ARTICLE Download: 2462| View: 891| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0099.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: PET; Petroleum Coke; Mechanical Alloying; Thermal studies; XRD
Online: 9 August 2016 (14:22:43 CEST)
The thermal degradation behaviour of 10:90 and 90:10 blends of Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) and petroleum coke has been investigated using mechanical alloying (milling) at 300 rpm and for periods up to 1-10 hours. Milled specimens were characterised using SEM and x-ray diffraction; their thermal degradation behaviour was investigated using thermo-gravimetric analyser (TGA) for temperatures up to 1200°C. Whereas PET specimens showed a tendency towards flattening out and increased surface area during collisions in ball mills, petroleum coke particles tended to break down into smaller particles. 10:90 and 90:10 blends of PET and coke showed significant microstructural evolution with increasing speeds and time including fracture, strain hardening and re-welding. X-ray diffraction results showed clear evidence for increasing amorphous component in petroleum coke without much influence on PET crystallinity. Thermo-gravimetric results showed a significant increase in the overall degradation and much higher weight losses associated with mechanical alloying. This study has shown that mechanical alloying could be used to modify the degradation behaviour of coke/plastic blends and corresponding yield during pyrolysis with implications for plastic waste management.
Tue, 7 August 2018
ARTICLE Download: 1930| View: 588| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0145.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: secondary lithium ion battery; all-solid-state battery; solid polymer electrolyte; succinonitrile (SN); lithium(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI)
Online: 7 August 2018 (13:18:20 CEST)
Considering the safety issues of Li ion batteries, all-solid-state polymer electrolyte has been one of the promising solutions. In this point, achieving a Li ion conductivity in the solid state electrolytes comparable to liquid electrolytes (>1 mS/cm) is particularly challenging. Employment of polyethylene oxide (PEO) solid electrolyte has not been not enough in this point due to high crystallinity. In this study, hybrid solid electrolyte (HSE) systems are designed with Li1.3Al0.3Ti0.7(PO4)3(LATP), PEO and Lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6) or Lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI). Hybrid solid cathode (HSC) is also designed using LATP, PEO and lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2, LCO)—lithium manganese oxide (LiMn2O4, LMO). The designed HSE system displays 3.0 × 10−4 S/cm (55 ℃) and 1.8 × 10−3 S/cm (23 ℃) with an electrochemical stability as of 6.0 V without any separation layer introduction. Li metal (anode)/HSE/HSC cell in this study displays initial charge capacity as of 123.4/102.7 mAh/g (55 ℃) and 73/57 mAh/g (25 °C). To these systems, Succinonitrile (SN) has been incorporated as a plasticizer for practical secondary Li ion battery system development to enhance ionic conductivity. The incorporated SN effectively increases the ionic conductivity without any leakage and short-circuits even under broken cell condition. The developed system also overcomes the typical disadvantages of internal resistance induced by Ti ion reduction. In this study, optimized ionic conductivity and low internal resistance inside the Li ion battery cell have been obtained, which suggests a new possibility in the secondary Li ion battery development.
Sat, 27 August 2016
ARTICLE Download: 1769| View: 997| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0216.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: polymer nanocomposites; thermal conductivity; finite element analysis; ABAQUS
Online: 27 August 2016 (09:57:54 CEST)
Polymer nanocomposites are composed of polymer materials reinforced with nano fillers. In the present study the effective thermal conductivity of the composites filled with nanofillers has been investigated using commercially available finite element software ABAQUS 6.11. The nanofillers used were alumina particles and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) and the matrix was considered to be made of epoxy. For the analysis 2D and 3D Representative Volume Elements (RVEs) were generated using Random Sequential Adsorption (RSA) algorithm using MATLAB and Python scripts. Thermal conductivity was found out for 2D and 3D RVEs for different area and weight fractions respectively. Two different shapes of the alumina nanoparticles were considered: spherical (circular) and ellipsoidal (elliptical) for 3D (2D) analysis. It was found that the thermal conductivity was increased with the addition of nanofillers. The increase in thermal conductivity was approximately same for both types of inclusions at corresponding area or weight fractions in 2D or 3D analysis. The results showed that addition of MWNTs to the composites lead to a significant increase in thermal conductivity than spherical or ellipsoidal inclusions.
Tue, 14 March 2017
REVIEW Download: 1752| View: 827| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0072.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: micro-arc oxidation; antibacterial ability; Ag; Cu; Zn
Online: 14 March 2017 (07:49:40 CET)
Ti and its alloys are the most commonly used materials for biomedical applications. However, bacterial infection after implant placement is still one of the significant rising complications. Therefore, the application of the antimicrobial agents into implant surfaces to prevent implant-associated infection has attracted lots of attention. Scientific papers have shown that inorganic antibacterial metal element (e.g. Ag, Cu, Zn) can be introduced to implant surfaces with the addition of metal nanoparticles or metallic compounds into electrolyte via micro-arc oxidation (MAO) technology. In this review, the effects of the composition and concentration of electrolyte and process parameters (e.g. voltage, current density, oxidation time) on morphological characteristics (e.g. surface morphology, bonding strength), antibacterial ability and biocompatibility of MAO antimicrobial coating were discussed in detail. Anti-infection and osseo-integration can be simultaneously accomplished with the selection of the proper antibacterial elements and operating parameters. Besides, MAO assisted by magnetron sputtering (MS) to endow Ti-based implant materials with superior antibacterial ability and biocompatibility was also discussed. Finally, the development trend of MAO technology in the future was forecasted.
Tue, 4 October 2016
ARTICLE Download: 1711| View: 1151| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0006.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Other Keywords: steel slag; electric arc furnace slag; magnetite; radiation shielding concrete; concrete; EAF; aggregate
Online: 4 October 2016 (09:28:42 CEST)
Electric arc furnace oxidizing slag (EAF) has a high density of 3.0~3.7 t/m3 and therefore has a high bulk density when mixed with concrete. Extensive research has been conducted on the use of concrete with high unit volume weight as heavyweight concrete for radiation shielding concrete. In this study, to examine the possibility of developing a radiation shielding concrete, the physical properties of normal concrete, magnetite concrete, EAF concrete, and EAF concrete with added iron powder, were compared. Also, their radiation shielding performance was assessed through shielding tests against X-rays and γ-rays. While the unit volume weight of EAF concrete (3.21 t/m3) appeared lower than that of magnetite concrete (3.5 t/m3), the compressive strength of EAF concrete was greater than those of magnetite and normal concretes. The radiation shielding ratio of magnetite concrete was observed to be 93.9% from the X-ray shielding test, followed by 91.2% of EAF concrete, and 73.7% of normal concrete, indicating a linear relationship with unit volume weight. From the γ-ray shielding test, the performance of EAF and magnetite concretes appeared to be similar. Based on the excellent physical properties and radiation shielding performance of EAF concrete, its potential applicability as radiation shielding concrete was confirmed.
Fri, 28 October 2016
ARTICLE Download: 1653| View: 1041| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0126.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: A. Ceramics; A. Oxides; C. X-ray diffraction; D. Crystal structure; D. Microstructure
Online: 28 October 2016 (08:09:48 CEST)
The aim of this work is to compare two softwares (MAUD and TOPAS) based on the Rietveld algorithm and to test the concept of tolerance factor using the dissolution at high temperature of yttrium into BaTiO3. In general, both softwares give up different values of the crystalline parameters however the trends are similar in most cases but the analysis of the strain and crystallite size in the BaTiO3 crystals suggests that, in this particular case, MAUD offered results more consistent with the expected behavior. Using the crystalline parameters calculated by Rietveld, the tolerance factor values were obtained and these data suggest even better stability in the crystalline structure than that expected using theoretical parameters. Tolerance factor concept also indicates that Ti4+ should be preferred.
Mon, 5 February 2018
ARTICLE Download: 1595| View: 332| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0045.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: Polyamide solvent, composite, coated-fabric, Nylon, single-polymer composite, all-polyamide composite coated-fabric
Online: 5 February 2018 (16:19:09 CET)
Polyamides (PAs) are one of the most important engineering polymers; however, the difficulty in dissolving them hinders their applications. Formic acid (FA) is the most common solvent for PAs, but it has industrial limitations. In this contribution, we proposed a new solvent system for PAs by replacing a portion of the FA with urea and calcium chloride (FAUCa). Urea imparts the hydrogen bonding and calcium ion from the calcium chloride, as a Lewis acid was added to the system to compensate for the pH decrease due to the addition of urea. The results showed that the proposed solvent (FAUCa) could readily dissolve PAs, resulting in less decrease in the mechanical properties during the dissolution. The composite prepared using the FAUCa has almost the same properties like the one prepared using the FA solution. The solution was applied on a polyamide 66 fabric to make an all-polyamide composite coated-fabric, which then was characterized. The FAUCa solution had a higher viscosity than the one prepared using the neat FA solvent, which can be an advantage in the applications which needs higher viscosity like preparing the all-polyamide composite coated-fabric. A more viscouse solution makes a denser coating which will increase the water-/gas-tightness. In conclusion, using the FAUCa solvent has two merits: 1. replacement of 40 % of the FA with less harmful and environmentally-friendly chemicals and 2. enabling for the preparation of more viscouse solutions, which makes denser coating.
Mon, 26 September 2016
REVIEW Download: 1572| View: 1105| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0092.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: PMMA; bone cement; cardiac embolism; cement leakage; viscosity
Online: 26 September 2016 (10:34:26 CEST)
Percutaneous vertebroplasty procedure is of major importance, given the significant increasing aging population and higher number of orthopedic procedures related to vertebral compression fractures. Vertebroplasty is a complex technique involving injection of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) into the compressed vertebral body for mechanical stabilization of the fracture. Our understanding and ability to modify these mechanisms through alterations in cement material is rapidly evolving. However, the rate of cardiac complications secondary to PMMA injection and subsequent cement leakage has increased with time. The following review considers the main features of PMMA bone cement on the heart, and the extent of influence of materials on cardiac embolism. Clinically, cement leakage results in life-threatening cardiac injury. The convolution of this outcome through an appropriate balance of complex material properties is highlighted via clinical case report.
Fri, 31 March 2017
ARTICLE Download: 1507| View: 817| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0231.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: copper resources; demand forecasting; system dynamics model; sustainability development
Online: 31 March 2017 (10:50:56 CEST)
Copper demand for a country's copper industry has a greater pull effect. China's copper consumption in 2015 has accounted for 50% of the world. The scientific forecast of China's copper demands trend is also an important basis for analyzing its future environmental impact. This paper assumes that China's economy will be developing high, medium and low scenarios, and forecasts economic and social indicators such as total GDP, population and per capita GDP in China from 2016 to 2030. Then, predicted the demand of copper resources in China from 2016 to 2030 by the combination of system dynamics model, vector autoregressive moving average model and inverted U-type empirical model. The results show that: (1) in 2020, 2025 and 2030, China's refined copper demand will be 13 Mt, 15 Mt and 15.5 Mt. (2) China's copper demand growth slowed down significantly from 2016-2030. (3) 2025-2030, China's copper resource demand is stable, into the platform of demand growth, the highest peak value in 2027 will be 15.5 Mt. (4) 2030 years later, China's copper resource demand will enter a slow decline.
Tue, 18 October 2016
ARTICLE Download: 1473| View: 1204| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0125.v2
Subject: Materials Science, Other Keywords: GaN ultraviolet photodetector; periodic trapezoid column-shape patterned sapphire substrate; responsivity; UV-to-visible rejection ratio
Online: 18 October 2016 (08:19:48 CEST)
GaN ultraviolet photodetector with metal-semiconductor-metal structure is achieved by growing on a periodic trapezoid column-shape patterned sapphire substrate using metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. Under 5-V reverse bias, the photodetector fabricated on such patterned sapphire substrate exhibits a lower dark current, a higher photocurrent, and a 476 % enhancement in the maximum responsivity as compare with those of the photodetector fabricated on conventional flat sapphire substrate. It is also found that the much larger UV-to-visible rejection ratio and the fact that responsivity drops in a smaller cut-off region are observed from photodetector fabricated by using a periodic trapezoid column-shape patterned sapphire substrate. These phenomena may all be attributed to the reduction of threading dislocation density and the improved quality of GaN film, as well as the internal reflection and/or scattering effect on the interface between GaN film and the periodic trapezoid column-shape pattern of the substrate.
Mon, 24 October 2016
ARTICLE Download: 1375| View: 1189| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0099.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: Moiré patterns; MoS2; Graphene; WS2; WSe2; HRTEM
Online: 24 October 2016 (05:03:50 CEST)
We present a series of computer-assisted high resolution transmission electron (HRTEM) simulations to determine Moiré patters by induced twisting effects between slabs at rotational angles of 3°, 5°, 8°, and 16°, for molybdenum disulfide, graphene, tungsten disulfide, and tungsten selenide layered materials. In order to investigate the electronic structure, a series of numerical simulations using DFT methods was completed using CASTEP with a generalized gradient approximation to determine both band structure and density of states on honeycomb like new superlattices. Our results indicate metallic transitions when rotation approaches 8° with respect to each other for most of the two-dimensional systems that were analyzed.
Tue, 27 September 2016
ARTICLE Download: 1321| View: 900| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0101.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: neutron absorber; Mo-based composites; ball milling; microstructure; thulium oxide
Online: 27 September 2016 (10:45:47 CEST)
The microstructural evolution, thermodynamics and kinetics of Mo-21%Tm2O3 (mass fraction, %) powder mixtures during ball milling were investigated using X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Ball milling induced Tm2O3 to be decomposed and then dissolved into Mo crystal. The supersaturated nanocrystalline solid solution of Mo (Tm, O) was obtained after 96 h of ball milling. The elements of Mo, Tm and O were distributed uniformly in the ball-milled particles. Based on the semi-experimental theory of Miedema, a thermodynamic model was developed to calculate the driving force of phase evolution. There was no chemical driving force to form a crystal solid solution of Tm atoms in Mo crystal or an amorphous phase because the Gibbs free energy for both processes was higher than zero. For Mo-21%Tm2O3, it was mechanical work, not negative heat of mixing, that provided the driving force to form supersaturated nanocrystalline Mo (Tm, O) solid solution.
