest products; Portugal; multifunctional forestry; community; community forestry; local values; forest governance
Online: 21 April 2017 (12:18:11 CEST)
Forest community connections are crucial to ensure forest stewardship and sustainability. We set to explore the potential of mushrooming to enable such connections in contexts were these were historically broken, alienating local people from forests. Taking the case of the recent devolution of a community forest in central Portugal (baldios) to the local population, the authors present a five-year pilot project to rework mycology from a mushroom-centered approach to a mushroom-in-baldios approach. Mushrooms were used as an entry-point to connect the forest ecology with the challenges of governance and community building. The devised activities provided an opportunity for people inside and outside the local community to adventure into the woods, find about their socio-ecological history, develop communal and convivial relationships and engage in the responsible gathering of wild mushrooms. However, the hosting of mushroomers to know, value and engage with the community forest recovery is constantly worked against the enclosure of mushrooms to provide marketable forms of leisure. The outcome will depend on the relationships established between mushrooms, mycologists, local administrators, commoners and poachers, operating within a framework that favors the eradication of resources instead of the long-term relationships that sustain places.
Mon, 5 November 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0099.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: smart city; smart citizen; participation; smartmentality; open data; metaphor
Online: 5 November 2018 (10:19:03 CET)
The goal of the paper is to investigate the expected participation and mentality of smart citizens in smart cities. The key question is the role of the human factor in smart environments globally studied through a research corpus of the mainstream summaries, trend reports, white papers and visions of business – governmental – university research co- operations. Foremost, a short review of the changing scholarly trends is presented as a theoretical framework. Concerning its key ideas, the corpus based findings are recapped and analysed by content networks and the most referred city strategies. Besides, a critical approach reveal further required factors and risks to investigate. The ultimate goal is to understand how the smart city landscape is shaped by citizen-based strategies, open data, empowerment and responsibility. Accordingly, the paper closes with theoretical, practical and metaphor-based recommendations to support the business and political decision making, and also, the emerging scholarly trends in the context of upcoming technological-structural changes.
Tue, 21 August 2018
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Poverty and environment, poverty and conflict, conflict and development, conflict and environment, unequal development
Online: 21 August 2018 (10:51:26 CEST)
This paper presents a theoretical analysis of an International conflict, i.e. East Pakistan Crisis, 1971, and reveals that unequal development creates conflict in society. Natural resource scarcity and environmental degradation can also become a source of conflict, so marginalised and excluded people fight for their rights through non-peaceful means. This essay supports the theoretical approaches of poverty, environment, and conflict nexus and reveals that unequal development and resource scarcity deepens the poverty and creates conflicts in the society, causing harm to the environment. The degraded environment increases the poverty as environment and poverty are interlinked, and the poor have limited choices other than to degrade the environment for their survival. This vicious downward spiral link between poverty and degradation of the environment requires working extensively for poverty alleviation to reverse the environmental decline.
Tue, 24 April 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0319.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: culture, ageing, pain, idioms of distress, somatisation, cultural concepts of distress, stoicism
Online: 24 April 2018 (17:13:05 CEST)
In this paper, the authors seek to discuss some of the complexities involved in cross-cultural working in relation to the communication and management of pain in older people. Specifically, the paper addresses the culture construction of ageing and how pain is often constructed as a natural part of ageing. The authors also suggests that with the rise of the ideology of active-ageing many older people who are disabled or living in chronic pain, may feel a moral imperative to hide pain and ill-health. The discussion extends into looking at the impact of culture and the communication of pain, including specific idioms of distress, somaticize and the lay-management of pain through stoicism.
Mon, 12 March 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0074.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: ISIS; ISIL; DAESH; insurgency; conflict; security; non-state actor; emerging-state actor; intervention; policy analysis
Online: 12 March 2018 (03:38:33 CET)
This paper builds upon a theory of emerging-state actors using ISIS as a case study. This paper seeks to apply the theory in analyzing intervention & containment policies to use against emerging-state actors, using ISIS as the case study. Two baseline scenarios are used for evaluation – one replicating the historical foreign intervention against ISIS and a counter-factual where no foreign intervention occurred. Eleven contemporary military policies were tested against these baseline in isolation, combination, at different timing windows and under hypothetical “best case” conditions as well as operationally constrained. Insights of these tests include the influence of ethnographic envelopes, timing windows. Finally, a policy based on emerging-state actor theory is tested performing substantially better across primary measures than other policies or the historical baseline. This is compared against a falsified-policy designed to disprove that emerging-state actor theory contributed to the benefits. This paper’s contributions are a practical application of system dynamics simulations and systems-thinking to current problems, generate insights into the dynamics of emerging-state actors and intervention strategies, and demonstrate utility for future application of the underlying simulation in other scenarios involving non-state actor irregular conflict including terrorism, insurgents, or emerging-state actors.
