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REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0226.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: androgens; athletic performance; cross-hormone therapy; gender dysphoria; muscle; sex hormones; sporting policies; strength; transgender men; transgender women
Online: 13 May 2020 (11:25:23 CEST)
Sex dimorphism starts during early embryogenesis and is further manifested in response to hormones during puberty. As this leads to physical divergence that is measurably different between sexes, males enjoy physical performance advantages over females within competitive sport. While this advantage is the underlying basis of the segregation into male and female sporting categories, these sex-based categories do not account for transgender persons who experience incongruence between their biological sex and their experienced gender identity. Accordingly, the International Olympic Committee determined criteria by which a transgender woman may be eligible to compete in the female category, requiring total serum testosterone levels to be suppressed below 10 nmol/L for at least 12 months prior to and during competition. Whether this regulation removes the male performance advantage has not been collectively scrutinized. Here, we aim to review how differences in biological characteristics between biological males and females affect sporting performance and assess whether evidence exists to support the assumption that testosterone suppression in transgender women removes the male performance advantage. In this review, we report that the performance gap between males and females amounts to 10-50% depending on sport. The performance gap is more pronounced in sporting activities relying on muscle mass and strength, particularly in the upper body. Longitudinal studies examining the effects of testosterone suppression on muscle mass and strength in transgender women consistently show very modest changes, where the loss of lean body mass, muscle area and strength typically amounts to approximately 5% after 1 year of treatment. Thus, current evidence shows that the biological advantage enjoyed by transgender women is only minimally reduced when testosterone is suppressed. Sports organizations may therefore be compelled to reassess current policies regarding participation of transgender women in the female category of sport.
Wed, 3 June 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0013.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: online education; corona crisis; challenges; possibilities
Online: 3 June 2020 (08:25:46 CEST)
Online class now is the demand of the day as little scopes are to find out alternatives to online class in these unprecedented days caused by corona pandemic across the globe. The study was qualitative in approach and data were collected from secondary sources i.e. different newspapers and journals in the recent times along with a mini interview with students of private universities studying in different subjects over mobile phone by the researcher. Findings of the study show that though online education has a number of challenges faced by two main stakeholders; students and teachers, handling all these challenges carefully can have the chance to create a positive atmosphere in the field of education as an alternative teaching learning resulting in positive outcomes in all regards.
Tue, 23 August 2016
DATA DESCRIPTOR | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0191.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: nhst; p-values; apa; content mining; tdm; errors
Online: 23 August 2016 (10:33:53 CEST)
In this data deposit, I describe a dataset that is the result of content mining 167,318 published articles for statistical test results. As a result of this content mining, 688,112 results from 50,845 articles were extracted. In order to provide a comprehensive set of data, the statistical results are supplemented with metadata from the article they originate from. The dataset is provided in a comma separated file (CSV) in long-format. For each of the 688,112 results, 20 variables are included, of which seven are article metadata and 13 pertain to the individual statistical results (e.g., reported and recalculated p-value). A five-pronged approach was taken to generate the dataset: (i) collect journal lists, (ii) spider journal pages for articles, (iii) download articles, (iv) add article metadata, and (v) mine articles for statistical results.
Sun, 2 August 2020
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0021.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Safety Research Keywords: diversity; inclusion; equity; fieldwork; research
Online: 2 August 2020 (11:55:47 CEST)
As a result of identity prejudice, certain individuals are at higher risk for conflict and violence when they are in the field. At-risk individuals include minority identities of the following: race/ethnicity, sexual orientation, disability, gender identity, and/or religion. Everyone deserves to conduct fieldwork as safely as possible; therefore, it is paramount for anyone conducting fieldwork to be informed of the increased risk certain populations face when conducting field research and to define informed strategies. Research groups should adhere to best practices to minimize risk for all individuals who go into the field. Here we provide strategies that 1) acknowledge that some individuals encounter dangerous situations in the field due to their identity(ies), and 2) minimize the chance of conflict between and among researchers and other communities present at field sites. The inclusion of this document as a key resource in a research lab, a university department, or any active research or work environment sends a positive signal to at-risk individuals that their professional community acknowledges their risk and is willing to implement actions to ensure their safety. We suggest that this document be made freely available to anyone who is directly or indirectly involved in fieldwork. Supervisors who support the information in this document should publicly commit to promote a diverse and inclusive environment in order to maintain the safety of their researchers.
Fri, 24 July 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0599.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: crisis self-efficacy; work commitment; education workers; public schools; COVID-19 pandemic
Online: 24 July 2020 (14:47:56 CEST)
COVID-19 pandemic has affected the public educational sectors in terms of adjustment in educational modalities of instructional delivery, school operations, and policies. With this emerging paradigm shift, teachers' crisis self-efficacy and work commitment are relevant for research. This study's main objective was to determine the significant influence of crisis self-efficacy on the work commitment of public school teachers in Region XI (Davao Region), Philippines, during the COVID-19 pandemic. The sample consisted of 1,340 public school teachers across the Davao Region. The researchers collected the data through adapted questionnaires contextualized to the local setting and administered through online Google forms with appended consent. Mean, standard deviation, Pearson r, and regression analysis were used to analyze data. Results revealed that crisis self-efficacy significantly influences the work commitment of public school teachers during the COVID-19 pandemic. Uncertainty management during this crisis, in particular, best predicts teachers’ work commitment. Data also showed a high level of crisis self-efficacy in terms of action, preventive, achievement and uncertainty management, and high level of teachers’ work commitment in terms of commitment to school, commitment to students, commitment to teaching, and commitment to profession. Correlation results also showed a link between crisis self-efficacy and the work commitment of teachers amid pandemic. Finally, the study concluded with practical recommendations and directions for future research.
Tue, 8 December 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0199.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: COVID-19 pandemic; children; schools; schools closures; global health
Online: 8 December 2020 (10:20:41 CET)
School closures (SC) were adopted globally as a COVID-19 disease pandemic containment strategy. This extreme measure provoked a disruption of the educational system involving hundreds of million children worldwide. The return of children to school has been variable and is still an unresolved and contentious issue. Importantly the process has not been directly correlated to the severity of the pandemic s impact and has fueled the widening of disparities, disproportionately affecting the most vulnerable populations. Available evidence shows SC added little benefit to COVID-19 control whereas the harms related to SC severely affected children and adolescents. This unresolved issue has put children and young people at high risk of social, economic and health-related harm for years to come, triggering severe consequences during their lifespan. In this article we describe the process of SC and the reopening timetable across the globe. We highlight the data regarding the international state of educational systems around the world, putting emphasis on the rights of children to come back to school.
Mon, 7 December 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0147.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: career development, new faculty
Online: 7 December 2020 (12:24:47 CET)
Postdocs who land faculty jobs at research-intensive institutions need to juggle several new large-scale tasks: identifying space and equipment needs for their lab, negotiating the hiring package, outfitting the lab with supplies, building a team, and learning to manage time in ways that can promote productivity and happiness. Here we share tips to help new hires think clearly about each of these tasks.
Tue, 27 April 2021
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0725.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: COVID-19, Students' learning habits, Pandemic
Online: 27 April 2021 (14:18:23 CEST)
The novel coronavirus has had the world on halt for a few months now. Changes in lifestyles have become a part and parcel of our daily lives, especially for students. With new teaching practices undertaken, new reforms are being made from students in kindergarten to college. This paper presents insights on the changing learning habits of Indian students due to the hit of novel coronavirus (COVID-19). A total of 648 students from various institutes took part in the survey by responding to the questionnaires on time spent by them both for online and offline studies and others asked in closed format options. The insights are derived by comparing the performance of students based on their institute types, hours spent on self-study as well as the assistance provided by the colleges. The overall confidence in particular subjects by the end of the semester is being determined as the end result.
Tue, 31 March 2020
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0445.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: international tourism; coronavirus; COVID-19; post-viral tourism; recovery strategies
Online: 31 March 2020 (05:00:08 CEST)
The coronavirus pandemic will deeply affect the tourism and travel sector. It is already clear now that its economic impact would be more severe that in the case of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) in 2002-2003. Although not as deadly as SARS, coronavirus infection has a longer incubation period and leaves about 85% of the infected without any (or with just mild) symptoms which makes it more difficult to track and to contain. Moreover, it appears to be much more contagious than its predecessor. The goods news is that most people recover from the disease and develop antibodies that can protect them from getting infected again (natural vaccination). Those cured might become the key element for the post-virus recovery strategies of tourism organisations. People with the acquired immunity to the virus would be capable of travelling freely without spreading the disease. Airlines, hotels and gastronomy should aim at this group offering them discounts and special offers. However, the problem is how to effectively ensure that everyone who claims to be cured from COVID-19 is telling the truth. Health tracking bracelets, apps, and other advanced technological solutions should be put in place. Recent best practices from Hong Kong, mainland China, or India might be applied.
Tue, 7 July 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0129.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: COVID-19; Pandemic; Impact; Bangladesh
Online: 7 July 2020 (16:26:57 CEST)
The effect of the COVID-19 pandemic in a developing country like Bangladesh is enormous. A research conducted by South Asian network of Economic Modelling predicted that the pandemic could double the poverty. But it is not that only the socioeconomic condition is dropping in Bangladesh, the impact of COVID-19 pandemic is manifold. The poor condition of Bangladesh's health sector has also been exposed due to the pandemic. People are not getting proper treatment due to lack of isolation beds, oxygen, ICU etc. The health sector of Bangladesh is not much developed and now with this pandemic it has become impossible to provide treatment facility for all the patients. Education sector, which is the backbone of a country,has also been greatly affected by the pandemic. We know that different types of cultural occasions are an inherited tradition of Bangladesh, COVID-19 have not even spared these traditions, all the cultural programes and festivals have been cancelled due to this pandemic.In this paper, our aim is to present the present status of all these sectors.
Wed, 13 January 2021
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0153.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Covid-19; consumer behaviour; food
Online: 13 January 2021 (11:06:00 CET)
This study clearly shows that the corona pandemic has a significant impact on consumers’ eating habits. More food is eaten overall, and more convenience products such as ready meals and canned food with a longer shelf life are purchased. The consumption of alcohol and confectionery has also increased. In return, the consumption of fresh fruit and vegetables has declined. It becomes clear that families who are financially affected by the pandemic represent a vulnerable group. With the increasing duration of the pandemic, repeated lockdowns, corona-related closings of schools and kindergartens, health consequences are to be expected in the medium to long term, especially for this population group.
Tue, 10 April 2018
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0114.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: tobacco; forest resources; deforestation; livelihoods; institutions; governance; landscape; land degradation; climate change
Online: 10 April 2018 (08:04:02 CEST)
The increase in tobacco production while ameliorating the condition of the participant households has caused challenges to stakeholders particularly those in the governance of forest resources upon which the sector is hinged. Massive deforestation has proceeded at an alarmingly high level, in a way that threatens the long term viability of the tobacco sector and sustainability of natural forest resources. The entrance of previously disadvantaged majority into the once minority-dominated tobacco sector (and economy) in a quest to improving their livelihoods, is driving forest landscape changes that pose inherent environmental challenges including climate change. This article adopts institutional and landscape approaches to explore and explain the drivers, nexus and implications of smallholder tobacco as a livelihood strategy to the forest landscape changes and the subsequent imperative for governance of the sustainable utilization of forest resources in Zimbabwe. Drawing on documentary evidence the paper concludes that this situation poses a dilemma to forest and livelihood policies, hence the need to examine new institutional and livelihood initiatives.
Wed, 19 August 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0246.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: COVID-19; university student; socio-demographic factors, satisfaction; perception; online learning; mental health; habits; institutions; continents
Online: 19 August 2020 (08:20:09 CEST)
The paper presents the most comprehensive and large-scale study to date on how students perceive the impacts of the COVID-19 crisis on various aspects of their lives on a global level. With a sample of 30,383 students from 62 countries, the study reveals that amid the worldwide lockdown and transition to online learning students were most satisfied with the support provided by teaching staff and their universities’ public relations. Still, deficient computer skills and the perception of a higher workload prevented them from perceiving their own improved performance in the new teaching environment. Students were mainly concerned about issues to do with their future professional career and studies, and experienced boredom, anxiety and frustration. The pandemic has led to the adoption of particular hygienic behaviours (e.g. wearing masks, washing hands) and discouraged certain daily practices (e.g. leaving home, shaking hands). Students were also more satisfied with the role played by hospitals and universities during the epidemic compared to the government and banks. The findings also show that students with selected socio-demographic characteristics (male, part-time, first level, applied sciences, lower living standard, from Africa or Asia) were generally more strongly affected by the pandemic since they were significantly less satisfied with their academic work/life. Key factors influencing students' satisfaction with the role of their university are also identified. Policymakers and higher education institutions around the world may benefit from these findings while formulating policy recommendations and strategies to support students during this and any future pandemics.
Mon, 14 June 2021
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0336.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: Nationalism; The millennial generation; Covid-19
Online: 14 June 2021 (08:53:46 CEST)
Background: In the current era of globalization, the Indonesian government's problem today is the weakening of nationalism and patriotism among the millennial generation. The large number of foreign cultures that have entered Indonesia has caused a sense of nationalism and patriotism. In addition, Indonesia is also facing the problem of spreading the Covid-19 virus. During the pandemic, various policies set by the government received protests from some circles because they felt their freedom was restricted. Therefore, the awareness of millennial generation nationalism is needed, especially during the Covid-19 pandemic like today. This research aims to make millennials aware of nationalism sense, which mainly to prevent the spread of Covid-19. This research is used to answer the questions of what the problems that arise due to the waning of the spirit of nationalism during the pandemic are? and what efforts should be made to maintain the spirit of nationalism? Methods: This research is a qualitative study using the literature review method. The articles used are research published in 2019 to 2021 in Google Scholar, with keywords that match the topic of millennial generation nationalism in the Covid-19 pandemic. Results and Discussion: The results of the study found that the spirit of Indonesian nationalism during the Covid-19 pandemic was decreasing. The decline in the sense of nationalism is due to several government policies that impact the psychology of society and the Indonesian economy. As a result, society, particularly the millennial generation, must play a role in breaking the chain of the Covid-19 virus's propagation by following the government's health standards. Conclusion: The government and society need to work together to understand nationalism in the millennial generation, especially in dealing with problems caused by the Covid-19 pandemic. Based on this, various efforts need to be made to foster the spirit of nationalism and overcome the Covid-19 pandemic. So that later, it can produce a generation that upholds the value of nationalism in everyday life.
