ARTICLE Download: 1577| View: 7063| Comments: 3 | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0062.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pathology & Pathobiology Keywords: Lyme disease; Borrelia burgdorferi; Tickborne disease; Chronic infection; Spirochete culture
Online: 8 March 2018 (07:08:02 CET)
Introduction: Lyme disease is a tickborne illness that generates controversy among medical providers and researchers. One of the key topics of debate is the existence of persistent infection with the Lyme spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, in patients who have been treated with recommended doses of antibiotics yet remain symptomatic. Persistent spirochetal infection despite antibiotic therapy has recently been demonstrated in non-human primates. We present evidence of persistent Borrelia infection despite antibiotic therapy in patients with ongoing Lyme disease symptoms. Materials & Methods: In this pilot study, culture of body fluids and tissues was performed in a randomly selected group of 12 patients with persistent Lyme disease symptoms who had been treated or who were being treated with antibiotics. Cultures were also performed on a group of 10 control subjects without Lyme disease. The cultures were subjected to corroborative microscopic, histopathological and molecular testing for Borrelia organisms in four independent laboratories in a blinded manner. Results: Motile spirochetes identified histopathologically as Borrelia were detected in culture specimens, and these spirochetes were genetically identified as Borrelia burgdorferi by three distinct polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods. Spirochetes identified as Borrelia burgdorferi were cultured from the blood of seven subjects, from the genital secretions of ten subjects, and from a skin lesion of one subject. Cultures from control subjects without Lyme disease were negative for Borrelia using these methods. Conclusions: Using multiple corroborative detection methods, we showed that patients with persistent Lyme disease symptoms may have ongoing spirochetal infection despite antibiotic treatment, similar to findings in non-human primates. The optimal treatment for persistent Borrelia infection remains to be determined.
Tue, 4 June 2019
ARTICLE Download: 2217| View: 3538| Comments: 5 | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0030.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: autism; autistic spectrum disorder; children; behavior; ultrasonography; prenatal; pregnancy
Online: 4 June 2019 (12:56:37 CEST)
For the past several decades, abdominal prenatal ultrasonography has been the most significant technology in obstetrics with a long-established application. However, the frequency, exposure time, thermal and cavitation exposure indices, and increased acoustic output of the ultrasonic waves may be harmful to the embryo/fetus and might increase susceptibility to Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The increase in the prevalence of ASD is associated with an affluent ethnicity, high socioeconomic status, and high parental education where prenatal ultrasonography is readily available and affordable. Enhanced biophysical adverse effects may link the analogous increase in prenatal ultrasonography and autism, and prenatal ultrasonography may emerge as a risk factor for autism. Radiography usage provides historical evidence for this fact: the predominant past opinion was that exposure to X-rays during pregnancy caused no significant risk to a fetus. However, the association between X-ray exposure and childhood leukemia was only established 40 years after X-ray use began. This review focuses on excessive PUS usage and ASD development. Public Abstract Advancements in medical technology over the past several decades have made prenatal ultrasound more frequently accessible to expecting mothers during their pregnancy, especially for the affluent. A parallel development in health care is the increase in autism diagnoses (Autism Spectrum Disorder, or ASD) in children of affluent families. There is a general lack of studies of the impact of prenatal ultrasound on fetuses, especially around varying attributes such as frequency, duration of exposure, and thermal and cavitation indices. There is also a historical precedent set, where exposing fetuses to X-rays was not found to be harmful until it was linked to the development of childhood leukemia decades later. This paper seeks to establish a need to further study these attributes of prenatal ultrasound overuse and their possible impact on a developing fetus, with a special focus on the occurrence of Autism.
Tue, 6 December 2016
REVIEW Download: 1760| View: 2297| Comments: 1 | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0027.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: chatbot technology; ontology-based systems; expert systems; diagnosis; conversational agents; robotics; human-robot interaction; physician-patient relationship; intelligent agents
Online: 6 December 2016 (04:46:32 CET)
Access to medical care is a global issue. Technology-aided approaches have been applied in addressing this. Interventions have however not focused on medical diagnosis as a fully automated procedure and available applications employ mainly text-based inputs rather than conversation in natural language. We explored the utility of ontology-based chatbot technology for the design of intelligent agents for medical diagnosis through a systematic review of the most recent related literature. English articles published in 2011-2016 returned 233 hits which yielded 11 relevant articles after a 3-stage screening. Findings showed that the creation of expert systems had been the focus of many the studies which utilize the physician-system-patient framework with system training based mostly on expert knowledge for designing web- or mobile phone-based applications that serve assistive purposes. Findings further indicated gaps in the design and evaluation of more effective systems deployable as standalone applications, for example, on an embodied robotic system. The need for technology supporting the physical examination part of diagnosis, connection to data sources on patients’ vitals and medical history are also indicated in addition to the need for more qualitative work on natural language-based interaction. The system should be one that is continuously learning. Future works should also be directed towards the building of more robust knowledge base as well as evaluation of theory-based diagnostic methodological options
Mon, 22 August 2016
ARTICLE Download: 1099| View: 1881| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0188.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: oleandrin; osteosarcoma; apoptosis; caspases
Online: 22 August 2016 (05:35:06 CEST)
Our previous study has found the anti-tumor activity of oleandrin in osteosarcoma cells in vitro, but the signal transduction process of cell apoptosis induced by oleandrin is uncertain, which is explored in this study. Fluorescence staining and flow cytometry (FCM) was performed to detect the cell apoptosis, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). Caspase-3 activity was detected using a commercial kit. The protein expression of cytoplasmic cytochrome c, mitochondrial cytochrome c, bcl-2, bax, caspase-9, Fas, FasL, caspase-8 and caspase-3 was detected using western blot. A pan-caspase inhibitor, z-VAD-fmk, was applied to block the apoptotic pathway and the apoptosis status were re-tested. We found that oleandrin significantly induced the increased apoptosis of U2OS cells. Meanwhile, the intracellular ROS was elevated, but the MMP decreased. The cytochrome c in mitochondria was notably decreased but increased in cytoplasm. The caspase-3 activity was also enhanced with the increase of drug concentration and treatment time. Oleandrin also down-regulated the level of bcl-2, but remarkably up-regulated the expression of bax, cleaved caspase-9, Fas, FasL, cleaved caspase-8 and cleaved caspase-3. Furthermore, the pre-treatment with z-VAD-fmk almost completely reverted the oleandrin-induced apoptosis. The results suggested that oleandrin induces the apoptosis of osteosarcoma cells via mitochondrial- and death receptor-dependent pathways.
Thu, 6 December 2018
ARTICLE Download: 234| View: 1782| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0171.v3
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: genome-wide polygenic score; coronary artery disease; AUC
Online: 6 December 2018 (07:06:32 CET)
A recent study claimed that genome-wide polygenic scores (GPSs) for five common diseases could identify individuals with risk equivalent to monogenic mutations. Receiver operator curve analyses were reported to have areas under the curve (AUCs) ranging from 0.63 for inflammatory bowel disease up to 0.81 for coronary artery disease (CAD) but these models also included age and sex, themselves strong predictors of risk. The GPS for CAD identified 8% of the population at threefold increased risk, which it was claimed was comparable to the excess risk from monogenic mutations. In the present study attempts were made to model the distribution of the GPS for CAD to match the information provided. These models were based on the reported distribution of prevalence by centile of GPS and on the distribution of GPS in controls and cases and were fitted to the reported results using linear approximations to the distributions and using simulations of a liability-threshold model. It was impossible to produce a compatible model in which the GPS produced an AUC as high as 0.81 and the most plausible estimate was that the true AUC was only 0.65. The reported distributions of the GPS in cases and controls overlap so much that they are not compatible with an AUC of 0.7 or higher. The AUC of the GPS for these diseases is modest. Furthermore, the literature robustly demonstrates that true CAD risk associated with monogenic mutations is much higher than the threefold increase which is predicted by the GPS. Together, these findings cast doubt on the clinical utility of the GPS.
Sun, 25 December 2016
COMMUNICATION Download: 1557| View: 1712| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0122.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: furfuryl alcohol; β- myrcene; carcinogens; occurrence
Online: 25 December 2016 (08:21:19 CET)
For decades, compounds present in foods and beverages have been implicated in the etiology of human cancers. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) continues to classify such agents regarding their potential carcinogenicity in humans based on new evidence from animal and human studies. Furfuryl alcohol and β-myrcene belong to these potential human carcinogens due to be evaluated. The major source of furfuryl alcohol in foods is thermal processing and ageing of alcoholic beverages while β-myrcene occurs naturally as a constituent of essential oils of plants such as hops, lemongrass and derived products. This study aimed to summarize the occurrence of furfuryl alcohol and β-myrcene in foods and beverages using data from own nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis and literature review. The highest content of furfuryl alcohol was found in coffee beans (>100 mg/kg) and in some fish products (about 10 mg/kg) while among beverages, wines contained between 1–10 mg/L with 8 mg/L in pineapple juice. The content of β-myrcene was highest in hops. In conclusion, the data about the occurrence of the two agents is either very old or based on single sample analysis, and currently judged as insufficient for exposure and risk assessment. The results of this study point out the food and beverage groups that may be considered for future monitoring of furfuryl alcohol and β-myrcene.
Thu, 14 February 2019
ARTICLE Download: 689| View: 1679| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0139.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Cancer; Turbulence; Navier-Stokes; Chaos; Complexity; Fractals; Fluid Dynamics; Reprogramming
Online: 14 February 2019 (14:04:51 CET)
As we transition towards an era of Computational Medicine and Deep Learning Healthcare, our mathematical models of cancer dynamics must be revised. As such, recent evidences support the perspective that cancer-microenvironment interactions consist of turbulent flows and strange attractor dynamics. Using a systems biology approach, cancer pattern formation, energy flow, protein folding kinetics, stem cell fate bifurcations and metastatic invasion are hereby discussed within the context of hydrodynamical turbulence. Cancer is presented as a three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations global regularity, smoothness and existence problem.
Mon, 15 October 2018
ARTICLE Download: 217| View: 1634| Comments: 6 | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0300.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: allograft, xenograft, inflammation, sclerotic bone, implant failure, antigenic ossification
Online: 15 October 2018 (10:39:43 CEST)
Cadaver bone is possibly the most common transplant material used today. Common types of cadaver bone transplants are freeze dried bone allografts and xenografts. In the case of freeze dried bone allograft transplants, it was theorized that these materials mineralize by way of osteoinduction and stimulating osteogenesis. However, these theories have been proven false. It has been proposed that these materials mineralize via osteoconduction however, there are no studies to support this hypothesis. This study was undertaken to determine how these transplants mineralize and what type of bone they produce. Materials and Methods: This study is a histological analysis of human cadaver bone graft healing from the incipient stages of mineralization through completed mineralization. All cadaver bone grafts used for evaluation in this study were particulate bone graft materials in the maxilla or mandible. No block grafts were evaluated. Results: The mineralization of cadaver bone transplants was produced by an inflammatory response to the transplanted tissue. The histologic findings of the mineralized bone produced by this process was sclerotic bone. No resorption of cadaver bone graft particles was found. When loaded the sclerotic bone was found to fail through an accumulation of microfractures.Conclusions: Particulate freeze-dried bone allografts and xenografts do not heal via the normal processes of mineralization. Cadaver bone grafts produce significant inflammation and are hypothesized to mineralize by a process termed antigenic ossification. The process of antigenic ossification produces sclerotic bone that is not capable of self-repair which can ultimately lead to bone failure.
Thu, 16 May 2019
ARTICLE Download: 113| View: 1557| Comments: 1 | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0213.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Poor prognosis; medically non-beneficial care; futility; breaking bad news; withdrawal of care; miracle; hope; goals of care; communication; health disparities; racial discrimination; ethnocultural discrimination
Online: 16 May 2019 (12:38:38 CEST)
Objective: To recommend how physicians can best respond to families whose hopes for a miracle via divine intervention influence their medical decisions, like, for example, making them not want to withdraw ventilatory support in cases of poor neurologic prognosis because they are still hoping for God to intervene. Methods: Auto-ethnographic analysis of chaplaincy experience in this clinical context yields a nuanced 90-second, point-of-care spiritual intervention physicians can use to address the religious aspect of families who base medical decisions on their hopes for a miracle via divine intervention. Explanation of how spiritual intervention dovetails with existing physician communication protocol for responding to families hoping for a miracle. Results: Spiritual intervention for religious aspect of miracle-hoping families is integrated into existing physician communication protocol for responding to families hoping for a miracle with recommendations for utilization of existing communication technology when necessary. Conclusion: Properly addressing the religious dimension of families hoping for a miracle may be helpful for physicians interested in decreasing their own stress levels, improving outcomes for this clinical context, and ensuring that unintentional discrimination does not perpetuate racial disparities in end-of-life care.
Wed, 21 September 2016
ARTICLE Download: 1390| View: 1520| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0074.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: hepatocellular carcinoma; hepatitis B virus X protein; Notch1 pathway; ERK; AKT
Online: 21 September 2016 (09:49:13 CEST)
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the dominant risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). HBV X protein (HBx) plays crucial roles in HCC carcinogenesis. HBx interferes with several signaling pathways including Notch1 pathway in HCC. In our study, we found that Notch1 was highly expressed in HCC especially in large HCC. Notch1 and HBx co-localized in HCC and their levels were positively correlated with each other. Notch1 expression was more elevated in HepG2.2.15 than that in HepG2. HBx activated Notch1 pathway in HepG2.2.15. Repression of HBx and Notch1 pathway attenuated the growth of HepG2.2.15. Notch1, ERK and AKT pathways were inhibited after a γ-secretase inhibitor treatment. Dual-specificity phosphatase 1 (DUSP1) and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) were up-regulated after the γ-secretase inhibitor treatment and Hes1 inhibition. Luciferase reporter assays showed that Hes1 repressed the promoters of DUSP1 and PTEN and this was reverted by γ-secretase inhibitor treatment. Western blotting demonstrated that DUSP1 dephosphorylated pERK and PTEN dephosphorylated pAKT. Collectively, we reported a link among HBx, Notch1 pathway, DUSP1/PTEN, and ERK/AKT pathways, which influenced HCC cell survival and could be a therapeutic target for HCC.
Fri, 27 October 2017
ARTICLE Download: 1254| View: 1501| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0169.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: Schizophrenia; bipolar; psychosis; depression; polygenic risk score; diagnosis; RDoC
Online: 27 October 2017 (11:58:11 CEST)
In current diagnostic systems, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are still conceptualized as distinct categorical entities. Recently, both clinical and genetic evidence have challenged this Kraepelinian dichotomy. There are only few longitudinal studies addressing the potential overlaps between these conditions. Here, we present design and first results of the PsyCourse study, an ongoing transdiagnostic study of the affective-to-psychotic continuum that combines longitudinal deep phenotyping and dimensional assessment of psychopathology with an extensive collection of biomaterial. Within the DSM-IV framework, we compare two broad diagnostic groups: one consisting of predominantly affective and one of predominantly psychotic disorders. Depressive, manic, and psychotic symptoms as well as global functioning over time were analyzed. Furthermore, we explore the effects of polygenic risk scores for schizophrenia on diagnostic group membership and address their effects on non-participation in follow-up visits. While phenotypic results show differences in both current psychotic and manic symptoms, depressive symptoms did not vary between both groups. Polygenic risk scores for schizophrenia significantly explained part of the variability of the diagnostic group. Furthermore, there was a trend that a higher polygenic loading for schizophrenia was associated with attrition. Because of its unique properties, the PsyCourse study presents a prime resource for the interrogation of complex genotype-phenotype relationships.
Sun, 22 January 2017
REVIEW Download: 1925| View: 1410| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0094.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: theranostics; nuclear medicine; personalized medicine
Online: 22 January 2017 (04:29:27 CET)
The importance of personalized medicine is growing, since there is an urged need to avoid unnecessary and expensive treatments. In nuclear medicine, the theranostic approach is an established tool for a specific molecular targeting in means of diagnostics and therapy. The visualisation of potential targets can help to predict if a patient would benefit from a particular treatment or not. Thanks to the quick development of radiopharmaceuticals and diagnostic techniques, the use of theranostic agents is constantly rising. In this article important milestones of nuclear therapies and diagnostics in the context of theranostics are highlighted. It begins with the well-known radioiodine therapy in patients with thyroid cancer and then guides through different approaches for the treatment of advanced cancer with targeted therapies. The aim of this review is to provide a summary of background knowledge, current applications and advantages of targeted therapies and imaging in nuclear medicine practice.