Thu, 22 March 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0191.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: public health; asylum seeker; electronic health insurance card; refugee; Germany
Online: 22 March 2018 (03:38:12 CET)
Objectives Asylum seekers in Germany represent a highly vulnerable group from a health perspective due to a variety of risk factors. At the same time their access to healthcare is restricted. While the introduction of the Electronic Health Insurance Card (EHIC) for asylum seekers instead of healthcare-vouchers is discussed controversially using politico-economic reasons, there is hardly any empirical evidence on its actual impact on the use of medical services Study design Thus, the aim of this study is to examine the influence of the possession of the EHIC on the use of medical services by asylum seekers as measured by their consultation rate of ambulant physicians (CR). For this purpose, a standardized survey was carried out to 260 asylum seekers in different municipalities of which some have introduced the EHIC for asylum seekers, while others have not. Methods Various CR were differentiated considering possible third variables as well as confounding factors. The period prevalence was compared between the groups "with EHIC" and "without EHIC" using a two-sided t-test. Multivariate analysis was done using a linear OLS regression model. Results Asylum seekers who are in possession of the EHIC are significantly more likely to seek ambulant medical care than those receiving healthcare-vouchers. Their CR, however, does not differ significantly from the age-corrected CR of the autochtonous population. Taking into account relevant covariables, the possession of the EHIC can be viewed as an independent influencing factor on the asylum seekers' use of medical care. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that having to ask for healthcare-vouchers at the social security office could be a relevant barrier for asylum seekers. Nevertheless, the ownership of the EHIC does not seem to lead to an overuse of medical services.
Sat, 23 May 2020
Online: 23 May 2020 (10:25:16 CEST)
This article explores the knowledge about preventions, perceptions of infections, and the responsive actions to the Covid-19 situation of the young age groups residing in Bangladesh. Quantitative data were collected online using an MCQ questionnaire from around 932 participants. Results show the population is generally aware of the symptoms, keeping social distance by staying home and are concerned about re-spreading after the lock-down period. However, they are quite unsure about the possible medicines frequently talked about in the media and the necessity of avoiding animal protein.
Wed, 30 May 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0452.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: transportation; carbon emission; carbon intensity; panel data analysis; China
Online: 30 May 2018 (16:16:35 CEST)
China’s transportation industry has made rapid progress, which has led to a mass of carbon emissions. However, it is still unclear how the carbon emission from transport sector is punctuated by shifts in underlying drivers. This paper aims to examine the process of China’s carbon emissions from transport sector as well as its major driving forces during the period of 2000 to 2015 at the provincial level. We firstly estimate the carbon emissions from transport sector at the provincial level based on the fuel and electricity consumption using a top-down method. We find that the carbon emission per capita is steadily increasing across the nation, especially in the provinces of Chongqing and Inner Mongolia. However, the carbon emission intensity is decreasing in most provinces of China, except in Yunnan, Qinghai, Chongqing, Zhejiang, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Inner Mongolia, Henan and Anhui. We then quantify the effect of socio-economic factors and their regional variations on the carbon emissions using panel data model. The results show that the development of secondary industry is the most significant variable in both the entire nation level and the regional level, while the effects of the other variables vary across regions. Among these factors, population density is the main motivator of the increasing carbon emissions per capita from transport sector for both the whole nation and the western region, whereas the consumption level per capita of residents and the development of tertiary industry are the primary drivers of per capita carbon emissions for the eastern and central region.
Thu, 7 June 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0115.v1
Online: 7 June 2018 (11:14:20 CEST)
The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between levels of leisure-time sports and physical activity and the stages of change in high school students with goal orientations. Methods: The sample consisted of 2168 students randomly selected to participate in a longitudinal study in Costa Rica (423), Mexico (408) and Spain (1337), with 1052 being boys, 1037 girls and 79 who did not specify sex, aged between 11 and 16 years old (M = 12.49, SD = .81). We used a questionnaire to ask students about their leisure-time sports and physical activity, about stages of change and to measure achievement goals. Results: The results show that students are more active in Costa Rica, most of them being in the stage of active change. Conclusions: We found significant differences in achievement goals in all three countries, which shows that students in active stages have higher values than those in the inactive stage.