Fri, 26 June 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0309.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: security; resilience; pandemic; COVID-19
Online: 26 June 2020 (12:14:21 CEST)
This paper uses resilience as a lens through which to analyse disasters and other major threats to patterns of criminal behaviour. A set of indicators and mathematical models are introduced that aim to quantitatively describe changes in crime levels in comparison to what could otherwise be expected, and what might be expected by way of adaptation and subsequent resumption of those patterns. The validity of the proposed resilience assessment tool is demonstrated using commercial theft data from the COVID-19 pandemic period. A 64 per cent reduction in crime was found in the studied city (China) during an 83-day period, before daily crime levels bounced back to higher than expected values. The proposed resilience indicators are recommended as benchmarking instruments for evaluating and comparing the global impact of COVID-19 policies on crime and public safety.
Fri, 11 June 2021
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0307.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Government Keywords: Policy; Poverty; Covid-19 Pandemic; Government
Online: 11 June 2021 (09:02:07 CEST)
Poverty is one of the indexes that can see how a country succeeds in development. In Indonesia, the poverty rate is high as the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic increases over time. Therefore, a solution is embraced in the form of government policies in tackling poverty in Indonesia. The purpose of this study is to analyze the poverty caused by the Covid-19 pandemic.What is the current state of poverty caused by the Covid-19 pandemic in Indonesia? and what are the previous government policies that have succeeded in reducing poverty in Indonesia? The method used in this study is the literature review method based on the results of critical analysis of journal articles that are relevant to the topic of discussion. The results showed that three government policies have succeeded in lowering the poverty level in Indonesia, namely the PKH program policy, the zakat policy as an indicator of poverty reduction, and the Bank Wakaf Mikro policy. Therefore, this study focuses on the policy as a study for government policy in lowering poverty levels due to the Covid-19 Pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0310.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Covid-19; Millennial; Education Progress
Online: 11 June 2021 (09:19:51 CEST)
Because of the covid-19 pandemic, world development has de-escalated, and some have come to a halt because there are many new problems that this era never faced before. Especially in Indonesia's education, every student in this millennial era who is already used to face-to-face lectures and teachers and professors are going through massive changes where every task will be done virtually. These actions are being done to prevent the spread of Covid-19. With online meetings, there will be many changes in the curriculum to find an effective way of studying, and the former curriculum will not fit because it was made for the offline lecture. Also adapting to it will take time. This article will bring up Indonesia’s education progress in this era while Covid-19 pandemic is happening and give an insight on how to anticipate this problem. Questions that arise from this topic are the effect of government effort on holding the pandemic, is it safe if school will be opened soon, and how education after this pandemic is. This research uses literature review methods where it’s done by search, gather, compile and interpret data that is being used. The data are from the latest research, namely from 2019 to 2021 published through Google Scholar, totaling 11 articles, and few online news to keep relevancy of the topic. The results of this study indicate that Covid-19 produces a change that is worse than the good. Even so, the government has allowed face-to-face and online learning according to the consent of students and parents. Thus, the community, especially students, teachers, and others, are expected to uphold education even though it is required to adapt according to existing protocols. From the research, literature review methods proved to be effective to study this topic while Covid-19 is happening to keep safety measures, but it does not give many details and specific information well. This method is recommended to researchers who don’t want to risk their life by being exposed to the pandemic.
Thu, 3 January 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0017.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: tobacco; alcohol; physical aggression; verbal aggression; impulsivity
Online: 3 January 2019 (12:27:20 CET)
The purpose of this study was to identify different adolescent profiles identified by their use tobacco/alcohol and violent behavior repertoires as well as to analyze the extent to which they show impulsivity traits. Participants were selected by cluster random sampling. There was a total of 822 high school students in the sample aged 13 to 18 years with a mean of 14.84 (SD=.87). A cluster analysis with the following variables was done to form the groups: Use of tobacco, Use of alcohol, Physical aggression, Verbal aggression, Anger and Hostility. Three groups of adolescents resulted from these five variables. The multivariate comparison demonstrated the existence of significant between-group differences, and individual analysis for each of the dependent variables (impulsivity dimensions) showed that the relationship was statistically significant in all cases. In conclusion, analysis of factors possibly associated with adolescent’s risk behavior makes possible and orients intervention in different stages of development for sustainable consumption in adolescents.
Thu, 10 December 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0265.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Tobacco and nicotine products; tobacco heating products; cigarettes; switching; consumer behaviour; usage patterns.
Online: 10 December 2020 (14:01:14 CET)
Providing data on usage patterns is key to assessing the reduced-risk potential of novel tobacco and nicotine products at a population level. We performed a nationwide cross-sectional survey of the general population in Japan to assess usage patterns after the introduction of tobacco heating products (THPs). Eligible participants were Japanese residents, aged 20 years or older who consented to complete the survey. Individuals living in institutions were excluded. A three-stage probability sampling method was applied that was geographically stratified by street blocks proportionate to population density. Respondents self-reported patterns of product use and reasons for THP use. Complete responses were available from 5,306 individuals, of whom 933.5 (17.6%) were current users, 984.2 (18.5%) were former users and 3388.4 (63.9%) were never users of tobacco products. Cigarettes were used by 14.6% of current tobacco product users and THPs by 5.3%. Cigarettes and THPs were used exclusively by 64.5% and 12.2%, respectively, and both were used by 12.7%. The most common reasons reported for THP use were perceived reduction in harm to self and others compared to cigarettes. While the prevalence of cigarette use in Japan is decreasing, THPs seem to be increasingly used as long-term alternatives to cigarette smoking.
Fri, 24 May 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0288.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: adolescent; current smoking; smoking behavior; tobacco message exposure
Online: 24 May 2019 (08:34:44 CEST)
This study investigated the influence and interaction of tobacco promotional and control information with adolescents’ current smoking and smoking susceptibility. 12,278 students were recruited from junior, senior and vocational high schools located in Shanghai, China. The exposure to tobacco promotional and control message of participants over the past 30 days were examined, as well as current smoking and never smokers’ initiation susceptibility. Complex sample analysis was applied. Descriptive and multivariate logistic regressions were conducted. 89.3% and 91.5% of adolescents investigated were exposed to tobacco promotional and control message respectively, which separately increased and decreased the risk of current smoking and never-smokers’ smoking susceptibility, especially among males and junior high school students. The risk changed in consistency with the exposure level（Ptrend < 0.001）. Tobacco control message seemed to mitigate the influence of tobacco promotions in the risk of both current smoking (OR = 0.64, 95%CI: 0.41–0.99) and smoking susceptibility (OR = 0.65, 95%CI: 0.46–0.93). Tobacco-related message exposure was highly prevalent and associated with youth smoking risk and smoking susceptibility. It is important to enhance the comprehensiveness and enforcement of promotion bans. Given the improvement of tobacco control message on smoking risk brought by tobacco promotions, the publicity and dissemination of tobacco control information need to be consistently strengthened.
Mon, 22 February 2021
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0487.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Memory reconsolidation; Animal models; Alcohol addiction; Nicotine; relapse; tobacco
Online: 22 February 2021 (15:29:50 CET)
Alcohol and nicotine are widely-abused legal substances worldwide. Relapse to alcohol or tobacco seeking and consumption after abstinence is a major clinical challenge, and is often evoked by cue-induced craving. Therefore, disruption of the memory for the cue-drug association is expected to suppress relapse. Memories have been postulated to become labile shortly after their retrieval, during a “memory reconsolidation” process. Interference with the reconsolidation of drug-associated memories has been suggested as a possible strategy to reduce or even prevent cue-induced craving and relapse. Here, we surveyed the growing body of studies in animal models and in humans assessing the effectiveness of pharmacological or behavioral manipulations in reducing relapse by interfering with the reconsolidation of alcohol and nicotine/tobacco memories. Our review points to the potential of targeting the reconsolidation of these memories as a strategy to suppress relapse to alcohol drinking and tobacco smoking. However, we discuss several critical limitations and boundary conditions, which should be considered to improve the consistency and replicability in the field, and for development of an efficient reconsolidation-based relapse prevention therapy.
Wed, 23 December 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0598.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Zambezi; Health Care Workers; cigarette smoking; Cigarettes; Gender differences; Prevalence; Tobacco use; Vulnerable populations; Risk factors
Online: 23 December 2020 (16:28:15 CET)
Smoking is a major risk factor for non-communicable diseases and remains a significant public health challenge in many lower- and middle-income countries (LMIC) including Namibia. The purpose of the study was to estimate the prevalence of smoking and its associated risk factors among HCWs and non-HCWs in Zambezi region. An exploratory cross-sectional survey was conducted between March and October 2020 among residents of the eight (8) constituencies of Zambezi region. Four hundred and sixty-one (461) respondents who had been residents of the selected constituencies for over five years and aged between 17-60 years were selected for the study. The main outcome measure was current cigarette smoking status. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the socio-demographic characteristics of the respondents. We stratified data analysis by individual being health workers or non-health workers. A bivariate Pearson Chi-square test was used to determine the association between socio-demographic characteristics and the smoking status. Statistically significant variables in the bivariate analysis were used as predictors in the univariate and multivariate models. The response rate of potential participants was 95% (n=434). The mean (±SD) age of participant’s was 32.5 (± 11.34 years). Significant relationships were observed between smoking status and area of residency (constituency), gender, age category, level of education, age of onset of smoking and the daily smoking frequency. The majority of smokers (n=108) were none-HCWs with males being the majority (n=62). Age (p=0.001), education levels (p=0.001) and area of residency (p=0.022) were highly associated with smoking among none-HCW while marital status was associated with smoking among HCWs (p=0.013). In the final multivariate model, the odds of smoking among female non-HCWs were significantly lower (OR: 0.386; 95% CI: 0.228 – 0.655). Furthermore, the odds of smoking among this same group were lower among those who had secondary level education (OR: 0.178; 95% CI: 0.0659 – 0.483), post-secondary (OR: 0.117, 95% CI: 0.0412 – 0.330) and first stage tertiary (OR: 0.306: 95% CI: 0.106 – 0.881) compared to those who had primary school education. In conclusion, smoking prevalence among none HCWs and HCWs working in Zambezi included in the study was similar to that of the general Namibian population but higher than other neighboring countries within SADC. The results showed a need for the establishment of specific smoking related strategies that target HCWs to address smoking use parallel to the running of none HCWs which would ultimately decrease the smoking prevalence and improve health.
Tue, 16 October 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0348.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: exercise; cigarette; smokeless tobacco; substance use; health behavior
Online: 16 October 2018 (09:49:28 CEST)
Background: Exercise is increasingly understood as an important resource for people with harmful substance use, including those in prison. Little is known about how inmates adopt various health behaviors during incarceration, without interventions. Methods: This study analyzed self-reports from 1468 inmates in Norwegian prisons, compared them according to harmful substance use pre-incarceration, and explored changes in exercise and nicotine use during incarceration. Results were presented in accordance with the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) guidelines. Results: Inmates with harmful substance use reported higher rates of smoking, smokeless tobacco, and physical inactivity pre-incarceration than inmates without harmful use. However, inmates with harmful use also exhibited more behavioral changes: they adopted exercise, ceased smoking, and adopted smokeless tobacco at higher rates during incarceration than the non-harmful group. Conclusions: Exercise is being taken up by a significant proportion of inmates, and may in particular be a replacement behavior for substance use. However, unhealthy behaviors are also begun or maintained. If prisons were used as an arena to facilitate healthy behaviors, the public health benefits to a marginalized group such as substance-using inmates could be substantial.
Fri, 17 April 2020
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0290.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: academia; higher education; coronavirus pandemic; online tuition; social distancing; COVID-19; digital revolution
Online: 17 April 2020 (01:56:58 CEST)
COVID-19 pandemic instigated a digital revolution in academia and higher education. Social distancing, months-long quarantine, as economic shutdown will help the majority of people working in academia and higher education not only to complete their personal transition to the fully functional and operational online tuition, but also to understand that online defences, online entrance and final exams, as well as online academic jobs are as effective and meaningful as those conducted “in real life”. Due to the crisis induced by the coronavirus epidemic, innovations in academia and higher education that would have normally taken several years due to the various contradictory administrative regulations are now introduced promptly in a matter of days. This is a clear example of the Schumpeterian ‘creative destruction’ in making that will forever change the status quo in academia and higher education.
Mon, 3 December 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0016.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Library And Information Sciences Keywords: corpus linguistics; language modeling; big data; language data; databases; monitor corpora; documentary analysis; nuclear power; government regulation; tobacco documents
Online: 3 December 2018 (09:16:14 CET)
With the influence of Big Data culture on qualitative data collection, acquisition, and processing, it is becoming increasingly important that social scientists understand the complexity underlying data collection and the resulting models and analyses. Systematic approaches for creating computationally tractable models need to be employed in order to create representative, specialized reference corpora subsampled from Big Language Data sources. Even more importantly, any such method must be tested and vetted for its reproducibility and consistency in generating a representative model of a particular population in question. This article considers and tests one such method for Big Language Data downsampling of digitally-accessible language data to determine both how to operationalize this form of corpus model creation, as well as testing whether the method is reproducible. Using the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's public documentation database as a test source, the sampling method's procedure was evaluated to assess variation in the rate of which documents were deemed fit for inclusion or exclusion from the corpus across four iterations. The findings of this study indicate that such a principled sampling method is viable, thus necessitating the need for an approach for creating language-based models that account for extralinguistic factors and linguistic characteristics of documents.