Thu, 29 September 2016
ARTICLE Download: 1319| View: 1081| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0120.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings & Films Keywords: CO2 enhanced capture; SBA-15 habilitation for CO2 sorption; desilication; silanol functionalization; covalent coordinated CO2 deposition
Online: 29 September 2016 (12:38:24 CEST)
Special preparation of SBA-15 materials has been carried out for creating adsorbents exhibiting an enhanced and selective adsorption toward CO2. This creation starts from an adequate conditioning of the silica surface, via a thermo-alkaline treatment to increase the population of silanol species on it. CO2 adsorption is only reasonably achieved when the SiO2 surface becomes aminated after put in contact with a solution of an amino alkoxide compound in the right solvent. Unfunctionalized and amine-functionalized substrates were characterized through X-ray diffraction, N2 sorption, Raman spectroscopy, electron microscopy, 29Si solid-state NMR, and NH3 thermal programmed desorption. These analyses proved that the thermo-alkaline procedure desilicates the substrate and eliminates the micropores (without affecting the SBA-15 capillaries), present in the original solid. NMR analysis confirms that the hydroxylated solid anchors more amino functionalizing molecules than the unhydroxylated material. The SBA-15 sample subjected to hydroxylation and amino- functionalization displays a high enthalpy of interaction, a reason why this solid is suitable for a strong deposition of CO2 but with the possibility of observing a low-pressure hysteresis phenomenon. Contrastingly, CH4 adsorption on amino-functionalized, hydroxylated SBA-15 substrates becomes almost 5 times lesser than the CO2 one, thus giving proof of their selectivity toward CO2.
Wed, 30 November 2016
ARTICLE Download: 1310| View: 1100| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0150.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: water-based polyurethane; hyaluronic acid; cartilage tissue engineering; scaffold
Online: 30 November 2016 (04:28:15 CET)
Diseases in articular cartilages have affected millions of people globally. Although the biochemical and cellular composition of articular cartilages is relatively simple, there is the limitation in self-repair ability of cartilage. Therefore, developing the strategies for cartilage repair is very important. Here, we reported a new manufacturing process of water-based polyurethane based photosensitive materials with hyaluronic acid and applied the materials for 3D printed customized cartilage scaffolds. The scaffold has high cytocompatibility and is one that closely mimics the mechanical properties of articular cartilages. It is suitable for culturing human Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stem cells (hWJMSCs) and the cells showed an excellent chondrogenic differentiation capacity. We consider that the 3D printing hybrid scaffolds may have potential in customized tissue engineering and facilitate the development of cartilage tissue engineering.
Fri, 19 August 2016
ARTICLE Download: 1285| View: 1028| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0179.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: bioleaching; molecuar analysis; bacteria; sequencing; iron ore
Online: 19 August 2016 (09:23:04 CEST)
One consequence of the global technological advancement in conventional metallurgy is the fast depletion rate of valuable minerals, which are also becoming increasingly difficult to find in pure and economically viable forms. This has spurred more interest in technologies that investigate ability of different microorganisms to mobilize valuable metals from their ores via diverse metabolic processes. This study was carried out therefore to isolate, identify and characterize iron solubilizing bacteria from Iron stones of Agbaja iron ore mining site of Kogi State, Nigeria. Crushed samples in the range of 0.25µm and 0.75µm particle sizes were cultured in a modified 9k media to facilitate bacterial growth and pure cultures were then isolated and sub-cultured for further bioleaching studies. Morphological and biochemical analysis suggests that some of the bacteria identified are members of Acidithiobacillus spp, Pseudomonas spp, and Leptospirillum spp. Studies conducted on pure cultures and mixed consortium of the identified organisms shows that a mixture of the three organisms leached iron ore to about 96.16%. Also results of growth pattern due to bacteria countafter 24-72hours of incubation ranged between 0.1×103 cfu/ml and 12.3 ×103 cfu/ml for Acidithiobacillus spp. The need to explore the molecular characteristics of these organisms with a view to generating more information on the quality/quantity of their DNA for future cloning activities was also investigated in this work. DNA was extracted using zymo fungal/bacterial extraction mini prep kit TM (cat #6001) and subsequently subjected to 1% agarose gel electrophoresis. Visible bands were obtained with Alpha Innotech Gel Documentation Machine. DNA amplification was carried out using a pettier based thermo cycler PCR machine and electrophoresed on 1.5% agarose gel. Results of the PCR shows a visible band corresponding to 1.5kbp using this primer 27F (51-GAGTTTGATCCTGGCTCAG-31) and 1492R (51-GGTTACCTTGTTACGACT-31). DNA purity check shows two of the bacteria possess very good qualities for sequencing for further molecular analysis.
Wed, 28 September 2016
ARTICLE Download: 1276| View: 1056| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0109.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings & Films Keywords: nano-Au particles; NIPAAm hydrogel; plasma treatment; UV grafting
Online: 28 September 2016 (09:49:23 CEST)
In this study, a new type of temperature sensor device was developed. The circular electrode of the thermal sensitive sensor was modified with TMT and O2 plasma to enhance the conductivity by forming a thin SnOxCy layer on the electrode surface. The Nano-Au particles were subjected to O2 plasma pretreatment to form peroxide groups on the surface. The thermally sensitive sensor was made by mixing the above-treated Nano-Au particles with N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm) to form solution and then UV-induced grafting polymerization of the NIPAAm-containing solution onto the electrode substrate. The composite hydrogels on the electrode introduce thermo-sensitive polymeric surface films for temperature sensing. Using ambient environment resistance test to measure the resistance, the LCST (lower critical solution temperature) of Nano-Au (MUA) mixed with NIPAAm hydrogel was found to be 32 °C. At ambient temperatures higher than LCST, the electrode resistance decreases linearly.
ARTICLE Download: 1272| View: 880| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0112.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings & Films Keywords: carbonyl iron; composites film; external magnetic field; microwave absorption properties
Online: 28 September 2016 (10:32:52 CEST)
The carbonyl iron particles were dispersed in a polychloroprene rubber (CR) matrix under an external magnetic field for practical application as microwave absorption composites film. The film prepared under external magnetic field with a thickness of only 0.54 mm showed least reflection loss of -15.98 dB and the reflection loss value less than -10.0 dB over the frequency range of 11.4~14.8 GHz. In comparison with the microwave absorption properties of calculation by transmission line theory based on the tested relative complex permittivity and permeability and film prepared by general route without external magnetic field, the film made with external magnetic field exhibited more excellent microwave absorption properties, strongly depending on the increment of anisotropy and rearrangement of magnetic particles. The results indicated the composite film made under external magnetic field have excellent microwave absorption properties, which suggest that the composites thin film could be used as a thinner and lighter microwave absorber.
Thu, 20 April 2017
ARTICLE Download: 1265| View: 953| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0131.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: polyurethane foams; castor oil; crude glycerol; biopolyols
Online: 20 April 2017 (04:27:10 CEST)
Rigid polyurethane foams were synthesized using a renewable polyol from the simple physical mixture of castor oil and crude glycerol. The effect of the catalyst and blowing agent in the foams properties was evaluated. The use of physical blowing agent (cyclopentane and n-pentane) allowed obtaining foams with smaller cells in comparison with the foams produced with a chemical blowing agent (water). The increase of water content caused a decrease of density, thermal conductivity, compressive strength and Young's modulus, which indicates that the increment of CO2 production contributes to the formation of larger cells. Higher amount of catalyst in the foam formulations caused a slight density decrease and an increase small significance of thermal conductivity, compressive strength and Young's modulus values. These green foams presented properties that indicate a great potential to be used as thermal insulation, as density (23 - 41 kg m-3), thermal conductivity (0.0128 – 0.0207 W m-1 K-1), compressive strength (45 - 188 kPa) and Young's modulus (3 - 28 kPa). These biofoams are also environmental friendly alternatives and can aggregate revenue to biodiesel industry, contributing for reduction of this fuel prices.
Thu, 15 September 2016
ARTICLE Download: 1264| View: 974| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0049.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: shape memory; liquid crystalline; self-healing
Online: 15 September 2016 (11:07:50 CEST)
To better understand the shape memory materials and self-healing materials, a new series of liquid-crystalline shape memory polyurethane (LC-SMPU) composites, named SMPU-OOBAm, were successfully prepared by incorporating 4-octyldecyloxybenzoic acid (OOBA) into the PEG-based SMPU. The effect of OOBA on the structure, morphology and properties has been carefully investigated. The results demonstrate that SMPU-OOBAm have liquid crystalline properties, triple-shape memory properties and self-healing properties. The incorporated OOBA promotes the crystallizability of both soft and hard segments of SMPU, and the crystallization rate of the hard segment of SMPU decreases when the OOBA-content increases. Additionally, the SMPU-OOBAm forms a two-phase separated structure (SMPU phase and OOBA phase), and it shows two-step modulus changes upon heating. Therefore, the SMPU-OOBAm shows triple-shape memory behavior, and the shape recovery ratio decreases with an increase in the OOBA content. Finally, SMPU-OOBAm shows self-healing properties. The new mechanism can be ascribed to the heating-induced “bleeding” of OOBA in the liquid crystalline state and the subsequent re-crystallization upon cooling. This successful combination of liquid crystalline properties, triple-shape memory properties and self-healing properties make the SMPU-OOBAm composites with many promise applications in smart optical devices, smart electronic devices and smart sensors.
Wed, 25 January 2017
ARTICLE Download: 1258| View: 994| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0112.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: PEEK; blends; thermal stability; tribological properties; mechanical properties
Online: 25 January 2017 (10:03:49 CET)
In this study, 10%PTFE/PEEK blend were modified by potassium titanate whisker (PTW) and chopped glass fiber (GF), respectively. The blends were prepared by three-screw extruder. Through the investigation of thermal stability, tribological properties, mechanical properties and rheological behavior, the effects of reinforcing agents were determined. The results illustrated that the mechanical properties of 10%PTFE/PEEK blend can be dramatically improved by adding reinforcing agent of PTW or GF, and the reinforcing effect of GF was especially obvious. As for tribological properties, 1% addition was the best proportion. The friction coefficient and wear rate of the blend with 1% PTW were 0.283 and 4.97 × 10-6 mm3/N · m, which decreased by 7.2% and 21% compared with those of the blend without reinforcing agent.
Wed, 28 December 2016
ARTICLE Download: 1256| View: 1236| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0133.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: MoS2; carbon nanofibers; electrospinning; anode material
Online: 28 December 2016 (10:49:33 CET)
The one-dimensional MoS2/carbon nanofibers (1D MoS2/CNFs) are synthesized by electrospinning using exfoliated MoS2 nanosheets and polyacrylonitrile as raw materials. The exfoliated MoS2 nanosheets with size of about 150 nm are encapsulated in carbon nanofibers, and the free-standing MoS2/CNFs can be easily cut into flexible tablet and directly used as binder-free anode for lithium storage. The resultant 1D MoS2/CNFs exhibit a very high reversible capacity of 700 mAh g-1 at 100 mA g-1 after 50 cycles, high rate capacity (450 mAh g-1 at 1000 mA g-1 after 200 cycles) and good cycle stability.
Mon, 7 November 2016
ARTICLE Download: 1253| View: 1502| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0038.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: polyhydroxybutyrate; nanofibrillated cellulose; paper coating; hydrophobicity
Online: 7 November 2016 (06:59:27 CET)
This study reports on the development of bio-based hydrophobic coatings for packaging papers through deposition of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) particles in combination with nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) and plant wax. In a first approach, PHB particles in micrometer range (PHB-MP) were prepared through a phase-separation technique providing internally nanosized structures. The particles were transferred as a coating by dip-coating filter papers in the particle suspension, followed by sizing with a carnauba wax solution. This approach allowed partial to almost full surface coverage of PHB-MP over the paper surface resulting in static water contact angles of 105° to 122° and 129° to 144° after additional wax coating. In a second approach, PHB particles with submicron sizes (PHB-SP) were synthesized by an oil-in-emulsion (o/w) solvent evaporation method, and mixed in aqueous suspensions with 0 to 7 wt% NFC. After dip-coating filter papers in PHB-SP/NFC suspensions and sizing with a carnauba wax solution, static water contact angles of 112° to 152° were obtained. The intrinsic properties of the particles were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, thermal analysis and infrared spectroscopy, indicating higher crystallinity for PHB-SP than PHB-MP. The chemical interactions between the more amorphous PHB-MP particles and paper fibers were identified as an esterification reaction, while the morphology of the NFC fibrillar network was playing a key role as binding agent in the retention of more crystalline PHB-SP at the paper surface, hence contributing to higher hydrophobicity.
Tue, 3 April 2018
ARTICLE Download: 1250| View: 443| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0036.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: photocatalyst; flower-like SnS2; nanocomposites; visible light; methylene blue
Online: 3 April 2018 (10:53:52 CEST)
Semiconductor materials have been shown to have better photocatalytic behavior and can be utilized for the photodegradation of organic pollutants. In this work, three-dimensional flower-like SnS2 were synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method. Core-shell structured SiO2@α-Fe2O3 nanocomposites were then deposited on the top of the SnS2 flowers. The as-synthesized nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) and photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL). The photocatalytic behavior of the SnS2-SiO2@α-Fe2O3 nanocomposites was observed by observing the degradation of methylene blue (MB). The results show an effective enhancement of photocatalytic activity for the degradation of MB especially for the 15 wt. % SiO2@α-Fe2O3 nanocomposites on SnS2 flowers.
Wed, 4 January 2017
ARTICLE Download: 1247| View: 868| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0019.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: high-entropy alloys; Al-Ni-Co-Fe-Cr alloys; microstructure; precipitation morphology; mechanical property
Online: 4 January 2017 (10:30:17 CET)
The present work investigates primarily the morphology evolution of the body-centered-cubic (BCC)/B2 phases in AlxNiCoFeCr high-entropy alloys (HEAs) with increasing Al content, which has been neglected so far. There exist two types of microscopic morphologies of BCC and B2 phases in this HEA series: one is the weave-like morphology induced by the spinodal decomposition, and the other is the microstructure of a spherical disordered BCC precipitation on the ordered B2 matrix that appears in HEAs with a much higher Al content. The shape of coherent precipitates is found to be closely related to the lattice misfit between BCC and B2 phases, which is sensitive to Al. The mechanical properties, including the compressive yielding strength and microhardness of the AlxNiCoFeCr HEAs, are also discussed in light of the concept of the valence electron concentration (VEC).
Fri, 3 March 2017
COMMUNICATION Download: 1246| View: 1140| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0022.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: perfect metamaterial absorber; terahertz; six-band; cave-cross patch resonator
Online: 3 March 2017 (08:48:31 CET)
A simple design of an ultrathin six-band polarization-insensitive terahertz perfect metamaterial absorber (PMMA) composed of a metal cross-cave-patch resonator (CCPR) placed over a ground plane was proposed and investigated numerically. The numerical simulation results demonstrate that the average absorption peaks are up to 95% at six resonance frequencies with high quality-factors (>65). In addition, the absorption properties can be kept stability for both normal incident transverse magnetic (TM) and transverse electric (TE) waves. The physical mechanism behind the observed high level absorption is illustrated by the electric and power loss density distributions. The different absorption mainly originates from the higher order multipolar and multipolar plasmon resonance of the structure, which are sharp different to the most previous studies of the PMMAs. Furthermore, the resonance absorption of the PMMA can be tunable by varying the geometric parameters of the unit cell.