Tue, 27 February 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0181.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Learning; Analysis; Investigation; Battle-Abbey-Roll; Phillimore; Tate; England
Online: 27 February 2018 (11:47:16 CET)
Genealogy contributes to learning by developing critical thinking skills. A review of three classics of genealogical literature, matched against modern tutors, confirmed that the validation and evaluation of information and the management of hypotheses have long been the core skills for family historians. A consultation with 100 genealogists revealed a preference for task orientated learning, often alone, in a self-contained environment. Reference to learning theory suggested that Genealogical Studies could be usefully offered to under achieving students in general education who respond to these conditions.
Tue, 10 July 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0172.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Urban wastes; hospitality sector; waste generation rates; artificial neural network prediction; sustainable waste management.
Online: 10 July 2018 (11:45:39 CEST)
This study was undertaken to forecast waste generation rates of accommodation sector of North Cyprus as a case. Three predictor models including multiple linear regression (MLR), artificial neural networks (ANNs) and central composite design (CCD) were applied to predict the waste generation rate during the lean and peak seasons. ANN showed highest prediction performance, specifically, lowest values of the standard error of prediction (SEP = 2.153), mean absolute error (MAE=1.378) and highest R2 value (0.998) confirmed the accuracy of the model. The analysed wastes were categorised into recyclable, general waste and food residues. The authors estimated the total waste generated during the lean season as 2010.5 kg/day, in which large-sized hotel accounted for largest fraction (66.7%), followed by the medium hotels (19.4%) and guesthouse accounted for smallest part (2.6%). During the peak season, about 49.6% increases in the waste generation rates were obtained. Interestingly, 45% of the wastes were generated by the British tourists while the least waste was generated by African tourists (7.5%). The ANN predicted that the small and large hotels would produce 5.45 and 22.24 tons of waste by the year 2020, respectively. The findings herein are promising and useful in establishing a sustainable waste management system.
Fri, 8 January 2021
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0167.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Island nations, Tourism, Small Island Nations, economic development, tropical islands
Online: 8 January 2021 (14:29:52 CET)
In the past few decades, the tourism sector has emerged as a significant economic activity in island nations, particularly in tropical regions. However, most of the tropical islands face similar constraints. National and international tourists visit the SIDS including A & N Islands and contribute to the GDP to significant share. The Covid-19 outbreaks in SIDs including A & N islands shows that number of people infected were less as compared to metros or big cities. However, tourism activities completely stopped due to lockdown resulting in decreasing tourist’s arrival, declined GDP and per capita income of SIDs to greater extent. The information gathered from various sources, mass media and net analysed and interpreted in this chapter. Due to Covid-19 tourist’s arrival declined which has serious consequences on the livelihood of islander. Our analysis revealed A&N Islands deficit in energy available at from different sources by 18.26%. However, they are surplus in protein. The burden of high expenditure coupled with poor infrastructure makes them more vulnerable in the circumstance of pandemic outbreaks. This outbreak has created the question of survival due to loss of jobs, halted economic activates, psychological, health unrest and livelihood threats among the depending people of these Island nations. Therefore, government interventions and subsidized package is very much essential to revive the tourism industry.
Fri, 15 June 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0243.v1
Online: 15 June 2018 (05:19:00 CEST)
This paper explores whether preprints can better support open science by providing links to other early-stage research outputs. This potentially has benefits for transparency and discoverability of research projects. By looking at preprint submission systems, online preprints and surveying those who run preprint servers, I examined to what extent this is currently possible. No preprints server provided a complete service, however many allowed the linking of several open science elements from the abstract page. I looked at variation based on subject, age, and size of preprint server. In conclusion, authors posting preprints should consider the options provided by different preprint servers. It appears that open science is just one focus of preprint servers and further improvements will be dependent on preprint server policies and priorities rather than overcoming any technical difficulties.