Mon, 10 August 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0246.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: COVID-19; university student; sociodemographic factors, satisfaction; perception; online learning; mental health; habits; institutions; continents
Online: 10 August 2020 (15:21:04 CEST)
The paper aims to present the most comprehensive and large-scale study to date of students’ perceived impacts of COVID-19 crisis on different aspects of their lives on a global level. The study with a sample of 30,383 students from 62 countries reveals that due to worldwide lockdown and transition to online learning students were most satisfied with the support of teaching staff and universities’ public relations. Nevertheless, a lack of computer skills and the perception of increased workload prevented them from perceiving higher performance in a new teaching environment. Students were mainly concerned about their future professional career and studying issues, and were feeling boredom, anxiety and frustration. The pandemic encouraged some hygienic behaviors (i.e. wearing masks, washing hands) and discouraged certain daily habits (i.e. leaving home, shaking hands). Students were also more satisfied with the role of hospitals and universities during the epidemic, compared to government and banks. Further findings demonstrate that students with selected sociodemographic characteristics (male, part-time, first level, applied sciences, lower living standard, from Africa or Asia) were, in general, more strongly affected by the pandemic as they were significantly less satisfied with their academic work/life. Key factors influencing students' satisfaction with the role of university have also been identified. Policymakers and higher education institutions worldwide may benefit from these findings when formulating policy recommendations and tactics on how to support students during the pandemic.
Wed, 19 August 2020
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: COVID-19; Economic; Environment; Development; Social; Tourism
Online: 19 August 2020 (17:22:04 CEST)
The Corona Virus (COVID-19) pandemic situation has posed significant effect on tourism industry. Tourism destinations have embraced emergency health care measures and restrictions imposed on human movement around the world. Beaches and resorts are empty, peoples’ movements are stopped and travelling between territories is strictly controlled. The COVID-19 lockdown around the world has imposed negative impact on the livelihood of people and world economy as well. The present study attempts to find out the scopes for sustainable tourism development in near future from the consequences of social, economic, and environment in COVID-19 pandemic situation.
Sat, 26 September 2020
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: academic; mothers; COVID-19; pandemic; leaky pipeline
Online: 26 September 2020 (13:08:55 CEST)
The issues mothers face in the academy have been discussed for decades. Routinely, new studies report significant differences between women and men at comparable career stages with respect to salary, service demands, publications, grant submissions, and overall funding rates. The COVID-19 pandemic is further exposing these inequalities as women scientists who are parenting while also engaging in a combination of academic related duties are falling further behind. COVID-19 is shaking the very foundations of our society and laying bare the many inequalities that defined our pre-COVID world. We can solve these inequities by investing strategically in creative solutions, thereby making the most of women’s contributions to scientific endeavors. Here we describe strategies that would make the academy more equitable for working mothers now and into the future. Importantly, while the data are clear that mothers are being disproportionally impacted by COVID-19, many groups could benefit from these same ideas. Now is the time to act. Rather than rebuilding what we once knew, let us be the architects of a new world.
Tue, 22 January 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0165.v3
Subject: Social Sciences, Library And Information Sciences Keywords: Plan S; open access journals; APC; technical requirements; publisher size
Online: 22 January 2019 (11:39:01 CET)
Much of the debate on Plan S seems to concentrate on how to make toll access journals open access, taking for granted that existing open access journals are Plan S compliant. We suspected this was not so, and set out to explore this using DOAJ's journal metadata. We conclude that an overwhelmingly large majority of open access journals are not Plan S compliant, and that it is small HSS publishers not charging APCs that are least compliant and will face major challenges with becoming compliant. Plan S need to give special considerations to smaller publishers and/or non-APC-based journals.
Tue, 4 January 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0010.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Indigenous health; smoking; social marketing; tobacco; messaging
Online: 4 January 2022 (15:08:35 CET)
Background: Smoking is disproportionately prevalent among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australian peoples, with 39% of Indigenous Australians aged over 15 years smoking daily. Efforts to reduce this high prevalence include culturally focused media campaigns, designed using community consultation, highlighting the need to determine how such health messaging is received by smokers. This study aimed to examine Indigenous Australian smokers’ reactions to a culturally focused anti-smoking mass media campaign—'Give up Smokes’. Methods: Intercept surveying across health services and events used recorded demographics, smoking status, quit attempts, smoking health effects, anti-smoking campaign recall, social support, and campaign reactions. Participants rated campaign images in five domains: 1) whether it made them stop and think; 2) personal relevance; 3) believability of design and message; 4) prompting concern about smoking; and 5) motivation towards quitting. Cluster analysis was used to segment smoker types. Results: Smoking health effects knowledge was high, and did not differ by quit readiness, attempts, or social support. Cessation support access was higher among those with greater readiness to quit. Social smoking behaviour and confidence to support others quitting did not significantly differ between participants, however importance of others quitting did. Quit readiness, attempts, and social support were associated with reaction to campaign design, but not message recall. Four types of smokers were described, using smoking characteristics, who differed in campaign message reactions. Conclusions: Strategies using campaign-exposed smoker characteristics to inform culturally focused health promotion are discussed in relation to four identified types of smokers.
Wed, 29 December 2021
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0470.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Demography Keywords: poly tobacco; nativity; young adults
Online: 29 December 2021 (14:46:13 CET)
Introduction: Young adults are the second largest segment of the immigrant population in the United States (US). Given recent trends in later age of initiation of tobacco use, we examined variation in use of tobacco products by nativity status for this population group. Methods: Our study included young adults 18-30 years of age sampled in the National Health Interview Survey (2015-2019), a nationally representative sample of the US population. We calculated prevalence of use of any and 2 or more tobacco products (cigarettes, cigars, pipes, e-cigarettes, and smokeless tobacco) for foreign-born (n=3,096) and US-born (n=6,811) young adults. Logistic regression models adjusted for age, sex, race-ethnicity, education, and poverty, while accounting for the complex survey design. Results: Foreign-born young adults were significantly less likely to use any tobacco product (Cigarette = 7.3% vs 10.7%; Cigar= 1.8% vs 4.8%; E-cigarette= 2.3% vs 4.5%, respectively; p<0.01) or poly tobacco use (1.9% vs. 4.2%; p<0.01) than US-born young adults. Adjusted regression models showed lower odds of poly tobacco use among the foreign-born than their US-born counterparts (Odds Ratio = 0.41, (95% Confidence Interval: 0.26-0.63)). Conclusion: Findings highlight the importance of targeted interventions by nativity status and further tobacco prevention efforts needed for the US-born.
Mon, 22 February 2021
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: mentorship; citations; bias; sexism; racism; equity; diversity; inclusion; wellbeing
Online: 22 February 2021 (16:17:45 CET)
Success and impact metrics in science are based on a system that perpetuates sexist and racist ‘rewards’ through prioritizing citations and impact factors. These metrics are flawed and biased against already marginalized groups and fail to accurately capture the breadth of individuals’ meaningful scientific impacts. We advocate shifting this outdated value system to advance science through principles of justice, equity, diversity, and inclusion. We outline pathways for a paradigm shift in academic values based on multidimensional mentorship and promoting mentee wellbeing. These actions will require collective efforts supported by academic leaders and administrators to drive essential systemic change.
Wed, 14 June 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0062.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Library And Information Sciences Keywords: h-index; citations; published version; Scopus database; highly cited paper; bibliometrics
Online: 14 June 2017 (06:07:12 CEST)
The number of citations that a paper has received is the most commonly used indicator to measure the quality of research. Researchers, journals, and universities want to receive more citations for their scholarly publications to increase their h-index, impact factor, and ranking respectively. In this paper, we tried to analyses the effect of the number of available Google Scholar versions of a paper on citations count. We analyzed 10,162 papers which are published in Scopus database in year 2010 by Malaysian top five universities. Then we developed a software to collect the number of citations and versions of each paper from Google Scholar automatically. The result of spearman correlation coefficient revealed that there is positive significant association between the number of Google Scholar versions of a paper and the number of times a paper has been cited.
Wed, 28 March 2018
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0238.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: applied behaviour analysis; autism; policy; randomised controlled trials; fake news
Online: 28 March 2018 (12:40:58 CEST)
Since autism was first recognised, prevalence has increased rapidly. The growing economic as well as social cost to society can only be mitigated by effective interventions and supports. It is therefore not surprising that most governments have developed public policy documents to address the management of autism. Over the past 40-50 years, meaningful evidence has accrued showing that interventions based on the scientific discipline of Applied Behaviour Analysis (ABA) can help people with autism reach their potential. In view of this, nearly all of North America has laws to mandate that ABA-based interventions are available through the health care systems. In contrast, across Europe there are no such laws. In fact, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), the body guiding health and social policy in the UK, concluded that it could not find any evidence to support ABA, and therefore could not recommend it. This paper addresses the reasons for these diametrically opposed perspectives. In particular, it examines what happens when health and social care policy is misinformed about effective autism intervention.
Tue, 25 September 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0484.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Bestiality; Colombia; sexual behavior; sexuality; Zoophilia
Online: 25 September 2018 (11:49:12 CEST)
Introduction: Sex with animals is a male practice with a social acceptance in many areas of the Colombian Atlantic coast; however, this behavior has been little studied. The aim of this study was to characterize the practice of sex with animals in a group of men living in Cordoba department, Colombia. Methods: descriptive quantitative study was made. Forty-seven adults were interviewed. The information was collected through a survey which asked about sociodemographic aspects, characteristics and beliefs around the behavior. Results: Total participants knew about the practice, 68,1% stated to have had it and they said it happened between the ages of 7 and 30 years old, for an average time of seven years gap; 65,6% had it in presence of friends and relatives. 87,6% said the practice feels really good at the first time; 35,6% stated it was a beneficial practice and 37,5% said they would like their sons to experience it. Conclusion: Having sex with animals is a social accepted behavior and it is thought to be positive since it helps the correct psychosexual development and it prevents other behaviors, not culturally accepted, such as drug use or homosexuality.
Tue, 7 April 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0078.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: COVID-19; R0; WHO; social distancing; H1N1; H2N2; influenza
Online: 7 April 2020 (02:48:13 CEST)
The current outbreak of the novel coronavirus also known as COVID-19 was declared as a public health emergency by the WHO where over a million people have been affected by the disease with over 50000 deaths till date. Social distancing is a method to minimize crowd interactions and prevent the spread of disease within groups of people. This is a common practice which has been carried out over generations to minimize the spread of virus by limiting its reproduction rate (R0) among communities. The article focuses on how social distancing has been used to deal previous pandemics globally and the issues that needs to be addressed to tackle the COVID-19 threat.
Thu, 7 June 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0104.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: ethics; community; refusal; consent; peer review; community peer review
Online: 7 June 2018 (07:35:48 CEST)
Community peer review is a method that extends the ethics of consent into scientific practices. It gives communities affected by scientific research the ability to determine whether research may cause them harm and be part of determining how knowledge should best circulate to reduce or eliminate that harm. This paper introduces the method of community peer review by first looking at the concepts of consent and refusal, then outlining the steps to community peer review, using a case study of community meetings on a study of plastic ingestion by fish to elucidate the details of each step. Steps include: hiring a community member to the team; researching the social, cultural, and economic contexts of the community; identify the community; ensure skills for community conversation are in place; call the community meeting; conduct the community meeting; and analyze feedback for consent and refusal. Community peer review is premised on the idea that research is not inherently good and can cause harm, and that the best people to know whether and what kinds of harms are likely to occur are community members rather than researchers. The second premise is that the researcher’s “right” to research never supersedes a community’s right to not be harmed.
Tue, 28 July 2020
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0681.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Government Keywords: asymptomatic disease; communicability; COVID-19; death rate; Ro; SARS-CoV-2; social distancing; transmission rate; infection rate; quarantine
Online: 28 July 2020 (11:57:26 CEST)
Decisions affecting the COVID-19 pandemic, by the individual and those with highest authority, are being made on the basis of unreliable data. Data about cases and deaths are collected daily but represent only a sample of reality. Statistics convert sample data into more reliable estimates. However, statistics have no magical powers; reliability requires dependable data. It is futile to rail against this darkness; COVID-19 is not a scientific experiment. However, we must do better both with data collection and data analysis. In this review, I focus on one element of the data, the asymptomatic case of COVID-19. Without reliable information about this number, decision makers are significantly blinded. By its nature, the asymptomatic case is hidden but contaminating to understanding COVID-19. The true case rate and death rate per case are unknowable without knowing the fraction of cases that are asymptomatic. The best estimate of asymptomatic cases is in the CDC document: COVID-19 Pandemic Planning Scenarios. For four different scenarios the estimates range from 10% to 70%, with the best estimate of 40% for asymptomatic cases. However, even the definition of the asymptomatic case is problematic. In simplest terms, two elements are required: an infection and no symptoms. How is “no symptoms” to be usefully defined? It appears to be analogous to pontificating about black swans from studying only white swans. It implies infection, but how is infection defined? Is it presence of the virus, replication of the virus, or presence of antibodies? Is asymptomatic disease an oxymoron? Without extensive, purposeful screening for specifically defined, essential symptoms and appropriate virus and antibody testing over time, the class of asymptomatic cases remains unknown. Current estimates range from <20% to ˃80%. If low, it can be ignored; if high, it dramatically and proportionately lowers the case rate and the death rate per case. Consequentially, the asymptomatic rate dramatically affects our societal and political responses. In this focused review, we assess the limitations of the published estimates, bring attention to the importance of obtaining accurate data, and exhort that high priority be given in the scientific community to understanding the issue, asymptomatic COVID-19 cases.