Sat, 4 February 2017
ARTICLE Download: 1222| View: 887| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0013.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: nano-cube; heterostructures; bottom-up growth; electron microscopy; bandgap; Ag-WO3
Online: 4 February 2017 (09:23:00 CET)
A new class of nano-cube core-shell heterostructures containing Ag coating on the top of WO3 was fabricated. Physical vapor deposition was used to produce WO3 based nano-heterostructures. All kind of wet toxic chemical process was avoided to make the process simple and contaminant free. Sputtering of WO3 and a subsequent thermal annealing process was done to create nano-cubes of WO3. After that, sputtering of Ag was performed to form the Ag-WO3 core-shell nano-heterostructures (CSNH). The CSNHs were characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and UV-vis spectroscopy. The morphologies, elemental analysis, interfaces, crystallinity, phases, and chemical compositions were analyzed. The bottom-up growth of WO3 nanocubes was studied using different time periods at 900°C. Ag coating was also studied before and after annealing. Finally, an optical property (band gap) was also analyzed using Tauc plot derive from absorption spectra. The tailoring the band gap of WO3 from ~2.9eV to ~ 2.45 eV was observed while Ag-WO3 CSNH formed.
Mon, 3 April 2017
ARTICLE Download: 1218| View: 870| Comments: 1 | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0010.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: PLA; fused deposition modeling (FDM); surface characterization; vibrational spectroscopy; laser confocal microscopy; X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy
Online: 3 April 2017 (17:34:40 CEST)
Polylactic Acid (PLA) is an organic polymer commonly used in fused deposition (FDM) printing and biomedical scaffolding that is biocompatible and immunologically inert. However, variations in source material quality and chemistry make it necessary to characterize the filament and determine potential changes in chemistry occurring as a result of the FDM process. We used several spectroscopic techniques, including laser confocal microscopy, Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and photoacousitc FTIR spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) in order to characterize both the bulk and surface chemistry of the source material and printed samples. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) were used to characterize morphology, crystallinity, and the glass transition temperature following printing. Analysis revealed calcium carbonate-based additives which were reacted with organic ligands and potentially trace metal impurities, both before and following printing. These additives became concentrated in voids in the printed structure. This finding is important for biomedical applications as carbonate will impact subsequent cell growth on printed tissue scaffolds. Results of chemical analysis also provided evidence of the hygroscopic nature of the source material and oxidation of the printed surface, and SEM imaging revealed micro and sub-micron scale roughness that will also impact potential applications.
Wed, 14 December 2016
ARTICLE Download: 1214| View: 723| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0073.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: W18O49; microstructure; phase transformation; photocatalytic activity
Online: 14 December 2016 (08:33:41 CET)
Hierarchical tungsten oxide assemblies such as spindle-like, flowers with sharp petals, nanowires and regular hexagonal structures are successfully synthesized via a solvothermal reduction method by simply adjusting the reaction conditions. On the basis of the experimental results, it is determined that the reaction time significantly influences the phase transition, microstructure and photocatalytic activity of the prepared samples. The possible mechanisms for the phase transition and morphology evolution process have been systematically proposed. Moreover, the as-prepared products exhibit significant morphology-depended photocatalytic activity. The flower-like W18O49 prepared at 6 h possesses large specific surface area (150.1 m2g-1), improved separation efficiency of electron-hole pairs and decreased electron-transfer resistance by the photoelectrochemical measurements. As a result, the flower-like W18O49 prepared at 6 h exhibits the highest photocatalytic activity for the degradation of Methyl orange aqueous solution. The radical trap experiments showed that the degradation of MO was driven mainly by the participation of h+ and •O2− radicals.
Mon, 19 September 2016
ARTICLE Download: 1201| View: 896| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0064.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Other Keywords: PZT-PVDF; coupling agents; dielectric properties; piezoelectric properties
Online: 19 September 2016 (09:42:46 CEST)
PZT-Poly(vinylidene fluoride) composites were prepared by hot-pressing method. Before addition, PZT particles were firstly modified with two different coupling agents. The micromorphology, microstructure, dielectric properties, and piezoelectric properties of the composites were characterized and investigated. Results indicated that PZT particles were homogeneously dispersed in the PVDF matrix by the addition of coupling agents. The electric properties of PZT-PVDF composites with NDZ-101 were the best. Especially when the volume ratio of the titanate coupling agent NDZ-101 was 1%, the piezoelectric strain constant d33 of PZT-PVDF composites reached maximum value 19.23pC/N; its relative dielectric constant εr was 67.45; at the same time its dielectric loss tanδ was 0.0766.
Wed, 31 August 2016
ARTICLE Download: 1174| View: 1003| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0238.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: anisotropic exchange; single molecule magnets; Spin Hamiltonian; CASSCF; NEVPT2
Online: 31 August 2016 (10:56:43 CEST)
The rationalization of single molecule magnets’ (SMMs) magnetic properties by quantum mechanical approaches represents a major task in the field of the Molecular Magnetism. The fundamental interpretative key of molecular magnetism is the phenomenological Spin Hamiltonian and the understanding of the role of its different terms by electronic structure calculations is expected to steer the rational design of new and more performing SMMs. This paper deals with the ab initio calculation of isotropic and anisotropic exchange contributions in the Fe(III) dimer [Fe2(OCH3)2(dbm)4]. This system represents the building block of one of the most studied Single Molecule Magnets ([Fe4RC(CH2O)3)2(dpm)6] where R can be an aliphatic chain or a phenyl group just to name the most common functionalization groups) and its relatively reduced size allows the use of a high computational level of theory. Calculations were performed using CASSCF and NEVPT2 approaches on the X-ray geometry as assessment of the computational protocol, which has then be used to evinced the importance of the outer coordination shell nature through organic ligand modelization. Magneto-structural correlations as function of internal degrees of freedom for isotropic and anisotropic exchange contributions are also presented, outlining for the first time the extremely rapidly changing nature of the anisotropic exchange coupling.
Fri, 18 November 2016
ARTICLE Download: 1163| View: 1146| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0100.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Metallurgy Keywords: Al wire, free air ball (FAB),electronic flame-off (EFO), coating, bias test
Online: 18 November 2016 (15:03:34 CET)
Aluminum wire is a common material for wire bonding due to its resistance to oxidation and low price. It does not melt when becoming a free air ball (FAB) during the electronic flame-off (EFO) process with wettability, and is applied by wedge bonding. This study used 20μm Zn-Coated Al-0.5wt.%Si (ZAS) wires to improve the FAB shape after the EFO process, while maintaining stability of the mechanical properties, including the interface bonding strength and hardness. In order to test circuit stability after ball bonding, the current-tensile test was performed. During the experiment, it was found that 80nm ZAS with wire bonding has lower resistance and higher fusing current. For the bias tensile test, the thicker Zn film diffused into the Al-Si matrix easily, after which the strength was reduced. The ball-bond interfaces had no change in their condition before and after the bias. Accordingly, ZAS could be a promising candidate for ball bonding in the future.
Tue, 9 August 2016
ARTICLE Download: 1162| View: 1003| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0102.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings & Films Keywords: waterborne polyurethane; adhesive; lignin
Online: 9 August 2016 (14:53:10 CEST)
A series of waterborne polyurethane (WBPU)/modified lignin amine (MLA) adhesives was prepared using modified lignin amine (MLA) as a chain extender by a prepolymer mixing process. A successful Mannich reaction was achieved during the synthesis of MLA by reacting lignin with bis(3-aminopropyl)amine. Higher tensile strength, Young’s modulus and thermal stability were recorded for WBPU/MLA adhesives with higher MLA contents. The WBPU/MLA adhesive materials were used to coat PVC substrates. The adhesive strength increased with increasing MLA content. More importantly, the MLA also enhanced the WBPU/MLA coating in terms of adhesive strength at moderately high temperatures as well as under natural weather exposed conditions. The adhesive strength was essentially unaffected with 6.48 mole% MLA in the WBPU/MLA coating after exposure to natural weather conditions for 180 days.
Mon, 1 May 2017
ARTICLE Download: 1156| View: 681| Comments: 1 | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0008.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings & Films Keywords: polyester fabrics; surface modification; sulfuric acid; polypyrrole; deposition; conductivity
Online: 1 May 2017 (08:48:17 CEST)
A simple and effective surface modification of polyester fabrics with sulfuric acid to improve the interfacial deposition of polypyrrole was presented in our work. A range of sulfuric acid concentrations were analyzed by studying water contact angle. Effect of sulfuric acid modification on the deposition of polypyrrole was investigated by sheet resistance and color depth of fabric samples. Polyester fabrics coated with polypyrrole layer were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-Ray diffraction spectra (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). XPS showed that sulphur containing functional groups were obviously appeared on the polyester fiber surface after modification, which were advantageous to promote the deposition of polypyrrole onto polyester fabrics. The improved deposition increased electrical conductivity of fabric samples.
Fri, 27 May 2016
ARTICLE Download: 1151| View: 1355| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201605.0003.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: poly(lactide-co-glycolide); hydroxyapatite; porous scaffold; microchannel; cell ingrowth; mass exchange; bone tissue engineering
Online: 27 May 2016 (11:25:30 CEST)
Mass transfer restrictions of scaffolds are currently hindering the development of three-dimensional (3D), clinically viable, and tissue engineered constructs. For this situation, a 3D poly(lactide-co-glycolide)/hydroxyapatite porous scaffold, which was much favorable for transfer of nutrients to and waste products from the cells in the pores, was developed in this study. The 3D scaffold had an innovative structure, including macropores with diameters of 300−450 μm for cell ingrowth and microchannels with diameters of 2−4 μm for nutrition and waste exchange. The mechanical strength in wet state was strong enough to offer the structural support. The typical structure was more beneficial for the attachment, proliferation, and differentiation of rabbit bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (rBMSCs). The alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and calcium (Ca) deposition were evaluated on the differentiation of rBMSCs, and the results indicated that the microchannel structure was very favorable for differentiating rBMSCs into maturing osteoblasts. For repairing rabbit radius defects in vivo, there was rapid healing in the defects treated with the 3D porous scaffold with microchannels, where the bridging by a large bony callus was observed at 12 weeks post-surgery. Based on the results, the 3D porous scaffold with microchannels was a promising candidate for bone defect repair.
Thu, 27 October 2016
ARTICLE Download: 1146| View: 1213| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0123.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: immobilization, lipase, magnetic nanoparticles, chitosan, collagen, squaric acic
Online: 27 October 2016 (18:40:02 CEST)
The synthesis of new collagen, chitosan and chitosan-collagen coated magnetic nanoparticles have been done. Two types of cross-linkers for polymer shell stabilization were used: glutaraldehyde (Gla) as a standard cross-linker and new one – squaric acid (SqA). Structure and morphology of prepared nanoparticles were characterized by ATR-FT IR, XRD and TEM analysis. The immobilization of lipase from Candida rugosa was performed on the nanoparticles surface. The amount of immobilized enzyme was quantified by the Bradford method. All of lipase-biopolymers coated nanoparticles were characterized with good activity recovery. A little hyperactivation of lipase immobilized on nanoparticles with SqA was observed. All of prepared lipase-immobilized nanoparticles were characterized with very good reusability.
Sat, 4 February 2017
ARTICLE Download: 1144| View: 1358| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0010.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: amorphous polyphosphate microparticles; retinyl acetate; enamel cracks/fissures; Streptococcus mutans; human mesenchymal stem cells; collagen type I; alkaline phosphatase
Online: 4 February 2017 (07:37:55 CET)
Here we report the preparation and characterization of a novel biomimetic toothpaste containing morphogenetically active amorphous polyphosphate (polyP) microparticles enriched with retinyl acetate (“a-polyP/RA-MP”). The spherical microparticles (average size, 550±120 nm), prepared by co-precipitating sodium-polyP with calcium chloride and supplemented with retinyl acetate, were incorporated into a basis toothpaste at a final concentration of 1% or 10%. The paste containing “a-polyP/RA-MP” significantly increased the growth of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), compared to a commercial toothpaste which acts rather inhibitory and the paste without polyP and retinyl acetate. qRT-PCR experiments revealed that the retinoid causes an induction of the expression of the MSC marker genes for osteoblast differentiation encoding collagen type I and alkaline phosphatase. On the other hand, the polyP ingredient, supplied as Zn-polyP microparticles (“Zn-a-polyP-MP”) strongly inhibited the growth of the cariogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans. We demonstrate that the amorphous polyP-containing toothpaste, enriched with retinyl acetate, efficiently repairs both cracks/fissures and carious lesions in the tooth enamel, and reseals dentinal tubules, already after a 5 d treatment (brushing) of teeth twice daily for 5 min as examined by SEM and quantitative EDX analysis. The stability of the occlusion of dentin cracks even turned out to resist against short high power sonication treatment. Our results demonstrate that the novel toothpaste prepared here, containing amorphous polyP and retinyl acetate, is particularly suitable for prevention/repair of (cariogenic) damages of tooth enamel/dentin and for treatment of dental hypersensitivity.
Wed, 16 November 2016
ARTICLE Download: 1132| View: 950| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0084.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: textile composite; biaxial tensile; modulus; plain weave fabric (PWF)
Online: 16 November 2016 (13:34:41 CET)
This paper addresses a new micromechanical model to predict biaxial tensile moduli of plain weave fabric (PWF) composites by considering the interaction between the orthogonal interlacing strands. The two orthogonal yarns in micromechanical unit cell (UC) were idealized as the curved beams with a path depicted by using sinusoidal shape functions. The biaxial tensile moduli of PWF composites were derived by means of the minimum total complementary potential energy principle founded on micromechanics. The biaxial tensile tests were respectively conducted on the RTM-made EW220/5284 PWF composites at five biaxial loading ratios of 0, 1, 2, 3 and ∞ to validate the new model. The predictions from the new model were compared with experimental data and good correlation was achieved between the predictions and actual experiments, demonstrating the practical and effective use of the proposed model. Using the new model, the biaxial tensile moduli of plain weave fabric (PWF) composites could be predicted based only on the properties of basic woven fabric.