Fri, 2 March 2018
ARTICLE Download: 206| View: 1395| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0018.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: anterior intraparietal area; stroke; rTMS; Fugl-Meyer Assessment; fast frequency TMS; motricity; sensibility; chronic patients
Online: 2 March 2018 (05:16:16 CET)
1) Objective: to evaluate the effects of excitatory transcranial magnetic stimulation of the anterior intraparietal area in chronic patients with a frontal lesion and parietal sparing due to stroke on the impaired upper (UL) and lower limb (LL) as measured by Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA). 2) Methods: three patients (P1: 49.83/2.75, P2: 53.17/3.83, P3:63.33/3.08 years-old at stroke/years post-stroke, respectively) received two weeks (five days/ week) of rTMS at 10 Hz of the left anterior intraparietal area (AIP). A patient was treated in similar conditions with a sham coil (56.58/4.33) No complimentary therapy was delivered during the study. Patients were evaluated before, after- and two-months post-treatment (A1, A2 and A3, respectively). 3) Results: We found increased scores for lower limb in motor function subsection for P1 and P3 and in sensory function for P2 by A2 that remained at A3. We also found an increased score for upper limb motor function for P2 and P3, but the score decreased by A3 for P2. P3 score for upper limb ROM increased by A3 compared to A1 and A2. 4) Conclusion: AIP excitatory rTMS increased the FMA scores for lower and upper limb function, showing a broader effect when compared to M1 stimulation.
Sun, 9 October 2016
ARTICLE Download: 971| View: 1357| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0025.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: drug repurposing; translational bioinformatics; transcriptomics; transcriptome analysis; drug discovery; protocol; gene expression
Online: 9 October 2016 (08:42:23 CEST)
Traditional methods for discovery and development of new drugs can be a very time-consuming and expensive process because it includes several stages such as compound identification, pre-clinical and clinical trials before the drug is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Therefore, drug repurposing, namely using currently FDA-approved drugs as therapeutics for other diseases than what they are originally prescribed for, is emerging to be a faster and more cost-effective alternative to current drug discovery methods. In this paper, we have described a three-step in silico protocol for analyzing transcriptomics data using online databases and bioinformatics tools for identifying potentially repurposable drugs. The efficacy of this protocol was evaluated by comparing its predictions with the findings of two case studies of recently reported repurposed drugs: HIV treating drug Zidovudine for the treatment of Dry Age-Related Macular Degeneration and the antidepressant Imipramine for Small-Cell Lung Carcinoma. The proposed protocol successfully identified the published findings, thus demonstrating the efficacy of this method. In addition, it also yielded several novel predictions that have not yet been published, including the finding that Imipramine could potentially treat Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), a disease that currently does not have any treatment or vaccine. Since this in-silico protocol is simple to use and does not require advanced computer skills, we believe any motivated participant with access to these databases and tools would be able to apply it to large datasets to identify other potentially repurposable drugs in the future.
Fri, 2 September 2016
ARTICLE Download: 1138| View: 1353| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0232.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: mHealth; ODK scan; mobile health application; digitizing data collection; data management processes; paper-to-digital system; technology-assisted data management; treatment adherence
Online: 2 September 2016 (03:17:38 CEST)
The present grievous situation of the tuberculosis disease can be improved by efficient case management and timely follow-up evaluations. With the advent of digital technology this can be achieved by quick summarization of the patient-centric data. The aim of our study was to assess the effectiveness of the ODK Scan paper-to-digital system during testing period of three months. A sequential, explanatory mixed-method research approach was employed to elucidate technology use. Training, smartphones, application and 3G enabled SIMs were provided to the four field workers. At the beginning, baseline measures of the data management aspects were recorded and compared with endline measures to see the impact of ODK Scan. Additionally, at the end, users’ feedback was collected regarding app usability, user interface design and workflow changes. 122 patients’ records were retrieved from the server and analysed for quality. It was found that ODK Scan recognized 99.2% of multiple choice bubble responses and 79.4% of numerical digit responses correctly. However, the overall quality of the digital data was decreased in comparison to manually entered data. Using ODK Scan, a significant time reduction is observed in data aggregation and data transfer activities, however, data verification and form filling activities took more time. Interviews revealed that field workers saw value in using ODK Scan, however, they were more concerned about the time consuming aspects of the use of ODK Scan. Therefore, it is concluded that minimal disturbance in the existing workflow, continuous feedback and value additions are the important considerations for the implementing organization to ensure technology adoption and workflow improvements.
Wed, 4 July 2018
REVIEW Download: 379| View: 1305| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0071.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: precision medicine; next generation sequencing; oncology, patient outcomes; health insurance coverage
Online: 4 July 2018 (11:06:43 CEST)
Precision medicine seeks to use genomic data to help provide the right treatment to the right patient at the right time. Next-generation sequencing technology allows for the rapid and accurate sequencing of many genes at once. This technology is becoming more common in oncology, though the clinical benefit of incorporating it into precision medicine strategies remains under significant debate. In this manuscript, we discuss the early findings of the impact of next-generation sequencing on cancer patient outcomes. We investigate why not all patients with genomic variants linked to a specific therapy receive that therapy and describe current barriers. Finally, we explore the current state of health insurance coverage for individual genome sequencing and targeted therapies for cancer. Based on our analysis, we recommend increased transparency around the determination of “actionable mutations” and a heightened focus on investigating the variations in health insurance coverage across patients receiving sequencing-matched therapies.
Mon, 2 October 2017
REVIEW Download: 600| View: 1274| Comments: 1 | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0006.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: essential fatty acids; ascorbic acid; glutathione; aging; parkinson’s disease; alzheimer’s disease; senescence; nervous system; growth factors; neuroprotection; docosahexaenoic acid; α-linolenic acid.
Online: 2 October 2017 (08:59:13 CEST)
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and antioxidants are important mediators in the central nervous system (CNS). Lipid derivatives may be used to generate endocannabinoids or prostanoids derived from arachidonic acid, which attenuates excitotoxicity in quadripartite synapses with a focus in astrocytes and microglia; on the other hand, antioxidants, such as glutathione (GSH) and ascorbate, have been shown to signal through transmitter receptors and protect against acute and chronic oxidative stress, modulating the activity of different signaling pathways. Several authors have investigated the role of these nutrients in young and senescent brain, as well as in degenerative conditions such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson's diseases. Through literature review, we aimed to highlight recent data on the role of fatty acids, antioxidants and physical activity in physiology and in molecular mechanisms of brain senescence. Data indicate the complexity and essentiality of endogenous/dietary antioxidants for maintenance of the redox status and control of neuroglial signaling under stress. Recent studies also indicate that omega-3 and -6 fatty acids act in a competitive manner to generate mediators for energy metabolism, feeding behavior, plasticity and memory mechanisms throughout aging. Finding pharmacological or dietary resources that mitigate or prevent neurodegenerative affections continues to be a great challenge and require additional efforts from researchers, clinicians and nutritionists in the field.
Fri, 12 August 2016
ARTICLE Download: 1201| View: 1273| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0132.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: fall risk assessment; risk of falling; force platforms; inertial sensors.
Online: 12 August 2016 (09:32:28 CEST)
Purpose: National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) has recently published quality standards for assessment of fall risk and preventing further falls. According to the standards, multifactorial fall risk assessments should include: identification of falls history; analysis of gait, balance, mobility and muscle strength, among other factors. Despite being based on subjective analysis or simple timing and not being multifactorial, physiotherapists and physicians quite often use these tests as reference scales to differentiate between lower and higher risk of falling. Instrumented TUG has been recently reported to provide important additional information to the overall score. Objective: To explore a case-based approach of fall risk assessment to identify the most relevant and informative risk factors that in combination could better define a person risk profile. Materials and Methods: A multifactorial assessment of fall risk through questionnaires, standard functional tests, tests instrumented with inertial sensors, and force platforms has been studied within a group aged 55-80 years old. Different fall risk factors and fall risk assessment methods were analyzed in a case-based descriptive study. Results & Discussion: Subjects at higher risk of falling were identified based on their detailed profiles. A set of features were obtained from the instrumented standard tests differing significantly between subjects presenting higher or lower fall risk. Therefore, instrumenting conventional tests with wearables containing inertial sensors and force platforms gives more detailed and quantitative insights. This information can be used to better define and tailor fall prevention exercises and to improve the follow-up of the evolution of the subject.
Fri, 7 October 2016
COMMUNICATION Download: 1125| View: 1268| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0015.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Blackberry juice; Thermoultrasound; Antioxidant Compounds; Fatty Acids
Online: 7 October 2016 (10:12:21 CEST)
Blackberry (Rubus fruticosus spp) is a fruit that has a significant antioxidant activity, due to its content in anthocyanins and antioxidant compounds. Emerging technologies are required as the thermoultrasound technique that ensures microbial reduction and release of compounds with antioxidant properties. The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in the antioxidant content and fatty acid profile of blackberry juice when it is subjected to conservation treatment (pasteurization and thermoultrasound). The blackberry juice and the extracted oil of blackberry juice with n-hexane (control, pasteurized and thermoultrasonicated) were evaluated in antioxidant activity, fatty acid profile and antioxidant content. The thermoultrasound juice had the highest (p < 0.05) amount of total phenols (1011 mg GAE/L), anthocyanins (118 mg Cy-3-GlE/L); antioxidant activity by ABTS (44 mg VCEAC/L) and DPPH (2665 µmol TE/L) compared to the control and pasteurized samples, as well as, as well as, oil extract of obtained of the thermoultrasound juice presented high antioxidant activity (177.54 mg VCEAC/L to ABTS and 1802.60 µmol TE/L to DPPH). The fatty acid composition of the oil extract showed the presence of myristic, linolenic, stearic, oleic, and linoleic acid, the fatty acid profile was similar in the different samples with the exception of stearic acid where this was higher in control sample. The thermoultrasound treatment can be an alternative to pasteurization treatments because keeps and releases antioxidant bioavailable compounds, preserving their fatty acids.
Mon, 5 September 2016
ARTICLE Download: 912| View: 1257| Comments: 2 | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0014.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: HIV/AIDS; testing; trends; Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System; socio-demographic; Georgia
Online: 5 September 2016 (11:21:36 CEST)
Georgia is ranked fifth highest among states for rates of HIV diagnosis. About 4% of persons living with HIV infection in the United States reside in Georgia, and almost 19% of these people do not know their HIV status. The present study examined the trends and associated factors of HIV testing among adults in Georgia between 2010 and 2014 by analyzing data of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). A total of 30,791 persons aged ≥18 years were identified who responded to the question “Have you ever been tested for HIV?” Overall, there were 11,543 respondents who had been tested for HIV, with a decrease in percentage from 49.4% in 2010 to 43.7% in 2014 (p<0.001). Factors associated with HIV testing were being black (p<0.001), being younger than 55 years (p<0.001), single (p=0.02), attaining education level above high school (P<0.001), engaging in HIV high-risk behaviors (p<0.001), and not having healthcare coverage (p=0.03). Overall in Georgia, there has been a decline in the temporal trend of HIV testing, and more than half of adults have never been tested for HIV. For reducing HIV transmission in Georgia, enhancing access and utilization of HIV testing should be a public health priority.
Wed, 4 April 2018
REVIEW Download: 281| View: 1233| Comments: 3 | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0052.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Th2 immunity; food allergy; allergic sensitization; allergens; alarmins; initiation of allergy; IgE; allergic disease
Online: 4 April 2018 (07:35:35 CEST)
In contrast to Th1 immune responses against pathogenic viruses and bacteria, the incipient events that generate Th2 responses remain less understood. Part of the difficulty in identifying universal operating principles stems from the diversity of entities against which cellular and molecular Th2 responses are produced. Indeed, such responses are launched towards harmful macroscopic parasites and noxious substances such as venoms but also against largely innocuous allergens. This suggests that the canonical understanding about sensing and recognition applied to Th1 responses may not be translatable to Th2 responses. This review will discuss processes and signals known to occur in Th2 responses, particularly in the context of food allergy. We propose that perturbations of homeostasis at barrier sites induced by external or internal subverters that either activate the immune system or lower its threshold activation are the major requirement for allergic sensitization. Innate signals produced in the tissue under these conditions equip dendritic cells with a program that shapes an adaptive Th2 response.
Fri, 12 January 2018
ARTICLE Download: 574| View: 1230| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0114.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: rehabilitation; indicators; health systems; right to health; monitoring; health services for persons with disability; human rights; accountability
Online: 12 January 2018 (08:10:28 CET)
Background: Access to rehabilitation is crucial for the realization of the right to health and a proper concern of global health. Yet, reliable information to guide rehabilitation service planning is unavailable in many countries in part due to the lack of appropriate indicators. To ensure universal health coverage and meet the central imperative of “leaving no one behind” countries must be able to assess key aspects of rehabilitation policy and provision and monitor how they have discharged their human rights responsibilities towards those most disadvantaged, including people with disability. This article describes the process of developing an expert guided indicator framework to assess governments’ efforts and progress in strengthening rehabilitation in line with the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. Methods: A systems methodology - concept mapping - was used to capture, aggregate and confirm the knowledge of diverse stakeholders on measures thought to be useful for monitoring the implementation of the Convention with respect to health related rehabilitation. 56 individuals generated a list of 107 indicators through online brainstorming which were subsequently sorted by 37 experts from the original panel into non overlapping categories. 41 participants rated the indicators for importance and feasibility. Multivariate statistical techniques where used to explore patterns and themes in the data and create the indicators’ organizing framework which was verified and interpreted by participants. Results: A concept map of 11 clusters of indicators emerged from the analysis grouped into three broader themes: Governance and Leadership (3 clusters); Service Delivery, Financing and Oversight (6 clusters); and Human Resources (2 clusters). The RESYST was comprehensive and well aligned with the Convention. On average, there was a moderately positive correlation between importance and feasibility of the indicators (r=.58) with experts prioritizing the indicators contained in the clusters of the Governance and Leadership domain. Two of the most important indicators arose from the Service Delivery, Financing and Oversight domain and reflect the need to monitor unmet needs and barriers in access to rehabilitation. In total, 59 indicators achieved above average score for importance and comprised the two–tiered priority set of indicators. Conclusion: Concept mapping was successful in generating a shared model that enables a system’s view of the most critical legal, policy and programmatic factors that must be addressed when assessing country efforts to reform, upscale and improve rehabilitation services. The RESYST provides a data driven basis for the development of standardized data collection tools to facilitate comparative analysis of rehabilitation systems.
Thu, 11 August 2016
ARTICLE Download: 1054| View: 1218| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0093.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: depression; anxiety; emotional distress; HADS; GDS; Health Centre
Online: 11 August 2016 (11:05:44 CEST)
Objective: The main purpose of this study was to investigate the mental health of Cypriot citizens, living in the current difficult period of economic recession. Specific objective was to investigate the different factors (gender, age, socio-economic factors, etc.) that may affect the levels of emotional distress, anxiety and depression in visitors of the Rural Health Centre of Kofinou. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of total 300 Cypriots who visited Kofinou Health Centre in the period between August and September 2015. For the middle-aged citizens the Greek version of the HADS scale (Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale) was administered to 150 persons (Michopoulos I., 2007), while for the visiting senior citizens (aged over 65 years) the Greek version of the GDS scale (Geriatric Depression Scale) was used (Fountoulakis K., et al., 1999). All analyses were performed with the social science analysis package SPSS (version 21). Results: HADS: A total of 150 people of average age 47±11,5 years (23-64), were 56% women, while the 77.3% stated they had drastic reduction of income as well as 46.7% suffered from chronic disease. The 36.6% and 28.7% of the visitors showed moderate and severe forms of anxiety and depression, accordingly. Higher emotional distress is associated with lower educational level (p<0,001). Moreover, patients with low income have higher levels of anxiety (p=0,003), depression (p=0,036) and total emotional distress (p=0,007), while those with chronic disease have a higher stress (p<0,001), depression (p<0,001) and total emotional distress symptoms (p<0,001) compared to non - patients. GDS: 150 patients out of which 77 were women (51.3%). The average age of participants was 72±5,5 years. 93(62%) participants declared a drastic reduction of income due to the financial crisis while 139 (92.7%) stated they had chronic disease. 53 participants (35.3%) think they have symptoms of depression after the economic crisis. The women showed higher level of geriatric depression symptoms than men (p<0.001). Higher levels of depression is associated with lower income (p=0.001). Conclusions: The study shows that stress levels, depression and emotional distress are increased in specific population groups. The main factors affecting the mental health of the participants are the presence of chronic disease, income and level of education.