Thu, 3 May 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0054.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: smart transport tools; ‘smart’ and sustainable; social-sustainability
Online: 3 May 2018 (08:17:38 CEST)
In the smart city, information and communications technologies (ICTs) are proposed as solutions to urban challenges, including sustainability concerns. While sustainability commonly refers to economic and environmental dimensions, the concept also contains a social component. Our study asked how smartphone applications (apps) address social sustainability challenges in urban transport, if at all. We focused on transport disadvantages experienced due to low income, physical disability, and language barriers. A review of 60 apps showed that transport apps respond to these equity and inclusion issues in two ways: (a) by employing universal design in general-use apps; including cost-conscious features; and providing language options (b) by specifically developing smartphone apps for persons with disabilities. The article discusses the study by positioning it in the literature of smart cities as well as socially sustainable transport.
Wed, 12 August 2020
Online: 12 August 2020 (14:47:11 CEST)
Framed experiments and games are a useful medium to understand how context affects individual and group decision-making. They are particularly relevant for field research in agriculture, where alternative experimental designs can be costly and unfeasible. After a systematic review of the literature, we found that the volume of published studies employing coordination and cooperation games increased during the 2000-2020 period. In recent years, there has been greater attention given to natural resource management, conservation, and ecology areas, especially in strategic regions for agriculture sustainability. Other games, such as trust and risk games, have come to be regarded as standards of framed field experiments in agriculture. Regardless of sectoral focus, most games' results are subject to internal and external validity criticism. In particular, a significant portion of the games showed potential recruitment biases against women and no opportunities for a continued impact assessment. However, games' validity should be judged on a case-by-case basis. Specific cultural aspects of games might reflect the real context, and generalizing games' conclusions to different settings is often constrained by cost and utility. Overall, games in agriculture could benefit from more significant, frequent, and inclusive experiments and data – all possibilities offered by digital technology. Present-day physical distance restrictions may accelerate this shift. New technologies and engaging ways to approach farmers might represent a turning point for games in agriculture in the 21st century.
Mon, 23 July 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0409.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: residential relocation distance; residential movement; machine learning; decision tree regression; Seoul metropolitan region
Online: 23 July 2018 (10:03:10 CEST)
This study aimed to ascertain the applicability of a machine learning approach to the description of residential mobility patterns of households in the Seoul metropolitan region (SMR). The spatial range and temporal scope of the empirical study were set to 2015 to review the most recent residential mobility patterns in the SMR. The analysis data used in this study involve the microdata of Internal Migration Statistics provided by the Microdata Integrated Service of Statistics Korea. We analysed the residential relocation distance of households in the SMR by using machine learning techniques such as ordinary least squares regression and decision tree regression. The results of this study showed that a decision tree model can be more advantageous than ordinary least squares regression in terms of the explanatory power and estimation of moving distance. A large number of residential movements are mainly related to the accessibility to employment markets and some household characteristics. The shortest movements occur when households with two or more members move into densely populated districts. In contrast, job-based residential movements have relatively longer distance. Furthermore, we derived knowledge on residential relocation distance, which can provide significant information on the urban management of metropolitan residential districts and the construction of reasonable housing policies.
Wed, 11 April 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0140.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: coronary heart disease risk factors; healthy lifestyle behaviors; physical fitness
Online: 11 April 2018 (07:40:50 CEST)
The purpose of the present study was to determine the relationship between healthy lifestyle behaviors, physical fitness and coronary risk factors in university students. 320 male and female (nm:171; nf:149) students from a university participated in this study voluntarily. For the determination of body composition and Body Mass Indexes (BMI), subjects’ height, body weight, and skinfold thickness were taken and body fat percentage (%Fat) was determined. Healthy lifestyle behaviors were determined using the healthy lifestyle behaviors questionnaire. Indicators of physical fitness included flexibility (sit-up) (F), muscle strength and endurance (isometric knee (KS), back strength (BS) and a total of shuttle (TS), sprint performance, BMI, and body fat percentage (%fat). Coronary heart disease risk factors included mean arterial blood pressure (systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP)), fasting blood levels of triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), hematocrit (HT), and hemoglobin (HM). Results indicated subjects have normal body mass index, body fat percentage, SBP, DBP, TG, TCF, BS, KS. The results of the Pearson Product Moment Correlation Analysis, indicated that SBP, DBP, TG, TCF, BS, KS for male and female was significantly correlated with flexibility (sit-up) (F), muscle strength and endurance (isometric knee (KS), back strength (BS) and total of shuttle (TS)), sprint performance. (p<0.01; p<0.05), In conclusion, the findings of the present study indicated that physical fitness and healthy lifestyle behaviors play a determinant role in coronary heart disease risk factors for male and female students from a university.