Wed, 2 October 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0030.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Gender And Sexuality Studies Keywords: Pakistan; Rahim Yar Khan; female employment; gender discrimination
Online: 2 October 2019 (10:52:18 CEST)
As a traditional Muslim country, the problem of gender discrimination in employment among women in Pakistan is more common. If we let it develop without taking measures, it will seriously restrict the speed and quality of Pakistan’s domestic economic development in the long run. In this study, the author obtained the first-hand information on the employment status of professional women in the Rahim Yar Khan region of Pakistan through questionnaire survey, supplemented by the public data of the Federal Statistical Office of Pakistan, and combined with the existing research results of the predecessors. Sex discrimination in employment of professional women in Pakistan. Through the collection of the data obtained from the questionnaire, the author found that economic factors are one of the main factors that cause local women to encounter gender discrimination in employment. Specifically, it includes the imbalance of labor supply and demand and the pursuit of maximum profits. At the same time, the traditional Muslim culture, women's own literacy and the imperfect legal system in Pakistan are also the key factors that cause female employees in the local area to encounter gender discrimination in employment. Women’s gender discrimination in employment is a universal problem. In any country in the world, gender discrimination may exist as long as women are involved in the work. Based on Pakistan's basic national conditions and relevant professional knowledge, the author provides several suggestions for eliminating the problem of gender discrimination in employment for local female employees in Pakistan. 1) The Pakistani government should further promote the domestic economic growth, increase the number of jobs, and ease the imbalance between the supply and demand of labor. At the same time, encourage self-employment and provide corresponding policy support. A variety of measures are also intended to address local gender discrimination in employment for women. 2) The government's leadership accelerates the transformation of the concept of the whole society. On the one hand, it requires the whole society to correctly understand the social status and social contribution of women, and strives to bring the concept of equality between men and women into the hearts of the people. It is intended to encourage qualified women to go out of the family to participate in social work. At the same time, correctly guide corporate values. Enterprises should not unilaterally pursue the maximization of interests, and should take the initiative to assume social responsibilities. 3) Women should also actively and consciously improve their literacy. Including not only active learning advanced cultural knowledge and professional skills. For the professional skills that have already been mastered, you must study harder and make yourself more and more progressive. At the same time, families should guarantee that girls of the appropriate age receive the education they deserve, so that they can gather their strengths in the workplace in the future.
Fri, 25 May 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0375.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: autism phenome; gut microbiome; behaviour reversal; meta-analysis; 16srRNA sequencing; operational taxonomic units (OTUs)
Online: 25 May 2018 (16:15:27 CEST)
Background: Gut-Brain-Axis provides bidirectional communicational route; imbalance of which can have pathophysiological consequences. It is a frontier in autism research, affects 85% of autistic children (NIH report). Their microbiome has few overall microbes and smaller number of health promising microbes than their neurotypical peers. We hypothesize autism gut might play a role in manifestation of autism behaviours and on treatment, can revert back to normal behaviour considerably. The aim is to better understand to what degree gut microbiota of autism subjects differs from controls and identify bacterial species present exclusively in autism. Materials and Methods: 16s-rRNA-sequence of autism-subjects were retrieved from the American Gut Project Archive. Taxonomic assignment was inferred by similarity based methods using Quantitative Insights Into Microbial Ecology (QIIME). Species abundance was characterized and co-occurrence network was built to infer species interaction using measures of diversity. Statistical parameters were considered to validate the findings. Result: A total of 206 (1.8%) of American Gut Project datasets onstituted of autistic samples. Various bacteria such as Akkermansia sp., and Prevotella sp., were harboured in higher abundance in autistic children with statistical significance than in controls. Conclusion: These findings indicate connecting-link between gut-microbiome-brain-axis and autistic behaviour which can result in improved management
Mon, 26 June 2017
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0111.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Library And Information Sciences Keywords: improve citations; research tools; research visibility; research impact; documents publishing; highly cited
Online: 26 June 2017 (04:20:47 CEST)
Researchers, journals, and universities want to receive more citations for their scholarly publications. However, a paper citations depend on its quality, visibility and author’s online profile. Research support documents (unpublished papers, white papers, project reports, datasets, software, posters, online resources and teaching materials) can be additional source for increasing the author’s visibility. To enhance research visibility and impact, the full range of scholarly output should be available online on the open access platform. With open access platform, key research findings are made accessible immediately to the scientific community. Therefore, the publicly available research support documents may result in receiving more citations in addition to the published papers. In this paper we conducted a simplified three stages study on the benefits of research support documents publications on open access platform. We also elaborated on approaches of improving your research visibility and impact through these document.
Wed, 16 January 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0165.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Library And Information Sciences Keywords: Plan S; open access journals; APC; technical requirements; publisher size
Online: 16 January 2019 (10:19:23 CET)
Much of the debate on Plan S seems to concentrate on how to make toll access journals open access, taking for granted that existing open access journals are Plan S compliant. We suspected this was not so, and set out to explore this using DOAJ's journal metadata. We conclude that an overwhelmingly large majority of open access journals are not Plan S compliant, and that it is small HSS publishers not charging APCs that are least compliant and will face major challenges with becoming compliant. Plan S need to give special considerations to smaller publishers and/or non-APC-based journals.
Thu, 27 August 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0620.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: Urban green space; COVID-19; urban parks; open space; New York City; urban infrastructure; equity
Online: 27 August 2020 (12:33:15 CEST)
Urban green spaces provide a range of environmental and health benefits, which may become even more critical during times of crisis such as the current COVID-19 pandemic. However, with a radical shift in mobility, additional concerns over safety, and access temporarily restricted during the implementation of social distancing policies, the experience and use of urban green spaces may be reduced. This is particularly concerning for densely populated cities like New York, considered the first U.S. epicenter or vanguard of the outbreak. To better understand the impact of COVID-19 on the perception and use of urban green spaces, we conducted a social survey during the early months of the Covid-19 pandemic in New York City (May 13 - June 15, 2020). The results of the survey show respondents continued to use urban green spaces during the pandemic and consider them to be more important for mental and physical health than before the pandemic began. However, the study revealed a pattern of concerns residents have about green space accessibility and safety, and found key differences between the concerns and needs of different populations, suggesting a crucial role for inclusive decision-making, support for additional management strategies, and urban ecosystem governance that reflect the differential values, needs and concerns of communities across the City. As urban centers face looming budget cuts and reduced capacity, this study provides some empirical evidence to illustrate the value of urban green spaces as critical urban infrastructure, and may have implications for funding, policy, and management, of urban green spaces in NYC, with potential applications to other cities, particularly during times of crisis.
Fri, 4 December 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0099.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Safety Research Keywords: COVID–19; combat; Inter–Agency Task Force (IATF); pandemic; safety and security; university
Online: 4 December 2020 (11:09:02 CET)
To define and evaluate the areas of consideration concerning in identifying the critical factors that top universities in Nueva Ecija, Philippines can be used for triangulating the courses of actions that can be applied to improve the current practices of universities towards its combat to the COVID–19 disease is the primary objective of this study. The researchers used a descriptive design of methodology by using questionnaire–checklist to scientifically describe the situation, problems, phenomenon, or program, or provide information about certain issues related to the virus outbreak. The respondents of the study were faculty and staff of five established universities in Nueva Ecija, Philippines wherein the researchers employed a non–probability sampling technique to be logically assumed as the representative of the entire population. The results of the study shown that the top universities in Nueva Ecija have made efforts to ensure the safety of university workers by complying with the Inter–Agency Task Force (IATF) protocols. It can be inferred, in reality, that there are some areas that must be improved especially when it comes to ensuring the welfare of the personnel who are still reporting to work even in this time of the pandemic. The researchers suggested an enhancement plan that can be adapted by these universities to resolve the concerns of the faculty and staff especially in reducing the spread of the virus without sacrificing the day–to–day transactions of the academic institutions.
Mon, 5 June 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0029.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: teaching and learning ıssues in mathematics; social ıssues in mathematics education; cultural ıssues in mathematics education; political ıssues in mathematics education; technological ıssues in mathematics education
Online: 5 June 2017 (06:13:28 CEST)
In this paper, we discuss major issues of mathematics teaching and learning in Nepal. The issues coming from theories such as social and radical constructivism suggest that teachers are not trained to use such approach in teaching mathematics, and there is a lack of teaching aids and materials and technological tools. The issues related to social aspects are gender issues, language issues, social justice issues, and issues related to the achievement gap. The cultural issues are related to the diversity of language and ethnicity. The issues related to political aspects are equity and access, economic status, pedagogical choice, and professional organizations and unions. The issues related to technology include the technological skills, use of technology, and affordance. Finally, we suggest that all the stakeholders should pay attention to resolving these issues by improving the curriculum, training teachers, resourcing the classroom with locally made and new technological tools.
Tue, 17 August 2021
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0352.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: HeartMath; Fitbit; COVID-19; Meditation; Physical Activity
Online: 17 August 2021 (08:32:16 CEST)
1. Background: The global COVID-19 lockdowns are unique psychological factors, requiring adjustment and coping. This illustrative, South African case study investigated the influence the COVID-19 lockdown context would have on meditation and physical activity. As these were lifestyle patterns the null hypothesis was of no change. 2. Method: The methodology consisted of quantitative and qualitative phases. The quantitative phase was an empirical, case study review of data from the author’s HeartMath and Fitbit electronic devices, as from 9 November 2019 to 31 July 2021. This consisted of coherence and achievement data from the HeartMath Inner Balance application (app), as well as distance and activity data from the Fitbit app. The qualitative phase consisted of the selection and illustration of meditation sessions documented over lockdown. 3. Results: The highly significant increases in physical activity and meditation coherence and achievement collectively indicated significant health promotion over the COVID-19 Lockdown period. Subtle energetic, experiential descriptions of meditation apprehensions resonated and supported these quantitative findings. 4. Conclusions: COVID-19 lockdown has meant transformation, humility, and reordering of priorities. The meditation descriptions amplified information from the HeartMath and Fitbit electronic devices, together co-creating conscious, embodied, relationship science for discussion, instruction, and further research.
Tue, 6 July 2021
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0136.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: crowdfunding, COVID-19, GoFundMe, topic model, counterfactual
Online: 6 July 2021 (11:35:44 CEST)
While the long-term effects of COVID-19 are yet to be determined, its immediate impact on crowdfunding is nonetheless significant. This study takes a computational approach to more deeply comprehend this change. Using a unique data set of all the campaigns published over the past two years on GoFundMe, we explore the factors that have led to the successful funding of a crowdfunding project. In particular, we study a corpus of crowdfunded projects, analyzing cover images and other variables commonly present on crowdfunding sites. Furthermore, we construct a classifier and a regression model to assess the significance of features based on XGBoost. In addition, we employ counterfactual analysis to investigate the causality between features and the success of crowdfunding. More importantly, sentiment analysis and the paired sample t-test are performed to examine the differences in crowdfunding campaigns before and after the COVID-19 outbreak that started in March 2020. First, we note that there is significant racial disparity in crowdfunding success. Second, we find that sad emotion expressed through the campaign's description became significant after the COVID-19 outbreak. Considering all these factors, our findings shed light on the impact of COVID-19 on crowdfunding campaigns.
Mon, 16 March 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0380.v3
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Infodemiology; COVID-19 infodemic; social contagion; collective perceptual bias; collective behavioral propensities; psychological typhoon eye effect
Online: 16 March 2020 (15:12:33 CET)
Less aligned emphasis has been given to the COVID-19 infodemic coordinating with the COVID-19 outbreak. Global profusion of tangled monikers and hashtags has found their ways in daily communication and contributed to backlash against Chinese. Official naming efforts against infodemic should be meet with a fair share of identification. Based on brief critical reviews on previous multifarious naming practices, we punctuate heuristic introspection in scientific conventions and sociocultural paradigms. Infodemiological analysis promises to articulate that people around the globe are divided in their favor stigmatized monikers in the public and scientific communities because of perceptual bias. There is no positive correlation between the degree of infection in their territories and collective perceptual bias to COVID-19. The official portfolio “COVID-19” and “SARS-CoV-2” has not become de facto standard usages, but full-fledged official names are excepted to duly contribute to the resilience of negative perceptual bias and collective behavioral propensities.
Fri, 7 April 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0038.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: food; commons; epistemologies of food; commons epistemologies; food narratives; food values; public good theory; academic schools; paradigms
Online: 7 April 2017 (04:13:41 CEST)
Commons and food are experiencing a revival in recent years and yet the links between both are almost absent in academic and political discourses. Commons are often portrayed as historical and yet innovative governing mechanisms that can challenge the State-Market hegemony. On the other side, food is both a relevant agent of change and a major driver of planetary destruction, being thus cause and solution to multiple crises that affect humankind. Departing from the commodification of food as one root cause of the broken global food system, this text firstly situates and discusses the different schools of thought (or epistemologies) that have addressed the private/public, commodity/commons nature of goods in general, and then explores how those schools have considered food in particular. To do so, the author has defined five epistemologies, four academic (economic, legal, historical and political) and one non-academic (grassroots activists). The analysis highlights how those epistemologies have yielded incommensurable understandings and conflicting vocabularies, hence creating confusion in the socio-political realm and even rejection around the idea of food being considered as a commons. The economic epistemic regard has reigned over the others by applying an approach to commons, public and private goods that is theoretical, reductionist and ontological instead of phenomenological, therefore preventing or obscuring other scholarly or practical understanding of commons. When applied to food, the iron law of economics dictated that food, a private good based on rivalry and excludability, shall be better allocated through market mechanisms with absolute proprietary rights and valued as a pure commodity. This reductionist view collides with the plurality of meanings of food in different societies, civilisations and historical periods, as other schools of thought indicate. The author uses diverse epistemic tools to re-construct food as a commons, based on its essentiality to human beings and societies and the customary and contemporary praxis to produce, consume and govern food collectively through non-market mechanisms for more than 2000 centuries. As commoning has instituting power to create different political and legal frameworks, if food is valued differently the entire architecture of the global food system would change, as the grassroots activist school claims. Re-commoning food defies the legal and political scaffoldings that sustain the hegemony of market and state decision-makers over eaters and food producers and informs sustainable forms of food production (agro-ecology), new collective practices of governance (food democracies) and alternative policies to regain control over the food system (food sovereignty). Food as a commons is an agent of change with transformative power, no matter what economists say.
Wed, 10 November 2021
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0191.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: COVID-19; coping; mental health; doctors; frontline
Online: 10 November 2021 (08:18:35 CET)
Background: Throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, hospital medical staff (HMS) have faced significant personal, workplace, and financial disruption. Many have experienced psychosocial burden, exceeding already concerning baseline levels. This study examines the types and predictors of coping strategies and help-seeking behaviours utilised by Australian junior and senior HMS during the first year of the pandemic. Methods: A cross-sectional online survey of Australian frontline healthcare workers was conducted between 27th August and 23rd October 2020. Data collected included demographics, personal and workplace disruptions, self-reported and validated mental health symptoms, coping strategies, and help-seeking. Results: The 9518 participants included 1966 hospital medical staff (62.1% senior, 37.9% junior). Both groups experienced a high burden of anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and burnout. Coping strategies varied by seniority, with maintaining exercise the most common strategy for both groups. Adverse mental health was associated with increased alcohol consumption. Engagement with professional support, although more frequent among junior staff, was uncommon in both groups. Conclusions: Junior and senior staff utilised different coping and help-seeking behaviours. Despite recognition of symptoms, very few HMS engaged formal support. The varied predictors of coping and help-seeking identified may inform targeted interventions to support these cohorts in current and future crises.