Mon, 12 August 2019
ARTICLE Download: 459| View: 1207| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0146.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: health-oriented physical; immersive virtual reality; virtual reality; intensity of physical activity
Online: 12 August 2019 (14:02:12 CEST)
The aim of the study is to assess enjoyment and intensity of physical exercise while practicing physical activity (PA) in immersive virtual reality (IVR) using innovative training devices (omni-directional Omni treadmill and Icaros Pro flight simulator). The study also contains the results of subjective research on the usefulness of such a form of PA in the opinion of users. In total, 61 adults (10 women and 50 men) took part in the study. To assess the enjoyment level (EL) Interest/Enjoyment subscale of Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI) was used. Exercise intensity was assessed during 10-minute sessions of active video games (AVGs) in IVR based on heart rate (HR). The average enjoyment level during physical exercise in IVR on the tested training devices was relatively high (Omni 5.74 points, Icaros 5.60 points). In the opinion of the majority of participants, AVGs on IVR training devices constitute a sufficiently useful form of movement to meet the needs of PA practiced in free time, and they can even replace some of the classic forms of movement. Intensity of PA during games on training devices was at the level recommended for health benefits for 92% (Omni) and 84% (Icaros Pro) of its duration. Based on the conducted research, it can be assumed that AVGs in IVR using a multi-directional treadmill and a flight simulator can be an effective tool for increasing participation in health-oriented PA.
Tue, 1 May 2018
REVIEW Download: 563| View: 1203| Comments: 1 | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0011.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: computational drug repositioning; drug repositioning; drug repurposing; machine learning; deep learning; crowdsourcing; open innovation; drug discovery
Online: 1 May 2018 (12:27:22 CEST)
Maximizing the indications potential and revenue from drugs that are already marketed offers a new take on the famous mantra of the Nobel Prize-winning pharmacologist, Sir James Black, “The most fruitful basis for the discovery of a new drug is to start with an old drug”. However, rational design of drug mixtures poses formidable challenges because of the lack of or limited information about in vivo cell regulation, mechanisms of genetic pathway activation, and in vivo pathway interactions. Most of the repositioned drugs therefore are the result of “serendipity” - based on late phase clinical studies of unexpected findings. One of the reasons that the connection between drug candidates and their potential adverse drug reactions or new applications could not be identified earlier is that the underlying mechanism associating them is either very intricate and unknown or dispersed and buried in a sea of information. Discovery of such multi-domain pharmacomodules - pharmacologically relevant sub-networks of biomolecules and/or pathways - from collection of databases by independent/simultaneous mining of multiple datasets is an active area of research. Here, while presenting some of the promising bioinformatics approaches and pipelines, we summarize and discuss the current and evolving landscape of computational drug repositioning.
Fri, 23 December 2016
REVIEW Download: 2062| View: 1195| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0119.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: antibiotic; bacteroidetes; dietary emulsifier; firmicutes; food additive; gut microbiota; non-nutritive sweetener; proteobacteria
Online: 23 December 2016 (11:21:40 CET)
Gut bacteria play an important role in several metabolic processes and human diseases, such as obesity and its co-morbidities, like fatty liver disease, insulin resistance/diabetes and cardiovascular events. Among several factors, dietary patterns, probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, antimicrobials and non-dietary factors, such as stress, age, exercise and climatic conditions, can dramatically impact the human gut microbiota diversity and equilibrium. However, the effect of minor food constituents, including food additives and trace contaminants, on human gut microbiota has received less attention. Consequently, the present review aimed to provide an objective perspective of the current knowledge regarding the impacts of minor food constituents on human gut microbiota and consequently, on human health.
Wed, 11 January 2017
REVIEW Download: 1235| View: 1180| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0057.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: osteoarthritis; rheumatoid arthritis; medicinal plants; herbs
Online: 11 January 2017 (07:56:32 CET)
Chronic joint inflammatory disorders such as osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis have in common an upsurge of inflammation, and oxidative stress, resulting in progressive histological alterations and disabling symptoms. Currently used conventional medication (ranging from pain-killers to biological agents) is potent, but frequently associated with serious, even life-threatening side effects. Used for millennia in traditional herbalism, medicinal plants are a promising alternative, with lower rate of adverse events and an efficiency frequently comparable with that of conventional drugs. Nevertheless, their mechanism of action is in many cases elusive and/or uncertain. Even many of them have been proved effective in studies done in vitro or on animal models, there is a scarcity of human clinical evidence. The purpose of this review is to summarise the available scientific information on these joint-friendly medicinal plants, which have been already tested in human studies: Arnica montana, Boswelliaspp., Curcuma spp., Equisetum arvense, Harpagophytumprocumbens, Salix spp., Sesamumindicum, Symphytumofficinalis, Zingiberofficinalis, Panaxnotoginseng, Whitaniasomnifera.
Tue, 30 August 2016
COMMUNICATION Download: 1226| View: 1161| Comments: 1 | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0228.v1
Online: 30 August 2016 (04:27:17 CEST)
Anderson-Fabry disease is a rare X-linked lysosomal storage disorder caused by deficient or absent activity of the enzyme alfa-galactosidase A. This defect enzyme leads to accumulation of glycolipids, primarily globotriaosylceramide (Gb3), in the vascular endothelium of several organs, including the skin, kidneys, nervous system, and heart. The characteristic early clinical features of Fabry disease include acroparaesthesia, angiokeratoma, heat intolerance, hypohidrosis, cornea verticillata and gastrointestinal symptoms. Later complications occur with the disease progression and include progressive renal failure, hypertrofic cardiomyopathy, cerebrovascular disease and reduced life expectancy. Anderson Fabry disease is therefore a disabling and systemic disease which requires a timely diagnosis. The purpose of our study is to define sweat glands morphological abnormalities in children and adolescents with Fabry disease with minimal symptoms and in patients affected by variants of Fabry disease in which biopsy is essential, to establish a baseline morphological diagnosis of the disease before to undergo to kidney or endomyocardial biopsy or when the classical approach is not possible because of some complications, with minimal discomfort for patients.
Wed, 7 September 2016
ARTICLE Download: 1027| View: 1159| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0024.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: neurofibromatosis type 1; congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia; whole-exome sequencing; targeted sequencing; BCOR
Online: 7 September 2016 (11:19:00 CEST)
Neurofibromatosis type1 (NF1) is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations in the NF1gene. Although congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia (CPT) has frequently been associated with NF1, the underlying molecular mechanism of CPT in these NF1 patients is yet ill-understood. The aim of the present study was to detect NF1 mutations from genomic DNA and to harbor variants associated with CPT in NF1 patients. Whole-exome sequencing was first carried out with samples from two patients with CPT in one NF1 family, and a novel mutation c.2324A>G (p.E775G) in NF1 gene was identified. Additionally, a missense variant c.455C>T (p.P152L) in BCOR gene completely co-segregated with the CPT phenotype within this family. Subsequently, NF1 and NF2 genes in four other unrelated patients with both NF1 and CPT were screened using targeted sequencing. Four mutations in NF1 gene, including two known mutations (c.2288T>C/p.L763P, c.574 C>T/p.R192*) and two novel mutations (c.768delT/p.F256Lfs*25, c.2229_2230delTG/ p.V744Qfs*23) were detected. Further study confirmed that CPT was present in NF1 families, and NF1 mutations were closely associated with these complex phenotypes. Moreover, the data from the current study indicated that male gender might be a susceptibility factor for CPT in NF1. Therefore, we speculated that BCOR variants might be related to CPT phenotype among male NF1 patients.
Mon, 8 January 2018
ARTICLE Download: 495| View: 1155| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0063.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: spider venom; wound repair; loxoscelism.
Online: 8 January 2018 (10:49:36 CET)
We studied the efficacy of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), either alone or associated with dapsone (DAP) in the treatment of dermonecrotic wounds caused by Loxosceles laeta spider venom. Twenty-five male adult rabbits were distributed into five groups, of which four groups received an intradermal injection of 20 μg of L. laeta venom and only one received ultrapure water (negative control). After 4 hours, each group that received venom, was treated with MSC, DAP, MSC + DAP and Phosphate-buffered saline – PBS (positive control). Photographic records were made for analysis of the wound area evolution by morphometry. Twelve days after treatment, the skin samples around the lesion were removed for subsequent histological analysis. Concerning the rate of wound contraction, we observed that DAP showed the best percentage of contraction at day 3. In the treatments using MSCs, a negative value of wound contraction was observed for the isolated MSCs, as well as a lower contraction value for the association of the MSC + DAP when compared to PBS group. Histopathological analysis showed diminished tissue lesion and less intense inflammation in MSCs and DAP groups. This could indicated potential use of stem cells in regenerative therapies after loxoscelic accidents.
Mon, 5 December 2016
ARTICLE Download: 928| View: 1154| Comments: 7 | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0026.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: cytomegalovirus; alanine transaminase; aspartate transaminase alkaline phosphatase; γ-glutamyltranspeptidase; liver function
Online: 5 December 2016 (11:08:57 CET)
Background Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a major pathogen that cause remarkable rate of morbidity and mortality, especially in immunocompromised patients. It is important to find risk factors associated with CMV viremia. We studied the differences in CMV seropositivity in relation to liver function biomarkers in male and female Saudi population in an attempt to understand the variation in the CMV seroprevalence with sex and find the risk factor to develop liver dysfunction or hepatocellular carcinoma. Material and subjects: The CMV- IgG and IgM were screened in serum samples of 150 non- A-G hepatities patients with elevation of liver profiles (ALT, AST, ALP and GGT) and categorized as males and females. Samples were collected from different general hospitals and polyclinic in KSA from March 2014 to June 2015. A correlation between CMV seropositivity measured with both antibodies and liver enzymes were tested. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis and multiple regressions were done for the obtained data. Results: Our study shows that females had much higher IgG and IgM compared to age-matching males. A significant correlation between both antibodies and liver enzymes (AST, ALT) was recorded. Less significant correlation of both IgG and IgM with GGT was also observed. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis revealed that both IgG and IgM can be used as excellent predictive markers for CMV infection as both recorded 100% specificity and sensitivity together with area under the curve of 1 in males and females. Multiple regression analysis ascertain the correlation between both antibodies as dependent variables and liver enzymes as independent variables with ALT being the most affected enzyme with CMV seropositivity especially in females. Conclusion:he data discussed above This study shows that CMV is capable of initiating and accelerating liver dysfunction in both sexes. The high seroprevalence in females at reproductive age is especially important as they can transmit the virus to their developing fetus. Prevention of CMV infection in young girls 11-14 years old, through counseling on hygiene or possible future vaccination, may lead to a decrease of congenital CMV infections with the concomitant risk of developing liver dysfunction or hepatocellular carcinoma. Keywords: Cytomegalovirus, Alanine transaminase, Aspartate transaminase Alkaline phosphatase, γ-Glutamyltranspeptidase, liver function.
Fri, 7 October 2016
ARTICLE Download: 1091| View: 1152| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0016.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: molecular dynamics simulation; virtual screening; molecular docking; prostate cancer; caveolin-1
Online: 7 October 2016 (12:09:06 CEST)
Caveolin-1 (Cav-1) is 22 kDa caveolae protein, acts as a scaffold within caveolar membranes. It interacts with alpha subunits of G-protein and thereby regulates their activity. Earlier studies reported elevated or up-regulated levels of caveolin-1 in the serum of prostate cancer patients. Secreted Cav-1 promotes angiogenesis, cell proliferation and anti-apoptotic activities in prostate cancer patients. Cav-1 upregulation is mainly related to prostate cancer metastasis. Keeping above facts in view, the present study was designed to explore Cav-1 as a target for prostate cancer therapy using computational approach. Molecular docking, structural base molecular modelling and molecular dynamics simulations were performed to investigate Cav-1 inhibitors. A predictive model was generated and validated to establish a stable structure. ZINC database of biogenic compounds was used for induced fit docking (IFD) and high throughput virtual screening. The H-bond interactions of the compounds with active site residues of Cav-1 were estimated by IFD and 100 ns long molecular dynamic simulations. The reported compounds showed significant binding and thus can be considered as potent therapeutic inhibitors of Cav-1. This study provides a valuable insight into biochemical interactions of Cav-1 for therapeutic applications and warrants for experimental validation of the predicted ‘active(s)’.
Mon, 18 September 2017
HYPOTHESIS Download: 1287| View: 1143| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0081.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: sarcoidosis; monocytes; cancer; neoplasia; vitamin D; 25-hydroxyvitamin D3; 1,25-hydroxyvitamin D3; etiology; spontaneous remission of cancer; vitamin D side effects
Online: 18 September 2017 (14:21:11 CEST)
The cause of sarcoidosis is unknown, and vitamin D is contraindicated to treat the condition. We therefore ask what causes sarcoidosis and why vitamin D can be dangerous for those so afflicted. We propose a contrary hypothesis: sarcoidosis is a physiological process of defense against cancer that requires the substrate vitamin D. We tested this hypothesis, finding many case reports involving sarcoidosis and cancer—further cases of cancer mimicry by sarcoidosis. Several reports describe spontaneous healing of cancer in the presence of sarcoidosis. In the context of the granulomas of sarcoidosis, monocytes are the site of vitamin D release. Furthermore, active vitamin D can control cancer cells by using the vitamin D receptors of the nucleus. That granulomas consistently do not caseate is explained as a confrontation with human molecules and the cancer cells’ complete absorption. The striking fact that granulomas of sarcoidosis mostly lack cancerous cells is interpreted as a result of a well-functioning sarcoidosis process. We view the typical sarcoidosis monocytic synthesis of active vitamin D as a successful defense against cancer: a theory we call the “endogenous program organizing cancer apoptosis” (EPOCA).
Fri, 31 March 2017
ARTICLE Download: 763| View: 1142| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0227.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: biodiversity; skin allergy; benchmark skin health values; effect of synthetic cosmetics on skin; 21st century skin ailments; measure skin health; healthy skin ecosystem; healthy skin bacteria; damaged skin bacteria; perfect skin
Online: 31 March 2017 (08:52:14 CEST)
There is a skin allergy epidemic in the western world, and the rate of deterioration has increased significantly in the past 5-10 years. It is probable that there are many environmental contributing factors, yet some studies have linked it primarily to the rise in the use of synthetic chemical ingredients in modern cosmetics. Our challenge, therefore, was to find a mechanism to determine the effect these substances have on skin health, and whether they really are a primary cause of long term damage to the skin. The first problem is the lack of any definitive way to measure skin health. Motivated by the overwhelming evidence for a link between deficient gut flora and ill health, we decided to look at whether our skin microbiota could similarly be used as an indicator of skin health. Our research illustrates how it is microbiota diversity alone that can predict whether skin is healthy or not, after we revealed a complete lack of conclusive findings linking the presence or abundance of particular species of microbe to skin problems. This phenomenon is replicated throughout nature, where high biodiversity always leads to healthy ecosystems. ‘Caveman’ skin, untouched by modern civilisation, was far different to ‘western’ skin and displayed unprecedented levels of bacterial diversity. The less exposed communities were to western practices, the higher the skin diversity, which is clear evidence of an environmental factor in the developed world damaging skin. For the first time we propose benchmark values of diversity against which we can measure skin to determine how healthy it is. This gives us the ability to be able to predict which people are more likely to be prone to skin ailments, and start to test whether cosmetic ingredients and products are a main cause of the skin allergy epidemic.
Mon, 13 February 2017
ARTICLE Download: 696| View: 1139| Comments: 1 | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0116.v3
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: suicide; network analysis; symptoms; personalized treatment
Online: 13 February 2017 (11:04:49 CET)
Although suicide is a major public health issue worldwide, we understand little of the onset and development of suicidal behavior. Suicidal behavior is argued to be the end result of the complex interaction between psychological, social and biological factors. Epidemiological studies resulted in a range of risk factors for suicidal behavior, but we do not yet understand how their interaction increases the risk for suicidal behavior. A new approach called network analysis can help us better understand this process as it allows to visualize and quantify complex association between many different symptoms or risk factors. A network analysis of data contain information on suicidal patients can help us understand how risk factors interact and how their interaction is related to suicidal thoughts and behaviour. A network perspective has been successfully applied to the field of depression and psychosis, but not yet to the field of suicidology. In this theoretical article, I will introduce the concept of network analysis to the field of suicide prevention, and offer directions for future applications and studies.
