ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0082.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, General Humanities Keywords: Africa, African women, Christianity, Igbo society, patriarchy, post-colonialism, feminism, womanism
Online: 27 July 2016 (04:18:57 CEST)
The African society is one of the societies with rich culture and traditions. Apart from the indigenous religion of Africa, Christianity and Islam are worshiped as the major religions of the African society. Literature reflects a great amount of influence of religions on the existing societies, people and cultures. African literature often mirrors the clash of indigenous religion with Christianity. In the writings of African authors one can find the elements of Christian beliefs and practices. The present paper, however, is focused on the African woman novelist Buchi Emecheta’s selected four novels: Second-Class Citizen (1974), The Bride Price (1976), The Slave-Girl (1977) and The Joys of Motherhood (1979). The paper attempts to discuss the impact of Christianity on the social and cultural aspects of the African society with special focus on African women. The findings reveal the positive as well as negative impacts of the new religion on African people and on the position of African women through the characters present in the selected novels. With the medium of writing and through Christianity, Emecheta seek to educate her society and improve upon the position of the African women.
Mon, 11 July 2016
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Literary Studies Keywords: posthuman; deterriteriolization; diaspora; home; Arab women; Arab Anglophone
Online: 11 July 2016 (10:41:37 CEST)
The present paper offers a reading of three selected novels by two Anglophone Arab writers Diana Abujaber and Fadia Faqir. Our reading is fundamentally based on a philosophical post-humanist perception of other ethnic minorities as being inferior and un-human. In interpreting the three novels, Arabian Jazz (2003), My Name is Salma (2007) and Willow Trees Don’t Weep (2014), a main concern is to bring to light how Arabs –and Muslims –have been zombified and de-humanized in Western mainstream media and culture based on a biased stigmatization and stereotyping of a large heterogeneous ethnic group wherein religions, traditions, languages and cultures are diverse. Also, a pivotal preoccupation is going to be the exiling journey of the protagonists from their homelands to Western countries, and how these journeys contribute to the post-humanization of the self, the identity and the culture of Arab displaced immigrants.
Sat, 6 August 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0057.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Religious Studies Keywords: Translation, musyakalah, linguistic style, holy Quran, and Arabic language
Online: 6 August 2016 (04:35:45 CEST)
Musyakalah is one of the Arabic linguistic styles included under the category of majaz. This style is commonly used in Al-Quran. The Indonesian translation of Al-Quran is a case where many of the figures of speech are translated literally, thereby causing serious semantic problems. Thus, the research problem of this is formulated with the following questions: 1) How many musyakalah ayahs are there in Al-Quran?; 2) How are the musyakalah ayahs translated, literally (harfiyya) or interpretatively (tafsiriyya)?; 3) How many ayahs are translated literally and how many are translated interpretatively?; and 4) Which translated musyakalah ayahs have the potential to raise semantic and theological problems? The corpus in this research consists of all musyakalah ayahs in Al-Quran and their translation to Indonesian published by the Department of Religious Affairs of Indonesia. The research adopted a descriptive-semantic method. The findings of this research are: 1) There are only eleven ayahs in Al-Quran using musyakalah style, namely: Alhasyr ayah 19, Ali Imran ayah 54, Annaml ayah 50, Alanfal ayah 30, Asysyura ayah 40, Albaqarah ayah 15, Almaidah 116, Aljatsiah ayah 34, Attaubah ayah 79, Annisa ayah 142, and Albaqarah 194; 2) The musyakalah ayahs translated literally are: Aljatsiah 34, Almaidah 116, Asysura 40, Annaml 50, and Alhasyr 19, whereas the musyakalah ayahs translated interpretatively are Albaqarah 194, Annisa 142, Attaubah 79, Albaqarah 15, Alanfal 30, and Ali Imran 54; 3) Of the eleven musyakalah ayahs, only Alhasyr ayah 19 that is translated correctly and does not have the potential of creating misinterpretation. Meanwhile, the interpretation of the other four ayahs can potentially cause misinterpretation or are against the basic principles of Islam. The six remaining ayahs are translated interpretatively and thus do not have the potential to be misinterpreted; 4) The findings suggest that musyakalah ayahs are more appropriately translated interpretatively. Therefore, the following is recommended: 1) Considering the different characteristics of Arabic and Indonesian languages, studies on Al-Quran translation into Indonesian should continuously be carried out; 2) In order to avoid misinterpretation, it is better that the translation of musyakalah ayahs uses tafsiriyya (interpretative) approach; 3) The harfiyya (literal) and tafsiriyya (interpretative) approaches should be developed for other styles beside musyakalah..
Mon, 18 July 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0055.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Religious Studies Keywords: religious, children, Reading books, school, Iran
Online: 18 July 2016 (10:48:05 CEST)
Transmission of values and religious concepts to children is one of the most important issues in the third millennium and it has drawn varied and different views among experts and scholars in the world. Research specialized in religious literature for children and adolescents create new capacities in the presentation of religious concepts to the group. Plans have been considered to transfer values and religious concepts in the curricula of primary school children in the group in Iran. It is one of the topics that the authors note to the introduction of the minutiae of religion in the first three elementary grades. In this study, the collection and analysis methods providing content related to the minutiae of religion in reading books the first till third sections of the years 2013-2015. In addition, the plan includes aspects of other branches of religion in these books on information collected from text books that collected and classified. The result is that "definitely good and forbidding the evil" and "prayer" have the highest frequency of applications in the selected books. Further branches made of branches of religion in these books, represents the values of religious, moral and social as well.