Sat, 30 November 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0380.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Language And Linguistics Keywords: TESOL; English teaching; ESL; EFL; teaching methodology research interests
Online: 30 November 2019 (04:41:57 CET)
This paper provides a systematic review of the research around teaching English as a second or foreign language over the last ten years. The review aims to help second and foreign language researchers to recognize the trends that have impacted English teaching and learning research. More than 400 articles from four leading journals (TESOL Journal, TESOL Quarterly, ELT Journal, and Second Language Research) were reviewed to examine the trends and method that were used. The findings suggested that the research interests in the TESOL field have changed as many topics and trends have risen based on students’ academic and social needs. Topics such as teaching methodology, digital literacy, and using technology to teach English have dominated the research during the last decade.
Fri, 13 May 2022
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0180.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Safety Research Keywords: Sustainable Development; Sustainable Development Goals; Sustainability; Postdevelopment; Degrowth; Disaster Risk Reduction; United Nations; Permacrisis; Metadisaster.
Online: 13 May 2022 (07:48:45 CEST)
This transdisciplinary review of research about international cooperation on social and environmental change builds the case for replacing Sustainable Development as the dominant framework for an era of increasing crises and disasters. The review is the output of an intentional exploration of recent studies in multiple subject areas, based on the authors’ decades of work in related fields since the Rio Earth Summit 30 years ago (rather than a keyword search of databases). It summarizes the research which documents failure to progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Consequently, the extensive scholarship critiquing the conceptual framework behind those ‘Global Goals’, and the economic ideology they arose from and support, is used to explain that failure. Although the pandemic set back the SDGs, it further revealed the inappropriate strategy behind those goals. This suggests the Global Goals constitute an ‘own-goal’ scored against people and nature. From this conclusion, alternative frameworks for organizing action on social and environmental issues become more important and are therefore briefly reviewed. It is argued that such a future framework must relate a new eco-social contract between citizen and state, and engage existing organizations and capabilities that are relevant to an increasingly disrupted world. Therefore, the case is made for considering an upgraded form of Disaster Risk Management (DRM) as an overarching framework. The proposed upgrades include detaching from economic ideologies, and recognizing that a wider metadisaster from climate chaos may reduce the future availability of external support. Therefore, self-reliant resilience and locally-led adaptation are identified as important to the future of DRM. Some options for professionals continuing to use the term sustainability, such as this journal, are discussed.
Mon, 10 September 2018
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0149.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: sensory processing sensitivity; highly sensitive person; highly sensitive child; differential susceptibility; environmental sensitivity; temperament; personality; aetiology; animal model; neuroscience; cognition; mental health
Online: 10 September 2018 (04:58:01 CEST)
Sensory Processing Sensitivity (SPS) is a trait describing inter-individual differences in sensitivity to environments, both positive and negative ones. SPS has attracted growing societal interest. However, (neuro)scientific evidence is lagging behind. We critically discuss how to measure SPS, how it relates to other theories of Environmental Sensitivity and other temperament and personality traits, how SPS interacts with environments to influence (a)typical development, what the underlying aetiologies and mechanisms are, and its relation to mental disorders involving sensory sensitivities. Drawing on the diverse expertise of the authors, we set an agenda for future research to stimulate the field. We conclude that SPS is a heritable, evolutionarily conserved trait, linked to increased risk for psychopathology and stress-related problems in response to negative environments, as well as to greater benefits (e.g., intervention responsivity, positive mood) in positive environments. We need advances in objective assessment of SPS, understanding mechanisms, differentiating it from (seemingly) related mental disorders, to exploit the potential of SPS to improve mental health, preserve human capital, and prevent adverse effects.
Tue, 25 December 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0305.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: research, supervision, postgraduate, challenges
Online: 25 December 2018 (12:04:24 CET)
Postgraduate students in South Africa and other parts of the world, particularly in developing nations struggle to complete the research component of their studies. According to the National Development Plan ( 2013) it has become a requirement for South African institutions to play a pivotal role in knowledge production so as to transform South Africa from a resource-based economy towards a knowledge-based economy. In pursuit of meeting this requirement and further to increase subsidy from the Department of Higher Education and Training (DHET), South African institutions of higher learning have been on the drive for recruiting postgraduate students en masse. One of the main problems facing South African institutions is that the number of students enrolled does not correspond to those who graduate at the end of the postgraduate programme study period. This study is a systematic review of literature on challenges in postgraduate supervision and further proposes a possible solution. Five South African institutions of higher learning’s postgraduate throughput data is carefully studied and substantiated by previous research on postgraduate supervision challenges on these particular institutions. Study findings present challenges related to research capacity development and burden of supervision at these institutions. Collaborative methods of supervision such as the C.O.S.T.A model are hereby proposed as possible solutions to the current throughput problem in South Africa.
Wed, 1 March 2017
EDITORIAL | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0012.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Library And Information Sciences Keywords: preprints
Online: 1 March 2017 (17:46:22 CET)
Preprints is delighted to have passed the milestone of one thousand preprints online. This is a significant step for the platform, which was launched in May last year with the objective of speeding up the process of communicating research across all disciplines. We are proud to be the first preprint server to cover all disciplines.
Fri, 23 February 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0149.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Library And Information Sciences Keywords: CERN; Journal Flipping; Gold Open Access; Particle Physics; SCOAP3
Online: 23 February 2018 (13:08:35 CET)
Gigantic particle accelerators, incredibly complex detectors, an antimatter factory and the discovery of the Higgs boson – this is part of what makes CERN famous. Only a few know that CERN also hosts the world largest Open Access initiative: SCOAP3. The Sponsoring Consortium for Open Access Publishing in Particle Physics (SCOAP3) started operation in 2014 and has since supported the publication of 19,000 Open Access articles in the field of particle physics, at no direct cost, nor burden, for individual authors worldwide. SCOAP3 is made possible by a 3,000-institute strong partnership, where libraries re-direct funds previously used for subscriptions to ’flip’ articles to ’gold Open Access’. With its recent expansion, the initiative now covers about 90% of the journal literature of the field. This article describes the economic principles of SCOAP3, the collaborative approach of the partnership, and finally summarizes financial results after four years of successful operation.
Mon, 8 February 2021
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0192.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: UK higher education; student; COVID-19; pandemic; academic performance; student evaluations; online learning; loss of income; educational disruptions
Online: 8 February 2021 (11:36:40 CET)
The COVID-19 pandemic is one of the worst catastrophes that we have faced globally in recent years. It has not only taken its toll on the economic sector but also on the education sector. The social distancing norms that are in place as a direct response to the pandemic have turned conventional classroom teaching into a problematic minefield; as such, students all over the world have been forced into unprecedented situations that have served only to worsen the situation. The current pandemic has given rise to one of the worst crises the 21st Century has ever seen, resulting in a surge of unemployment. Many companies have taken the route of firing employees or making redundancies, as they cannot afford the monthly reimbursement for staff. While this issue primarily concerns full-time workers, it also carries significant consequences for students – a considerable number of students are required to earn their daily living costs, and, without a job, they cannot pay their educational fees, accommodation costs, or living expenses. This comprehensive study briefly discusses the multitude of problems faced by students in the UK regarding higher education, as a direct result of the coronavirus pandemic. It contains six individual sections: a detailed introduction; the methodological procedures employed; educational disruptions, covering issues from hindrances in field research to examinations and student evaluations; personal problems experienced by students, such as accommodation and loss of income; concerns arising from the global pandemic; and finally, a conclusion and summary of the study’s findings.
Sun, 12 April 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0195.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: COVID-19; digital transformation; education; 4IR; South Africa
Online: 12 April 2020 (14:39:03 CEST)
The study sought to gauge the impact of COVID-19 pandemic in unleashing digital transformation in the education sector in South Africa. In order to gauge the impact, the study tracked the rate at which the 4IR tools were used by various institutions during the COVID-19 lockdown. Data were obtained from secondary sources, mainly newspaper articles, magazines and peer-reviewed journals. The findings are that, in South Africa, during the lockdown, a variety of 4IR tools were unleashed from primary education to higher and tertiary education where educational activities switched to remote learning (online learning). These observations point to the fact that South Africa generally has, some pockets of excellence to drive the education sector into the 4IR, which has the potential to increase access. Access to education, particularly at a higher education level, has always been a challenge due to a limited number of spaces available. Much as this pandemic has brought with it massive human suffering across the globe, there is an opportunity to assess successes and failures of deployed technologies, costs associated with them, and scaling these technologies to improve access.
Wed, 9 June 2021
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0258.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: Black Nazarene; Popular Devotion; Filipino Catholics; Sacred Liturgy; New Evangelization
Online: 9 June 2021 (11:10:28 CEST)
Popular devotions are reflections and expressions of the people’s faith. They are expressions of how people recognize God in their lives, and as a shared experience, they foster expressions of devotion and thus become a manifestation of prayer. Popular devotions as forms of prayer and worship do not contradict the Sacred Liturgy but are acknowledged as legitimate by the Apostolic See. Moreover, popular devotions, in general, lead to the cultivation of some values. One of the most popular devotions among Filipino Catholics is the devotion to the Black Nazarene, a life-sized statue of Jesus Christ kneeling in one knee carrying the cross-dressed in a maroon robe. His face is marked with wounds and blood. His head is crowned with thorns with three gold-plated metal rays on the top of his head, with his eyes looking up to heaven. The Black Nazarene devotion balances Christology from below and above, i.e., Christ does not remain crucified. Instead, he brings the hope of resurrection to those who fervently approach him with faith, hope, and love. It suffices to say that the Black Nazarene serves as a means for the Filipino faithful to encounter Christ in their lives. Given this, this paper aims to appraise the Black Nazarene Devotion as a means that contributes to the New Evangelization among Filipino Catholics. More specifically, this paper seeks to answer how the devotion to the Black Nazarene aids Filipino Catholics in their desire to sustain and grow in their faith amidst the crises and problems they are facing.
Thu, 17 December 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0147.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: career development; new faculty
Online: 17 December 2020 (11:39:14 CET)
Postdocs who land faculty jobs at research-intensive institutions need to juggle several new large-scale tasks: identifying space and equipment needs for their lab, negotiating the hiring package, outfitting the lab with supplies, building a team, and learning to manage time in ways that can promote productivity and happiness. Here we share tips to help new hires think clearly about each of these tasks.
Tue, 2 January 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0010.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Safety Research Keywords: serial killer; criminal profiling; victims; criminal psychology
Online: 2 January 2018 (10:10:51 CET)
Although the phenomenon of serial killers has received great attention from media, governments, and public, very little information is known about them and very few theories are presented by researchers specifically their definition and motives for killing. Through cross tabulation analysis of top ninety-eight serial killers, this present study poses six questions that investigate the correlations between, offender's gender, offender's level of education, time span of killing, killing severity, number of victims, killer's type of abuse, motives for killing, and victim's profile. Findings show that males kill more than females and for longer time, less educated serial killers kill more horribly, female serial killers consider their family members easy target, and finally males kill most for enjoyment and sex and females kill for financial gains.
Tue, 5 February 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0051.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Demography Keywords: Socio-demographic positions; Socio-demographic success; Socio-demographic evolution; Socio-demographic hierarchy; Mechanism; Quantitative Assessment
Online: 5 February 2019 (11:02:16 CET)
Our socio-demographic status is determined by socio-demographic position and success. In the theoretical frame works, little was known about the theory, quantification and evolutionary mechanism of socio-demographic status of individual(s). This paper proposed theoretical assumptions for the evolution of socio-demographically unique population. Seven (7) factors (the driving forces) and eight (8) conditions responsible for the evolution of socio-demographically unique population were identified and explained. The evolutionary transitions were organized into six (6) socio-demographic ranks. The paper also identifies the basic features that clarify our understanding about the conception of socio-demographic status of an individual(s) as common, universal and desirable positions, achievements, and advantages every individual strives and competes to attain, achieve and maintain which are determined by biological and social environments, driven and regulated by a continuum of competitions. The paper presents a new dimension for the quantitative assessment of an individuals’ socio-demographic status and the established hierarchical transitions.
Tue, 15 December 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0367.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Psychosocial impact; anxiety; Covid-19 stressors; policies; public health emergencies; pandemics
Online: 15 December 2020 (10:17:13 CET)
Purpose: A novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2 was identified as the cause of COVID-19 eventually led to the declaration of Public health emergency of international concern and a pandemic by WHO due to its exponential global spread. Present study was conducted to investigate the impact of second wave of pandemic on mental wellbeing and social behaviors among university students of Pakistan during this crucial period of COVID-19 infection. Methods: A cross-sectional analytical study was designed to evaluate the psychosocial impact during the current COVID-19 outbreak among the students of The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan. Snowball sampling or chain referral sampling procedure was adopted to recruit the participants in the study. Verbal informed consent was taken from all participants before recruitment in the study irrespective of their gender, age and socioeconomic status. Results: Mental health of university students during COVID-19 epidemic was affected to a varying degree revealing that 26.66% were recorded to have mild, 27.15% moderate and 17.04% suffering from severe anxiety out of total 1029 students. Students who were residing in urban areas with parents and having a steady family income were negatively associated and found protective factors against anxiety. However, having a relative or an acquaintance infected with COVID-19 was an independent risk factor for experienced anxiety. Positively associated factors with the level of anxiety symptoms included economic stressors, effects on daily-life, and academic delays whereas social support was negatively correlated with anxiety in COVID-19 related stressors. Conclusion: Public health emergencies and such pandemic are exerting serious psychological impacts on university students. It is recommended that the higher authorities should plan better policies to reduce this impact for the provision of high quality and timely crisis-oriented psychological services to university students.