Sat, 13 August 2016
ARTICLE Download: 1455| View: 1137| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0133.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: calorie restriction; PUFA; meal replacement; metabolic syndrome; middle age
Online: 13 August 2016 (03:39:38 CEST)
The increasing prevalence of obesity and sedentary lifestyles has led to an increased incidence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) worldwide. In Taiwan, middle-aged women are at a greater risk of MetS, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease than men are because they have more subcutaneous fat and larger waist circumferences compared to men with equal visceral fat levels. This study investigated the effects of calorie restriction supplemented with fish oil (CRF) in middle-aged women with MetS. For 12 weeks, 75 eligible participants were randomly assigned either calorie restriction (CR) or CRF. Both dietary intervention groups were further divided into two age groups: ≤45 and >45 years. The changes in MetS severity, inflammatory status, iron status, and red blood cell fatty acid profile were evaluated. Seventy-one participants completed the trial. Both dietary interventions significantly ameliorated MetS and improved the participants’ inflammatory status. CR significantly increased total iron binding capacity, whereas CRF increased hepcidin levels. Furthermore, CRF significantly increased the n-6/n-3 and arachidonic acid/docosahexaenoic acid ratios. In conclusion, CR and CRF improved the anthropometric and MetS characteristics of early-middle aged women, including body weight, blood glucose levels, triglyceride levels, as well as the scores for the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and quantitative insulin sensitivity cheque index. Dietary intervention was more effective in >45-year-old women than ≤45-year-old women.
Tue, 6 September 2016
REVIEW Download: 1393| View: 1135| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0022.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: Pervasive developmental disorder; Autism spectrum disorder (ASD); brain network; Theory of Mind (ToM); Music Therapy (MT); therapeutic effect
Online: 6 September 2016 (11:53:58 CEST)
Music has the innate potential to reach all parts of the brain, stimulates certain brain areas which are not achievable through other modalities. Music Therapy (MT) is being used for more than a century to treat individuals who needs personalized care. MT optimizes motor, speech and language responsibilities of the brain and improves cognitive performance. Pervasive developmentdisorder (PDD) is a multifaceted, neuro developmental disorder and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) comes under PDD, which is defined by deficiencies in three principal spheres: social connection with others, communicative and normal movement skills. The conventional imaging studies illustrate reduced brain area connectivity in people with ASD, involving selected parts of the brain cortex. People with ASD express much interest in musical activities which engages the brain network areas and improves communication and social skills.The main objective of this review is to analyze the potential role of MT in treating the neurological conditions, particularly ASD. Evidence based studies have reported the extensive therapeutic application of music on various part of the brain in a nonverbal child with autism through hearing or making music.Hence we hypothesized that MT intervention can improve the communication capacity in people with ASD, than customary neurorestoration therapy alone.
Tue, 27 September 2016
ARTICLE Download: 1109| View: 1123| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0102.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: salidroside; inflammation; alcoholic liver injury; TLR4; TAK1
Online: 27 September 2016 (10:45:06 CEST)
The current study was designed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of salidroside (SDS) and the underlying mechanism by using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages in vitro and a mouse model of binge drinking induced liver injury in vivo. SDS downregulated protein expression of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and CD14. SDS inhibited LPS-triggered phosphorylation of LPS-activated kinase 1 (TAK1), p38, c-Jun terminal kinase (JNK), and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Degradation of IκB-α and nuclear translocation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB were effectively blocked by SDS. SDS concentration-dependently suppressed LPS mediated inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein levels, as well as their downstream products, NO. SDS significantly inhibited protein secretion of interleukin (IL)-1β. Additionally C57BL/6 mice were orally administrated SDS for continuous 5 days, followed by three gavages of ethanol every 30 min. Alcohol binge drinking caused the increasing of hepatic lipid accumulation and serum transaminases levels. SDS pretreatment significantly alleviated liver inflammatory changes and serum transaminases levels. Further investigation indicated that SDS markedly decreased protein level of IL-1β in serum. Taken together, these data implied that SDS inhibits liver inflammation both in vitro and in vivo, and may be a promising candidate for the treatment of inflammatory liver injury.
Tue, 4 October 2016
ARTICLE Download: 1205| View: 1120| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0005.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Landfill, Waste, Socio-environmental impact, Hematologic diseases
Online: 4 October 2016 (09:03:17 CEST)
We are experiencing an unprecedented urbanization process that alongside with physical, social and economic developments is having a significant impact on population’s health. Due to higher apprehensions of pollution, violence and poverty, our modern cities no longer ensure a good quality of life so they become unhealthy environments. This study aims to measure the socio-environmental and hematologic profile of residents of Santo André’s landfill – “Bairro Espírito Santo” by using the contextualization of the studied area. The research method is Observational type and from Retrospective cohort and by convenience sampling in Santo André in the Greater ABC region. The study determined a socio environmental profile and the hematologic diseases screening related to a close location to the landfill. The disease manifests itself within a broad spectrum of symptoms that causes changes in blood count parameters. The full blood counts analysis was performed, indicating that the blood counts of residents living near the landfill led to positive hematological changes and diseases like Leukopenia, Anemia, Neutropenia and lymphocytosis were the most common changes. However it is considered that the proof of the relation of cause- effect to environmental exposures that may trigger chronic manifestations in humans requires specific studies that are often complicated.
Sat, 6 August 2016
ARTICLE Download: 1505| View: 1118| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0068.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: community-based health insurance; cooperative; benefit package; social inclusion; healthcare; Nepal
Online: 6 August 2016 (11:54:03 CEST)
Background: Health insurance (HI) run by government is providing health care service to large population. Due to poor accountability, participation and sustainability, cooperative health insurance is becoming more popular and effective in low and middle income and some high-income countries too. In Nepal, there are public and cooperative HI is in practice. The aim of this study is to compare the effectiveness of public (government) and cooperative HI in relation to benefit packages, population coverage, inclusiveness, health care utilization, and promptness for treatment in these two health insurance models in Nepal. Method: This is an institution based concurrent mixed study consists of qualitative and quantitative variables from public and cooperative groups. We included all public HI operated by government hospitals and cooperatives groups those purchased hospital service in contract. Two separate study tools were applied to access the effectiveness of insurance models. The key questions were asked for the representatives of government and private health insurance. The numeric information consisted of in quantitative data and subjective response was included in qualitative approach. Descriptive statistics and Mean Whitney U test was applied in numeric data and qualitative information were analyzed by inductive approach Results: The study revealed that new enrolment was not increased, health care utilization rate was increased and the benefit package was almost same in both groups. The overall inclusiveness was higher for the government HI, but enrolment from the religious minority, proportion of negotiated amount during treatment were significantly higher (p<0.05). During illness, the response time to reach hospital was significantly faster in cooperative health insurance than government health insurance. Qualitative findings showed that level of participation, accountability, transparency and recording system was better in cooperative health insurance than public. Conclusion: Cooperative HI could be more sustainable and accountable to the community for all; low, middle and high-income countries.
Mon, 5 September 2016
REVIEW Download: 2085| View: 1117| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0013.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Camellia sinensis; tea ploysaccharides; chemical composition; antioxidant; antitumors; antihyperglycemia; anti-inflammation
Online: 5 September 2016 (10:19:33 CEST)
Tea (Camellia sinenesis) is a health beneficial beverage and is also a source for extracting bioactive components such as theanine, tea polyphenols (TPP) and tea polysaccharides (TPS). TPS is a group of hetero-polysaccharides bounded with proteins. There were tests showing that TPS had various bioactivities, such as antioxidant, antitumors, antihyperglycemia, anti-inflammation and improving immunity. However, inconsistent results concerning chemical composition and bioactivity of TPS were published in recent years. The advances in chemical composition and bioactivities of TPS were reviewed in the present paper. The inconsistent and controversial results regarding composition and bioactivities of TPS were also discussed.
Wed, 8 August 2018
ARTICLE Download: 351| View: 1100| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0169.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: metabolic syndrome; diabetes mellitus; obesity, lactobacilli; bifidobacteria; glucose; macrophages; inflammation; mouse model
Online: 8 August 2018 (14:27:20 CEST)
Introduction. The use of probiotics demonstrate efficacy against obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS). Detection effective probiotic strains for hyperglycemia and immunity associated with is important task. The aim of the study was to evaluate an influence of Lactobacillus casei IMV B-7280 separately and composition L. casei IMV B-7280 / Bifidobacterium animalis VKB / B. animalis VKL on the levels of blood glucose and immunity in obese mice. Meterials and methods. Obesity was induced by fat-enriched diet (FED) in male BALB/c mice. Obese mice were transferred to standard diet and received per os probiotic strains daily during 10 days. We measured tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a) in blood serum using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and functional activity of peritoneal exudate macrophages (PEMs). Glucose levels in blood was defined with glucometer. Results. We ascertained that all probiotic strains induced reducing mice weight and visceral fat, normalization of TNF-a production and functional activity of PEMs. Treatment with L. casei IMV B-7280 was associated with decreasing blood glucose levels. No normalization of glucose and TNF-a levels in obese mice, transferred to standard diet without probiotic treatment, although we revealed decreasing their weight and visceral fat and partial recover of functional activity of PEMs. Conclusions. Probiotic strain L. casei IMV B-7280 (separately) and composition L. casei IMV B-7280 / B. animalis VKB / B. animalis VKL can re-equilibrate metabolic and inflammation indices in mouse obesity model. L. casei IMV B-7280 alone was more efficient in decreasing glucose levels than composition of strains.
Tue, 31 January 2017
ARTICLE Download: 974| View: 1090| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0138.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: Danggui-Shaoyao-San, chronic restraint stress, learning and memory, anxiety/depression, structural plasticity
Online: 31 January 2017 (15:30:41 CET)
Background: Clinical trails have revealed that patients with depression generally accompanied with learning and memory impairment, which critically impact on individual’s health and development. Danggui-Shaoyao-San (DSS), a famous Chinese complex prescription, significantly overcame depression and relieved cognitive disorder based on previous research and publication. However, its effectsand potential mechanism against chronic restraint stress (CRS) remained unknown. Methods: CRS animal model was established and mice were divided to six groups while they were oral administrated with Danggui-Shaoyao-San at doses of 1.25, 2.5 and 5 g/kg for 14 days. Emotional and cognitive performances were detected by behavior tests, meanwhile neural plasticity and its molecular mechanism were examined by Dil staining, western blot and immunofluorescence. Results: DSS treatment dose-dependently improved locomotion ability in open filed test, overcame depression behavior in forced swimming test and elevated plus maze test, enhanced learning and memory ability in Morris water maze test. CRS decreased number of total spines and mushroom spines, while DSS treatment dose-dependently restored these by Dil staining. Expression of BDNF and GluR1 were significantly down-regulated in CRS group, which were significantly normalized by DSS. Conclusions: DSS treatment dose-dependently reversed CRS-induced cognitive impairments by inducing structural remodeling of neurons.
Tue, 9 August 2016
REVIEW Download: 1596| View: 1083| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0090.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: intestinal organoids; dog; practical applications
Online: 9 August 2016 (11:38:04 CEST)
Recent technical advances in the stem cell field have enabled the in vitro generation of complex structures resembling whole organs termed organoids. Most of these approaches employ culture systems that allow stem cell-derived or tissue progenitor cells to self-organize into three-dimensional (3D)-structures. Since organoids can be grown from various species, organs and from patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells, they create significant prospects for modelling development and diseases, for toxicology and drug discovery studies, and in the field of regenerative medicine. Here, we report on intestinal stem cells, organoid culture, organoid disease modeling, transplantation, current and future uses of this exciting new insight model to veterinary medicine field.
Fri, 19 August 2016
ARTICLE Download: 1025| View: 1080| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0175.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: Synergistic effect; Flos Lonicerae; Trimethoprim
Online: 19 August 2016 (09:22:06 CEST)
Observe the synergistic effect and dose-effect relationship of Trimethoprim (TMP) on bactericidal activity with Flos Lonicerae in vitro. Microamount chessboard dilution method was conducted to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Trimethoprim, Flos Lonicerae, as well as the combination of Trimethoprim and Flos Lonicerae separately against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli in vitro and Salmonella. The pour plate count method was used to determine the combined bactericidal activity of Flos Lonicerae combined with Different concentrations TMP. The results showed that the MIC values of the combination of Flos Lonicerae with TMP was much less than the MIC values of the independent use of Flos Lonicerae or TMP, The FIC values of the combination of Flos Lonicerae with TMP were between 0.5 and 1, there was additive effect between them. The bactericidal rates were fitted with least square method, the 95% confidence intervals of the optimal blending quantity about the combination of Flos Lonicerae with TMP on the test organisms were 231μg·mL-1-249μg·mL-1, 237μg·mL-1-259μg·mL-1, and 235 -259μg·mL-1
Thu, 13 December 2018
ARTICLE Download: 110| View: 1078| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0168.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: glioma, isocitrate dehydrogenase, MR spectroscopy, metabolism, neurochemical profile
Online: 13 December 2018 (13:52:56 CET)
The oncogenes that are expressed in gliomas reprogram particular pathways of glucose, amino acid, and fatty acid metabolism. Mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase genes (IDH1/2) in diffuse gliomas are associated with abnormally high levels of 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG) levels. The aim of this study was to determine whether metabolic reprogramming associated with IDH mutant gliomas leads to additional 1H MRS-detectable differences between IDH1 and IDH2 mutations and to identify metabolites correlated with 2-HG. A total of 21 glioma patients (age= 3711, 13 males) were recruited for MRS using a Semi-localization by adiabatic selective refocusing pulse sequence at ultra-high-field (7T). Tumour mutation subtype was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and DNA sequencing. LCModel analysis was applied for metabolite quantification. A two-sample t-test was used for metabolite comparisons between IDH1 (n=15) and IDH2 (n=5) mutant gliomas. The Pearson correlation coefficients between 2-HG and associated metabolites were calculated. A Bonferroni correction was applied for multiple comparison. IDH2 mutant gliomas have a higher level of 2-HG/tCho (total choline=phosphocholine+glycerylphosphorylcholine) (2.481.01vs.0.720.38, Pc<0.001) and myo-Inositol/tCho (2.700.90vs.1.460.51, Pc=0.011) compared to IDH1 mutation gliomas. Associated metabolites, myo-Inositol and glucose+taurine were correlated with 2-HG levels. These results show improved characterization of the metabolic pathways in IDH1 and IDH2 gliomas for precision medicine.
Wed, 10 August 2016
ARTICLE Download: 974| View: 1058| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0113.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: Growing pains; genu valgum; perinatal factors; bone metabolism
Online: 10 August 2016 (15:20:53 CEST)
The most prevalent musculoskeletal disorder of childhood with unclear aetiology is Growing Pains (GPs). Anatomic deformities and factors that change bone turnover are implicated in GPs pathophysiology. Perinatal risk factors alter the bone metabolism affecting the bone mineral density and content. The aim of our study was to analyze the relationship between GPs, knock knees and perinatal factors. The examined population consisted of 276 children aged 3-7 years. Among them 10 pairs of dizygotic twins were evaluated. The data were collected by using a combination of semi-structured questionnaires, clinical examinations and medical charts of the children and the obstetric history of the mothers. 78 children presented GPs meeting Peterson’s criteria. Genu valgum severity was a significant factor for GPs manifestation and for their increased frequency and intensity. Subsequently, perinatal factors regarding gestational age, Apgar score, head circumference (lower than 33cm) and birth length or weight (smaller than 50 cm and 3000gr, respectively) made a remarkable contribution to the development of GPs. Conversely, antenatal corticosteroid treatment, increased maternal age and maternal smoking during pregnancy were not predictive for the disorder. Our data are potentially supportive for the “bone strength” theory and for the contribution of anatomical disturbances in GPs appearance.
Tue, 2 August 2016
ARTICLE Download: 1318| View: 1055| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0011.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: curcumin; furazolidone; oxidative stress; DNA damage; mitochondrial pathway
Online: 2 August 2016 (05:59:38 CEST)
Furazolidone (FZD) is a synthetic nitrofuran with the antiprotozoal and antibacterial activity. The proper mechanism of FZD induced toxicity is still unclear. This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of curcumin on FZD induced oxidative stress, DNA injury and apoptosis in human hepatocyte L02 cells. The results showed that curcumin treatment significantly ameliorated FZD induced cytotoxicity, characterized by decreasing the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde, as well as increasing superoxide dismutase, catalase activities and glutathione contents. Moreover, curcumin pretreatment significantly inhibited FZD induced the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, the activation caspase-9 and -3 and apoptosis. Comet assay showed that curcumin attenuated FZD induced DNA injury in a dose-dependent manner. Correspondingly, curcumin markedly reversed the up-regulation of p53, Bax, caspase-9 and -3 mRNA expressions and the down-regulation of Bcl-2 mRNA (all p<0.05 or 0.01). These results reveal that curcumin protects against FZD induced oxidative stress, DNA injury and cell apoptosis via inhibiting oxidative stress and mitochondrial pathway, which may be attributed to ROS scavenging and anti-oxidative ability of curcumin. Importantly, our study highlights that curcumin may be a potential way to prevent FZD-mediated oxidative DNA injury and apoptosis in human or animals.
