REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0223.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: Behavioral nudges; water conservation; technology; water efficiency
Online: 11 August 2022 (13:37:12 CEST)
Growing water shortages for large regions of the arid regions of the world, are likely to become more recurrent as climate change impacts grow. Countries across the world are facing water security difficulties that stem from population growth, urbanization, and rapid industrialization. The use of behavioral nudges methods implemented to encourage a socially desired behavior at a low to zero cost, has been an effective method at reducing water consumption in places where they have been deployed. For example, studies in California USA, Barcelona Spain, and Australia indicate that adoption of nudges give significant positive results in water consumption reduction. We describe some of the barriers that make it difficult to implement behavioral nudges to address the water crises in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). We investigate the literature available in Sub-Saharan Africa and discover that the application of behavioral nudges has been sparingly used for reasons that are not obvious at first glance. Second, we find that the potential impediments to the use of behavioral nudges in SSA to be awareness, inadequate access to science and technology, political systems that are poorly suited for implementing nudging, abundance of multiple ethnic groups that speak different languages, along with other barriers that could challenge implementation of behavioral nudges. In light of those barriers, we present a conceptual model with a potential to address these barriers to behavioral nudging a workable solution in SSA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0221.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geology Keywords: palaeo-oil reservoir; aromatic hydrocarbons; thermochemical sulphate reduction (TSR); Qinglong antimony deposit; Nanpanjiang basin
Online: 11 August 2022 (11:53:43 CEST)
In Qinglong ore field, paleo-oil reservoir is found to be associated with antimony deposits, and they have close genetic relationship. In this study, aromatics geochemistry of paleo-oil reservoir bitumen was studied to further discuss the thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR) reaction and the mechanism of antimony mineralization. A total of 124 aromatic compounds were identified by Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS) analysis in bitumen samples, including abundant phenanthrene series, dibenzothiophene series, fluoranthene series, chrysene series, and a small number of fluorene series, naphthalene series, dibenzofuran series, biphenyl series, triaromatic steroid series. Aromatic parameters such as trimethylnaphthalene index (TMNr), methylphenanthrene index (MPI), methylphenanthrene distribution fraction (MPDF, F1 and F2), methyldibenzothiophene parameter (MDR), C28TAS-20S/(20R+20S), and benzofluoranthene/benzo[e]pyrene indicate Qinglong paleo-oil reservoir is in over maturity level. The abundance of phenanthrene and chrysene aromatic compounds and a small amount of naphthalene series, benzofluoranthene, fluoranthene, pyrene, anthracene, retene, perylene and biphenyl suggest that the parent material of the paleo-oil reservoir was mainly low aquatic organisms, mixed with a small amount of higher plant. The detected a certain number of compounds, such as retene, triaromatic steroid series and perylene, the ternary diagram of DBF–DBT–F and binary plot of Pr/Ph–DBT/P, DBT/(F+DBT)–DBF/(F+DBF) and Pr/Ph–DBT/DBF reveal that the source rock of the paleo-oil reservoir was formed in the marine environment of weak oxidation and weak reduction. The comprehensive analysis shows that the Qinglong paleo-oil reservoir originated from Devonian source rocks, just like other paleo-oil reservoirs and natural gas reservoirs in the Nanpanjiang basin. Abundant dibenzothiophene series were detected, indicating that the paleo-oil reservoir underwent a certain degree of TSR reaction. We believe that the paleo-gas reservoir formed by the evolution of paleo-oil reservoir participated in antimony mineralization, that is, hydrocarbon organic matter acted as reducing agent and transformed SO42− in oilfield brine into H2S through TSR, providing reduced sulfur and creating environmental conditions for mineralization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0216.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: block cokriging; clay composition; granulometry; multi-collocated cokriging; multi-collocated fac-torial cokriging; regularization; SIDSAM; VIS-NIR-SWIR spectroscopy
Online: 11 August 2022 (11:30:23 CEST)