Sun, 28 January 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0261.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Risk management; Laos; livelihood; swidden; upland rice; rice bank; NTFPs; market economy; livestock
Online: 28 January 2018 (16:32:52 CET)
In areas with strongly seasonal climates, local people often use complex strategies to manage agricultural production shortages, including diverse activities such as hunting, selling and consuming non-agricultural products, and wage labor. We surveyed all the households in a village in northern Laos to evaluate how such livelihood activities varied during years with differing agricultural production conditions. We compared two years with normal rice production conditions (2010, 2012) and one year with a severe rice shortage (2011) due to a rodent outbreak. Earning wages inside and outside the village was the most important activity for mitigating rice shortages, followed by selling livestock and using/selling non-timber forest products. Villagers also borrowed rice from a village rice bank. Most cash income was earned from selling rice. We concluded that a balance of traditional risk management activities under the swidden system (e.g., raising livestock) with the more recent rice bank system and wages from the market economy will be critical for the sustainable development of mountain villages in northern Laos. Permanent crops and monocultures tend to make local livelihoods more dependent on a single crop, but maintaining the traditional swidden system will help local people to manage agricultural production shortages.
Tue, 22 May 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0292.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: scenarios; world views; values; policies; models and modes of science
Online: 22 May 2018 (08:26:23 CEST)
In situations of uncertainty, scenarios serve as input for evidence-based decision making. However, past experience shows that not all scenarios are treated equally, and we hypothise that only those based ion a world view shared by decision makers are perceived as credible and receive full attention. While intuitively plausible, this hypothesis has not been analysed by quantitative correlation analyses, so instead of drawing on quantitative data the paper analyses the archetypical scenarios developed in the ALARM project to substantiate the plausibility by a comparative analysis of world views, value systems and policy orientations. Shock scenarios are identified as a means to explore the possibility space of future developments beyond the linear developments models and most scenario storylines suggest. The analysis shows that the typical scenarios are based on mutually exclusive assumptions. In conclusion, a comparison of storyline and empirical data can reveal misperceptions, policy failures and the need to rethink world views as a necessary step to open up to new challenges. Deeply held beliefs will make this a transition unlikely to happen without severs crises, if not dedicated efforts to reveal the role of world views for scenarios and policies are undertaken.
Thu, 25 June 2020
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Awareness; Readiness; Covid-19; Bangladesh; Knowledge; Attitude; Practice
Online: 25 June 2020 (15:57:11 CEST)
Bangladesh has adopted some special steps to control the quick spread of the COVID-19 pandemic situation. However, the local residents’ knowledge, attitudes, and practices towards the disease have a direct impact on the success of the controlling measures taken by the state. This article explores knowledge (K) about preventions, attitude (A) to the disease, and practices (P) of preventing COVID-19 situation of the young age groups residing in Bangladesh. Quantitative data were collected online using a KAP questionnaire from 932 participants. Results show the population is generally aware of the symptoms, keeping social distance by staying home and are concerned about re-spreading after the lock-down period. However, they are quite unsure about the possible medicines frequently talked about in the media and the necessity of avoiding animal protein. One of the major limitations is, these findings should not be generalized due to the low number of participants compared to the total population in Bangladesh.
Fri, 8 January 2021
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0136.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Land dispute, customary land tenure, statutory land tenure, tenure security, Ghana, sub-Saharan Africa
Online: 8 January 2021 (10:31:29 CET)
Despite the ongoing land administration reforms being implemented across sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), including Ghana as viable pathway to achieve tenure security and greater efficiency in land administration, the subject of land dispute resolution has received relatively less attention. Whereas customary tenure institutions play a central role in land administration (controlling ~80% of all land in Ghana), they remain at the fringes of the formal land dispute adjudicatory process. Recognizing the pivotal role traditional institutions as development agents and potential vehicles for promoting good land governance, recent discourse on land tenure have geared towards mainstreaming traditional land disputes institutions into the architecture of formal judicial process via alternative dispute resolution pathways. Yet little is known at least empirically as to the operations of traditional dispute resolution institutions in the contemporary context. This study therefore explores the importance of traditional dispute resolution institutions in the management of land-related disputes in southcentral and western Ghana. Drawing on data collated from 380 farming households operating 746 plots. The results show that contrary to the conventional thinking that traditional institutions are anachronistic and not fit for purpose, they remain strong and preferred forum for land dispute resolution (proving resilient and adaptable) given the changing socio-economic and tenurial conditions. Yet these forums have differing implications for different actors within the customary spheres accessing them. The results highlight practical ways for incorporating traditional dispute resolution in the overall land governance setup in Ghana and elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa. This has implications for redesigning context-specific and appropriate land-use policy interventions that address local land dispute resolution.