Tue, 28 February 2017
ARTICLE Download: 765| View: 1053| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0101.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: ghrelin; serotonin N-acetyltransferase; tryptophan 5-hydroxylase 1; melatonin; pineal gland; photoperiod; sheep
Online: 28 February 2017 (11:13:01 CET)
Several studies suggests that ghrelin (GHRL) has neurobiological effects that extend beyond control of food intake. Our previous results confirmed that GHRL modulates the secretory activity of the pineal gland (PG) through nocturnal melatonin (MEL) secretion in sheep, the seasonally reproductive animals. Here we investigated the effects of GHRL (10 ng/ml) on the expression of enzymes limiting synthesis of MEL, including tryptophan 5-hydroxylase 1 (TPH1), serotonin N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT) and its phosphorylated form p31T-AA-NAT in sheep PG explants (n = 72) during the 4-hour incubation in a gas-liquid interface, at a short (SD) and long (LD) photoperiods. After each hour of incubation selected explants were frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored at -80°C for subsequent analysis (real-time PCR, western-blotting, ELISA). Results show that GHRL regulates nightly MEL secretion in a TPH1-independent manner. The factor modulating GHRL activity was photoperiod. During SD photoperiod GHRL significantly reduced the expression of p31T-AA-NAT, AA-NAT and inhibited MEL secretion from PG explants. Whereas, during LD photoperiod no effect of GHRL on MEL secretion and expression of examined enzymes was noted. Studies indicate that GHRL directly affects PG under in vitro conditions and causes MEL secretion in animals which exhibit seasonality in reproductive and metabolic processes.
Thu, 11 August 2016
EDITORIAL Download: 1170| View: 1052| Comments: 1 | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0130.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: carcinogenesis; cancer; age distribution of cancer
Online: 11 August 2016 (11:40:40 CEST)
Tobacco use, most people would say. Smoking tobacco increases the risk of developing many types of cancer and is responsible for approximately one-third of all cancer deaths. The association between tobacco use and lung cancer is well known; lung cancer occurs about 20 times more often in heavy smokers than in nonsmokers . However, many lung cancers are diagnosed in never smokers , and most smokers do not develop lung cancer [3,4].
Sat, 12 November 2016
REVIEW Download: 1293| View: 1051| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0067.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: vancomycin; broad view; veterinary use at a glance; rational use; alternatives
Online: 12 November 2016 (11:09:37 CET)
Vancomycin is one of the ‘last-line’ classes of antibiotics used in the treatment of life-threatening infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria. Even though vancomycin was discovered in 1950s it was widely used after 1980s for the treatment of infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococci as prevalence of such strains were increased. However, currently it is evident that vancomycin resistant Staphylococcusaureusandvancomycin-resistant Enterococci have been developed as a result of various reasons including use of avaparcin, which is an analog of vancomycin, as feed additive in livestock. In present day context, more attention should be paid on prevention of emergence of resistance for the antibiotics in order to keep antibiotics effective. In order to prevent emergence of resistance, proper guidance for the responsible use of antimicrobials is indispensable. Therefore, almost all stakeholders who use antibiotics should have in depth understanding on the antibiotic they use. As such, it is imperative to be aware of the important aspects of vancomycin. In the present review, efforts have been made to discussthe pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, indications, emergence of resistance, control of resistance, adverse effects and alternative therapy for vancomycin.
Fri, 28 October 2016
REVIEW Download: 1231| View: 1041| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0125.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: herbal medicinal products; food supplements; botanicals; normative; phytotherapy; Italian pharmaceutical market; parapharmaceuticals
Online: 28 October 2016 (08:06:07 CEST)
The Italian herbal products market is the most prosperous in Europe. The proof is represented by the use of these products in several marketing categories, ranging from medicine to nutrition and cosmetics. Market and legislation in Italy are at the same time cause and consequence of this peculiar situation. In fact, the legislation on botanical food supplements in Italy is very permissive and at the same time the market shows an overall satisfaction of users and strong feedback in terms of consumption, which brings a widening use of medicinal plants, formerly the prerogative of pharmaceuticals, to other fields such as nutrition. This review summarizes the market and normative panorama of herbal products in Italy, highlighting the blurred boundaries of health indications, marketing authorizations and quality controls between herbal medicines and non pharmaceutical products, such as food supplements, cosmetics and other herbal-based “parapharmaceuticals”.
Mon, 26 September 2016
ARTICLE Download: 1368| View: 1034| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0093.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: metastatic breast cancer; taxanes; eribulin; observational study
Online: 26 September 2016 (11:39:32 CEST)
Taxanes have been shown to be the most effective treatment for recurrent or metastatic breast cancer. However, for patients pretreated with taxanes, more active and possibly less toxic drugs are needed. In this retrospective study, we investigated on the effectiveness and safety of eribulin mesylate in 91 taxane-refractory subjects, extracted from the ESEMPIO database, which included 497 metastatic breast cancer patients treated with eribulin allover the Italy. This analysis included only those patients who have shown disease progression while receiving taxane therapy (primary refractory), or those who achieved a response followed by progression while still on therapy (taxane failure). Overall, 41/91 patients (45.2%) showed a clinical benefit; 1 complete response (2.2%) and 16 partial responses (17.6%) were observed. The median progression free survival was 3.1 months (95% CI: 2.8–3.5) and the median overall survival was 11.6 months (95% CI: 8.7–16.7). With regard to toxicity, 53 patients (58%) experienced asthenia/fatigue, 23 (25%) showed peripheral neurotoxicity, 18 (20%) alopecia, 12 (13%) mild constipation and 27 (30%) neutropenia. The toxicity related to the treatment led to eribulin dose reduction in 19 (21%) and discontinuation in 9 (10%) patients, respectively. In conclusion, this study suggests that eribulin is effective and well tolerated also in taxane-refractory patient.
Mon, 22 August 2016
COMMENTARY Download: 1064| View: 1033| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0187.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: magnetic fields; power lines; cancer; carcinogenesis; stem cell division theory of cancer
Online: 22 August 2016 (05:15:53 CEST)
Extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs) are non-ionizing radiations typically emitted by power lines, electrical wiring and electrical appliances. Epidemiological studies have repeatedly shown a positive association between ELF-EMFs and childhood leukemia. Exposures greater than 0.3-0.4 µT increase the risk by approximately 1.5-2 fold, and estimates indicate that up to 2% of childhood leukemia cases in Europe may be attributable to ELF-EMFs. However, it is considered unlikely that ELF-EMFs can cause cancer, because carcinogenesis requires the accumulation of DNA alterations and ELF-EMFs do not have enough energy to damage the DNA. Lack of biological plausibility is a barrier to accept the evidence of carcinogenicity in human studies and to take measures to protect pregnant women and children from ELF-EMFs. Recent evidence indicates that non-mutagenic agents can cause DNA alterations and increase the risk of cancer by promoting the accumulation of cell divisions in stem cells. Cell division generates DNA alterations (e.g., mutations arising during DNA replication), which occur even in the absence of DNA-damaging agents. Importantly, ELF-EMFs can trigger the division of stem cells; this effect is under development in the field of regenerative medicine. A possible mechanism by which ELF-EMFs induce the malignant transformation of hematopoietic stem cells is discussed.
Thu, 3 November 2016
ARTICLE Download: 1397| View: 1032| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0027.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: vitamin C; hyperuricemia; gout; glomerular filtration rate
Online: 3 November 2016 (10:49:06 CET)
Abstract: Hyperuricemia is commonly diagnosed in subjects with abnormal purine metabolism. Prolonged hyperuricemia often associated with gout, which is a vital risk factor for joint dysfunction. The current study was designed to determine the efficacy of vitamin C supplements for treatment of high serum uric acid (UA) among hyperuricemic and gouty patients, and finding-out the effect of supplementation on serum creatinine (Cr) level and glomerular filtration rate (GFR). This intervention study was started in April, 2013, till two months. A convenient sample of 30 adults aged between 24-75 years of both genders was assigned into two study groups: hyperuricemic (n=15) and gouty (n=15) groups. Each participant supplemented with 500 mg/day vitamin C chewable tablets for 2 months. Serum UA, Cr, and GFR were measured before and after treatment. At the end of this study, Cr and GFR enhanced insignificantly in both groups. UA increased insignificantly in gouty group after 2 months by about 0.31 mg/dl. On the other hand, hyperuricemic group showed significant (P ≤0.05) decrease in UA (-0.78 mg/dl) after 2 months duration. In conclusion, supplementation with 500 mg/day vitamin C for 2 months significantly attenuated serum UA for hyperuricemic patients and insignificantly affected serum UA in gouty patients. The uselessness of vitamin C supplements on gouty patients could be associated to a number of possible reasons.
Thu, 27 April 2017
ARTICLE Download: 848| View: 1028| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0179.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: medicinal plants; flavonoids; hypoglycemic; hypolipidemic; antiatherogenic
Online: 27 April 2017 (04:13:10 CEST)
Celtis iguanaea is popularly used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. However, thorough chemical and pharmacological investigations regarding its activity are lacking. In this study, we investigated the effects of the hydroalcoholic extract from C. iguanaea (CI) on markers of cardiovascular diseases and the glucose metabolism in cholesterol-fed rats. Therefore, hypercholesterolemic rats (1% cholesterol) were orally treated with CI (150, 300, or 600 mg/kg) or simvastatin (4 mg/kg) (n = 6) once a day for 30 days along with a hypercholesterolemic diet. A control group (C) was given saline solution. CI showed significant decreases in serum levels of total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HMG-CoA-reductase, IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α, and IFN-γ when compared to group C (p ˂ 0.05). Hypoglycemic effects were observed along with a decrease of the activity of sucrase (CI 600), maltase (CI 150, CI 300), and an increase in muscle glycogen levels (CI 300). Antioxidant effects were observed in plasma, and the histopathological analysis showed a significant decrease in the liver fat area for CI compared to group C (p < 0.001). Our results suggest that the biological effects of CI could be related to the presence of flavonoids that possibly exert antioxidant, enzymatic inhibitory, and insulin-mimetic effects.
Mon, 17 July 2017
ARTICLE Download: 806| View: 1026| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0042.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: surgical smoke; volatile organic compounds (VOCs); health risk assessment (HRA); carcinogenic
Online: 17 July 2017 (07:40:18 CEST)
Surgical smoke is produced by energy-based surgical instruments. The airborne volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from surgical smoke may have potential health risk. This study aimed to evaluate the evidence for the harmful effects on the operating theater staff. An internationally recognized evaluation model of health risk assessment (HRA) was adapted to preliminarily assess the health risks caused by VOCs in surgical smoke. Results of HRA indicated that non-carcinogenic risk indexes of VOCs did not exceed one, indicating that these pollutants didn't cause significant non-carcinogenic harm to the health of the operating theater staff. But the cancer risk indexes exposed to formaldehyde and benzene all exceed 10-5, which was higher than the suggested value of USEPA (10-6) and might cause potential harm to the health of the operating theater staff. Long-term exposure of such surgical smoke will be harmful to the health of the operating theater staff and have a great risk of cancer.
Mon, 5 September 2016
ARTICLE Download: 2230| View: 1014| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0018.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: polyphenols, flavonoids, seaweeds, antioxidant activity, anticancer activity
Online: 5 September 2016 (14:23:52 CEST)
Seaweeds are considered as one of the largest biomass producers in marine environment that is rich in bioactive metabolites and a source of natural ingredients for functional foods. The potential antioxidant activity and the potential inhibition of Caco2 cell proliferation, of crude extracts of: Chlorophyta (Ulva lactuca, and Codium tomentosum), Phaeophyta (Cystoseira crinita, Cystoseira stricta, and Sargassum vulgare), and Rhodophyta (Gelidium latifolium, Hypnea musciformis, and Jania rubens) collected from western Libyan coast were evaluated in vitro. The antioxidant activity was determined by reducing power and DPPH assays while cell proliferation, morphological changes and the cell cycle arrest were assessed by MTT, inverted light microscope and flow cytometry methods respectively. The polyphenols and flavonoids rich extracts showed remarkable reducing power and antiradical properties. After exposure of Caco2 cells to; various concentrations of extracts (50, 100,150 and 200 µg/mL) especially from brown algae for 72 h, significantly reduced cell proliferation. The antiproliferative effect of algae extracts was correlated with their polyphenol and flavonoid contents. Cell cycle analysis further showed that cells were arrested in G phases along with an increment in sub-diploidal cell population (sub-G) after extract application. These results imply that seaweeds which are rich in bioactive compounds may be in anticancer drug research programs. However, further investigations are essential to reveal the molecular mechanisms of the anticancer activities of these algae.
Mon, 9 October 2017
ARTICLE Download: 447| View: 1009| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0047.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: HPA axis; NGFs; psychiatric disorders; prevention of mental diseases; stress
Online: 9 October 2017 (09:55:11 CEST)
Apart from their established role in embryonic development Nerve Growth Factors (NGFs) have diverse functions in the nervous system. Their role in integration of physiological functioning of the nervous system is now attracting attention. In the present analysis, we propose a new paradigm about a novel role of NGFs. We hypothesize that NGFs play imperative role in maintaining psychological integrity of an individual as a biological system. This function may be mediated through HPA-axis- operated homeostatic mechanisms; stress induced disruption of which may lead to psychiatric disorders. Current literature suggests existence of constitutive homeostatic regulatory mechanisms for NGFs disruption which may lead to important behavioural effects. NGFs have been shown to play crucial parts in endocrine regulation. This is especially true with the prototype ‘NGF’ and Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF). These moieties have been observed to play important role in maintaining neuro-endocrine homeostasis thereby having a profound impact on the psychological health of an individual. Role of NGFs and HPA-axis activation (in separate studies) in developing psychiatric disorders - especially those born of stress - have been established. Literature suggests their unique interplay for producing a common effect which might be implicated in stress induced genesis of psychiatric disorders. This aspect, therefore, needs to be elucidated further as a disease etiogenesis model. This model may yield important insights into the evolution of psychiatric disorders and may open ways for new therapeutic approaches.
Mon, 19 December 2016
ARTICLE Download: 886| View: 1008| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0098.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: lung cancer; adenovirus; E1b; UV-irradiation; genomics
Online: 19 December 2016 (09:33:20 CET)
Adenoviruses (Ads) have been extensively manipulated for the development of cancer selective replication, leading to cancer cell death or oncolysis. Clinical studies using E1-modified oncolytic Ads have shown that this therapeutic platform was safe, but with limited efficacy, indicating the necessity of targeting other viral genes for manipulation. To improve the therapeutic efficacy of oncolytic Ads, we treated the entire Ad genome repeatedly with UV-light and have isolated AdUV which efficiently lyses cancer cells as reported previously . In this report, we show that no mutations were observed in the early genes (E1 or E4) of AdUV while several mutations were observed within the Ad late genes which have structural or viral DNA packaging functions. This study also reported the increased release of AdUV from cancer cells. In this study, we found that AdUV inhibits tumor growth following intratumoral injection. These results indicate the potentially significant role of the viral late genes, in particular the DNA packaging genes, to enhance Ad oncolysis.
Mon, 28 November 2016
REVIEW Download: 1306| View: 1003| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0138.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: computational imaging; midsagittal plane; inter-hemispheric fissure; symmetry analysis; neuroimaging
Online: 28 November 2016 (02:03:34 CET)
Brain is the most complex organ in the human body and it is divided into two hemispheres - left and right hemispheres. Left hemisphere is responsible for control of right side of our body whereas right hemisphere is responsible for control of left side of our body. Brain image segmentation from different neuroimaging modalities is one of the important parts in clinical diagnostic tools. Neuroimaging based digital imagery generally contain noise, inhomogeneity, aliasing artifacts, and orientational deviations. Therefore, accurate segmentation of brain images is a very difficult task. However, the development of accurate segmentation of brain images is very important and crucial for a correct diagnosis of any brain related diseases. One of the fundamental segmentation tasks is to identify and segment inter-hemispheric fissure/mid-sagittal plane, which separate the two hemispheres of the brain. Moreover, the symmetric/asymmetric analyses of left and right hemispheres of brain structures are important for radiologists to analyze diseases such as Alzheimer's, Autism, Schizophrenia, Lesions and Epilepsy. Therefore, in this paper we have analyzed the existing computational techniques used to find brain symmetric/asymmetric analysis in various neuroimaging techniques (MRI/CT/PET/SPECT), which are utilized for detecting various brain related disorders.