Tue, 8 August 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0029.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Ethnic And Cultural Studies Keywords: amendment; corrigendum; erratum; errors; open science; peer review; preprint; replacement; retractions
Online: 8 August 2017 (08:27:48 CEST)
Academic publishing is undergoing a highly transformative process, and many rules and value systems that were in place for years are being challenged in unprecedented forms leading to the evolution of novel ways of dealing with new pressures. One of the most important aspects of an integrated and valid academic literature is the ability to screen publications for errors during peer review to weed out mistakes, fraud and inconsistencies, such that the final published product represents a product that has value, intellectually, and otherwise. It is difficult to claim the existence of perfect manuscripts. The level of errors that exist in a manuscript will depend on the rigor of the research group, as well as the peer review that screened that paper. When errors slip through into a final published paper, either through honest error or misconduct, and are not detected during peer review and editorial screening, but are spotted during post-publication peer review, an opportunity is created to set the record straight, and correct it. To date, the most common forms of correcting the literature have been errata, corrigenda, expressions of concern, and retractions. Despite this range of corrective measures, which represent artificially created corrals around pockets of imperfect literature, certain cases do not quite fit this mold, and new suggested measures for correcting the literature have been proposed, including manuscript versioning, amendments, partial retractions and retract and replace. A discussion of the evolving correction of the literature is provided, as are perspectives of the risks and benefits of such new measures to improve the literature.
Mon, 3 August 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0060.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Area Studies Keywords: COVID-19; knowledge; perception; attitude; Northern Region; Ghana
Online: 3 August 2020 (00:53:37 CEST)
Africa is gradually becoming an epicentre for the COVID-19 pandemic. From the current trends of the disease, Africa might be the last hardest hit continent. While scientific investigations are ongoing to develop effective management through medications and vaccines, existing knowledge, perceptions and attitudes could be harnessed to develop an effective strategy to curb community transmission of the COVID-19. The present study assessed the awareness level, perceptions and attitudes of people living in rural, peri-urban and urban communities in Northern Ghana and their preparedness for the prevention and containment of COVID-19. We conducted a face-to-face interview and administered 553 semi-structured questionnaires in eighteen (18) rural and peri-urban/urban communities under Tolon District, Kumbungu Districts, Sagnarigu Municipality, Savelugu Municipality and Tamale Metropolis from 23rd of April to 8th of June 2020. The percentage of male to female among the respondents was 56.8% and 43.2%, respectively. Nearly half (41%) of the respondents had no formal education and 91.3% of them were Muslims. Most of the respondents (85%) held the view that COVID-19 is a punishment from God. There was a significant difference (P<0.05) between the time rural and peri-urban/urban communities first heard of COVID-19. Majority (63%) of the rural respondents depended on radio, while the peri-urban/urban respondents (51%) relied on television for information on COVID-19. All respondents were aware of COVID-19 and 91.7% could mention at least two symptoms of the disease but 18% believed there was no COVID-19 in Ghana. Most of the respondents (69.6%) believed they will not contract the virus. Our findings may provide useful data to government and other stakeholders in the COVID-19 fight.
Fri, 16 December 2016
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: depression; measurement scale; ratings; literature review
Online: 16 December 2016 (07:57:02 CET)
The range of rating instruments in depression measurement and the depth of their analytical relevance constitutes a major development in this psychiatric and psychotherapeutic field of mental health. Though the competition is acute amongst these various instruments, the results for the public have been outstandingly positive. A depression rating scale is essentially a psychiatric measuring instrument utilized in the identification and ranking of depression severity within the patient. The scale provides the practitioner, psychiatrist or psychotherapist, with sufficient information to assess the severity of the depression plotted on the scale. Not used as a “diagnostic tool” itself, nevertheless, the depression rating scale does function as an effective device for designating and assigning a behavioral score which may, then, be used in establishing the severity of depression of value in the designation of a diagnosis and treatment formula. In this paper, we will take a close look at the leading depression rating scales and briefly summarize their scope of assessment value in rating depression.
Wed, 22 November 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0141.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: organizational culture; mission; consistency; involvement; adaptability
Online: 22 November 2017 (04:19:38 CET)
The main goal of this paper is to address how quickly and to what extent are international organizational cultures, brought by the world companies after the process of privatization, being implemented in a single monolithic culture. For this purpose was adopted and applied Denison model of organizational culture, which has been chosen because it emphasizes the need for balance between requirements for organization’s stability demands and its required flexibility. Considering that a different organizational culture reflects systematic change of an entire organization, this paper focuses on exploring the differences in culture dimensions among companies in domestic and foreign ownership in Serbia. A sample of 1000 employees was statistically processed. Changes in organizational culture tend to be relatively slow. The results confirm that organizational culture is a complex working environment, concerning organizational values, which represents a fundamental element of organizations. Given that the process of company ownership changes occurred fifteen years prior to the research implementation, obtained results show effects of interaction between national and organizational culture in this, relatively short, period of time. Obtained results can be generalized to countries that are passing or have recently passed a transition, and are similar in cultural characteristics.
Wed, 6 March 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.3390/sci1010012.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: adaptation; perception; climate change; Nepal; multivariate probit
Online: 6 March 2019 (00:00:00 CET)
This study assessed farmers’ perception of climate change, estimated the determinants of, and evaluated the relationship among adaptation practices using the multivariate probit model. A survey in 300 agricultural households was carried out covering 10 sample districts considering five agro-ecological zones and a vulnerability index. Four adaptation choices (change in planting date, crop variety, crop type and investment in irrigation) were deemed as outcome variables and socioeconomic, demographic, institutional, farm-level and perceptions variables were deployed as explanatory variables. Their marginal effects were determined for three climatic variables—temperature, precipitation and drought. Age, gender and education of head of household, credit access, farm area, rain-fed farming and tenure, are found to be more influential compared to other factors. All four adaptation-options are found to be complimentary to each other. Importantly, the intensity of impact of dependent variables in different models, and for available adaptation-options, are found to be unequal. Therefore, policy options and support facilities should be devised according to climatic variables and adaptation options to achieve superior results.
Wed, 10 August 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0106.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: packaging; beer; image mold; packaging weight; taste
Online: 10 August 2016 (09:04:27 CEST)
People often say that beer tastes better from a bottle than from a can. However, one can ask whether this perceived difference is reliable across consumers; And, if so, whether it is purely a psychological phenomenon (associated with the influence of packaging on taste perception), or whether instead it reflects some more mundane physico-chemical interaction between the packaging material (or packing procedure/process) and the contents. We conducted two experiments in order to address these important questions. In the main experiment, 151 participants at the 2016 Edinburgh Science Festival were served a beer in a plastic cup. The beer was either poured from a bottle or can (i.e., a between-participants experimental design was used) and the participants were encouraged to pick up the packaging in order to inspect the label before tasting the beer. The participants rated the perceived taste, quality, and freshness of the beer, as well as their likelihood of purchase, and their estimate of the price. All of the beer came from the same batch (from Barney’s Brewery in Edinburgh). Nevertheless, those who evaluated the bottled beer rated it as tasting better than those who rated the beer that had been served from a can. Having demonstrated such a perceptual difference in terms of taste, we then went on to investigate whether people would prefer one packaging format over the other when the beer from bottle and can was served to a new group of participants blind (i.e., when the participants did not know the packaging material). The participants in this control study (N = 29) were asked which beer they preferred or else could state that the two samples tasted the same. No sign of preference was obtained under such conditions. Explanations for the psychological impact of the packaging format, in terms of differences in packaging weight (between tin and glass), and/or prior associations of quality with specific packaging materials/formats (what some have chosen to call ‘image molds’) are discussed.
Mon, 8 February 2021
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0187.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: COVID-19; HEALTH INEQUALITIES; DEPRIVATION; SOCIAL EPIDEMIOLOGY
Online: 8 February 2021 (11:04:18 CET)
Objective: To investigate the association between deprivation and COVID-19 outcomes in Italy during pre-lockdown, lockdown and post-lockdown periods.Design: Retrospective cohort study.Setting: All municipalities in Italy with less than 50,000 population.Participants: 38,534,169 citizens and 222,875 COVID-19 cases reported to the Italian epidemiological surveillance were assigned to quintiles based on the deprivation index of their municipality of residence.Interventions: The COVID-19 pandemic during pre-lockdown, lockdown and post-lockdown from the 20th of February to the 15th of October of 2020.Main outcome measures: Multilevel negative binomial regression models, adjusting for age, sex, population-density and region of residence were conducted to evaluate the association between deprivation and COVID-19 incidence, case-hospitalisation rate and case-fatality. The association measure was the rate ratio.Results: During pre-lockdown, lockdown and post-lockdown, the incidence rate ratios (IRR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) in the most deprived quintile with respect to the least deprived quintile were 1.17 (95% CI 0.98 to 1.41), 1.14 (1.03 to 1.27) and 1.47 (1.32 to 1.63), respectively. In those three periods, the case-hospitalization IRR were 0.68 (0.51 to 0.92), 0.89 (0.72 to 1.11) and 0.99 (0.81 to 1.22) and the case-fatality IRR were 0.92 (0.75 to 1.13), 0.95 (0.85 to 1.07) and 1.02 (0.73 to 1.41), respectively.Conclusions: During lockdown and post-lockdown, but not during pre-lockdown, a higher incidence of cases was observed in the most deprived municipalities compared with the least deprived ones. No differences in case-hospitalisation and case-fatality according to deprivation were observed in any period under study.
Tue, 3 May 2016
EDITORIAL | doi:10.20944/preprints201605.0001.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Library And Information Sciences Keywords: Preprints, Open Science
Online: 3 May 2016 (14:43:02 CEST)
Preprints is a multidisciplinary preprint platform that makes scientific manuscripts from all fields of research immediately available at www.preprints.org. Preprints is a free (not-for-profit) open access service supported by MDPI in Basel, Switzerland.
Sat, 23 July 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0070.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Self-Action Leadership (SAL), SAL model, SAL theory, nomological, existential growth, organizational (or corporate) citizen, SAR project, SAL project, step-habit, Self-Declaration of Independence, Self-Constitution
Online: 23 July 2016 (10:26:10 CEST)
In 2015, the Self-Action Leadership Theory—a qualitative, nomological expansion of self-leadership theory rooted in atmospheric and astronomical metaphor aimed at expanding the personal freedom of individuals, organizations, and nations by bolstering the existential growth of individuals through a series of Maslow-esque stages of holistic, personal development. This article introduces an accompanying, practitioner-based Model of Self-Action Leadership (SAL) aimed at the implicit enhancement of a holistic range of administrative processes through explicit training, mentoring, and coaching in the model’s general and universally-applicable principles and practices. The SAL model produces an original construct of personal leadership practice that builds upon the extant self-leadership academic canon, which dates back to 1983 (Manz, 1983). It also provides an analogue to four of the five core processes of Project Management by positioning a self-action leader (an individual) as the ongoing “project” at hand. The SAL Model is rooted in action research and was developed through a variety of self-oriented, action research projects in conjunction with a comprehensive, qualitative, analytical autoethnographic study of a scholar’s life experiences.
Tue, 28 January 2020
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0339.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Decision Sciences Keywords: decision-making; change; behavior; climate change; deforestation; social norms; lobbyist, climate denier
Online: 28 January 2020 (10:44:27 CET)
Leaders are failing to respond to the climate and environmental urgency the world is facing. A growing action gap, clearly visible during the recent CoP25, has been fueled by leaders' inability to respond efficiently to the mounting threats scientists—and increasingly society—are concerned about. Bridging this gap and tackling the growing polarization within society calls for leaders to accept the full complexity of the issues the world is facing. This will require them to question their understanding of these geopolitical affairs and embrace the dynamics at play, and avoid falling back on simplistic cognitive models. We propose a heuristic to convey the pathways available to decision-makers to make their way out of the current inaction impasse. By breaking free of this deadlock, a social transition will have the potential to take place, helping us to avoid crossing the climate system tipping points.
Sat, 25 July 2020
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0616.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: COVID-19 pandemic; general population; students; health care workers
Online: 25 July 2020 (17:31:08 CEST)
Background: The COVID-19 among humans is spreading heavily and is largely impacting the mental health of the general population, students, and health care workers worldwide. Hence, this review aims to summarize the literatures addressing the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the mental health of the general population, students, and health care workers. Methods: Published articles concerning mental health of the general population, students, and health care workers related to the COVID-19 outbreak have been considered and reviewed. Results and Discussion: Mental health symptoms of stress, anxiety, and depression are common psychological reactions to the COVID-19 pandemic in the general population, students, and health care workers. This collectively influences daily behavior, economy, prevention strategies and decision making from policy makers and health organizations, weakening the strategies of COVID-19 control leading to more morbidity and mental health needs at the global level. Conclusion: There is a need for more evidence-based research from other affected countries, particularly in vulnerable populations such as children and adolescents, people of lower socioeconomic status, and those residing in rural areas, so that valid strategies can be developed and COVID-19 and outbreaks of similar types in the near future can be prevented.
Mon, 22 August 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0190.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: listening comprehension; subskills; validity
Online: 22 August 2016 (11:35:11 CEST)
The purpose of this study is to examine the cognitive processes underlying the listening comprehension section of IELTS and to investigate if they vary in terms of difficulty. For this purpose, a checklist of possible cognitive operations was prepared based on the literature and the candidates’ feedback. The checklist consisted of six cognitive operations. A sample of IELTS listening test was given to 310 upper intermediate and advanced students of English. Linear logistic test model was employed to analyse the data. Findings showed that keeping up with the pace of the speaker and understanding reduced forms were the most difficult operations for the listeners. Altogether, the six operations explained 72% of the variance in item difficulty estimates. Implications of the study for the testing and teaching of listening comprehension are discussed.
Tue, 10 December 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0127.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Language And Linguistics Keywords: ESL Reading; ELLs; reading strategies; reading aloud; silent reading
Online: 10 December 2019 (06:45:51 CET)
Research has shown that second language reading is the bridge that leads to developing otherlanguage skills such as speaking, writing, and vocabulary acquisition. Hence, the present studyaimed to explore adult language learners’ perspectives regarding the most effective andbeneficial reading strategies that can be used to develop their reading competency. Using aqualitative research method, the study examined what specific reading strategies languagelearners believe is effective in developing their reading skills. Analysis of the focus groupsrevealed five different reading strategies mentioned by the participants. These strategies were:Reading Aloud, Silent Reading, Shared Reading, Scanning or Skimming, and Timed Reading. Findings suggest that understanding the use of different reading strategies is important, solanguage teachers need to devote more learning time to introduce reading strategies during ESL classes.