Fri, 5 January 2018
ARTICLE Download: 1097| View: 537| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0028.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: poly(acrylic acid); metronidazole; hydrogel; crosslinking; radiation
Online: 5 January 2018 (04:49:18 CET)
Poly(acrylic acid) (PAAc) hydrogels possess good bioadhesive properties and allow enhanced penetration of drugs. In addition, it is possible to localize the absorption site of the drug in the hydrogel and increase the drug residence time. As opposed to other cross-linking processes radiation-induced polymer cross-linking can be easily and rapidly carried out without the use of cross-linking agents and other chemical additives. In this study, we fabricated metronidazole (MD) containing PAAc hydrogel (MD/PAAc) with different MD contents (0.1, 0.25, 0.5 wt%) using varying radiation doses (25, 50, 75 kGy) by gamma-irradiation. The physical and thermal properties were determined by gel content analysis, swelling ratio measurements, compressive strength measurements, differential scanning calorimetery, and thermogravimetric analysis. The properties of the hydrogel degraded due to the crystalline nature of MD. The properties of the hydrogel degraded due to the crystalline nature of MD. Cumulative release observed after 50 min in the case of 0.5MD/PAAc and 0.1MD/PAAc was 50% and 10%, respectively. Our findings suggest that MD/PAAc could be a suitable drug delivery carrier for use with radiation-based techniques.
Wed, 18 January 2017
ARTICLE Download: 1085| View: 961| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0081.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: vanadium pentoxide; lithium-ion batteries; hollow spheres; cathode
Online: 18 January 2017 (09:48:30 CET)
Three-dimensional V2O5 hollow structures have been prepared through a simple synthesis strategy combining solvothermal treatment and a subsequent thermal annealing. The V2O5 materials are composed of microspheres 2–3 μm in diameter and with a distinct hollow interior. The as-synthesized V2O5 hollow microspheres, when evaluated as a cathode material for lithium-ion batteries, can deliver a specific capacity as high as 273 mAh·g−1 at 0.2 C. Benefiting from the hollow structures that afford fast electrolyte transport and volume accommodation, the V2O5 cathode also exhibits a superior rate capability and excellent cycling stability. The good Li-ion storage performance demonstrates the great potential of this unique V2O5 hollow material as a high-performance cathode for lithium-ion batteries.
Thu, 19 January 2017
ARTICLE Download: 1083| View: 945| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0089.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: MoS2; composite; anode; low cost; Li-ion battery
Online: 19 January 2017 (11:08:29 CET)
A low-cost bio-mass-derived carbon substrate has been employed to synthesize MoS2@carbon composites through a hydrothermal method. Carbon fibers derived from natural cotton provide a three-dimensional and open framework for the uniform growth of MoS2 nanosheets, thus constructing hierarchically coaxial architecture. The unique structure could synergistically benefit fast Li-ion and electron transport from the conductive carbon scaffold and porous MoS2 nanostructures. As a result, the MoS2@carbon composites, when served as anodes for Li-ion batteries, exhibit a high reversible specific capacity of 820 mAh g-1, high-rate capability (457 mAh g-1 at 2 A g-1), and excellent cycling stability. The superior electrochemical performance makes the MoS2@carbon composites to be low-cost and promising anode materials for Li-ion batteries.
Mon, 27 March 2017
ARTICLE Download: 1075| View: 678| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0201.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: mesoporous TiO2; reduced graphene oxide; Ag nanoparticles; photocatalytic activity; visible light irradiation
Online: 27 March 2017 (12:01:25 CEST)
Mesoporous TiO2/reduced graphene oxide/Ag (TiO2/RGO/Ag) ternary nanocomposite with effective electrons transfer pathway is obtained by an electrostatic self-assembly method and photo-assisted treatment. Compared with bare mesoporous TiO2 (MT) and mesoporous TiO2/RGO (MTG), the ternary mesoporous TiO2/RGO/Ag (MTGA) nanocomposite exhibited superior photocatalytic performance for the degradation of MB under visible light, and the degradation rate reached 0.017 min-1, which was 3.4 times higher than that of MTG. It is proposed that Ag nanoparticles can form the local surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) to absorb the visible light and distract the electrons into MT, and RGO can accept the electrons from MT to accelerate the separation efficiency of carriers. The establishment of MTGA ternary nanocomposite make the three components act synergistic effect to enhance the photocatalytic performance.
Thu, 23 February 2017
ARTICLE Download: 1064| View: 903| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0086.v1
Online: 23 February 2017 (10:37:50 CET)
This work shows the physicochemical and mineralogical characterization of diatomites form the Hidalgo and Jalisco States, Mexico. In the case of the mineral from Hidalgo State, this has the following chemical composition; 70.0 % wt. SiO2, 11.63 wt. % Al2O3, 1.95 wt. % FeO, 1.79 wt. % MgO, 2.41 wt. % K2O, 0.85 wt. % CaO and 6.10 wt. % Na2O. On the other hand, the mineral from Jalisco has the following chemical composition; 93.58 wt. % SiO2, 3.03 wt. % Al2O3, 1.81 wt. % FeO, 0.40 wt. % MgO, 0.92 wt. % K2O, 0.11 wt. % CaO and 0.24 wt. % Na2O. For recovery of metals, both minerals got arsenic, silver, lead and nickel recoveries upper to 95 % and lower to 10 % for chromium. According to efficiency of interchange, the mineral from Hidalgo is slightly higher in the case of arsenic, lead and silver; while for nickel and particularly chromium (VI) the efficiency is higher for the mineral from Jalisco.
Fri, 11 November 2016
REVIEW Download: 1061| View: 1071| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0060.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs); reverse-transcriptase-subunit of telomerase (hTERT); GV1001; heat shock protein 90
Online: 11 November 2016 (09:59:30 CET)
Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs), a group of small peptides capable of promoting the transport of molecular cargo across the plasma membrane, have become important tools in promoting the cellular uptake of exogenously delivered macromolecules. GV1001, a peptide derived from a reverse-transcriptase subunit of telomerase (hTERT) and developed as a vaccine against various cancers, reportedly has unexpected CPP properties. Unlike typical CPPs, such as the HIV-1 TAT peptide, GV1001 enabled the cytosolic delivery of macromolecules such as proteins, DNA and siRNA via extracellular heat shock protein 90 (eHSP90) and 70 (eHSP70) complexes. The eHSP-GV1001 interaction may have biological effects in addition to its cytosolic delivery function. GV1001 was originally designed as a MHC class II-binding cancer epitope, but its CPP properties may contribute to its strong anti-cancer immune response relative to other telomerase peptide-based vaccines. Cell signaling via eHSP-GV1001 binding may lead to unexpected biological effects, such as direct anticancer or antiviral effects. In this review, we focus on the CPP effects of GV1001 bound to eHSP90 and ehsp70.
Fri, 23 December 2016
CONCEPT PAPER Download: 1061| View: 807| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0111.v2
Subject: Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings & Films Keywords: chemical phosphate coating; EIS; nano TiO2; TAFEL
Online: 23 December 2016 (10:23:24 CET)
The present study aims at deposition of zinc phosphate coatings with the incorporation of nano Titanium dioxide particles by chemical phosphating method. Zinc phosphate coatings were developed on low carbon steel by using nano TiO2 in the standard phosphating bath. The Coated low carbon steel samples were assessed for corrosion studies using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic polarisation techniques in 3.5% NaCl solution. Chemical composition of the coatings was analysed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Significant variations in the coating weight, porosity and corrosion resistance were observed with the addition of nano TiO2 in the phosphating bath. Corrosion rate of nano TiO2 incorporated chemical phosphate coated samples was found to be 3.5 mpy which was 4 times less than the bare uncoated low carbon steel (~14 mpy). Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy studies revels in the reduction of porosity in nano TiO2 phosphate coated samples. It was found that nano TiO2 particles in the phosphating solution yielded phosphate coatings of higher coating weight, greater surface coverage and enhanced corrosion resistance than the normal zinc phosphate coatings (developed using normal phosphating bath).
Mon, 9 April 2018
ARTICLE Download: 1057| View: 572| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0102.v2
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: additive manufacturing; desktop 3D printing; fused deposition modeling; fused filament fabrication; polylactic acid; anisotropy; interlayer bonds; mechanical strength; digital fabrication
Online: 9 April 2018 (10:33:56 CEST)
This work investigates how the user-controlled parameters of the 3D printing process define temperature conditions on the boundary between layers of the part being fabricated and how these conditions influence the structure and strength of the part. The process studied is fused filament fabrication with a desktop 3D printer and the material utilized is PLA (polylactic acid). As a characteristic of the part strength the fracture load in the case of a three-point bend and calculated related stress were used. During the printing process parts were oriented with the long side along the Z axis, thus, in the bend tests, the maximum stress occurred orthogonally to the layers. During the fabrication process, temperature distribution on the sample surface was monitored with thermal imager. Sample mesostructure was analyzed using SEM. The influence of the extrusion temperature, the intensity of part cooling, the printing speed and the time between printing individual layers were considered. The influence of all the parameters can be expressed through two generalizing factors: the temperature of the previous layer and the flow efficiency, determining the ratio of the amount of extruded plastic to the calculated. A regression model was proposed that describes the effect of the two factors on the printed part strength. Along with interlayer bonding strength, these two factors determine the formation of the part mesostructure (the geometry of the boundaries between individual threads). It is shown that the optimization of the process parameters responsible for temperature conditions makes it possible to approximate the strength of the interlayer cohesion to the bulk material strength.
Mon, 3 April 2017
ARTICLE Download: 1049| View: 1044| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0005.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Soy protein isolate; Microcrystalline cellulose; Metal nanoclusters; Nanocomposite film; Tensile strength
Online: 3 April 2017 (16:42:12 CEST)
Soy protein isolate (SPI) based materials are abundant, biocompatible, renewable, and biodegradable. In order to improve the tensile strength (TS) of SPI films, we prepared a novel composite film modified with microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and metal nanoclusters (NCs) in this research. The effects of the modification of MCC on the properties of SPI-Cu NCs and Zn NCs films were investigated. Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy analyses and X-ray diffraction patterns characterized the strong interactions and reduction of the crystalline structure of the composite films. Scanning electron microscope showed the enhanced cross-linked and entangled structure of modified films. Compared with untreated SPI film, the tensile strength of the SPI-MCC-Cu and SPI-MCC-Zn films increased from 2.91 MPa to 13.95 and 6.52 MPa, respectively. Moreover, the results also indicated their favorable water resistance with higher water contact angle. Meanwhile, the composite films exhibited increased initial degradation temperatures, demonstrating their higher thermostability. The results suggested that MCC could effectively improve the performance of SPI-NCs films, which would provide a novel preparation method for environmentally friendly SPI-based films in the applications of packaging materials.
Fri, 24 March 2017
ARTICLE Download: 1041| View: 709| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0187.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Metallurgy Keywords: medium-carbon steel; fatigue life estimation; surface roughness
Online: 24 March 2017 (10:50:11 CET)
Medium-carbon steel is commonly used for the rail, wire ropes, tire cord, cold heading, forging steels, cold finished steel bars, machinable steel and so on. Its fatigue behavior analysis and fatigue life estimation play an important role in the machinery industry. In this paper, the estimation of fatigue life of medium-carbon steel with different surface roughness using established S-N and P-S-N curves is presented. To estimate the fatigue life, the effect of the average surface roughness on the fatigue life of medium-carbon steel has been investigated using 75 fatigue tests in three groups with average surface roughness (Ra): 0.4μm, 0.8μm, and 1.6μm respectively. S-N curves and P-S-N curves have been established based on the fatigue tests. The fatigue life of medium-carbon steel is then estimated based on Tanaka-Mura crack initiation life model, the crack propagation life model using Paris law, and material constants of the S-N curves. 6 more fatigue tests have been conducted to validate the presented fatigue life estimation formulation. The experimental results have shown that the presented model could estimate well the mean fatigue life of medium-carbon steel with different surface roughness
Mon, 2 January 2017
ARTICLE Download: 1029| View: 1000| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0008.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings & Films Keywords: Superhydrophobic; Water-repellent; Chemical etching; Self-cleaning; Anti-fogging
Online: 2 January 2017 (17:27:05 CET)
Development of the self-cleaning and anti-fogging superhydrophobic coating for aluminum surfaces which is durable in the aggressive conditions has raised tremendous interest in materials science. In this work, by employing chemical etching technique with mixture of hydrochloric and nitric acid, followed by passivation with lauric acid, superhydrophobic aluminum surface was synthesized. The surface morphology analysis reveals the presence of rough microstructures on coated aluminium surface. Superhydrophobicity with water contact angle of 170 ± 3.9° and sliding angle of 4 ± 0.5° is achieved. Surface bounces off the high speed water jet, indicating excellent water-repellent nature of coating. It is also continuously floated on water surface for several weeks, showing excellent buoyancy nature. Additionally, coating maintains its superhydrophobicity after undergoing 100 cycles of adhesive tape peeling test. Its superhydrophobic nature withstands 90° and 180° bending, and repeated folding and de-folding. Coating exhibits the excellent self-cleaning property. In low temperature condensation test, almost no accumulation of water drops on the surface, showing the excellent anti-fogging property of coating. This approach can be applied to any size and shape of aluminium surface and hence has great industrial applications.
Fri, 30 December 2016
ARTICLE Download: 1022| View: 944| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0147.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: piezoresistive sensor; electron microscope; in situ mechanical test
Online: 30 December 2016 (04:16:25 CET)
In this work, we designed a MEMS device which allows simultaneous direct measurement of mechanical properties during deformation under external stress and characterization of the evolution of microstructure of nanomaterials within a transmission electron microscope. This MEMS device makes it easy to establish the correlation between microstructure and mechanical properties of nanomaterials. The device uses piezoresistive sensors to qualitatively measure the force and displacement of nanomaterials, e.g., in wire and thin plate forms. The device has a theoretical displacement resolution of 0.19 nm and a force resolution of 2.1 μN. The device has a theoretical displacement range limit of 2.74 μm and a load range limit of 27.75 mN.
Tue, 18 October 2016
ARTICLE Download: 1021| View: 1055| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0072.v1
Online: 18 October 2016 (08:04:51 CEST)
Fe-(9, 19, 28, 37)wt.% Cr alloys were corroded at 700 and 800 oC for 70 h under 1 atm of N2, 1 atm of N2/3.2%H2O-mixed gas, and 1 atm of N2/3.1%H2O/2.42%H2S-mixed gas. The corrosion rate of Fe-9Cr alloy increased with the addition of H2O, and furthermore with the addition of H2S in N2 gas. Fe-9Cr alloy was always nonprotective. In contrast, Fe-(19, 28, 37) wt.%Cr alloys were protective in N2 and N2/H2O-mixed gas because of formation of the Cr2O3 layer. They were, however, nonprotective in N2/H2O/H2S-mixed gas because sulfidation dominated to form the outer FeS layer and the inner Cr2S3 layer containing some FeCr2S4.
Mon, 2 January 2017
ARTICLE Download: 1006| View: 787| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0002.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: crystal structure; Hume-Rothery phases; structure stability
Online: 2 January 2017 (10:42:19 CET)
Crystal structures of simple metals and binary alloy phases based on the face-centered cubic (fcc) structure are analyzed within the model of Fermi sphere – Brillouin zone interactions to understand the stability of original cubic structure and derivative structures with distortions, superlattices and vacancies. Examination of the Brillouin-Jones configuration in relation to the nearly-free electron Fermi sphere for several representative phases reveals significance of the electron energy contribution to the phase stability. Representation of complex structures in the reciprocal space clarifies their relationship to the basic cubic cell.