Tue, 13 September 2016
CASE REPORT Download: 1271| View: 1001| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0045.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: eosinophilic pneumonia; lung nodules; dyspnea; eosinophils
Online: 13 September 2016 (04:04:39 CEST)
Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia (CEP) is an idiopathic disorder characterized by an abnormal and marked accumulation of eosinophils in the interstitial and alveolar spaces of the lung. Idiopathic chronic eosinophilic pneumonia is reported to comprise anywhere from 0-2.5% of cases within the registries of interstitial lung disease. Diagnosis is based on the clinical constellation of symptoms, characteristic radiographic findings and peripheral blood or BAL eosinophilia, in the absence of infection or drug-induced eosinophilia. There is no consensus on the dose and duration of treatment, but most authors recommend initial doses of prednisone at 0.5–1 mg/kg/day with gradual tapering of the dose for total treatment duration of 6–12 months.
Sat, 15 October 2016
ARTICLE Download: 1171| View: 1000| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0060.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: gingiva; bisphosphonate; soft tissue; fibroblasts; keratinocytes; bisphosphonate associated osteonecrosis of the jaws
Online: 15 October 2016 (08:03:48 CEST)
Since the first description of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) numerous research groups have focused on possible pathological mechanisms including the suppression of the bone turnover of the jaw, antiangiogenic effects and soft tissue toxicity. In our review we focused on summarizing the role of the soft tissues in the development and progression of BRONJ. The biological behavior of fibroblasts can be significantly influenced by bisphosphonates (BP) such as a concentration dependent reduction of cell viability. High concentrations of BP can induce apoptosis and necrosis of the cells. Comparable effects could be detected for keratinocytes. Compared to non-nitrogen containing bisphosphonates nitrogen-containing BP have worse effects on cell biology by blocking the mevalonate pathway. Next to this the cell architecture and the expression levels of several genes and proteins are significantly disturbed by BP. These inhibitory effects of BP are in accordance with BP related reduced angiogenesis and neovascularization and could underline the hypothesis that inhibition of fibroblasts and keratinocytes results in delayed wound healing and can induce and trigger BRONJ.
Thu, 3 November 2016
ARTICLE Download: 985| View: 996| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0028.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: random survival forests; ependymoma; predictors; valproic acid
Online: 3 November 2016 (11:02:12 CET)
Ependymoma is responsible for 8–10% of all pediatric brain tumors and constitutes the third most common brain tumor in children. No robust molecular markers are yet in routine clinical use. Surgical resection and adjuvant radiotherapy cure approximately 40-70% of pediatric patients with ependymoma. In our centre, we have been using prophylactic valproic acid treatment for brain tumor patients. Initial observations indicated that valproate could have a beneficial effect in the survival of patients. Recent observations by other authors have shown that patients with glioblastoma benefited from the treatment with valproic acid, a histone deacetylase inhibitor. We have used random survival forest, a novel ensemble survival modelling method to study a single- center, small number cohort of pediatric patients with ependymoma. This analysis has confirmed surgery resection extent and treatment with radiotherapy as independent predictors of overall survival. Treatment with valproic acid was also a predictor of higher survival in this cohort. These results highlight the potential usefullness of the random survival forest model in gathering information from retrospective data. More data is needed about the possible influence of histone deacetylase inhibition by valproic acid in the survival of patients with ependymoma.
Thu, 1 September 2016
ARTICLE Download: 1163| View: 995| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0001.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: protein-disulfide isomerase-associated 3; osteoarthritis; extracorporeal shockwave therapy; 1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 signaling pathway; two dimensional electrophoresis
Online: 1 September 2016 (10:47:39 CEST)
Dysregulation of cartilage homeostasis and the changes in the density and the architecture of the subchondral bone were postulated as a potent mechanically pathological activity contributing to osteoarthritis (OA) pathogenesis. Extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) is a new, none invasive and effective method in the treatment of animal OA model. In the current study, we demonstrated that shockwave induced the expression of protein-disulfide isomerase-associated 3 (Pdia-3) which is a multifunctional protein hypothesized to be a significant mediator for 1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1α,25(OH)2D3) signaling pathway using two-dimensional electrophoresis. Histological analysis and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) were verified and observed that the expression of Pdia-3 at 2 weeks was significantly higher than that of any other group at 4 weeks, 8 weeks, and 12 weeks post-shockwave treatment in early OA knee of rat. The other factors of the 1α,25(OH)2D3 rapid membrane signaling pathway including extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 (ERK1), osteopontin (OPG), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and matrix metallopeptidase 13 (MMP13) were measured and significantly increased by qPCR at 2 weeks post-shockwave treatment in early OA knee. Our proteomic data revealed significant Pdia-3 expression in microenvironments of joint tissue that could be actively responded to ESWT, which may potentially regulate biological function of chondrocytes and osteoblasts in the treatment of OA knee.
Mon, 9 January 2017
ARTICLE Download: 1075| View: 990| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0044.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: Aflatoxins; Peanuts; Aspergillus species
Online: 9 January 2017 (09:40:46 CET)
Aflatoxin contaminates foods including peanuts. Aflatoxin is a carcinogenic toxin mainly produced bty Aspergillus flavus. Other Aspergillus species that rarely produce aflatoxins are A. nomius and A. niger. Aflatoxin is associated with liver failure, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and death. Recent studies have shown that peanuts in Kenya are highly contaminated with aflatoxins but information gaps exist on the characterization of the Aspergillus species that produce aflatoxins in peanuts in Kenya. Therefore, this gap necessitated the determination of the Aspergillus species producing aflatoxins in peanuts from the main growing districts of Busia and Kisii Central districts. One hundred and two (102) peanuts samples were collected from farmers’ in each district Aspergillus species were isolated from the peanut samples by using the dilution plate technique on modified Rose Bengal agar. Phenotypical characterization of the identified Aspergillus section flavus isolates from the peanuts samples was determined using the procedure of Mellon and Cotty. This study identified five (5) Aspergillus species as contaminants in peanuts analyzed in this study. They were Aspergillus flavus L-strain, Aspergillus flavus S-strain, Aspergillus parasiticus, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus tamari. Overall, the occurrence of Aspergillus flavus L- strain and A. flavus S- strain were significantly higher than other species identified (H = 15.55, df = 4, P = 0.004) in peanuts from the two districts. However, A. flavus S-strain was the most dominant species identified in the study with a mean occurrence of 45.1%. Aspergillus flavus L- strain was the most common isolate (58.8%) in peanuts from Busia district while A. flavus S- strain was the most common strain (60.2%) in peanuts from Kisii Central district. Overall, the occurrence of Aspergillus flavus L strain and A. flavus S strain were significantly higher than other species identified (H = 15.55, df = 4, P = 0.004) in peanuts from the two districts. However, A. flavus S-strain was the most dominant species (F=3.15, df =25, P=0.031) with an overall mean occurrence of 45.1%. The confirmation of occurrence of other species that produce toxins such as A. niger and A. tamarii which also produces cyclopiazonic acid suggests the need to screen peanuts for other carcinogenic mycotoxins.
Tue, 16 August 2016
ESSAY Download: 1145| View: 983| Comments: 1 | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0158.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: alcohol; cancer; ethanol; tobacco; carcinogenesis; oral cavity; pharynx; esophagus; stem cells; stem cell division theory of cancer
Online: 16 August 2016 (09:45:33 CEST)
Epidemiological data indicate that 5.8% of cancer deaths world-wide are attributable to alcohol consumption. The risk of cancer is higher in tissues in closest contact on ingestion of alcohol, such as the oral cavity, pharynx and esophagus. The risk of these cancers is increased even in people who have only one alcoholic drink per day. However, since ethanol is not mutagenic and the carcinogenic metabolite of ethanol (acetaldehyde) is mostly produced in the liver, it is not clear why alcohol use preferentially exerts a local carcinogenic effect. It is well known that ethanol causes cell death at the concentrations present in alcoholic beverages; however, this effect has been overlooked probably because dead cells cannot give rise to cancer. Here I discuss that the cytotoxic effect of ethanol on the cells lining the oral cavity, pharynx and esophagus activates the division of the stem cells located in deeper layers of the mucosa to replace the dead cells. Every time stem cells divide, they become exposed to unavoidable errors associated with cell division (e.g., mutations arising during DNA replication and chromosomal alterations occurring during mitosis) and also become highly vulnerable to the genotoxic activity of endogenous and exogenous DNA-damaging agents (e.g., reactive oxygen species, acetaldehyde and tobacco carcinogens). Alcohol consumption probably increases the risk of developing cancer of the oral cavity, pharynx and esophagus by promoting the accumulation of cell divisions in the stem cells that maintain these tissues in homeostasis. Because the cytotoxic activity of ethanol is concentration-dependent, the risk of these cancers will not only increase with increasing amounts of ethanol, but also with increasing concentrations; an ounce of whisky is probably more carcinogenic when taken undiluted than when taken mixed with non-alcoholic beverages. The local cytotoxic effect of ethanol can also explain the known synergistic effect of alcohol and tobacco use on the risk of these cancers. Understanding the mechanisms of carcinogenicity of alcohol is important to reinforce the epidemiological evidence and to raise public awareness of the strong link between alcohol consumption and cancer.
Mon, 5 September 2016
ARTICLE Download: 1181| View: 983| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0019.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: dietary patterns, food-frequency questionnaire, dietary, lifestyle practices, adolescents
Online: 5 September 2016 (14:46:56 CEST)
Abstract: Objective: The aim of the study was to identify dietary patterns and its association with socio-economic, dietary and lifestyle practices among adolescents in Malaysia. Methods: A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to assess dietary patterns. Results: Multivariate analyses show that age and physical activity (PA) levels were emerged as positive determinants of healthy-based food pattern in Malay (All, p<0.001), whereas higher consumption of eating-out from home (EatOut) and fast food (All, p<0.05) were negative determinants. High weekly breakfast skipping (p<0.001) and EatOut (p<0.01) were positively associated with a western-based pattern, whereas age (p<0.001) and household income (p<0.05) were negative determinants. Higher frequency of daily snacking (p<0.05) was emerged as positive determinant of local-based food pattern. For Chinese adolescents, age (p<0.001), PA levels (p<0.001) and maternal education level (p<0.05) emerged as positive determinants for the healthy-based pattern, whereas high EatOut and fast food intakes (All, p<0.01) were negative determinants. Higher weekly consumption of EatOut (p<0.01), fast food (p<0.05) and carbonated beverages (p<0.05), and daily snacking practice (p<0.01) were positively associated with higher western-based food pattern, whereas age (p<0.01) was inversely associated. Conclusion: These findings suggest that unhealthy dietary and lifestyle practices could increase the risk of adherence to unhealthy western-based food pattern that is high in fat, sugar and salt contents, and consequently increase the risk of developing obesity and metabolic-related disorders during these critical years of growth.
Fri, 13 July 2018
ARTICLE Download: 153| View: 979| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0224.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: pseudopterosin; triple negative breast cancer; glucocorticoid receptor alpha; dexamethasone; cell proliferation; 3D invasion; tumor spheroid; co-culture; interleukin 6; interleukin 8
Online: 13 July 2018 (04:47:23 CEST)
Pseudopterosin, produced by the sea whip of the genus Antillogorgia, possesses a variety of promising biological activities including potent anti-inflammatory effects. However, few studies examined pseudopterosin in the treatment of cancer cells and, to our knowledge, the ability to inhibit triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) proliferation or invasion has not been explored. Thus, we evaluated the as yet unknown mechanism of action of pseudopterosin: Pseudopterosin was able to inhibit proliferation of TNBC. Interestingly, analyzing breast cancer cell proliferation after knocking down glucocorticoid receptor α (GRα) revealed that anti-proliferative effects of pseudopterosin were significantly inhibited when GRα expression was reduced. Furthermore, pseudopterosin inhibited invasion of MDA-MB-231 3D tumor spheroids embedded in an extracellular-like matrix. Remarkably, the knockdown of GRα in 3D tumor spheroids revealed increased ability of cells to invade the surrounding matrix. In a co-culture, encompassing peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and MDA-MB-231 cells, production of interleukin 6 (IL-6) and interleukin 8 (IL-8) significantly increased compared to monoculture. Notably, pseudopterosin proved to block cytokine elevation, representing key players in tumor progression, in the co-culture. Thus, our results reveal pseudopterosin treatment as a potential novel approach in TNBC therapy.
Mon, 16 January 2017
ARTICLE Download: 638| View: 976| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0126.v3
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: IQGAP1; glioblastoma multiforme (GBM); scaffold protein; podosome/invadosome
Online: 16 January 2017 (10:30:48 CET)
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most frequent and aggressive primary brain tumor. GBM is formed by a very heterogeneous astrocyte population, neurons, neovascularization and infiltrating myeloid cells (microglia and monocyte derived macrophages). The IQGAP1 scaffold protein interacts with components of the cytoskeleton, cell adhesion molecules, and several signaling molecules to regulate cell morphology and motility, cell cycle and other cellular functions. IQGAP1 overexpression and delocalization has been observed in several tumors, suggesting a role for this protein in cell proliferation, transformation and invasion. IQGAP1 has been identified as a marker of amplifying cancer cells in GBMs. To determine the involvement of IQGAP1 in the onco-biology of GBM, we performed immunohistochemical confocal microscopic analysis of the IQGAP1 protein in human GBM tissue samples using cell type-specific markers. IQGAP1 immunostaining and subcellular localization was heterogeneous; the protein was located in the plasma membrane and, at variable levels, in nucleus and/or cytosol. Moreover, IQGAP1 positive staining was found in podosome/invadopodia-like structures. IQGAP1+ staining was observed in neurons (Map2+ cells), in cancer stem cells (CSC; nestin+) and in several macrophages (CD31+ or Iba1+). Our results indicate that the IQGAP1 protein is involved in normal cell physiology as well as oncologic processes.
Mon, 29 August 2016
ARTICLE Download: 1308| View: 968| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0225.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: circular RNAs (circRNAs); circulating circRNA; type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM); pre-diabetes; microarray analysis; biomarker
Online: 29 August 2016 (13:37:38 CEST)
The purpose of current study was to investigate the expression characteristic of circular RNAs (circRNAs) in peripheral blood of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients and their potentials as diagnostic biomarkers for pre-diabetes and T2DM. In present study, the circRNAs in the peripheral blood from 6 healthy individuals and 6 T2DM patients were collected for microarray analysis. The results indicated that there were 489 differentially expressed circRNAs, of which 78 were upregulated and 411 were downregulated in the T2DM group. Then we selected 5 circRNAs as the candidate biomarkers under a stricter screening criteria and further verified them in another cohort (control group, n=20; pre-diabetes group, n =20; T2DM group; n=20). 3 of the 5 circRNAs presented upregulated expression in the experimental groups, including 2 circRNAs of the T2DM group that had higher expression than the pre-diabetes group. Hsa_circ_0054633 was identified to have the largest area value under the carve (AUC). In another independent cohort (control group, n=60; pre-diabetes group, n=63; T2DM group, n=64), the diagnostic capacity of hsa_circ_0054633 was tested. The results showed that the AUC for the diagnosis of pre-diabetes was 0.751(95% confidence interval=[0. 666-0.835], P＜0.001) while it was 0.793 ([0.716-0.871], P＜0.001) for the diagnosis of T2DM. After including the risk factors of T2DM, the AUC increased to 0.841 ([0.773-0.910], P <0.001) and 0.834 ([0.762-0.905], P <0.001), respectively. Hsa_circ_0054633 presented a certain diagnostic capability for pre-diabetes and T2DM.