Wed, 11 March 2020
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0182.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: escape room; escape game; game design; team work; collaborative learning; student engagement
Online: 11 March 2020 (10:25:22 CET)
The global increase of recreational escape rooms has inspired teachers around the world to implement escape rooms in educational settings. As escape rooms are increasingly popular in education, there is a need to evaluate their use, and a need for guidelines in order to develop and implement escape rooms in the classroom. This systematic review synthesizes current practices and experiences, focussing on important educational and game design aspects. Subsequently, relations between the game design aspects and the educational aspects are studied. Finally, student outcomes are related to the intended goals. In different disciplines, educators appear to have different motives to use aspects such as time constraints or teamwork. These educators make different choices for related game aspects such as the structuring of the puzzles. Other educators base their choices on common practices in recreational escape rooms. However, in educational escape rooms players need to reach the game goal by achieving the educational goals. More alignment in game mechanics and pedagogical approaches are recommended. These and more results lead to recommendations for developing and implementing escape rooms in education, and will help educators creating these new learning environments, and eventually help students’ foster knowledge and skills more effectively.
Tue, 20 February 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0129.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: nonverbal communication; interspecific communication; domestic horse
Online: 20 February 2018 (15:23:46 CET)
Although there has been research regarding the horses´ responses to human behavior, there is still a gap concerning the knowledge about the interaction of horses and humans in showing individual responses to different human behavior in the same situation. In this work, the horses´ individual responses to different humans were examined to close this research gap and to identify whether horses do really respond differently to different people. To this end, 29 horse and human interactions (including two identical exercises in each situation) were videoed and then transcribed in the style of HANOS. The qualitative content analysis was appropriated on the basis of Mayring. Both of the methods were adjusted to the special study conditions as the nonverbal interactions between each person and one horse were focused but no verbal expressions. In total, just under 600 interactions were analyzed (quantitative analyses). Based on these analyses, it can be assumed that each human individual received an individual, different feedback from the horses.
Tue, 9 August 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0091.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: sustainable waste management behaviors; protection motivation theory; pro-environmental behaviors; threat appraisal, coping appraisal
Online: 9 August 2016 (10:29:00 CEST)
This study aims to explain individual engagement in sustainable waste management behaviors (SWMBs) based on the application of protection motivation theory (PMT). SWMBs include waste avoidance, green purchasing behavior, reuse and recycle, and waste disposal behaviors. This study applies PMT to explore how individuals’ SWMBs are influenced by their perceived threats caused by environmental contamination from waste disposal and their perceived coping capability. The Bangkok metropolitan area was selected as a case study because it has faced serious waste management problems caused by massively increasing amounts of solid waste during the last ten years. Questionnaire surveys were conducted with 193 public and private officers residing in the city of Bangkok. The one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to justify the effect of individual threat appraisal and coping appraisal on the engagement in SWMBs. The results demonstrated that respondents’ self-efficacy highly influenced all types of SWMBs. The perceived probability of being impacted from pollutants influenced all of the SWMBs except green purchasing behaviors. Response efficacy did not influence all SWMBs; however, the perceived severity of adverse consequences caused by pollutants highly influenced reuse and recycle behaviors. It could be suggested that PMT is well suited for investigating low-cost and simple SWMBs. It could also be suggested that different communication campaigns should be established to enhance citizens’ engagement in each type of SWMB.
Mon, 18 March 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.3390/sci1010014.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: agriculture land use; conversion; peri-urbanization; food security; Asante-Akim South; Ghana
Online: 18 March 2019 (00:00:00 CET)
Rapid peri-urbanization has resulted in increasing demand for and pressure on peri-urban lands at the expense of agricultural lands. Households’ decision to convert from agricultural land uses to residential and commercial land uses is driven by a myriad of factors, ranging from social to economic, in the Asante-Akim South district of the Asante region, Ghana. The paper examined the effects of agricultural land use trade-off on food production in the district. Using a triangulation of qualitative and quantitative methods, 115 household respondents were proportionately sampled from three selected communities in the district, for the collection of data through the administration of questionnaires. The data were subjected to the Pearson’s chi-square, embedded in the SPSS V.16, to test for association among the variables. We report that the increasing rate of agricultural land uses conversions was as a result of increasing demand for residential and commercial land usage at the expense of agricultural land uses. Converting prime agricultural lands into other land uses was seen as profitable to agricultural expansion. A re-examination of the district land use plans by the Ghanaian Physical (Town and Country) Planning Department in tandem with the Lands Commission is therefore recommended.
Thu, 3 May 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0057.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: TMS; remote control; serial port; MagVenture; MagStim
Online: 3 May 2018 (08:45:50 CEST)
The capacity to externally control transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) devices is becoming increasingly important in brain stimulation research. Here we introduce MAGIC (MAGnetic stimulator Interface Controller), an open-source MATLAB toolbox for controlling Magstim and MagVenture stimulators. MAGIC includes a series of MATLAB functions which allow the user to arm/disarm the stimulator, send triggers, change stimulator settings such as amplitude, interpulse intervals, and frequency, and receive stimulator setting information via a serial port connection between a computer and the stimulator. By providing external control capability, MAGIC enables greater flexibility in designing research protocols which require trial-by-trial changes of device settings to realize a priori trial randomization or interactive ad hoc adjustment of parameters during an ongoing experiment. MAGIC thus helps to prevent experimental confounds related to the block-wise variation of parameters and facilitates the integration of TMS with cognitive/sensory tasks, and the development of more adaptive brain state-dependent brain stimulation protocols.
Tue, 12 July 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0022.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Ambient Assisted Living; eHealth; Technology Acceptance, Smart Health, User Diversity, Serious Games for Healthcare
Online: 12 July 2016 (09:39:31 CEST)
Based on the demographic shift and the related challenges resulting from the growing number of elderly and persons with chronic diseases, the idea of smart home that supports its inhabitants in the daily life, gains importance. The purpose of this paper was to examine in a prototypic Ambient Assisted Living environment if users after interaction with different health-supporting applications intend to use such in the future. Two experimental studies exemplary show possible applications of home-integrated technology that can support, assist and accompany the target group in different contexts, and examine to what extent participants are willing to future use such sophisticated technology at home. The results show that people in general, but especially the old and chronically ill ones are quite fascinated of health-supporting ambient technology and the majority intends to use such ambient assistance in the future (study I). Moreover, serious games for healthcare are shown as a hedonic use of technology in smart homes that have a great potential to retain or improve the physical health, mobility and the overall well-being of the inhabitants (study II). The article provides two examples of ambient technology to leverage the demographic change and presents important user factors for facilitating high user acceptance.
Sun, 18 September 2016
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0052.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: Dialectical Critical Realism; Education; Islam; Childhood Studies; Child Abuse; Work-Life-Balance; Roy Bhaskar; Priscilla Alderson; Margaret Archer
Online: 18 September 2016 (06:04:09 CEST)
Critical realism emerged from the philosophical writings of Roy Bhaskar, and has evolved into a philosophy of social science research using the model of “dialectical critical realism” (DCR) which begins with the researcher’s assumptions that the structures being researched have a real, ontological grounding which is independent of the researcher. This approach has proved fruitful in British and European social science research, but has had less influence in North America. We outline DCR’s four level model for understanding society and its changing social structures through “the pulse of freedom”. DCR has been used by Marxists, Muslims, Catholics and secular scholars who engage fruitfully in morphogenic dialogues leading to a critical realist understanding of society and social research, which transcends positivist and social constructionist models. Examples of DCR’s application in the fields of childhood research, child abuse, education, and research on organisations are outlined to illustrate the working of this new research paradigm. We are enthusiastic in our advocacy of DCR as a model of qualitative research, and for constructing models of positive social change, and are particularly impressed by the substantive and theoretical expositions of DCR by Priscilla Anderson, Matthew Wilkinson and Margaret Archer, whose work we document and review.
Tue, 27 July 2021
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0472.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Online misinformation; COVID-19 vaccination; fully vaccinated; Intelligence Quotient; per capita income
Online: 27 July 2021 (13:47:59 CEST)
The objective of the study was to evaluate the risk factors associated with lower COVID-19 vaccination rates in the United States. The study evaluated the effect of red-blue political affiliation, and the effect of the US state's average intelligence quotient (IQ) and per capita income on states vaccination rates. The study found that states with concomitantly lower income along with lower intelligence quotient (IQ) are less vaccinated while the states with higher income have higher vaccination rates even among those with lower intelligence quotients. These findings stayed significant after adjusting for red-blue political affiliation where states with red political affiliation have lower vaccination rates. Further study is needed to evaluate how to stop online misinformation among low-income low intelligence quotient states and whether such an effort will increase overall vaccination rates in the United States.
Wed, 25 January 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0107.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: intelligence; development of intelligence; cognitive development; network models; factor models; psychometrics; latent variable models
Online: 25 January 2017 (03:14:34 CET)
Cronbach’s (1957) famous division of scientific psychology into two disciplines is still actual for the fields of cognition (general mechanisms) and intelligence (dimensionality of individual differences). The welcome integration of the two fields requires the construction of mechanistic models of cognition and cognitive development that explain key phenomena in individual differences research. In this paper we argue that network modeling is a promising approach to integrate the processes of cognitive development and (developing) intelligence into one unified theory. Network models are defined mathematically, describe mechanisms on the level of the individual, and are able to explain positive correlations among intelligence subtest scores - the empirical basis for the well-known g-factor - as well as more complex factorial structures. Links between network modeling, factor modeling and item response theory allow for a common metric, encompassing both discrete and continuous characteristics, for cognitive development and intelligence.
Thu, 30 April 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0550.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Decision Sciences Keywords: COVID-19; strategic management; scenario analysis; response plans; lockdown
Online: 30 April 2020 (22:47:23 CEST)
Global pandemic COVID-19 is in stage 4 of widespread local transmission in Bangladesh- the country which did not have a noteworthy health policy and legislative structures to combat COVID-19 like a pandemic. Early strategic planning and groundwork for evolving and established challenges are crucial to assemble resources and react in an appropriate timely manner. This article, therefore, focuses on the public perception of comparative lockdown scenario analysis and how they may affect the sustainable development and the strategic management regime of COVID-19 pandemic in Bangladesh socioeconomically. Response from 159 respondents was collected via a purposive sampling survey method through a questionnaire, and 54 statements were collected for scenario analysis. Datasets were analyzed through a set of statistical techniques including Principal Component Analysis (PCA), hierarchical Cluster Analysis (CA), Pearson’s correlation matrix (PCM), Linear regression analysis (LRA), and psychometric characteristics were included in the Classical Test Theory (CTT) analysis. There were good associations among the lockdown scenarios and response strategies to be formulated. A strong significant positive relationship was observed between people who will start moving towards regular life and the formal and informal economic activities will be started in lockdown scenario 1(r=0.671, p<0.01). The scenario one describes how the death and infection rate will increase if Govt withdraw the partial lockdown before 40 to 50 days. Scenario 2 outlines people’s movement will enable low-level community transmission of COVID-19 with the infection and death rate will increase slowly (r=0.540, p<0.01). Moreover, there will be less supply of necessities of daily use with a price hike (r= 0.680, p<0.01). Scenario 3, full lock down will reduce the community transmission and death from COVID-19 (r=0.545, p<0.01). Moreover, along with the other problems gender discrimination and gender-based violence will increase rapidly (r=0.661, p<0.01). Form regression analysis, due to full lockdown, the formal and informal business, economy and education sector will be hampered severely (R=0.695), there was a strong association between the loss of livelihood and unemployment rate will increase due to business shutdown (p<0.01) and poor communities both in urban and rural areas will be affected severely (p<0.01).All these will further aggravate the humanitarian needs of the most vulnerable groups in the country in the coming months to be followed which needs to be dealt with proper response plans. It will undoubtedly affect the targets of global sustainable development goals (SDGs) of 2030 and all other development targets.
Thu, 2 April 2020
Subject: Social Sciences, Law Keywords: Infectious Diseases; Non-Communicable Diseases; Public Health Act; Laws and Regulations; Malawi
Online: 2 April 2020 (12:04:52 CEST)
Laws and regulations make powerful contribution in addressing multitudes of public health concerns. We examined the Public Health Act (PHA) in Malawi to understand its relevance to the ever-growing and changing threats posed by infectious and non-infectious diseases. The current Public Health Act of Malawi came into effect in 1948 to protect and preserve public health. The Act has undergone several amendments, the last one being in 1975. It draws much of its inspiration and standards from the 19th century British laws on insanitary housing, poor ventilation, and drainage. Such laws are silent on emerging major public health concerns including non-communicable diseases (NCDs) such as cardiovascular diseases and diabetes as well as road traffic injuries. This makes the Act outdated and ill equipped to address the 21st century public health concerns. Although supplementary legislation such as the HIV/AIDS Act and Mental Treatment Act have recently been enacted, they are yet to be consolidated into the Public Health Act. Consequently, existing policies and strategic plans that are meant to address gaps in public health and ensure coordinated effort lack support of laws and regulations. The Act also places great emphasis on mandatory vaccinations, quarantine and isolation against smallpox, a disease that has long been eradicated. Furthermore, although the Public Health Act outlines powers, duties and penalties, it fails to reinforce acceptable behaviour due to the insignificant penalties for noncompliance. There is a need for immediate and prompt revision and restructuring of the Public Health Act based on scientific evidence. Such laws require adequate consultation and interaction with key experts and stakeholders from a wide range of disciplines.