Traditional soil characterization methods are time consuming, laborious and invasive and do not allow long-term repeatability of measurements. The overall aim of this paper was to assess and model spatial variability of the soil in an olive grove in south Italy by using data from two sensors of different type: a multi-spectral on-board drone radiometer and a hyperspectral visible-near infrared-shortwave infrared (VIS-NIR-SWIR) reflectance radiometer as well as sample data, to arrive at a delineation of homogeneous areas. The hyperspectral data were processed using continuum removal methodology to obtain information about the content and composition of clay. Differently, the multispectral data were firstly upscaled to the support of soil data using geostatistics and taking into account change of support. Secondly, the two-sensor data were integrated with soil granulometric properties by using the multivariate geostatistical techniques of multi-collocated cokriging and factor cokriging, in order to achieve a more exhaustive and finer-scale soil characterisation. The paper shows the impact of change of support on the uncertainty of soil prediction that can have a significant effect on decision making in Precision Agriculture. Moreover, four regionalised factors at two different scales (two per each scale) were retained and mapped. Each factor provided a different delineation of the field with areas characterised by different granulometry and clay composition. The applied method is sufficiently flexible and could be applied to any number and type of sensors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0214.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: agroclimatic zone; trend analysis; modified MK; ITA; Wabi Shebele
Online: 11 August 2022 (08:52:32 CEST)
Any change in the amount and annual distribution of rainfall causes a major socioeconomic and environmental problem where rainfed agriculture is predominant. For that reason, the objective of this study was to determine the long-term variability and trends of precipitation in the Wabi Shebele River Basin (WSRB), Ethiopia. The basin was discretized into 7 local agroclimatic zones (ACZ) based on annual rainfall and elevation. In this study, the coefficient of variation (CV) was used to check the variability of rainfall and modified Mann-Kendall (MK) and Innovative Trend Analysis (ITA) methods were used to detect rainfall trends. For each ACZ, stations with long-term records and less than 10 % missing data were selected for further analysis. The mean annual rainfall in the basin ranges from 227.2 mm to 1047.4 mm. The study revealed most of the ACZs showed a very high variation in Belg/Spring season rainfall (CV % > 30) than Kiremt/Summer and annual rainfall. Trend analysis revealed that no uniform trend was detected among ACZs at each temporal scale. But, most ACZ in the arid and semi-arid areas showed a non-significant decreasing trend. In comparison, a similar result was observed using MK and ITA methods.
Mon, 8 August 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0138.v1
Online: 8 August 2022 (08:37:14 CEST)
Since last century, humanity has been using and disposing of resources at a greater rate than the Earth’s biocapacity to regenerate. Consequently, habitats are being destroyed, climate is changing and, for most, life conditions are deteriorating. To avoid collapse, humanity has been, at least in theory, trying to change the foundations of development so that it becomes ‘sustainable’ and, while meeting the social, economic and environmental needs of the present, does not compromise the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. To help on this task, in the 1960s, UNESCO proposed the establishment of laboratories for developing and testing sustainable approaches. These became known as Biosphere Reserves or, simply, biospheres. Today, Biosphere Reserves are considered to be the main instrument for testing and monitoring sustainable development approaches. By 2020, there were more than 700 biospheres in over 120 countries around the world - one third of which are located in prosperous countries with very-high human development levels. As of today, there is no mechanism to objectively measure the effectiveness of these reserves that also allows comparison between biospheres, their development approaches and outcomes, or over time. The objective of this work is to present a tool that fulfills these gaps and that, additionally, helps with establishing aspirational targets and identifying key areas that need improvement. The tool focuses on Biosphere Reserves located in countries with very-high levels of human development (but can be easily adapted to other countries); it addresses the 17 sustainable development goals and considers relevant international agreements. It is based on the rational that, to become widely used, it needs to be simple. Therefore, it uses data collected for other ends, hence available, and commonly used technology, such as excel. The tool consists of a spreadsheet that links a punctuating and a colouring system to topics, criteria, indicators and measures. The case study was on the Sunshine Coast region (Australia), which is in the process of being nominated a biosphere reserve.