Wed, 25 July 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0466.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: entrepreneur rail model; value capture; city deals; private railways; transit-oriented development; western Australia; tramways; land grants; future cities; urban planning
Online: 25 July 2018 (05:54:23 CEST)
Urban transit planning is going through a transition to greater private investment in many parts of the world and is now on the agenda in Australia. After showing examples of private investment in transit globally the paper focuses on historical case studies of private rail investment in Western Australia. These case studies mirror the historical experience in rapidly growing railway cities in Europe, North America and Asia (particularly Japan), and also the land grant railways that facilitated settlement in North America. The Western Australian experience is noteworthy for the small but rapidly growing populations of the settlements involved, suggesting that growth, rather than size, is the key to successfully raising funding for railways through land development. The paper shows through the history of transport, with particular reference to Perth, that the practice of private infrastructure provision can provide lessons for how to enable this again. It suggests that new partnerships with private transport investment as set out in the Federal Government City Deal process, should create many more opportunities to improve the future of cities through once again integrating transit, land development and private finance.
Fri, 24 August 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0426.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: information; cities; interaction; environmental information; entropy; scale; enaction
Online: 24 August 2018 (06:20:43 CEST)
From physics to the social sciences, information is now seen as a fundamental component of reality. However, a form of information seems still underestimated, perhaps precisely because it is so pervasive that we take it for granted: the information encoded in the very environment we live in. We still do not fully understand how information takes the form of cities, and how our minds deal with it in order to learn about the world, make daily decisions, and take part in the complex system of interactions we create as we live together. This paper addresses three related problems that need to be solved if we are to understand the role of environmental information: (1) the physical problem: how can we create and preserve information in the built environment? (2) The semantic problem: how do we make environmental information meaningful? And (3) the pragmatic problem: how do we enact environmental information in our lives? Attempting to devise a solution to these problems, it proposes a framework to approach how information bridges minds, environment and society, and helps us create large-scale systems of interaction.
Wed, 9 May 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0135.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: visually handicapped; visually handicapped sportsman; rosenberg self- esteem
Online: 9 May 2018 (04:50:46 CEST)
The purpose of this study is to examine the self-esteem levels of visually handicapped individuals who do sports and do’t do sports. There were 106 sportsmen and 94 persons with visual handicapped (200 in total) who participated in the research clubs in the province of Izmir. As the sub-problems, the relationship between the genders of participant who visually handicapped and not visually handicapped was investigated. The study consists of two parts. In the first part, the demographic characteristics of the participants were determined; in the second part Rosenberg Self Value scale consisting of 10 questions was used. Data were analyzed with SPSS 18.00 package program. T test, correlation analysis, descriptive statistics were applied to test hypotheses of the study. The research found that there is a significant difference between the self-esteem levels of individuals with and without visually handicapped sports (P <0.05). No statistically significant difference was found between the self-esteem levels of the sportsmen and the sportswomen (P> 0,05). There was no significant difference in the self-esteem levels of visually handicapped individuals who played individual sports and team sports (P> 0,05). As a result, it has been seen that sports have a positive effect on self-esteem in visually handicapped individuals and they contribute and hold to life more meaningful.
Wed, 3 October 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0039.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Disaster, Operational Strategies, UAV, Drones, Man Made & Natural Disaster, CBRNE
Online: 3 October 2018 (11:08:43 CEST)
The disaster response operational strategies requires tool that a may provide time bound clear picture of potential spots. Natural disaster sometimes comes slowly like increment of water level resulting flood or early warning of tsunami whereas in manmade disasters like 1CBRNE attack or chemical accident or industrial structure collapse or leakage through a pipeline of some toxic hazardous gas requires very accurate and quick response strategies. 2Unmanned Aerial System is commercially used tools present in the market and also used by military organization for various operations throughout the world. The accuracy and time bound pictorial representation of the spots by these tow tools makes them very useful for providing clear picture of potential disaster sites and enabling decision makers to take decision on these representation. Apart of these the potential to deliver important material faster than any other mode also makes these equipment and technology a very important asset for making disaster risk reduction strategies. This paper elaborates the efficacy and utility of Unmanned Aerial System or Drones in developing robust and time bound strategies for disaster risk reduction. This paper also evaluates some experiences and describes some initiatives using Unmanned Aerial System to support disaster risk reduction strategies and post disaster decision making efforts.