Thu, 27 April 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0180.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Language And Linguistics Keywords: natural language, unigram entropy, entropy rate, learnability, expressivity
Online: 27 April 2017 (15:54:13 CEST)
The choice associated with words is a fundamental property of natural languages. It lies at the heart of quantitative linguistics, computational linguistics, and language sciences more generally. Information-theory gives us tools at hand to measure precisely the average amount of choice associated with words—the word entropy. Here we use three parallel corpora—encompassing ca. 450 million words in 1916 texts and 1259 languages—to tackle some of the major conceptual and practical problems of word entropy estimation: dependence on text size, register, style and estimation method, as well as non-independence of words in co-text. We present three main results: 1) a text size of 50K tokens is sufficient for word entropies to stabilize throughout the text, 2) across languages of the world, word entropies display a unimodal distribution that is skewed to the right. This suggests that there is a trade-off between the learnability and expressivity of words across languages of the world. 3) There is a strong linear relationship between unigram entropies and entropy rates, suggesting that they are inherently linked. We discuss the implications of these results for studying the diversity and evolution of languages from an information-theoretic point of view.
Tue, 6 June 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0037.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: recycling; public participation; public perception; recycling behavior; environment
Online: 6 June 2017 (09:35:32 CEST)
Managing household solid waste is an urban problem in recent years. To tackle this problem, recycling is one of the most effective methods applicable in waste management. Recycling in the city of Laramie in Wyoming has a history that dates to 1983 with the establishment of Ark Recycling center. Laramie officially started its curbside recycling services in September 2011 and In April 2012, the city declared its long-term goal to achieve 40% diversion rate by 2030. The study involved a mail-back survey to understand public participation landscape and factors affecting recycling behaviors and attitudes of residents in Laramie. Quantitative result of the survey responses, civic engagement score, recycling importance score recycling satisfaction and recycling behavior scores were created to understand these attributes. In addition, three key informant interviews were conducted to explore efforts of the city, the University of Wyoming and the Ark Regional Services. Findings of the study show that more than 80% of the survey respondents indicated environmental concern was the major motivation to join recycling with high level of recycling importance and satisfaction. The Study further uncovered hints that Laramie needs to introduce an aggressive educational policy, incentive policies and a Master Plan to meet its 40% waste diversion rate by 2030 by maintaining stronger public participation in its planning process and community outreach programs.
Tue, 5 May 2020
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0050.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: COVID-19 Pandemic; Review Literature; Psychosocial Support System; Public Health Administration
Online: 5 May 2020 (02:23:47 CEST)
The state of community lock-down due to COVID-19 pandemic caused restricted movements of people. There are existing evidence of the negative impact of quarantine and isolation to the mental health of a person in different contexts. A scoping review of literature using Google Scholar was conducted to discover records about the public mental health while in a community quarantine due to COVID-19 pandemic. A methodological approach suggested by Arksey and O’Malley was utilized. It comprised (a) identifying the research questions, (b) identifying relevant literatures, (c) selecting literature, (d) charting the extracted data, and (e) summarizing, analyzing, and reporting the results. As of April 17, 2020, there were only 4 original articles found that discuss psychosocial aspect of the COVID-19 crisis. After an online survey, they present evidence that (1) there is an outward change in the people’s behavior toward self-care during the pandemic and (2) trusting the community governing bodies can minimize the level of anxiety and stress. Other literatures found are original articles in preprint (n=8), letters, commentaries, editorial (n=6), review paper (n=4), and WHO guideline (n=1). It is evident that the psychosocial aspect of COVID-19 crisis needs more attention from the scholars and a large research gap can be lessened trough expansion of online platforms.
Fri, 30 April 2021
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0789.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Gender And Sexuality Studies Keywords: catcalling, harassment; patriarchy; qualitative design; women
Online: 30 April 2021 (15:19:44 CEST)
Patriarchy culture is formed indirectly through a concept of a man as a head of family or the holder of the highest position. It leads to viewpoint that catcalling is assumed normally. Although catcalling seems like a compliment, but it is quite different with the exact compliment. The basic difference from them both is a compliment comes to sincerely from its giver, meanwhile catcalling is aimed to harass indirectly to women. This study aims to give an information and solution about the catcalling expansion in public areas especially by women community. The use of method to finish this study is qualitative design from literature sources for the last four years about problems of catcalling. The result of this study is giving information about catcalling by providing data and looking for solution related to catcalling phenomenon.
Sun, 3 May 2020
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0042.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: COVID-19; hand washing; hygiene; behaviour change; communications
Online: 3 May 2020 (09:05:38 CEST)
Whilst large-scale changes in population behaviour are required to reduce the transmission of the SARS-COV-2 pandemic virus, the emergency context is not conducive to the sort of careful communications planning that would normally be required to meet such a task. Rapid strategic communications planning in a pandemic by governments is, however, possible and necessary. Steps include setting up a dedicated communications task force, mobilising partners and resources, developing a creative brief and theory of change and overseeing the creation, testing, roll out and revision of content. In this short guide we argue that a minimum of strategic planning can be undertaken rapidly, and that good use can be made of simple principles of behaviour change, even during pandemics. Our aim here is to provide a blueprint that governments and their partners, especially in low-income settings, can follow to design, coordinate and resource national communications efforts to combat the COVID-19 pandemic.
Mon, 8 August 2016
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0074.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: reflection; healthcare education; umbrella review
Online: 8 August 2016 (10:40:19 CEST)
Reflection in healthcare education is an emergent topic with many studies and reviews being published. The purpose of the present review is to map the literature in this field by performing a systematic review of reviews (umbrella review) and to explore which definitions and models are currently in use, how reflection impacts on design, evaluation and assessment and future challenges. Nineteen reviews were identified that satisfied inclusion criteria. Emerging themes were: reflection is currently portrayed as self-reflection and critical reflection with the epistemology-of-practice notion not being as much as expected in tandem with the evidence-based-medicine paradigm modern science advocates. Reflective techniques were recognised in multiple settings (e.g. summative, formative, group vs individual etc.) and have been associated with learning but assessment remains a research topic with issues of validity, reliability and replicability. Future challenges involve the epistemology of reflection in healthcare education and how to practice and assess reflection without losing its theoretical background.
Thu, 9 August 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0180.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: personality; intelligence; development; cognition
Online: 9 August 2018 (08:25:45 CEST)
We present three studies which investigated the relations between cognition and personality from 7 to 20 years of age. All three studies showed that general cognitive ability and the general factor of personality are significantly related throughout this age span. This relation was expressed in several ways across studies. The first investigated developmental relations between three reasoning domains (inductive, deductive, and scientific) and Eysenck’s four personality dimensions in a longitudinal-sequential design where 260 participants received the cognitive tests three and the personality test two times, covering the span from 9-16 years. It was found that initial social likeability significantly shapes developmental momentum in cognition and vice-versa, especially in the 9 to 11 years period. The second study involved 438 participants from 7 to 17 years, tested twice on attention control, working memory, reasoning in different domains, and once by a Big Five Factors inventory. Extending the findings of the first, this study showed that progression in reasoning is affected negatively by conscientiousness and positively by openness, on top of attention control and working memory influences. The third study tested the relations between reasoning in several domains, the ability to evaluate one’s own cognitive performance, self-representation about the reasoning, the Big Five, and several aspects of emotional intelligence, from 9 to 20 years of age (N=247). Network, Hierarchical Network, and Structural Equation modeling showed that cognition and personality are mediated by the ability of self-knowing. Emotional intelligence was not an autonomous dimension. All dimensions but emotional intelligence influenced academic performance. A developmental model for mind-personality relations is proposed.
Tue, 18 April 2017
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0103.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: suicide prevention; e-mental health; implementation; fundamental research; ecological momentary assessment; experience sampling; network analysis
Online: 18 April 2017 (03:24:13 CEST)
Suicidal behaviour remains difficult to predict and prevent, even for experienced mental health care professionals. The known distal risk factors for suicidal behaviour are not sufficiently specific to fully understand the complex dynamic processes that precede a suicide attempt. Real-time mobile monitoring data can be used to analyse proximal risk mechanisms within the suicidal process. At the same time smartphone-based safety planning and self-monitoring may enhance a patient’s self-management skills thereby increasing their capacity to respond to a suicidal crisis and to become more aware of crisis symptoms. The current paper describes the theoretical and conceptual rationale for the CASPAR study which applies an innovative approach to the study of suicidal processes. It uses basic science approaches to inform the implementation of an innovative suicide prevention intervention. We aim to develop and implement mobile safety plan in conjunction with real-time monitoring in order to both directly implement suicide prevention interventions and to study the ongoing dynamics of individual suicidal behaviour by applying network analysis.
Sun, 5 February 2017
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0018.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: mastery learning strategy; learning retention; achievement; physical geography; conventional method
Online: 5 February 2017 (10:01:59 CET)
The need to alleviate the difficulties of abstraction and improve students’ achievement in Physical Geography informed this research. This study investigated the Effects of Mastery Learning Strategy and Learning Retention on Senior Secondary School Students’ Achievement in Physical Geography. The study adopted the quasi experimental non-equivalent pre-test, post-test control group design. The Multi-stage sampling technique at four levels was used to select four co-educational secondary schools in Ganye Educational Zone in Nigeria. The sample for the study was 218 Senior Secondary School two (SS II) students offering Geography from four intact classes in the four selected secondary schools. The instrument used for data collection was “Physical Geography Achievement and Retention Test” (PGART). The reliability of the instrument was established using Kendall tau b statistic. This gave a reliability index of 0.74. Data collected were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U and t-Test. The results showed that Mastery Learning Strategy has the potentials to improve students’ learning outcomes, retention and achievement in all spheres of cognitive domain in Physical Geography better than the Conventional Method. Hence the need to incorporate this teaching strategy during instruction so that learners would be guided to learn meaningfully and be assisted to retain content learnt in Geography.
Wed, 16 September 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0362.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Government Keywords: Artificial intelligence; Fourth Industrial Revolution; Poverty
Online: 16 September 2020 (11:31:39 CEST)
Though the share of the world population living in extreme poverty declined to 10 percent in 2015, from 16 percent in 2010 and 36 percent in 1990, data shows that the world is not on track in achieving the target of less than 3 percent of people living in extreme poverty by 2030. Hence the study sought to investigate the influence of AI on poverty reduction. Using content analysis one of the unobtrusive research techniques, the study found out that, the availability of relevant data is making AI be able to deliver value to humanity and AI has a strong influence on poverty in areas of relevant data collection through poverty maps, its ability to revolutionize agriculture, education, and the financial sector through digital financial inclusion. The study also discovered that many countries especially developing nations are not collecting as much data to identify the number of poor people and the regions where these people are located. However, the existence of AI is assisting to change this, or instance the study discovered that the research team at Stanford University is using satellite images to provide an alternative to map poverty, to identify the regions where poverty is more concentrated. Also, various robotics and AI programs such as Google and Stanford University’s Sustainability and Artificial Intelligence Lab, are coming forth with AI programs in agriculture which are doing a lot to improve farming, through the identification of diseases, prediction of crop yields, and location of areas prone to a scarcity among several other notable signs of progress in education. Therefore, the study recommends that governments, development institutions and other organizations that are striving to fight poverty to invest more in AI as well as adopting and scaling up its use as it presents benefits in the quest to ensure that poverty is reduced.
Sat, 17 February 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0115.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: sustainability; Green Engineering; curriculum development; chemical education; engineering education
Online: 17 February 2018 (13:23:39 CET)
The purpose of this study was to develop e-learning activities that integrated sustainability concepts and practices in process engineering education. Two blended courses were developed with two activities evaluated quantitatively and qualitatively to measure student engagement, quality of responses, and incorporation of sustainability in their arguments. Social network analysis and lexical analysis were used to assess students’ participation in discussions and peer reviews. In the online discussion, 97 comments were made averaging 120 words per comment. The participants averaged 3.88 comments, with the majority of comments exhibiting simple and complex argumentation, a deep reflection, and widespread use of terms associated with sustainability such as recycling, pollution, waste, and environment. Furthermore, evaluation of peer reviews revealed that the participants demonstrated they could identify errors and positives in an argument. Therefore, this study demonstrated that e-learning, particularly peer review and online discussion could help chemistry and engineering students understand sustainability.
Wed, 7 September 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0025.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: numerical cognition; numerical distance effect; numerical size effect; analogue number system; discrete semantic system
Online: 7 September 2016 (11:29:41 CEST)
Human number understanding is thought to rely on the analogue number system (ANS), working according to Weber’s law. We propose an alternative account, suggesting that symbolic mathematical knowledge is based on a discrete semantic system (DSS), a representation that stores values in a semantic network, similar to the mental lexicon or to a conceptual network. Here, focusing on the phenomena of numerical distance and size effects in comparison tasks, first we discuss how a DSS model could explain these numerical effects. Second, we demonstrate that DSS model can give quantitatively as appropriate a description of the effects as the ANS model. Finally, we show that symbolic numerical size effect is mainly influenced by the frequency of the symbols, and not by the ratios of their values. This last result suggests that numerical distance and size effects cannot be caused by the ANS, while the DSS model might be the alternative approach that can explain the frequency-based size effect.
Fri, 15 July 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0035.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: graduate student publishing; scholarly publication; research writing; productive academic writing; academic publishing, autoethnography
Online: 15 July 2016 (04:57:30 CEST)
For doctoral students, publishing in peer reviewed journals is a task many face with anxiety and trepidation. The world of publishing, from choosing a journal, negotiating editors and navigating reviewers’ responses is a bewildering place. Looking in from the outside, it seems that successful and productive academic writers have knowledge that is inaccessible to novice scholars. While there is a growing literature on writing for scholarly publication, many of these publications promote writing and publishing as a straight-forward activity that anyone can achieve if they follow the rules. We argue that the specific and situated contexts in which academic writers negotiate publishing practices is more complicated and messy. In this paper, we attempt to make explicit our publishing processes to highlight the complex nature of publishing. We use autoethnographic narratives to provide discussion points and insights into the challenges of publishing peer reviewed articles. One narrative is by a doctoral student at the beginning of her publishing career, who expresses her desires, concerns and anxieties about writing for publication. The other narrative focuses on the publishing practices of a more experienced academic writer. Both are international scholars working in the Canadian context. The purpose of this paper is to explore academic publishing through the juxtaposition of these two narratives to make explicit some of the more implicit processes. Four key themes emerge from these narratives. To publish successfully, academic writers need: 1) to be discourse analysts; 2) to have a critical competence; and 3) to have writing fluency and 4) to be emotionally intelligent.