Mon, 2 January 2017
ARTICLE Download: 1439| View: 967| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0003.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: pito; beverage; bacteria; coliform; Lower Prampram; Ghana
Online: 2 January 2017 (10:55:07 CET)
Pito is a traditionally brewed alcoholic beverage in some African countries. It is gaining much prominence and the patronage among the youth. Therefore, samples of the drink were collected every week for six weeks from three different popular brewing sites at Lower Prampram in the Ningo-Prampram District of Accra, Ghana. The samples were processed and examined for bacteria and fungi using the Standard Plate Count (SPC) technique. A total of six different bacteria and a fungus were isolated. The bacteria were Escherichia coli, Klesiella pneumoniae, Shigella spp, Enterobacter aerogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeroginosa, whiles the fungus was Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Total viable counts as well as individual isolates counts in all the pito samples were found to be less than 104 cfu/ml. It is noteworthy that, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the only fungus isolated is known to be associated with fermentation and the microbes isolated from the pito samples were found to be within the permissible limits. However, these potentially pathogenic microbes, if found in unacceptable limits, from the fermenting samples could merit public health attention. Therefore, periodic screening of pito and their brewers, coupled with education on the maintenance of recommended guidelines concerning food and drink production is encouraged.
Mon, 21 November 2016
ARTICLE Download: 889| View: 962| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0105.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: circulating tumor cells; CTC, liquid biopsy; KRAS; colorectal cancer; EpCAM; CellSearch; IsoFlux; castPCR; intratumor heterogeneity
Online: 21 November 2016 (09:52:20 CET)
Circulating tumor cells (CTC) have shown to be prognostic in advanced colorectal cancer (advCRC), but their value for predicting response to treatment or as a source of molecular data is debated. We compared CellSearch® (Janssen Diagnostics, LLC) and IsoFluxTM (Fluxion Biosciences Inc, South San Francisco, CA) systems for the enumeration of CTC in patients with newly diagnosed advCRC (group 1; n=34). Using castPCRTM we studied KRAS status in CTC isolated with IsoFluxTM and compared it with that of the primary tumor in patients from group 1 and in KRAS wild-type (KRASWT) patients with progressive disease (group 2; n=22). Median number of CTC detected with CellSearch® (groups 1 and 2) was 1 (range: 0-78) and with IsoFluxTM (group 1) was 8 (range: 0-419), showing a modest correlation (r=0.345, P=0.036), which improved if lung metastases (r=0.805, P=0.016) or if lung and liver metastases were present (r=0.812, P=0.05). A Bland-Altman plot showed that the higher the number of CTC detected the larger the difference between both methods in favor of IsoFluxTM. After a median follow-up since CTC collection of 16 months (range: 1-30) CellSearch® ≥ 3 CTC (HR 2.77, 95% CI 0.77-9.95) and IsoFluxTM ≥ 11 CTC (HR 4.14, 95% CI 1.05-16.19) were established as the best cutoff points for predicting survival. Using castPCRTM we found KRAS mutations in CTC in 4 out of 8 patients from group 1 and in 2 out of 3 patients from group 2. None of these mutations were found in the primary tumor using standard methods, possibly reflecting intratumor heterogeneity or treatment selection pressure. We conclude that IsoFluxTM is more efficient than CellSearch® in the isolation of CTC in patients with advCRC, achieving, in a majority of cases, the established minimum of CTC for castPCRTM-based genetic analyses.
Mon, 19 December 2016
REVIEW Download: 907| View: 962| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0099.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: aging; bioactive nutrients; dietary; nutrigenomics; Oxiinflammaging
Online: 19 December 2016 (09:37:23 CET)
The increase in the average lifespan and the consequent proportional growth of the elderly segment of society has furthered the interest in studying ageing processes. Ageing may be considered a multifactorial process derived from the interaction between genetic and environmental factors including lifestyle. There is ample evidence in many species that the maximum age attainable (maximum lifespan potential, MLSP) is genetically determined and several mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms are associated with longevity. Many studies have shown that most of the phenotypic characteristics observed in the aging process are the result of the occurrence, with age, of a low grade chronic pro-inflammatory status called "inflammaging", partially under genetic control. The term indicate that aging is accompanied by a low degree of chronic inflammatory, an up-regulation of inflammatory response and that inflammatory changes are common to many age-related diseases. Therefore, the theory of oxidation-inflammation was proposed as the main cause of aging. Accordingly, the chronic oxidative stress, that appears with age, affects all cells and especially those of the regulatory systems, such as the nervous, endocrine, and immune systems and the communication between them. This prevents an adequate homeostasis and, therefore, the preservation of health. It was also proposed that the immune system plays a key role in the aging process, specifically in the rate of aging, since there is a relationship between the redox state and functional capacity of immune cells and longevity of individuals. Moreover, the role of the immune system in senescence could be of universal application. A confirmation of the central role of the immune system in oxi-inflamm-aging is that the administrationintake? of adequate amounts of antioxidants in the diet improves immune function, decreases their oxidative stress, and consequently increases longevity. The promotion of healthy lifestyles is one of the major goals of governments and international agencies all over the world. Human molecular processes are influenced by both physiological pathways and exogenous factors which include, for instance, those originating from diet. Dietary intake has substantive effects on molecular processes of metabolic health. Nutrients can directly regulate physiological changes in human body. In fact, in addition to have an energetic and structural value, nutritional intake provides bioactive molecules which are selectively able to modulate specific metabolic pathways, noticeably affecting cardiovascular and neoplastic diseases development or progress. Numerous bioactive nutrients are being progressively identified and their chemopreventive effects are being described at clinical and molecular mechanism levels. Systematic analyses comprise all “omics” technologies (such as transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics) and the goal is to investigate bioactive molecules effects derived from the diet. Nutrigenomic knowledge on physiologic status and disease risk will provide both developments of better diagnostic procedures and of new therapeutic strategies specifically targeted on nutritionally relevant processes. The present review was aimed to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying beneficial effects of bioactive nutrients and nutrigenomics on age-related diseases.
Mon, 21 November 2016
ARTICLE Download: 1159| View: 958| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0107.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: pancreatic cancer; deguelin; autophagy; doxorubicin
Online: 21 November 2016 (10:01:23 CET)
Pancreatic cancer is the fourth most common cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Furthermore, patients with pancreatic cancer experience limited benefit from current chemotherapeutic approaches because of drug resistance. Therefore, an effective therapeutic strategy for patients with pancreatic cancer is urgently required. Deguelin is a natural chemopreventive drug that exerts potent antiproliferative activity in solid tumors by inducing cell death. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this activity have not been fully elucidated. Here we show that deguelin blocks autophagy and induces apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells in vitro. Autophagy induced by doxorubicin plays a protective role in pancreatic cancer cells, and suppressing autophagy by chloroquine or silencing autophagy protein 5 enhanced doxorubicin-induced cell death. Similarly, inhibition of autophagy by deguelin also chemosensitized pancreatic cancer cell lines to doxorubicin. These findings suggest that deguelin has potent anticancer effects against pancreatic cancer and potentiates the anti-cancer effects of doxorubicin. These findings provide evidence that combined treatment with deguelin and doxorubicin represents an effective strategy for treating pancreatic cancer.
Thu, 17 November 2016
ARTICLE Download: 1168| View: 949| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0089.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: hypertension; salt intake; urinary excretion; Morocco
Online: 17 November 2016 (10:49:28 CET)
Introduction: Hypertension is a serious public health problem in Morocco. The objective of this pilot study was to estimate the salt intake of Moroccan adults by measuring 24-hour urinary sodium excretion. Methods: 132 participants were recruited from the central region of Morocco. Sodium, potassium and creatinine levels were measured using the 24-hour urine samples. Additional data included anthropometric measurements and socio-demographic questionnaire. Results: The daily sodium, potassium and creatinine excretions were 2779.1±1334.9 mg, 1350.0±642.8 mg and 820.3 ± 381.2 mg, respectively. Data analysis revealed that 71.2% of the participants had a daily sodium intake more than 2000 mg (5g of salt) recommended by the WHO. The mean of potassium excretion was 1350.0±642.8 mg /day, this average was lower than 3.51g per day recommended by the WHO. Conclusion: Public health measures to reduce sodium and increase potassium consumption in order to decrease the population’s risk of high blood pressure and heart disease are recommended.
Sat, 6 August 2016
ARTICLE Download: 1179| View: 947| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0070.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: dietary pattern; prostate cancer; systematic review; meta-analysis
Online: 6 August 2016 (12:30:38 CEST)
Dietary patterns were recently applied to examine the relationship between eating habits and prostate cancer (PC) risk. While the associations between PC risk with glycemic index and Mediterranean score have been reviewed, no meta-analysis is currently available on dietary patterns defined by “a posteriori” methods. Search was carried out (PubMed, Web of Science) to identify studies reporting the relationship between dietary patterns and PC risk. Relevant dietary patterns were selected and the risk estimated were calculated by a random-effect model. Multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for a 1st-percentile increase in dietary pattern score were combined by a dose response meta-analysis. 12 observational studies were included in the meta-analysis which identified “Healthy pattern” and “Western pattern”. The Healthy pattern was not related to PC risk (OR=0.96; 95% CI: 0.88-1.04) while the Western pattern significantly increased it (OR=1.34; 95% CI: 1.08-1.65). In addition, a “Carbohydrate pattern”, identified in four articles, was positively associated with a higher PC risk (OR=1.64; 95% CI: 1.35-2.00). A significant linear trend between the Western (p=0.011) and the Carbohydrate (p=0.005) pattern and the increment of PC risk was observed. The small numbers of studies included suggest that further investigations are necessary to support these findings.
Fri, 2 September 2016
ARTICLE Download: 1163| View: 943| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0006.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: Vernonia mespilifolia; Artemia salina; toxicity; biological activity; hatchability; lethality
Online: 2 September 2016 (11:24:10 CEST)
Vernonia mespilifolia is widely used in folk medicine in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biological activity of the acetone, aqueous and ethanol extracts of Vernonia mespilifolia using brine shrimp hatchability and lethality assay. The result showed hatching success in this order: aqueous extract (48.6%) > acetone extract (38.2%) > ethanol extract (26.8%). The LC50 of the lethality assay were in this order: acetone extract (67.8 µg/mL) > aqueous extract (132 µg/mL) > ethanol extract (383 µg/mL). According to Meyer’s toxicity index (using brine shrimps), LC50 < 1000 µg/ mL is toxic. Therefore, the results of the three solvent extracts could be said to be toxic as do have LC50 < 1000 µg/ mL. However, the toxicity of the crude extracts could suggest or confer some antitumor properties, hence further in vitro, in vivo and antitumour assays are recommended to further substantiate these claims.
Tue, 23 August 2016
ARTICLE Download: 1039| View: 941| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0199.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: active ageing; social participation; mobility; assistive technologies; service delivery
Online: 23 August 2016 (14:53:52 CEST)
Active ageing is defined as the process of optimizing opportunities for physical, social and mental health to enable older people to take an active part in society without discrimination and to enjoy an independent and good quality of life. The World Health Organization assumed this as a process for increasing and maintaining an individual’s participation in activities to enhance his/her quality of life. In this survey, the authors addressed the following question: “Is assistive technology (AT) for mobility contributing to enhancement of lifelong capacity and performance?”. From June 2015 until February 2016, 96 community dwelling adults, AT users for mobility (powered wheelchairs, manual wheelchairs, lower limb prostheses, walkers, crutches and canes), aged 45-97, mean 67.02 +/- 14.24 years old, 56.3% female, were interviewed using the Psychosocial Impact of Assistive Devices Scale (P-PIADS), the Activities and Participation Profile related to Mobility (APPM) and demographics, clinical and questions about AT use and training. The participants’ profiles revealed moderate limitation and restrictions in participation, measured by the APPM (2.03). Most participants showed positive impact of AT; average scores obtained from the P-PIADS subscales were: Self-esteem 0.62, Competency 1.11 and Adaptability 1.10. P-PIADS total was 0.96, with the powered wheelchair users scoring the highest (1.53) and the walker users scoring the lowest (0.73). All subscales and P-PIADS total were positively correlated with the activities and participation profile. There was no relation between age and the psychosocial impact of AT or activities and participation profile. These results encourage the authors to follow these participants up for a lifelong intervention. To accomplish that aim, currently, the protocol is implemented at the AT prescribing centers in Coimbra, Portugal in order to assess the impact of AT on participation in society, one of the domains of the Active Ageing Index, a new analytical tool to help policy makers in developing policies for active and healthy ageing.
Tue, 20 December 2016
ARTICLE Download: 823| View: 939| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0107.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: apoptosis; gynecologic cancer; lipopolysaccharide; proliferation; Toll-like receptor
Online: 20 December 2016 (11:12:07 CET)
Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is a member of the TLR family. Members of the TLR family play an important role in innate immune responses and are induced by recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns. They are also involved in cell proliferation and apoptosis in cancer. We investigated the role of TLR4 in apoptotic cell death in gynecological cancer cells; gynecological cancer is associated with infertility and spontaneous abortion. To examine the effect of TLR4 activation on apoptotic signaling in cancer cells, cultured primary cancer cells were treated with the TLR4 agonist lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The morphology of cancer cells was compared with normal myometrial cells. Enhanced growth rate and loss of contact inhibition with cellular overlap was observed in the cancer cells. The molecular mechanism analysis revealed differential expression of tumor suppressor genes in LPS-treated cancer cells. The expression of apoptosis-related caspase-3 was increased significantly in cancer cells with TLR4 activation after exposure to LPS. Taken together, these results suggest the pro-apoptotic activity of TLR4 as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of gynecological cancers.
Tue, 9 August 2016
ARTICLE Download: 1143| View: 936| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0087.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: natriuretic peptides; heart failure; congestion; outcome
Online: 9 August 2016 (11:33:03 CEST)
Background According to some authors, a single isolated measurement of serum BNP executed on hospital admission would not be a sufficiently accurate method to predict the outcome of patients with ADHF. Aims For verifying this assumption, a retrospective study was conducted on patients hospitalized for ADHF. Our main objective was to ascertain whether there was any difference in midterm mortality among patients with rising BNP at discharge as compared to those with decreasing BNP at discharge. Methods Medical records were examined so as to make a partition of the ADHF patient population into two groups, the former characterized by a rise in BNP during hospitalization, and the latter exhibiting a decrease in BNP in the measurement taken at hospital discharge. Results 177 patients were enrolled in a retrospective study. Among them, 53 patients (29.94%) had increased BNPs at the time of discharge, whereas 124 (70.06%) showed decreases in serum BNP during their hospital stay. The group with patients who exhibited BNP increases at the time of discharge had higher degree of congestion evident in the higher frequency of persistent jugular venous distention and persistent orthopnea at discharge. Moreover, patients with increased BNP at the time of discharge had a lower reduction in inferior vena cava maximum diameter [1.58 ± 2.2 mm vs. 6.32 ± 1.82 mm; p (one-way ANOVA)=0.001]. In contrast, there was no significant difference in weight loss when patients with increased BNP at discharge were compared to those with no such increase. A total of 14 patients (7.9%) died during the six-month follow-up period. Cox proportional hazard analysis revealed that BNP increase at the time of discharge was an independent predictor of six-month all-cause mortality after adjustment for age, sodium at discharge, creatinine at discharge and New York Heart Association (NYHA) class at discharge (hazard ratio 34.49; 95% confidence intervals: 4.55–261.06; P =0.001). Conclusions Among patients with history of ADHF, more elevated BNP levels at the time of discharge from the hospital compared to those detected at admission identify a patient subset with higher grade of congestion and higher six-month mortality.
Sun, 7 January 2018
ARTICLE Download: 412| View: 935| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0040.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: biomarker; heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF); cBIN1; cBIN1 Score (CS)
Online: 7 January 2018 (12:51:36 CET)
Objective: We determined, in stable ambulatory heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) subjects and matched controls, the capability of a novel blood based cardiac-specific cBIN1 Score (CS), which assesses the health of cardiac muscle, to identify patients with known heart failure (HF) and to prognosticate future hospitalization. Background: Limited clinical tools are available in assessing cardiac muscle health in stable ambulatory patients. Cardiac bridging integrator 1 (cBIN1) is a cardiomyocyte t-tubule membrane scaffolding protein which regulates calcium signaling in cardiomyocytes, decreases in failing muscle, and is present in plasma in levels that correlate with cardiac content. We hypothesize that CS, a normalized index of plasma cBIN1 concentration, can function as a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker of HF. Methods: Plasma cBIN1 concentration is measured by an ELISA test, and CS is calculated as the natural log of the ratio of a constant population mean cBIN1 to measured cBIN1 concentration. We determined CS among 125 clinically stable individuals with HFrEF (LVEF ≤ 40%) (mean age 56 ± 10 years old, 79% men) and 125 age, sex matched volunteers with no known history of HF. We obtained plasma concentrations of NT-proBNP, a marker of volume status, as comparison. Baseline co-morbidities and 18-month longitudinal clinical information were obtained through electronic medical records. Results: CS follows a normal distribution with a median of 0 in the control population and median is significantly increased among HFrEF patients to 1.8 (IQR 1.4 – 2.1, p < 0.0001). CS diagnosed HFrEF with a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) area under the curve (AUC) of 0.93 (AUC is 0.98 for NT-proBNP, and combined CS and NT-proBNP AUC is 0.99). Unlike NT-proBNP, CS does not correlate with body mass index (BMI) in either the control or HFrEF population (Pearson’s r = -0.15, p = 0.12; Pearson’s r = 0.003, p = 0.97, respectively). NT-proBNP significantly correlates with renal function (Pearson’s r = -0.37, p = 0.001), while CS also has no correlation (Pearson’s r = 0.03, p = 0.71). During an 18-month follow-up, a high CS ≥ 1.8 at the initial visit predicted future cardiovascular hospitalizations (38% vs. 21%, p = 0.04, hazard ratio 2.0). NT-proBNP did not predict future cardiovascular hospitalizations. Conclusions: Plasma cBIN1 based CS is insensitive to BMI and renal function and differentiates myocardial health between patients with HFrEF versus matched controls. An abnormally high CS reflected poor intrinsic myocardial health and can predict future 18-month cardiac hospitalization in stable ambulatory patients.