Thu, 12 January 2017
ARTICLE Download: 976| View: 915| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0063.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: HfB4; structure prediction; superhard material; anisotropic properties
Online: 12 January 2017 (10:57:03 CET)
By using the particle swarm optimization algorithm for crystal structure prediction, we reveal a newly orthorhombic Cmcm structure of HfB4, which is more energetically superior to the previously proposed YB4-, ReP4-, FeB4-, CrB4-, and MnB4-type structures in the considered pressure range. The phonon dispersion and elastic constants calculations confirm that the new phase is dynamically and mechanically stable. The calculated large shear modulus (240 GPa) and high hardness (45.7 GPa) imply that the predicted Cmcm-HfB4 is a potential superhard material. Meanwhile, the directional dependences of the Young's modulus, bulk modulus, and shear modulus for HfB4 are systematically investigated. Further analyses of the density of states and electronic localization function indicate that the strong B-B and B-Hf covalent bonds greatly contribute to its high hardness and stability.
Mon, 29 May 2017
ARTICLE Download: 963| View: 613| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0202.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: abrasive flow machining; a helical passageway; surface roughness, mold core
Online: 29 May 2017 (18:54:24 CEST)
Due to the fact that abrasive media can deform flexibly in abrasive flow machining (AFM) making this method easily to polish the complex holes and the curved surface of the hard machining shapes. Although abrasive media dominate the polishing behavior in AFM process, the mechanism of the abrasive media are not easy to understand because of the high viscous gels, therefore, many finishing works need lots of time to design AFM process. Power laws of the abrasive gels is studied here to evaluate the non-Newtonian flow of abrasive gels in complex holes polishing firstly, at the mean time different abrasive gels are utilized to finish the complex holes to follow the results by non-Newtonian flow calculation. Moreover, traditional AFM has difficulty to achieve a uniform roughness of radial distribution in the complex holes polishing because of the non-uniform abrasive forces. So a helical passageway is proposed to create a multiple motion of abrasive medium and to obtain the even surface of the complex holes in AFM process.
Fri, 18 August 2017
ARTICLE Download: 956| View: 484| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0067.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Metallurgy Keywords: Tensile Strength; Hardness; Microstructure; Grain Morphology; Epitaxial Grain Growth; Scan Strategy; Directional Dependencies
Online: 18 August 2017 (16:05:46 CEST)
The thorough description of the peculiarities of additively manufactured structures represents a current challenge for aspiring freeform fabrication methods, such as the selective laser melting (SLM). All of which have an immense advantage in the fast fabrication (no special tooling or moulds required), the geometrical flexibility in the design of components, and their efficiency when only low quantities are required. However, designs demand the precise knowledge of the material properties, which in case of additively manufactured structures are anisotropic and, under certain circumstances, in addition of an inhomogeneous nature. Furthermore, these characteristics are highly dependent on the fabrication settings. Within this study, the anisotropic tensile properties of selective laser melted stainless steel (1.4404, 316L) are investigated: The Young’s modulus ranged from 148 GPa to 227 GPa, the ultimate tensile strength from 512 MPa to 699 MPa and the breaking elongation ranged, respectively, from 12% to 43%. The results were compared to related studies, in order to classify the influence of the fabrication settings. Furthermore, the influence of the chosen raw material was addressed by comparing deviations on the directional dependencies reasoned by differing microstructural developments during manufacture. Stainless steel was found to possess its maximum strength at a 45° layer versus loading offset, which is precisely where AlSi10Mg was previously reported to be at its weakest.
Mon, 3 April 2017
ARTICLE Download: 952| View: 603| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0003.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Metallurgy Keywords: Iron Aluminum Alloys; Cold/ Hot PM; Compressibility Factor; Wear Resistance.
Online: 3 April 2017 (16:23:00 CEST)
Iron powders having average particle sizes of ~40µm are mechanically mixed thoroughly with aluminum powders ranging from 1 to 10 in wt.% with an average particle size of ~10µm. Two different powder metallurgical techniques cold and hot pressing are used to study the effect of the additive element powder on the mechanical properties, wear properties and the microstructure of the iron based alloys. The hot pressing technique was performed at a temperature up to 500°C at 445.6 MPa. The cold pressing technique was performed at 909 MPa in room temperature. By increasing the Al content to 10 wt. % in the base Fe-based matrix, the hardness was decreased from 780 to 690 MPa and the radial strength was decreased from 380 to 202 MPa with reductions of 11.5% and 40%, respectively. Improvement of the wear resistance with the increase addition of the Al powder to the Fe matrix up to 5 times was achieved compared to the alloy without Al addition for different wear parameters namely; wear time and sliding speed.
Tue, 10 October 2017
ARTICLE Download: 949| View: 636| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0057.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Other Keywords: additive manufacturing (AM); Functionally Graded Materials (FGM); Thermoplastic 3D-Printing (T3DP; ceramics; ceramic-based 4D-components; zirconia; graded microstructure
Online: 10 October 2017 (03:21:04 CEST)
In our study we investigated the additive manufacturing (AM) of ceramic-based Functionally Graded Materials (FGM) by the direct AM technology Thermoplastic 3D-Printing (T3DP). Zirconia components with a varying microstructure were additively manufactured by using thermoplastic suspensions with different contents of pore forming agents (PFA) and were co-sintered defect-free. Different materials were investigated concerning their suitability as PFA for the T3DP process. Different zirconia-based suspensions were prepared and used for AM of single- and multi-material test components. All samples were sintered defect-free and in the end we could realize a brick wall-like component consisting of dense (<1% porosity) and porous (approx. 5% porosity) zirconia areas to combine different properties in one component. The T3DP opens the door to AM of further ceramic-based 4D-components like multi-color or multi-material, especially multi-functional components.
Tue, 1 November 2016
ARTICLE Download: 949| View: 1535| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0001.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: direct laser writing; ultrafast laser; 3D laser lithography; 3D printing; hybrid polymer; integrated microoptics; optical damage; photonics; pyrolysis; ceramic 3D structures
Online: 1 November 2016 (04:59:50 CET)
We introduce optically clear and resilient free-form micro-optical of pure (non-photosensitized) organic-inorganic SZ2080 material made by femtosecond 3D laser lithography (3DLL). This is advantageous for rapid printing of 3D micro-/nanooptics, including their integration directly onto optical fibers. A systematic study on the fabrication peculiarities and quality of resultant structures is performed. Comparison of microlenses’ resiliency to CW and femtosecond pulsed exposure is determined. Experimental results prove that pure SZ2080 is ∼3 fold more resistant to high irradiance as compared with a standard photo-sensitized material and can sustain up to 1.91 GW/cm2 intensity. 3DLL is a promising manufacturing approach for high-intensity micro-optics for emerging fields in astro-photonics and atto-second pulse generation. Additionally, pyrolysis is employed to shrink structures up to 40% by removing organic SZ2080 constituents. This opens a promising route towards downscaling photonic lattices and creation of mechanically robust glass-ceramic structures.
Wed, 1 February 2017
ARTICLE Download: 944| View: 826| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0004.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings & Films Keywords: fast switchable wavelength-selective elements, autostereoscopic image splitter, color filter barrier array, Fabry-Pérot color filter, on-off filter mode
Online: 1 February 2017 (16:52:44 CET)
A time-sequential working, spatially multiplexed autostereoscopic 3D display design consisting of a fast switchable RGB-color filter array is presented. The wavelength-selective filter barrier emits the light from a display over a larger active area than common autostereoscopic barrier displays. An optical modelling of wavelength-selective barriers has been used for instance to calculate the light ray distribution properties of that arrangement. To find well working display designs, automated searches by simulation and computational evaluation has been proceeded. Wavelength-selective filter barrier arrangements exhibit characteristics different from common barrier displays with similar barrier pitch and ascent. In particular, these constructions show strong angular luminance dependency under barrier inclination specified by correspondent slant angle. In time-sequential implementation it is important to avoid that quick eye or eyelid movement lead to visible color artifacts. In the millisecond regime tunable liquid crystal Fabry-Pérot color filters for the colors red, green and blue are presented. They consist of a sub-micrometer thick nematic layer sandwiched between dielectric mirrors and ITO-electrodes. These cells shall switch narrow-banding light of red, green or blue. An array for a glasses-free 3D display has to be equipped with several thousand switchable filter elements having different color apertures. The newly introduced design is usable as a multi user display as well as a single user system with user adaptive control.
Mon, 29 August 2016
ARTICLE Download: 942| View: 1012| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0220.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: composite fibers; flexural strength; polyester matrix; reinforcement
Online: 29 August 2016 (10:46:01 CEST)
Composite fiber materials are superior materials due to their high strength and light weight. Composites reflect the properties of their constituents, which is proportional to the volume fraction of each phase. There are different fiber reinforcement types and each affects it’s flexural, tensile and compression strength. When selecting a composite for a specific application, the forces excreted on the composite must be known in order to determine the reinforcement type. Unidirectional fiber reinforcement will allow very strong load resistance but only in one direction where as a random orientated fiber reinforcement can resist less load but can maintain this quota in all directions. These materials are said to be anisotropic. Certain composite fibers, taking into consideration there weights, are physically stronger than conventional metals. This research deals with the analysis of three composite materials with different reinforcement types, volume fraction and phase content. It was found that material A (glass epoxy) was the strongest in the longitudinal direction with a flexural strength of 534 MPa in the longitudinal and 420 MPa in the transverse direction. The flexural stresses of material B (glass silicone) and material C (glass polyester) where both found in the 120 to 135 MPa range. Differences were due to their differences in matrix composition and reinforcement type.
Fri, 30 September 2016
ARTICLE Download: 940| View: 704| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0125.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Other Keywords: GaN ultraviolet photodetector; periodic trapezoid column-shape patterned sapphire substrate; responsivity; UV-to-visible rejection ratio
Online: 30 September 2016 (09:40:28 CEST)
GaN ultraviolet photodetector with metal-semiconductor-metal structure is achieved by growing on a periodic trapezoid column-shape patterned sapphire substrate using metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. Under 5-V reverse bias, the photodetector fabricated on such patterned sapphire substrate exhibits a lower dark current, a higher photocurrent, and a 476 % enhancement in the maximum responsivity as compare with those of the photodetector fabricated on conventional flat sapphire substrate. It is also found that the much larger UV-to-visible rejection ratio and the fact that responsivity drops in a smaller cut-off region are observed from photodetector fabricated by using a periodic trapezoid column-shape patterned sapphire substrate. These phenomena may all be attributed to the reduction of threading dislocation density and the improved quality of GaN film, as well as the internal reflection and/or scattering effect on the interface between GaN film and the periodic trapezoid column-shape pattern of the substrate.
Fri, 31 March 2017
ARTICLE Download: 924| View: 725| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0233.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Other Keywords: light aircraft; crashworthiness; topology optimization; composites materials; finite element analysis
Online: 31 March 2017 (11:13:27 CEST)
Due to the demands of personal travels and entertainments, light airplanes and small business aircrafts are developing rapidly. Light airplane structure is simple; however, it lacks crashworthiness design, especially the considerations on the impact of energy absorption. Therefore, in an event of accident, significant damage to passengers will be usually incurred. Airplanes made of composite materials structurally have high specific strength and good aerodynamic configuration. These materials have become the primary choice for new airplane development. This study mainly explores the topology optimization analysis of the light aircraft’s cockpit made of carbon fiber reinforced composites. This paper compares the compression amounts in the original models of composite material and aluminum alloy fuselages with the models after optimization during the crash-landing, in order to investigate the safety of fuselages made of different materials after structural optimization under the dynamic crashing. This study found that the energy absorbed by the aluminum alloy fuselage during crash-landing is still higher than that by the carbon fiber reinforced composites fuselage. On the other hand, the aluminum alloy fuselage after topology optimization could have an energy absorption capability enhanced by 40%, as compared to the that of the original model of aluminum alloy fuselage.
Tue, 23 May 2017
ARTICLE Download: 916| View: 671| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0172.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: soy flour; lignin; adhesive; plywood; bond strength
Online: 23 May 2017 (16:29:41 CEST)
The aim of this study was to using a lignin based resin (LB) to improve the performance of the soy flour based adhesive. Soy flour (SF), polyamidoamine-epichlorohydrin (PAE), LB was used to develop a plywood adhesive. The solid content and viscosity of the adhesive, functional groups, thermo-stability, and crystallinity of the cured adhesive were characterized and the performance of the resultant adhesive was evaluated by fabricating three-ply plywood. Results showed using LB and PAE mixture to modify SF adhesive improves dry and wet bond strength by 66.3 and 184.2%. PAE contributed more for the wet bond strength improvement and the LB contributed more for the dry bond strength. The improvement was attributed to: 1) LB/PAE reacted with the functions of the soy protein and form a cross-linking network; 2) Polycondensation reaction between LB molecules further improved crosslinking density of the adhesive and formed a interpenetration structure with crosslinked protein; 3)The easy penetration of LB on wood surface and formed more interlock with wood. The denser structure created by LB and PAE mixture improved the thermal stability and decreased the crystallinity of cured adhesive. The usage of the LB and PAE mixture increased solid content by 35.5%, meanwhile, makes its viscosity acceptable for the industrial application.
Wed, 15 March 2017
ARTICLE Download: 915| View: 756| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0099.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: stone matrix asphalt; volume parameters; Marshall Stability; flocculent lignin fiber; polyester fiber; mineral fiber; fiber content
Online: 15 March 2017 (08:25:11 CET)
Lignin fibers typically influence the mixture performance of stone matrix asphalt (SMA), such as strength, stability, durability, noise level, rutting resistance, fatigue life, and water sensitivity. However, limited studies were conducted to analyze the influence of fibers on the percent voids in mineral aggregate in bituminous mixture (VMA) during the mixture design. This study analyzed the effect of different fibers and fiber contents on the VMA in SMA mixture design. A surface-dry condition method test and Marshall Stability test were applied on the SMA mixture with four different fibers (i.e., flocculent lignin fiber, mineral fiber, polyester fiber, blended fiber). The test results indicated that the bulk specific gravity of SMA mixtures and asphalt saturation decreased with the increasing fiber content, whilst the percent air voids in bituminous mixtures (VV), Marshall Stability and VMA increased. Mineral fiber had the most obvious impact on the bulk specific gravity of bituminous mixtures, while flocculent lignin fiber had a minimal impact. The mixture with mineral fiber and polyester fiber had significant effects on the volumetric properties, and, consequently, exhibited better VMA over the conventional SMA mixture with lignin fiber. Modified fiber content range was also provided, which will widen the utilization of mineral fiber and polyester fiber in the applications of SMA mixtures. The mixture evaluation suggested no statistically significant difference between lignin fiber and polyester fiber on the stability. The mineral fiber required a much larger fiber content to improve the mixture performance than other fibers. Overall, the results can be a reference to guide SMA mixture design.