Tue, 16 October 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0344.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: cyclone; cyclone shelter; evacuation; network analysis; Bangladesh
Online: 16 October 2018 (08:54:14 CEST)
Evacuation is the primary and most important preparedness initiative to save people from the devastating effects of a cyclone. For proper evacuation, a route is specifically chosen that will play a role during cyclones. In this study, Geographic information system has been applied for evacuation route planning for Mirzaganj Union, Patuakhali, Bangladesh. The study is based on questionnaire surveys; direct observation and literature review on the existing sheltering system and develops an evacuation route using the shortest distance analysis. This study provides us an idea how we can manage our population to find out suitable nearby shelters and the limitations that we should focused on. The result shows that only 12% of the total population gets shelter opportunity with the existing official shelter capacity by identifying evacuation route with the shortest distance and the shortest time needed. Shortest distance and time have been calculated for each cyclone shelters. If we consider the low vulnerable infrastructures as shelter, 75% of the total population can be accommodated. This study demonstrates the utilization of an ideal evacuation route planning in the coastal parts of Bangladesh.
Fri, 13 November 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0381.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Alcohol dependence; Depression; Stress; Gender; Income; Differences; Behavioural disorders; Mental disorders; Socio-economic effects; Pandemic; Isolation; COVID-19; Slovak students
Online: 13 November 2020 (13:24:34 CET)
The objective of the study was to examine the effects of perceived stress on depression and subsequently to examine the effects of depression on alcohol use disorders. The data were obtained by an electronic questionnaire survey during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic (n=1523 Slovak college students). Descriptive, regression and correlation analysis were used in the analytical processing, while the analyses included students' scores in three diagnostic tools (Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Patient Health Questionnaire for depression (PHQ 9) and Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT)), as well as gender and income characteristics. The PSS identified an increased level of perceived stress in female students, in contrast, the AUDIT showed an increased level of alcohol use disorders in male students. Differences in mental and behavioural disorders between the gender and income categories were significant in most of the analysed cases. In terms of gender-income characteristics, it was possible to confirm a significant positive effect of the PSS score on the PHQ 9 score, as well as a significant positive effect of the PHQ 9 score on the AUDIT score. As a result, efforts to reduce stress will be reflected in a reduction of depressive disorders as well as a reduction of excessive alcohol consumption among students.
Fri, 2 November 2018
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0053.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: bio-prospecting; biopiracy; collective action; common property resources; ecosystem sustainability; natural resource management; institutions; property rights; value chain
Online: 2 November 2018 (11:06:20 CET)
Though innovations for sustainable management of natural resources have emerged over time, the rising demand for nature based health solutions and integration of endemic flora into global value chains could have adverse impacts on ecosystems. The ecological risks in the exploitation of wild medicinal plant resources are exacerbated by a myriad of agrotechnological risks and challenges that highly constrain their domestication. Successful exploitation and commercialization of medicinal plants thus require a clear understanding of their demand and production systems or value chain analysis. Accordingly there is need for innovative approaches towards their integration into global value chains. Since quality and safety, traceability, certification, as well as, consumer tastes and preferences are critical drivers in purchasing decisions by global consumers, they are inadvertently exploited to weaken Indigenous knowledge (IK), undermine common property rights and entrench value chains that favour a few elite buyers. This tend to create pervasive incentives for overexploitation of medicinal plant resources and environmental degradation. Potential solution lies in the recognition of drivers of vulnerability to environmental degradation and the innovative use of policy bricolage, feedback loops and interactions between knowledge, power and agency on one hand, and collective action and property rights institutions on the other hand. We conceptualise a framework that can mediate a transformational agenda and enhance systematic understanding of sustainability lenses in endemic medicinal plant resources value chains. This could in turn strengthen IK, enhance collective action and promote participation of local actors with positive impact on the utilisation and integration of endemic medicinal plant resources into global value chains.
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