Tue, 9 August 2016
CASE REPORT Download: 981| View: 929| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0094.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: urea cycle disorder; ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency; magnetic resonance imaging; magnetic resonance spectroscopy
Online: 9 August 2016 (12:03:57 CEST)
Urea cycle disorders (UCDs) are common inborn errors of metabolism, with an incidence of one in 30,000 births. They are caused by deficiencies in any of six enzymes and two carrier proteins, the most common being Ornithine Transcarbamylase Deficiency (OTCD). OTCD results in impairment to excrete nitrogen, causing toxic buildup of ammonia with resultant encephalopathy. Hyperammonemia (HA) induces the conversion of glutamate to glutamine in the brain. Excess glutamine in the brain causes osmotic changes cerebral edema, changes in astrocyte morphology, and cell death. Acute symptoms of HA include vomiting, hyperventilation, seizures, and irritability. Long-term neurological changes include deficits in working memory and executive function. To date, there are no predictors of prognosis of infants with neonatal onset OTCD outside of plasma ammonia level at presentation and duration of hyperammonemic coma. We provide a comprehensive analysis of a 16-year-old male with neonatal onset of OTCD as an example of how brain biomarkers may be useful to monitor disease course and outcome. This male presented at 8 days post natal with plasma ammonia and glutamine of 677 and 4024 micromol/L and had a missense mutation in Exon 4 (p.R129H). Treatment included protein restriction, sodium benzoate, and citrulline, arginine, and iron. He suffered recurrent acute hyperammonemic episodes despite compliance, triggered by infections or catabolic stressors. We discuss the long-term effects of the hyperammonemic episodes by following MRI based disease biomarkers.
Wed, 17 August 2016
ARTICLE Download: 1123| View: 929| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0164.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: vitamin B12; coronary tortuosity; coronary angiography
Online: 17 August 2016 (10:51:56 CEST)
Background: Vitamin B 12 deficiency has been implicated in endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular disease via hyperhomocysteinemia. Coronary tortuosity (CorT) is a common coronary angiography finding. The etiology, clinical implication and long term prognosis are still not well clarified. This study was conducted with the aim to evaluate the relationship between CorT and vitamin B12. Subjects and Method: The medical records of consecutive patients, who underwent coronary angiography, were retrospectively reviewed. The study group consisted of 1624 patients. Taking into consideration the inclusion criteria, 212 patients with CorT and 210 patients with normal coronary angiographies (control group) were included in the study. Vitamin B12, other biochemical parameters, clinical and echocardiographic parameters, and CorT score were evaluated in all patients. CorT is defined as fixed 3 bends during both systole and diastole, with each bend ≥45 °. Results: Patients with CorT had higher prevalence of older, female gender, hypertension, current smoking. Vitamin B12 was significantly decreased in patient with CorT (134.7±47.8 vs 239.6±53.8 p<0.001). On multivariate analysis age, female gender, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and vitamin B12 were independent predictors for CorT (OR 1.56; 95% CI: 1.247–1.962; p < 0.001, OR 1.628; 95% CI: 1.376-2.048; p<0.001, OR 1.865; 95% CI: 1.387-2.695; p<0.001, OR 1.362; 95% CI: 1.184-1.726; p<0.001, OR 1.862; 95% CI: 1.486-2.674; p<0.001, respectively). Conclusion: In our study, we have founded a significant relationship between vitamin B12 deficiency and CorT.
Fri, 24 March 2017
ARTICLE Download: 807| View: 929| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0186.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: veterinary; allergic dermatitis; low level laser therapy
Online: 24 March 2017 (10:32:49 CET)
Background: The prevalence of atopic dermatitis in domestic animals is one of the problems of modern veterinary. Treating with standard techniques using chemotherapeutic agents not always leads to a positive result of therapy; moreover, many drugs produce adverse side effects. Methods: Low level laser therapy, in particular, intravenous laser blood illumination (ILBI) has a pronounced and long-lasting impact on the immune system of animals. The combined technique including ILBI-635 (635 nm, 2 mW, 5 min) and LUVBI® (365 nm, 2 mW, 3 min) every other day provides a positive change in clinical status of cats with allergic dermatitis after the 3rd-4th treatment session. Results: The increased level of erythrocytes and hemoglobin was identified in the course of treatment, and it indirectly indicates increased blood transport activity, which improves trophic provision and microcirculation. A double reduction of leukocytes and a significant decrease of neutrophil cells indicate the immunomodulatory effect of LILI (low-intensity laser illumination). The increase in the percentage of lymphocytes and the decrease of eosinophils and monocytes against the background of basophil concentrations deviations within physiological concentration result in the reduction of inflammatory mediators expression that induce itching. The reduction of total IgE concentration 32 times against control on the 7th day of treatment correlates with the decrease in the quantitative content of peripheral blood eosinophils, indicating the decrease in severity of an allergic process. Conclusion: LLLT is recommended against the background of standard drug therapy to achieve quick clinical outcome together with a long-lasting prolonged effect.
Tue, 1 November 2016
ARTICLE Download: 1159| View: 928| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0008.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: nitrofurantoin; active pharmaceutical ingredient; 4-aminobenzoic acid; cocrystallization; intermolecular interaction; Raman spectroscopy; terahertz spectroscopy
Online: 1 November 2016 (09:54:24 CET)
Cocrystallizaiton could improve most physicochemical properties of specific active pharmaceutical ingredients, which has great potential in pharmaceutical development. In this study, the cocrystal of nitrofurantoin and 4-aminobenzoic acid was prepared with solid-state (solvent-free or green-chemistry) grinding approach, and the above cocrystal has been characterized by Raman and terahertz vibrational spectroscopic techniques. Spectral results show that the vibrational modes of the cocrystal within the whole spectral region are different from those of the corresponding parent materials. The dynamic process of such pharmaceutical cocrystal formation has also been monitored directly with Raman spectra. These results offer us unique means for characterizing the cocrystal conformation from molecule-level and also provide us rich information about the reaction dynamic of cocrystal formation within pharmaceutical fields.
Tue, 20 September 2016
ARTICLE Download: 1261| View: 926| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0073.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: diabetes mellitus, molecular docking, thin layer chromatography, alpha amylase, ellagic acid
Online: 20 September 2016 (16:13:12 CEST)
Diabetes mellitus is the fifth deadliest disease in the developing countries. Even with all the research and new drugs available, combating diabetes is still challenging. There are successes in finding new cost effective drugs without side effects, even if not perfect. In our investigation we studied binding mechanism of secondary metabolite of T. chebula in silico. It was observed that three compounds out of 16 have a higher binding affinity for the target proteins. Ellagic acid showed highest binding affinity with alpha amylase, beta glucosidase and alpha glucosidase with lesser binding energies -4.5kcal/mol, -5.36kcal/mol and -4.48kcal/mol respectively. Arjungenin has lesser binding energy of 4.77 kcal/mol with glucokinase while luteoline has binding energy of -7.25kcal/mol for enzyme glycogen synthase kinase. These entire compounds interacted with non-covalent interaction. Petroleum ether extract showed the significant alpha amylase inhibitory activity i.e. 51.22% as compared to standard drug (65.99%).TLC analysis revealed the presence of total 9 compounds in different plant extracts one of them might be a lead compound which could be further exploited for the development of novel safer and potent antidiabetic drug.
Wed, 24 April 2019
ARTICLE Download: 184| View: 925| Comments: 2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: allograft, resorption, sclerotic bone, exfoliation, bone failure
Online: 24 April 2019 (12:33:49 CEST)
AbstractCadaver bone is possibly the most common transplant material used today. Common types of cadaver bone transplants are freeze-dried bone allografts and xenografts. Studies have shown that mineralized freeze-dried bone allografts have the same percentage of retained bone graft particles at different time points, indicating that these materials are never resorbed. However, it is commonly accepted by clinicians that these materials are resorbed and convert the graft site into normal bone. This histologic study was undertaken to determine the fate of mineralized freeze-dried bone allograft particles grafted into human extraction sockets. Materials and Methods:This study is a photographic, radiologic, and histological analysis of mineralized freeze-dried bone allograft healing in human sockets after mineralization at different time points. The mineralized freeze-dried bone allografts used for evaluation in this study were particulate bone graft materials in maxillary or mandibular extraction sockets. Patient selection was random, based on the following time periods: 6 months, 2 years, 5 years, 7 years, 10 years and 15 years. No block bone grafts were evaluated. Results:No resorption of cadaver bone graft particles was found at any time point. No osteoclasts were found in any of the histology at any time point. At different time points from 6 months through 15 years, mineralized freeze-dried bone allograft particles were found to be exfoliated out of the alveolar crest as a result of the formation of a hypervascular zone surrounding the grafted site. The embedded graft particles remain embedded in sclerotic bone until the particles reach the alveolar crest at which time the sclerotic bone and graft particles break up and are released into the gingiva. All histologic samples from 6 months to 15 years contained residual graft particles. The sclerotic bone formed around graft particles did not integrate to the graft particles or the implant surface. Conclusions:Mineralized freeze-dried bone allograft particles are not resorbed after mineralization. A hypervascular zone forms around the grafted site and exfoliates the bone graft particles into the gingiva. The mineralization process produces sclerotic bone which never remodels into normal bone. Sclerotic bone covers but does not integrate to the retained bone graft particles or implant surface resulting in a weakened structure with an increased likelihood of bone failure and implant loss.
Mon, 26 September 2016
ARTICLE Download: 1310| View: 924| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0165.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Pueraria mirifica; mammary gland; uterus; carcinogenesis; estrogenic activity; Donryu rat
Online: 26 September 2016 (09:25:39 CEST)
Pueraria mirifica (PM), a plant whose dried and powdered tuberous roots are now widely used in rejuvenating preparations to promote youthfulness in both men and women, may have major estrogenic influence. In this study, we investigated modifying effects of PM at various doses on mammary and endometrial carcinogenesis in female Donryu rats. Firstly, PM administered to ovariectomized animals at doses of 0.03%, 0.3%, and 3% in a phytoestrogen-low diet for 2 weeks caused significant increase in uterus weight. Secondly, a 4 week PM application to non-operated rats at a dose of 3% after 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) initiation resulted in significant elevation of cell proliferation in the mammary glands. In a third experiment, postpubertal administration of 0.3% (200 mg/kg body weight (b.w.)/day) PM to 5-week-old non-operated animals for 36 weeks following initiation of mammary and endometrial carcinogenesis with DMBA and N-ethyl-N′-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (ENNG), respectively, resulted in significant increase of mammary adenocarcinoma incidence. A significant increase of endometrial atypical hyperplasia multiplicity was also observed. Furthermore, PM at doses of 0.3% and, more pronouncedly, of 1% induced dilatation, hemorrhage and inflammation of the uterine wall. In conclusion, postpubertal long-term PM administration to Donryu rats exerts estrogenic effects in the mammary gland and uterus, and at a dose of 200 mg/kg b.w./day was found to promote mammary carcinogenesis initiated by DMBA.
Tue, 9 August 2016
ARTICLE Download: 762| View: 921| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0081.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: core stability; balance; agility
Online: 9 August 2016 (11:09:01 CEST)
Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate if tests used to assess core stability could be used to determine success in physiological tests applied to assess dynamic balance and agility for a young active population. Methods: Pearson's r correlation coefficient was used to assess the relationship between the core stability tests and the dynamic balance and agility tests. Evaluation of the tests was established using Cronbach's coefficient of variance as part of intra-rater reliability tests. An analysis of 18 active college aged students was conducted (males: n= 13, females: n= 5). The mean ± SD age for males was 19.2 years ± 3.22 years and for females was 19.4 years ± 1.14 years. Conclusion: The results indicate that there is no significant relationship between tests that assess core stability and tests conducted to assess dynamic balance in active young adults. With the exception of the abdominal flexion test, no significant relationship exists between the remaining core stability tests and agility T-Test. Core stability is not a determinant of balance and agility.
Wed, 7 December 2016
ARTICLE Download: 1111| View: 920| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0042.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: acute lung injury; mycelium of Sanghuangporus sanghuang; lipopolysaccharide; KAP1/Nrf2 pathway; PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathways; HO-1; HNGB1
Online: 7 December 2016 (11:15:30 CET)
Acute lung injury (ALI) is characterized by inflammation of the lung tissue and oxidative injury caused by excessive accumulation of reactive oxygen species. Studies have suggested that anti-inflammatory or antioxidant agents could be used for the treatment of ALI with a good outcome. Therefore, our study aimed to test whether the mycelium extract of Sanghuangporus sanghuang (SS-1), believed to exhibit antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, could be used against the excessive inflammatory response associated with LPS-induced ALI in mice and to investigate its possible mechanism of action. The experimental results showed that the administration of SS-1 could inhibit LPS-induced inflammation. SS-1 could reduce the number of inflammatory cells, inhibit MPO activity, regulate the TLR4/PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway and the signal transduction of NF-κB and MAPK pathways in the lung tissue, and inhibit HNGB1 activity in BALF. In addition, SS-1 could affect the synthesis of antioxidant enzymes HO-1 and Trx-1 in the lung tissue and regulate signal transduction in the KAP1/Nrf2/Keap1 pathway. Histological results showed that administration of SS-1 prior to induction could inhibit the large-scale LPS-induced neutrophil infiltration of the lung tissue. Therefore, based on all experimental results, we propose that SS-1 exhibits a protective effect against LPS-induced (ALI) in mice. The mycelium of S. sanghuang can potentially be used for the treatment or prevention of inflammation-related diseases
Wed, 19 September 2018
ARTICLE Download: 511| View: 918| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0388.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: biobanks, electronic health records, Michigan Genomics Initiative
Online: 19 September 2018 (14:57:30 CEST)
Biobanks linked to electronic health records provide a rich data resource for health-related research. With the establishment of large-scale infrastructure, the availability and utility of data from biobanks has dramatically increased over time. As more researchers become interested in using biobank data to explore a diverse spectrum of scientific questions, resources guiding the data access, design, and analysis of biobank-based studies will be crucial. The first aim of this review is to characterize the types of biobanks that are discussed in the recent literature and provide detailed descriptions of specific biobanks including their location, size, data access, data linkages and more. The development and accessibility of large-scale biorepositories provide the opportunity to accelerate agnostic searches, new discoveries, and hypothesis-generating studies of disease-treatment, disease-exposure and disease-gene associations. Rather than spending time and money designing and implementing a single study with pre-defined objectives, researchers can use biobanks’ existing data-rich resources to answer scientific questions as quickly as they can analyze them. While the data are becoming increasingly available, additional thought is needed to address issues related to the design of such studies and analysis of these data. In the second aim of this review, we discuss statistical issues related to biobank research in general including study design, sampling strategy, phenotype identification, and missing data. These issues are illustrated using data from the Michigan Genomics Initiative, UK Biobank, and Genes for Good. We summarize the current body of statistical literature aimed at addressing some of these challenges and discuss some of the standing open problems in this area. This work serves to complement and extend recent reviews about biobank-based research and aims to provide a resource catalog with statistical and practical guidance to researchers pursuing biobank-based research.
Thu, 22 December 2016
REVIEW Download: 871| View: 915| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0113.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: breast cancer; brain metastases; clonal evolution; precision medicine; genomics; tumour microenvironment
Online: 22 December 2016 (09:57:33 CET)