Wed, 7 December 2016
ARTICLE Download: 914| View: 778| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0039.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings & Films Keywords: Cryogenic treatment; wear resistance; Raman intensity rate
Online: 7 December 2016 (11:13:10 CET)
This study explored the effects of cryogenic treatment on the microstructure, hardness, and wear-resistance of diamond-like carbon (DLC) by cryogenically treating NAK 80 mold steel coated with DLC. Raman spectroscopy analyzed the structure of the DLC film. Nanoindenter analyzed the hardness and Young’s modulus of the film, and their relationship determined the wear resistance. Wear test assessed the wear rate and friction coefficient of the DLC film. The results showed that cryogenic treatment increased the rate of carbide precipitation and refined the grain structure. Raman spectroscopy indicated that the Raman intensity rate (ID/IG) of treated DLC films was smaller than those without cryogenic treatment. When the sp3 bond increased, the hardness and wear-resistance of the DLC film also increased.
Mon, 6 March 2017
ARTICLE Download: 885| View: 808| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0023.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: luffa sponge fiber bundles; mechanical properties; anatomical characteristic; moisture regain; thermal performance
Online: 6 March 2017 (04:32:21 CET)
The advancement in science and technology has led to luffa sponge (LS) being widely used as a natural material in industrial application as its polyporous structure and light texture. In order to enhance the utility of LS fibers as the reinforcement of lightweight composite materials, this study investigate its water absorption, mechanical properties, anatomical characteristic and thermal performance. Hence, moisture regain, tensile properties of LS fiber bundles were measured in accordance with standards and the structural characteristics were investigated via microscopic observation. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the surface morphology and fracture surface of fiber bundles. Test results shows that the special structure where the phloem tissues degenerate to cavities had a significant influence on the mechanical properties of LS fiber bundles. Additionally, the transverse sectional area occupied by fibers in a fiber bundle (SF), wall thickness and ratio of wall to lumen of fiber cell, and crystallinity of cellulose had an impact on the mechanical properties of LS fiber bundles. Furthermore, the fiber bundles density of LS varies range of 385.46-468.70 kg/m3, much less than that of jute (1360.40 kg/m3) and Arenga engleri (950.20 kg/m3) while LS fiber bundles has superior specific modulus.
Thu, 17 August 2017
ARTICLE Download: 881| View: 1095| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0059.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: moso bamboo; quasi-static behavior; tensile behavior; size effect on energy absorption; damage pattern of the multiple bamboo columns; macroscopic tensile fracture mode
Online: 17 August 2017 (07:53:23 CEST)
In this paper, quasi-static axial compression tests are performed on the nodal Moso bamboos to study the size effect on energy absorption of the bamboos and the damage pattern of the multiple bamboo columns. Experimental results show that under the same moisture content, growth age and growing environment, the specific energy absorption (SEA) of the test samples increases with the increase of the out-diameter and thickness of the bamboo columns, indicating that size effect exists for energy absorption of the Moso Bamboos. For the multiple bamboo columns, there are mainly three failure modes for the constituent single bamboo columns: splitting above the node, splitting below the node and splitting through the node. Also, the tensile tests are conducted on three kinds of dog-bone shaped bamboo samples to investigate the macroscopic tensile fracture mode in the longitudinal direction of Moso bamboos. Results show that there is no direct relationship between the fracture pattern and moisture content of the bamboos, as well as the growth age of the bamboos. However, the tensile loading rate and the shape of the dog-bone shaped bamboo sample could affect the macroscopic fracture pattern of the bamboos in some cases.
Tue, 9 May 2017
ARTICLE Download: 870| View: 795| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0085.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: transparent electrode; organic photovoltaic; distributed Bragg reflector
Online: 9 May 2017 (11:09:37 CEST)
We demonstrated an ITO-free, highly transparent organic solar cell with the potential to be integrated into window panes for energy harvesting purposes. A transparent, conductive ZnO/Ag/ZnO multilayer electrode and a Ag:Ca thin film electrode were used in this transparent device as the bottom and top electrode, respectively. To further improve the transmittance of the solar cell, the thickness of the top ZnO layer was investigated by both experiment and simulation. An average visible transmittance of > 60% was reached, with a maximum transmittance of 73% at 556 nm. Both top and bottom illumination of the solar cell generated comparable power conversion efficiencies, which indicates the wide application of this solar cell structure. In addition, we fabricated distributed Bragg reflector mirrors with sputtered SiO2 and TiO2, which efficiently increased the power conversion efficiency over 20% for the solar cells on glass and PET substrates,
Tue, 27 February 2018
ARTICLE Download: 853| View: 234| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0180.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: lithium-ion batteries, water-based binders; styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR); carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC); silicon; graphite; anode
Online: 27 February 2018 (11:07:11 CET)
Cycling reliability is crucial for Si-based materials due to severe volume change during cycles that results in the fast capacity fading. Though the binder only occupies a very low amount of the total mass of anodes, it is proved to perform a key parameter to improve the cycle performance of Si-based anodes. Because they are eco-friendly and cost saving, water-based binders styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) are regarded as the better binder to substitute Poly (vinylidene difluoride) (PVDF) as the binder for Si-based anode. In this study, the anodes are fabricated by simply mixing the active materials (naso Si, graphite and conductive additive) together and using the mixture of SBR and CMC as a binder. The results showed that the retention capacities of the anodes are more than 440 mAh/g after 400 cycles. It indicates that it is an easy and simple way to make high performance anodes.
Sun, 29 January 2017
ARTICLE Download: 852| View: 846| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0130.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Metallurgy Keywords: wüstite; magnetite; eutectoid transformation; oxide scale; hot strip mill
Online: 29 January 2017 (10:47:49 CET)
It is important to realize the transformation behavior of wüstite because it greatly affects the final structure of the oxide layer and the surface quality of the steel products. In the present study, the transformation behaviors of the wüstite layer are examined under nearly-oxygen-free conditions, to simulate the cooling processes after the hot rolled strip is coiled. As the single phase wüstite was prepared at 950˚C, the 460˚C transformed oxide layer was composed of a mixture of iron and magnetite formed through eutectoid reactions. For the 750˚C-fabricated wüstite, only magnetite was observed after transformation, without iron precipitates and residual wüstite. It is speculated that the unusual transformation behavior of the low-temperature-made wüstite results from the pseudo-structural intermediate phase transformation between wüstite and magnetite. This pseudo-structure is a pre-transformed wüstite and of various concentration of ferrous ion, which is determined by the fabrication conditions. During the hot strip mill process, the so-called wet scale, wüstite, is produced continuously from finish mill to laminar flow sections and ended at 570˚C. Consequently, the final eutectoid transformation below 570˚C is dominantly controlled by the surface temperature ranged from 750˚C to 950˚C for low carbon steel.
Tue, 4 April 2017
ARTICLE Download: 850| View: 862| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0023.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: gelatin-oleic conjugate; self-assembled biodegradable nanoparticles; biomimetic shear stress; cell dynamic environment; cellular drug delivery; paclitaxel
Online: 4 April 2017 (10:59:02 CEST)
Fluid flow in human body is generally known to influence a variety of cellular behaviors. Different nanoparticle properties as well as cell type, interaction with other cells and cellular environments also show significant effect on nanoparticle uptake and drug efficacy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of shear stress on cellular behaviors of biocompatible and biodegradable nanoparticles to cancer cells (A549 cell lines) in a biomimetic microfluidic system. We prepared a gelatin-oleic conjugate (GOC) as an amphiphilic biomaterial to prepare self-assembled gelatin-oleic nanoparticles (GON). Coumarin-6 and paclitaxel were used as the fluorescence marker and model drug, respectively, and were loaded into GONs by incubation (C-GONs; PTX-GONs). Additionally, we evaluated the cellular uptake of fluorescence labeled C-GONs and the drug efficacy of PTX-GONs. The cellular uptake of C-GONs by A549 cells in the absence of shear stress revealed that the mean fluorescence intensity was slightly decreased compared to that in the presence of shear stress. The results also indicated that negatively charged PTX-GONs had a lower cancer killing effect under dynamic conditions than that under static conditions. It also suggested that fluidic shear stress did not significantly affect drug uptake and efficiency in case of PTX-GONs. The cellular interactions between nanoparticles and cells in drug delivery should be carefully examined according to the physicochemical properties of nanoparticles such as the type of materials, size and mainly surface charge in a biomimetic microfluidic condition.
Mon, 31 October 2016
ARTICLE Download: 845| View: 950| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0130.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: stainless steel; severe plastic deformation; strength
Online: 31 October 2016 (01:55:15 CET)
Enhancement in the strength of austenitic steels with a small content of carbon can be achieved by a limited number of methods, among which is the ultrafine-grained (UFG) structure formation, especially efficient with the use of severe plastic deformation (SPD) processing that enables increasing significantly the contribution of grain-boundary strengthening, and also involves a combination of other strengthening factors (work hardening, twins, etc.). In this paper, we demonstrate that the use of SPD processing combined with conventional methods of deformation treatment of metals, such as rolling, may lead to an additional strengthening of UFG steel. Analysis of the results of the study on the change of the microstructure and mechanical properties of the Cr-Ni stainless austenitic steel after a combined deformation reveals a substantial increase in the strength properties of this steel, resulting from a consecutive application of SPD processing via equal-channel angular pressing and rolling at a temperature of 400 С, yielding a strength more than 1.5 times higher that that produced by any of these two methods used separately.
Tue, 14 March 2017
ARTICLE Download: 839| View: 734| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0085.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: TCP-C2S, Nurse ´A ceramic, Biomaterials, adult human mesenchymal stem cells, Solid State Reaction, Biomedical applications.
Online: 14 March 2017 (13:43:13 CET)
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bioactivity and cell response of a well-characterized Nurse´s A-phase (7CaO•P2O5•2SiO2) ceramic and his effect compared to a control (tissue culture polystyrene-TCPS) on the adhesion, viability, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of ahMSCs in vitro. Cell proliferation (Alamar Blue Assay), Alizarin Red-S (AR-s) staining, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, osteocalcin (OCN) and collagen I (Col I) were evaluated. Also, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) images were acquired in order to visualise the cells and the topography of the material. The proliferation of cells growing in a direct contact with the material was slower at early stages of the study because of the new environmental conditions. However, the entire surface was colonized after 28 days of culture in growth medium (GM). Osteoblastic differentiation markers were significantly enhanced in cells growing on Nurse´s A phase ceramic and cultured with osteogenic medium (OM), probably due to the role of silica to stimulate the differentiation of ahMSCs. Moreover, calcium nodules were formed under the influence of ceramic material. Therefore, it is predicted that Nurse´s A-phase ceramic would present high biocompatibility and osteoinductive properties being a good candidate to be used as a biomaterial for bone tissue engineering.
Tue, 20 December 2016
ARTICLE Download: 834| View: 815| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0108.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Metallurgy Keywords: Pin geometry; friction stir spot welding; mechanical properties; aluminum alloy
Online: 20 December 2016 (11:15:04 CET)
Aluminum alloy Al 2024-T3 were successfully joined using friction stir spot jwelding joining (FSSW). Satisfactory joint strengths were obtained at different welding parameters (tool rotational speed, tool plunge depth, dwell time) and tool pin profile (straight cylindrical, triangular and tapered cylindrical). Resulting joints were welded with welded zone. The different tools significantly influenced the evolution on the stir zone in the welds. Lap-shear tests were carried out to find the weld strength. Weld cross section appearance observations were also done. The macrostructure shows that the welding parameters have a determinant effect on the weld strength (x: the nugget thickness, y: the thickness of the upper sheet and SZ: stir zone). The main fracture mode was pull out fracture modes in the tensile shear test of joints. The results of tensile shear tests showed that the tensile-shear load increased with increasing rotational speed in the shoulder penetration depth of 0.2 mm. Failure joints were obrerved in the weld high shoulder penetration depth and insufficient tool rotation.
Mon, 10 April 2017
ARTICLE Download: 829| View: 775| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0056.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: carbon nanotube yarn; strain sensing; polymer; piezoresistivity; experimental
Online: 10 April 2017 (08:12:01 CEST)
Carbon nanotube (CNT) yarns are fiber-like materials that exhibit excellent mechanical, electrical and thermal properties. More importantly, they exhibit a piezoresistive response that can be tapped for sensing purposes. The objective of this study is to determine experimentally the piezoresistive response of CNT yarns that are embedded in a polymeric medium while subjected to either compression or tension, and compare it with that of the free or unconstrained CNT yarns. The rationale for this study is the need to know the response of the CNT yarn while in a medium, which provides a lateral constraint to the CNT yarn thus mimicking the response of integrated CNT yarn sensors. The experimental program will include the fabrication of samples and their electromechanical characterization. The CNT yarns are integrated in polymeric beams and subjected to four-point bending, allowing the determination of their response under tension and compression. The electrical resistance data from an Inductance-Capacitance-Resistance (LCR) device is used with the data acquired from the mechanical testing system to determine the piezoresistive response of the CNT yarns. This data and information will be used for future modeling efforts and to study the phenomena that occur when CNT yarns are integrated in polymeric and composite materials and structures.
Tue, 30 May 2017
ARTICLE Download: 829| View: 672| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0217.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: graphene; chemical vapor deposition; nanomaterials
Online: 30 May 2017 (09:50:07 CEST)
We report the growth of graphene at a low temperature using the cold wall chemical vapor deposition technique (CWCVD). Few layered (~6-8 layers) graphene were grown on nickel-coated silicon with acetylene as the precursor gas. The advantage of the combination of the acetylene (as a carbon feedstock) and the nickel catalyst was the lowering of the graphene growth temperature. Nickel coated silicon samples were pre-treated (heat treatment in inert atmosphere) before the growth and the effect of the pre-treatment on the catalyst as well as on the grown film was studied. The final samples were characterized with scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. In CWCVD route, the heating of only the substrate holder enabled high heating and cooling rates, which, along with the control over partial pressure of the precursor gas had profound effect on the formation of graphene. In the best sample we have achieved almost equal intensity of the G and 2D peaks in Raman spectrum, which implied about ~6-8 layers of Graphene. The defect peak (the D band) was extremely small in the sample and it was attributed to the ripples and the underlying roughness of the nickel film. We analyzed that a proper choice of the thickness of catalyst layer and a higher cooling rate after graphene growth it would be possible to obtain monolayered graphene. Similar samples grown in a normal atmospheric CVD (with some engineered design to promote fast cooling) were also compared with the cold wall CVD grown samples and plasma assisted CWCVD, and cold-wall CVD demonstrated a better control over the quality of graphene film through the fast cooling and a controlled partial pressure of the precursor gas.
Thu, 2 March 2017
ARTICLE Download: 823| View: 976| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0017.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: green synthesis; silver nanoparticles; trimethylchitosan nitrate; catalytic activity; antibacterial activity; multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii
Online: 2 March 2017 (08:49:35 CET)
We report a facile route for the green synthesis of trimethylchitosan nitrate-capped silver nanoparticles (TMCN-AgNPs) with positive surface charge. In this synthesis, silver nitrate, glucose, and trimethyl chitosan nitrate (TMCN) were used as silver precursor, reducing agent, and stabilizer, respectively. The reaction was carried out in a stirred basic aqueous medium at room temperature without the use of energy-consuming or expensive equipment. We investigated the effects of the concentrations of NaOH, glucose, and TMCN on the particle size, zeta potential, and formation yield. The AgNPs were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, photon correlation spectroscopy, laser Doppler anemometry, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The catalytic activity of the TMCN-AgNPs was studied by the reduction of 4-nitrophenol using NaBH4 as a reducing agent. We evaluated the antibacterial effects of the TMCN-AgNPs on Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus using the broth microdilution method. The results showed that both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria were killed by the TMCN-AgNPs at very low concentration (< 6.13 μg/mL). Moreover, the TMCN-AgNPs also showed high antibacterial activity against clinically isolated multidrug-resistant A. baumannii strains, and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was ≤ 12.25 μg/mL.
Fri, 31 March 2017
ARTICLE Download: 819| View: 731| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0228.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Other Keywords: Ti-V-Cr-Fe alloy; hydrogen storage characteristics; metal corrosion; heat treatment; crystal structure
Online: 31 March 2017 (09:19:32 CEST)
In this work, we investigated the effects of heat treatment on the microstructure, hydrogen storage characteristics and corrosion rate of a Ti34V40Cr24Fe2 alloy. The arc melted alloy was divided into three samples, two of which were separately quartz-sealed under vacuum and heated to 1000 °C for 1 h; one of these samples was quenched and the other furnace cooled to ambient temperature. The crystal structures of the samples were studied via X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy. Absorption/desorption characteristics were investigated using a Sievert apparatus. Potentiostat corrosion tests on the alloys were performed using an AutoLab® corrosion test apparatus and electrochemical cell. All samples exhibited a mixture of body-center-cubic (BCC) and Laves phase structures. The corrosion rate, maximum absorption, and useful capacities increased after both heat treatments. The annealed sample had the highest absorption and reversible capacity. The plateau pressure of the as-cast alloy increased after quenching. The corrosion rate increased from 0.0004 mm/y in as-cast sample to 0.0009 mm/y after annealing and 0.0017 mm/y after quenching, due to a decrease in the Cr-content of the C14 phase.
Thu, 12 January 2017
ARTICLE Download: 819| View: 710| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0064.v1
Online: 12 January 2017 (11:04:27 CET)
A Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) film with a thickness of approximately 1.5 μm was fabricated on a Mo-coated glass substrate by annealing a CZTS precursor fabricated from nanoparticle ink. The chemical states of the elements in the CZTS thin film in the depth direction were studied to identify the presence of secondary phases, which are detrimental to the performance of solar cells containing CZTS. X-ray diffraction was unable to detect any secondary phases in CZTS because of their small relative amount. Instead, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), which is highly sensitive to chemical state, was conducted at different depths in the CZTS film to further check the presence of secondary phases. XPS analysis revealed peaks shift consistent with the presence of secondary phases. For the CZTS film annealed in a S atmosphere at 575 °C for 3 h, the film surface consisted of a secondary-phase layer composed of CuS, ZnS, and SnSx (x=1 or 2) originating from the decomposition of CZTS. At depths below 80 nm, the film was pure CZTS. Formation of MoS2 at the CZTS–Mo interface was confirmed by XPS analysis of Mo and S.
Thu, 9 February 2017
ARTICLE Download: 812| View: 823| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0028.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Metallurgy Keywords: Fe-Mn-Si alloy; isothermal holding time; powder sintering; density; weight loss; tensile properties
Online: 9 February 2017 (07:06:14 CET)
This work investigated the isothermal holding time dependence of the densification, microstructure, weight loss and tensile properties of Fe-Mn-Si powder compacts. Elemental Fe, Mn and Si powder mixtures with a nominal composition of Fe-28Mn-3Si (in weight percent) were ball milled for 5h and subsequently pressed under a uniaxial pressure of 400 MPa. The compacted Fe-Mn-Si powder mixtures were sintered at 1200 ℃ for 0, 1, 2 and 3 h, respectively. In general, the density, weight loss and tensile properties increased with the increase of isothermal holding time. A significant increase in density, weight loss and tensile properties occurred in the compacts isothermally holding for 1 h, as compared to those with no isothermal holding. However, further extension of isothermal holding time (2 and 3 h) only played a limited role in promoting the density and tensile properties. The weight loss of the sintered compacts was mianly caused by the sublimation of Mn in Mn depletion region on the surface layer of the sintered Fe-Mn-Si compacts. The length of the Mn depletion region increased as isothermal holding time increased. A single α-Fe phase was detected on the surface of all the sintered compacts, and the locations beyond the Mn depletion region were comprised of a dual dominant γ-austenite and minor ε-martensite.
Mon, 16 October 2017
ARTICLE Download: 804| View: 425| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0101.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: single-polymer composite; bioreactor; textile reactor; fungal cultivation; economic analysis; polyamide; polyvinyl chloride
Online: 16 October 2017 (06:08:20 CEST)
All-polyamide composite coated fabric (APCCF) materials were developed and used as the material of construction of textile bioreactors as a replacement of traditional costly steel-/concreate-based bioreactors. Then, APCCF-bioreactor was used to cultivate filamentous fungus Neurospora intermedia to produce ethanol and fungal biomass. The results showed similar performance of the fungus cultivated in stain-less steel bioreactors. Techno-economical analysis for a 5000-m3 APCCF bioreactor for fermentation facility would lead to a reduction of the annual production cost of the facility by $128,000,000 compared to similar stainless-steel processes. The comparative analyses (including mechanical and morphological analyses, density measurements and techno-economical analysis) revealed that the APCCF is a better candidate for material of construction of the textile bioreactor. The APCCF is a 100% recyclable single polymer composite which was prepared from textile production line waste.
Thu, 14 December 2017
ARTICLE Download: 804| View: 403| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0086.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: activated carbon; barley husk; corn cob; agave leaves; biomass; thermogravimetry
Online: 14 December 2017 (07:46:00 CET)
Biomass is a promising alternative and renewable energy source that can be transformed into other value-added products such as activated carbon. In this research, barley husk, corn cob and Agave salmiana leaves were characterized to determine their chemical composition and morphology to evaluate their potentiality as precursors of activated carbons. Based on the main composition results obtained, the biomass samples have suitable chemical and physical characteristics to be considered as good precursors of activated carbons, such as carbon contents greater than 40%, ash content less than 10%, moisture content less than 30%, high volatile contents with values from 75 to 80% and a porous and fibrous morphology. The results indicate that the main compositions in the biomass were cellulose and lignin. The cellulose content was more than lignin (15–26%) for the residues selected. Specifically, a-cellulose contents with values from 52% to 79%, β-cellulose contents of 13–44%, γ-cellulose contents less than 11%, and holocellulose contents of 82–83% were determined. The thermal decomposition for the biomass samples proceeded with five stages attributed to the evaporation of some volatile compounds (70–150 ºC), to the degradation of hemicellulose (180–230 ºC), to the cellulose volatilization (250–350 ºC), to the lignin decomposition (380–550 ºC), and to the degradation of complex polymers and inorganic salts, respectively. The stage corresponding to the cellulose decomposition showed rapid mass decreased in the three residues. This results show that the cellulose and lignin content is another important parameter to evaluate the pyrolysis characteristics of a good precursor of activated carbon.
Wed, 10 August 2016
ARTICLE Download: 799| View: 686| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0110.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: curcumin; nanoparticle; inflammation; λ-carrageenan; nanoparticle permeability; Biopharmaceutical Class System (BCS) 4
Online: 10 August 2016 (12:08:30 CEST)
Curcumin, a hydrophobic polyphenol compound derived from the rhizome of Curcuma genus has wide spectrum of biological and pharmacological activities. Previously, curcumin nanocrystal with different stabilizers had been produced successfully in order to enhance solubility and per oral absorption. In present study, we tested the anti-inflammatory effect of TPGS-stabilized curcumin nanocrystal in vivo. Lambda-carrageenan was used to induce inflammation in rat, given by intraplantar route and intrapelurally through surgery in the pleurisy test. In lambda-carrageenan-induced edema model, TPGS-stabilized curcumin nanocrystal was given orally 1 hour before induction and at 0.5, 4.5, and 8.5 hour after induction with 2 different doses (1.8 and 0.9 mg/kg BW). Sodium diclofenac with a dose of 4.5 mg/kg BW was used as a standard drug. Physical mixture of curcumin-TPGS was also used as a comparison with higher dose of 60 mg/kg BW. The anti-inflammatory effect was assessed on the edema in carrageenan-induced paw edema model and volume of exudate as well as number of leukocytes reduction in the pleurisy test. TPGS-stabilized curcumin nanocrystal with lower doses showed better anti-inflammatory effect, indicating the greater absorption capability through gastrointestinal tract.
Mon, 27 February 2017
ARTICLE Download: 785| View: 703| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0094.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: laser wavelength; polysilicon; laser damage; thermal shock
Online: 27 February 2017 (06:56:01 CET)
Based on PVDF (piezoelectric sensing techniques), this paper attempts to study the propagation law of shock waves in brittle materials during the process of three-wavelength laser irradiation of polysilicon, and discusses the formation mechanism of thermal shock failure. The experimental results show that the vapor pressure effect and the plasma pressure effect in the process of pulsed laser irradiation lead to the splashing of high temperature and high density melt. With the decrease of the laser wavelength, the laser breakdown threshold decreases and the shock wave is weakened. Because of pressure effect of the laser shock, the brittle fracture zone is at the edge of the irradiated area. The surface tension gradient and surface shear wave caused by the surface wave are the result of coherent coupling between optical and thermodynamics. The average propagation velocity of laser shock wave in polysilicon is 8.47×103m/s, and the experiment has reached the conclusion that the laser shock wave pressure peak exponentially distributes attenuation in the polysilicon.
Fri, 14 April 2017
ARTICLE Download: 776| View: 687| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0089.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: ZnO; ceramic nanopowders; Segmented Flow Tubular Reactor (SFTR); Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS)
Online: 14 April 2017 (12:11:50 CEST)
Nanopowders are continuously under investigation as they open new perspectives in numerous fields. There are two main challenges to stimulate their development: sufficient low-cost high throughput synthesis methods leading to a production with well-defined and reproducible properties, and for ceramics, conservation of their nanostructure after sintering. In this context, this paper presents the synthesis of a pure nanosized powder of ZnO (dv50 ~ 60 nm, easily redispersable) by using a continuous Segmented Flow Tubular Reactor (SFTR), which has previously shown its versatility and its robustness, ensuring a high powder quality and reproducibility over time. A higher scale of production can be achieved based on a “scale-out” concept by replicating the tubular reactors. The sinterability of ZnO nanopowders synthesized by the SFTR was studied, by natural sintering at 900 °C and 1100 °C, and Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) at 900 °C. The performances of the synthesized nanopowder were compared to a commercial ZnO nanopowder of high quality. The samples obtained from the synthesized nanopowder could not be densified at low temperature by traditional sintering, whereas SPS led to a fully dense material after only 5 minutes at 900 °C, while limiting the grain growth and thus leading to a nanostructured material.
Wed, 11 January 2017
ARTICLE Download: 775| View: 968| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0058.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: spin crossover; density functional calculations; Hubbard model; solid state; Slichter-Drickamer model; Monte Carlo simulation; Ising model
Online: 11 January 2017 (09:17:46 CET)
The total enthalpies of the 16 different spin configurations that can be realized in the unit cell of the archetype spin crossover complex [Fe(phen)2(NCS)2] (phen=1,2-phenanthroline) were calculated applying periodic density functional theory combined with the Hubbard model and the Grimme-D2 dispersion correction (DFT+U/D2). The obtained enthalpy differences between the individual spin configurations were used to determine spin couplings of an Ising-like model and subsequent Monte Carlo simulations for this model allowed to estimate the phenomenological interaction parameter Г of the Slichter-Drickamer model, which is commonly used to describe the cooperativity of the spin transition. The calculational procedure described here, which led to an estimate of about 3 kJ/mol−1 for Г, in good agreement with experiment, may be used to predict from first principles how modifications of spin crossover complexes can change the character of the spin transition from gradual to abrupt and vice versa.
Mon, 12 March 2018
ARTICLE Download: 773| View: 345| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0091.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: water purification, oligodynamic metal, moringa oleifera seed, copper
Online: 12 March 2018 (15:20:37 CET)
A simple, efficient and stand-alone method for purification of river water using moringa seed powder and copper is discussed. Coagulant property of the seed powder clears turbid raw water and the oligodynamic activity of copper completely destroys E.coli bacteria. Both raw and treated water samples were tested for contaminants to verify the efficacy of the system. Treated water has turbidity in the range 3 NTU - 5 NTU and non-detected (< 1 MPN/100 mL) E.coli count making it suitable for drinking. The technique is very cost effective and can be practiced anywhere using locally available materials. It does not require a power source or any technical assistance. Being a stand-alone system the technique exceptionally useful in providing drinking water as an immediate solution in disaster areas affected by cyclone or floods.
Thu, 16 March 2017
ARTICLE Download: 771| View: 735| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0126.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Metallurgy Keywords: 5754 Aluminum alloy; Two-pass hot compression; Dynamic softening; Metadynamic recrystallization
Online: 16 March 2017 (18:28:52 CET)
Isothermal interrupted hot compression tests of 5754 aluminum were conducted on Gleeble-3500 thermo-mechanical simulator at temperature 350 °C and 450 °C, strain rate 0.1 s-1 and 1s−1. These tests simulated flat rolling to investigate how softening behaviors respond to controlled parameters, such as deformation temperature, strain rate and delay times. This data allowed the parameters for the hot rolling process to be optimized. The delay times during interrupted compression vary between 5s and 60s. The dynamic softening at each pass and metadynamic recrystallization at the intervals of deformation passes were analyzed in detail. 0.2% offset yield strength is applied to calculate the softening fraction undergoing metadynamic recrystallization. A kinetic model was developed to describe metadynamic recrystallization behaviors of the hot deformed 5754 aluminum alloy. Furthermore, the time constant for 50% recrystallization was expressed as functions related to the temperature and the strain rate. The experimental and calculated results were found to be in close agreement, which verified the developed model.
Mon, 22 May 2017
ARTICLE Download: 768| View: 728| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0155.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: single fiber; cutting; fracture morphology; failure mechanism
Online: 22 May 2017 (05:29:48 CEST)
The present study investigates the failure mechanisms of industrial fiber materials, using a custom designed fiber cutting performance test bench. The fracture morphologies of single PA6 fibers are examined by scanning electron microscopy. The analysis reveals that fiber cutting can be distinguished according to four distinct stages of fiber failure represented by shearing, cutting, brittle fracture, and tensile failure, which are the result of different mechanisms active during the processes of crack initiation, extension and fracture. The results of fractographic analysis are further verified by an analysis of the blade assembly speed with respect to time over the entire fracture failure process based on high-speed camera data. The results of fractographic analysis and blade assembly speed are fully consistent.
Tue, 18 April 2017
ARTICLE Download: 760| View: 695| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0113.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: polymethylmethacrylate PMMA; henna; physical properties; hardness; surface roughness
Online: 18 April 2017 (12:24:49 CEST)
Statement of problem: Henna has been added to polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) as a new type of antifungal agent; however, its effect on the latter’s physical properties has not been investigated. Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the addition of various henna concentrations on the surface roughness and hardness of PMMA denture base material. Materials and Methods: A total of 99 specimens of rectangular-shaped (10×20×3 mm3) acrylic specimens were prepared from heat-cured acrylic resin. Specimens were divided into one control group without the addition of henna and five test groups, which were prepared by adding Yamani henna powder to acrylic powder at concentrations of 1wt%, 2.5wt%, 5wt%, 7.5wt%, and 10wt%. The polymer was added to the monomer before being mixed, packed, and processed using the conventional water bath method. After processing, specimens were finished and polished, then kept in distilled water for 48+2 h. A profilometer and Vickers hardness tester were used to measure surface roughness and hardness respectively. Statistical data analysis was conducted via SPSS version 20.0 (IBM, USA). Results: The addition of henna at varying concentrations significantly increased surface roughness values (P ≤ 0.01) while decreasing hardness (P ≤ 0.0001). The most favorable addition value was 1% henna between all henna groups. Conclusion: The addition of henna to the acrylic resin may negatively affect the surface properties of PMMA acrylic denture base.
Tue, 14 August 2018
ARTICLE Download: 754| View: 668| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0242.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: 2D materials; transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs); MoS2; WS2; MoSe2; WSe2; optical properties
Online: 14 August 2018 (05:21:56 CEST)
The research field of two dimensional (2D) materials strongly relies on optical microscopy characterization tools to identify atomically thin materials and to determine their number of layers. Moreover, optical microscopy-based techniques also opened the door to study the optical properties of these nanomaterials. We present a comprehensive study of the differential reflectance spectra of 2D semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), MoS2, MoSe2, WS2 and WSe2, with thickness ranging from one layer up to six layers. We analyze the thickness-dependent energy of the different excitonic features, indicating the change in the band structure of the different TMDC materials with the number of layers. Our work provides a route to employ differential reflectance spectroscopy for determining the number of layers of MoS2, MoSe2, WS2 and WSe2.
Tue, 14 November 2017
ARTICLE Download: 751| View: 497| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0080.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings & Films Keywords: PVDF membrane; coagulation bath temperature; polymer molecular weight
Online: 14 November 2017 (10:48:54 CET)
The global polyvinyldene flouride market is estimated to reach $937,278.5 thousand by 2019, therefore to develop new membranes and gain pioneering ideas, which could create innovative business opportunities, a fundamental knowledge about membrane properties fabricated from recent commercially available PVDF polymers is highly mandatory. In this study, we successfully prepared nine non-woven supported PVDF membranes using a phase inversion precipitation method starting from a 15 wt% PVDF solution in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone. Various membrane morphologies were obtained by using (1) PVDF polymers with diverse molecular weight in a range from 300.000 Da to 700.000 Da and (2) different temperatures of the coagulation bath (20, 40, and 60 ±2°C) used for the films precipitation. Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope (ESEM) was used for surface and cross-section morphologies characterization. Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) was employed to investigate surface roughness, while Contact Angle (CA) instrument was used for membranes wettability studies. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) results show that the fabricated membranes are formed by a mixture of TGTG’ chains in α phase crystalline domains and all-TTTT trans planar zigzag chains characteristic to β phase. Moreover, generated results indicate that the phases content and membrane morphologies depend on the polymer molecular weight and conditions used for the membranes preparation. The diversity of fabricated membranes could be applied by the End User Industries for different applications.
Mon, 1 May 2017
ARTICLE Download: 748| View: 556| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0001.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings & Films Keywords: electroluminescent; 3D-printing; rapid prototyping; light-emitting fibers; roll-to-roll process
Online: 1 May 2017 (07:25:50 CEST)
There is a growing interest in fibers supporting optoelectrical properties for textile and wearable display applications. Solution-processed electroluminescent (EL) material systems can be continuously deposited onto fiber or yarn substrates in a roll-to-roll process, making it easy to scale manufacturing. It is important to have precise control over layer deposition to achieve uniform and reliable light emission from these EL fibers. Slot-die coating offers this control and increases the rate of EL fiber production. Here, we report a highly adaptable, cost-effective 3D printing model for developing slot dies used in automatic coating systems. The resulting slot-die coating system enables rapid, reliable production of alternating current powder-based EL (ACPEL) fibers and can be adapted for many material systems. The benefits of this system over dip-coating for roll-to-roll production of EL fibers are demonstrated in this work.
Mon, 9 October 2017
ARTICLE Download: 743| View: 349| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0049.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: halloysite nanotubes; surface modification; structural characteristics; application
Online: 9 October 2017 (11:47:54 CEST)
Halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) are natural occurring mineral clay nanotubes that have excellent application potential in different fields. However, HNTs are affected by size effect, surface electron effect and hydrogen bond formation on the surface which lead to weak affinity and prone to reunion at some extent. It is very significant to modify the HNTs’ surface for expand its applications. In this review, the structural characteristics, performance and the related applications of surface modification HNTs are reviewed and summarized. we focus on the surface modified methods of HNTs, the effect of surface modification on materials and its related applications in various regions. In addition, future prospects and the meaning of surface modification have been discussed in HNTs studies. This review provided a reference for the application of HNTs modifications in new fields.
Thu, 2 March 2017
ARTICLE Download: 742| View: 797| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0019.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: anodic oxidation; titanium dioxide; electrolyte concentration; sulfuric acid
Online: 2 March 2017 (18:25:55 CET)
To obtain smooth coatings of TiO2 for building a new design of Ti-6Al-4V heart valve, the anodic oxidation technique in pre-spark conditions was evaluated. TiO2 coating is necessary for its recognize biocompatibility and corrosion resistance. A required feature on surfaces in contact with blood is a low level of roughness (Ra ≤ 50 nm) that not favor the formation of blood clots. The present paper compares the coatings obtained by anodic oxidation of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy using H2SO4 at different concentrations (0.1 M to 4 M) as electrolyte and applying different voltages (from 20 V to 70 V). Color and morphological analysis of coatings are performed using optical and scanning microscopy. The crystalline phases were analyzed by glancing X-ray diffraction. By varying the applied voltage different interference colors coatings were obtained. The differences in morphologies of the coatings, due to the change in concentration, are more evident at high voltages limiting the oxidation conditions for the desired application. Anatase phase was detected from 70 V for 1 M H2SO4. An increase in the concentration of H2SO4 decreases the voltage at which the transformation of amorphous to crystalline coatings occurs, i.e. with 4 M H2SO4 the anatase phase appears at 60 V.
Wed, 5 April 2017
ARTICLE Download: 732| View: 787| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0028.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: lanthanides; fluorapatite; drug loading; nano carrier
Online: 5 April 2017 (11:26:48 CEST)
Europium (Eu)-doped fluorapatite (FA) nanorods has a similar biocompatibility with hydroxyapatite (HA) in terms, attracted much attention as cell imaging biomaterials due to their luminescent property. Here, we will discuss the new feature of europium doped fluorapatite (Eu-FA) nanorods as anticancer drug carrier. Eu-FA nanorods was prepared using a hydrothermal method. The morphology, crystal structure, fluorescence and composition are investigated. The specific crystal structure, enabling an effective loading of drug molecules. Doxorubicin (DOX), used as an anticancer model drug, was shown to be effectively loaded onto the surface of the nanorods. The DOX release was fairly pH-dependent, occurring more rapidly at pH 5.5 than pH 7.4 was observed. The intracellular penetration of the DOX-loaded Eu-FA nanorods (Eu-FA/DOX) can be imaged in situ due to the self-fluorescence property. Treatment of melanoma A375 cells with Eu-FA/DOX elicited a more effective apoptosis rate than direct DOX treatment. Overall, Eu-FA show great promise for tracking and treating tumor, may potentially useful as a multifunctional carrier system to effectively load and sustainably deliver drugs.
Mon, 16 October 2017
COMMUNICATION Download: 730| View: 464| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0102.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: nanoporous; NiMo; non-noble metal catalyst; hydrogen evolution
Online: 16 October 2017 (06:19:27 CEST)
Bottom-up synthesis of porous NiMo alloy reduced by NiMoO4 nanofibers was systematically investigated to fabricate non-noble metal porous electrodes for hydrogen production. The different annealing temperatures of NiMoO4 nanofibers under hydrogen atmosphere reveal that the 950 °C annealing temperature is a key to produce bicontinuous and monorhinic porous NiMo alloy without oxide phases. The porous NiMo alloy as cathodes in electrical water splitting demonstrates not only almost identical catalytic activity with commercial Pt/C, but also superb stability for 12 days.
Thu, 15 March 2018
ARTICLE Download: 729| View: 487| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0110.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: low-dissipation factor; thermosets; benzoxazines
Online: 15 March 2018 (03:49:52 CET)
Poly(2,6-dimethyl phenyl oxide) (PPO) is known for its low dissipation factor. To achieve insulating materials with low dissipation factor for high-frequency communication application, a monomer-type benzoxazine (P-APPO) and a main-chain-type benzoxazine (BPA-APPO) were prepared from an amine end-capped oligo (2,6-dimethyl phenylene oxide) (APPO). The APPO was prepared from a nucleophilic substitution of a phenol-end capped oligo (2,6-dimethyl phenylene oxide) (a commercial product, SA 90) with fluoronitrobenzene, and followed by catalytic hydrogenation. After self-curing or curing with a dicyclopentadiene-phenol epoxy (HP 7200), thermosets with high-Tg and low-dissipation factor can be achieved. Furthermore, the resulting epoxy thermosets show better thermal and dielectric properties than those of epoxy thermoset cured from its precursor SA90, demonstrating it is a successful modification in simultaneously enhancing the thermal and dielectric properties.
Sun, 1 October 2017
REVIEW Download: 727| View: 481| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0002.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: titanium dioxide; crystal structure; surface/interface structure; photocatalysis; lithium/sodium ion batteries; Li-S batteries; phase stability
Online: 1 October 2017 (06:11:58 CEST)
Titanium dioxide (TiO2) micro and nano architectures have been intensively studied in the past years because of many varied applications in environmental, energy conversion, and storage fields, such as heterogeneous catalysis, dye-sensitized solar cells, lithium/sodium ion batteries, lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries, and bio-nanotechnology, etc. Especially the surface and interface structures in the TiO2 structures play important roles in those applications. This mini review article focuses on TiO2 micro and nano architectures with the prevalent crystal structures (anatase, rutile, brookite, and TiO2(B)), and summarizes major advances in the surface and interface engineering and applications in environmental and electrochemical applications. We present the principles and growth mechanisms of TiO2 nanostructures via different strategies, with an emphasis on rational control of the surface and interface structures. We further discuss the applications of TiO2 micro and nano architectures in photocatalysis, lithium/sodium ion batteries, and Li-S batteries. Throughout the discussion, the relationship between the device performance and the surface structures of TiO2 micro/nano structures will be highlighted. Then we discuss the phase transitions of TiO2 nanostructures and possible strategies of improving the phase stability. The review concludes with a perspective on the current challenges and future research directions.
Tue, 28 March 2017
ARTICLE Download: 719| View: 838| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0212.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: hydroxyapatite; xenografts; scanning electron microscopy; degradation; resorption; Ca/P ratio; bone response; biocompatibility
Online: 28 March 2017 (17:09:44 CEST)
Some studies have demonstrated that in vivo degradation processes are influenced by the material’s physico-chemical properties. The present study compares two hydroxyapatites manufactured on an industrial scale, deproteinized at low and high temperatures, and how physico-chemical properties can influence the mineral degradation process of material performance in bone biopsies retrieved 6 months after maxillary sinus augmentation. Residual biomaterial particles were examined by field scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) to determine the composition and degree of degradation of the bone graft substitute material. According to the EDX analysis, the Ca/P ratio significantly lowered in the residual biomaterial (1.08±0.32) compared to the initial composition (2.22±0.08) for the low-temperature sintered group, which also presented high porosity, low crystallinity, low density, a large surface area, and poor stability and a high resorption rate compared to the high-temperature sintered material. This demonstrates that variations in the physico-chemical properties of bone substitute material clearly influence the degradation process. Further studies are needed to determine whether the resorption of deproteinized bone particles proceeds slowly enough to allow sufficient time for bone maturation to occur.
Thu, 11 May 2017
ARTICLE Download: 716| View: 751| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0094.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: lithium-ion batteries; anode materials; MnO; co-precipitation; T-shaped microchannel reactor
Online: 11 May 2017 (07:49:10 CEST)
Porous MnO/C microspheres have been successfully fabricated by a fast co-precipitation method in a T-shaped microchannel reactor. The structures, compositions and electrochemical performances of the obtained MnO/C microspheres are characterized by X-ray diffraction, emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller analysis, charge-discharge testing, cyclic voltammograms, and electrochemical impedance spectra. Experimental results reveal that the as-prepared MnO/C, with a specific surface area of 96.66 m2·g–1 and average pore size of 24.37 nm, exhibits excellent electrochemical performance, with a discharge capacity of 655.4 mAh·g–1 after cycling 50 times at 1 C and capacities of 808.3, 743.7, 642.6, 450.1, and 803.1 mAh·g–1 at 0.2, 0.5, 1, 2, and 0.2 C, respectively. Moreover, the controlled method of using a micro-channel reactor, which can produce larger specific surface area porous MnO/C with improved cycling performance by shortening lithium-ion diffusion distances, can be easily applied in real production on a large-scale.