Thu, 11 August 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0126.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Religious Studies Keywords: development; methods; oral preaching; written preaching; Dakwah; innovation
Online: 11 August 2016 (11:07:45 CEST)
Musabaqah Tilawatil Qurân (MTQ/Al Quran Reciting Competition) is often regarded as a big and important momentum for the process of Islamic preaching in Indonesia. It has even become a tradition for Indonesian people, although Al-Quran reciting is a common activity and a universal phenomenon in the Islamic world. In the MTQ event, the participants compete at various fields, including Tilawah (the art of reciting Al-Quran), Fahmil Qurân (comprehension of Al-Quran contents), and hifzul Qurân (memorization of Al-Quran verses). In 2003, a new field was initiated in the MTQ competition; i.e Musabaqah Makalah Ilmiah Al-Qurân (M2IQ/Al-Qurân Academic Writing Competition). Since its first exhibition on the 2003 Regional MTQ in West Java Province, and later on the 2008 National MTQ, the M2IQ, which is based on written-preach (dakwah bilkitabah), is considered as an innovation of preaching method in Indonesia. Islamic preaching (dakwah) in Indonesia has always been leaning heavily on the oral-preaching (dakwah bilisan) method, as represented by other fields contested in an MTQ. This development warrants a comprehensive study to understand what considerations underlying the emergence of M2IQ, how the process is, and what contributions it provides to the development of Islamic preaching in Indonesia. This study utilizes analytic-descriptive approach to discover the phenomenon. The findings indicate that M2IQ has accentuated the intellectual aspect of MTQ. In addition, M2IQ widens the spectrum of Al-Qurân preaching in Indonesia; opening a new chapter of Islamic preaching (dakwah) in the country.
Fri, 8 November 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0083.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Philosophy Keywords: complexity; uncertainty; cognition; allostasis; homeostasis; free energy principle; active inference; environmental complexity thesis
Online: 8 November 2019 (03:50:08 CET)
What is the function of cognition? On one influential account, cognition evolved to co-ordinate behaviour with environmental change or complexity (Godfrey-Smith 1996). Liberal interpretations of this view ascribe cognition to an extraordinarily broad set of biological systems – even bacteria, which modulate their activity in response to salient external cues, would seem to qualify as cognitive agents. However, equating cognition with adaptive flexibility per se glosses over important distinctions in the way biological organisms deal with environmental complexity. Drawing on contemporary advances in theoretical biology and computational neuroscience, we cash these distinctions out in terms of the representation and resolution of different varieties of uncertainty. This analysis leads us to propose a formal criterion for delineating cognition from other, more pervasive forms of adaptive plasticity. On this view, biological cognition is rooted in a particular kind of functional organisation; namely, one that enables the agent to detach from the present and engage in counterfactual (active) inference.
Thu, 27 April 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0180.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Linguistics Keywords: natural language, unigram entropy, entropy rate, learnability, expressivity
Online: 27 April 2017 (15:54:13 CEST)
The choice associated with words is a fundamental property of natural languages. It lies at the heart of quantitative linguistics, computational linguistics, and language sciences more generally. Information-theory gives us tools at hand to measure precisely the average amount of choice associated with words—the word entropy. Here we use three parallel corpora—encompassing ca. 450 million words in 1916 texts and 1259 languages—to tackle some of the major conceptual and practical problems of word entropy estimation: dependence on text size, register, style and estimation method, as well as non-independence of words in co-text. We present three main results: 1) a text size of 50K tokens is sufficient for word entropies to stabilize throughout the text, 2) across languages of the world, word entropies display a unimodal distribution that is skewed to the right. This suggests that there is a trade-off between the learnability and expressivity of words across languages of the world. 3) There is a strong linear relationship between unigram entropies and entropy rates, suggesting that they are inherently linked. We discuss the implications of these results for studying the diversity and evolution of languages from an information-theoretic point of view.
Mon, 12 June 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0055.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Theory Of Art Keywords: aesthetics; mathematical structure; category theory; natural intelligence
Online: 12 June 2017 (13:26:59 CEST)
This paper proposes a new approach to investigation into the aesthetics. Specifically, it argues that it is possible to explain the aesthetic and its underlying dynamic relations with axiomatic structure (the octahedral axiom derived category) based on contemporary mathematics – namely, category theory – and through this argument suggests the possibility for discussion about the mathematical structure of the aesthetic. If there was a way to describe the structure of aesthetics with the language of mathematical structures and mathematical axioms – a language completely devoid of arbitrariness – then we would make possible a synthetical argument about the essential human activity of “the aesthetics”, and we would also gain a new method and viewpoint on the philosophy and meaning of the act of creating a work of art and artistic activities. This paper presents one hypothesis as a first step in constructing the science of dynamic generative aesthetics based on axiomatic functionalism, which is in turn based on a new interdisciplinary investigation into the functional structure of aesthetics.
Tue, 4 December 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0051.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Religious Studies Keywords: tourism, travel, halal tourism, Islamic tourism, Islamic teachings, Sharia
Online: 4 December 2018 (10:05:44 CET)
A quick scan of the available literature on the subject of halal tourism reveals that many scholars and laypersons alike misconceive this concept. Whereas some suggest that halal tourism occurs whenever a Muslim individual travels somewhere, others retort that only pilgrimages by Muslim travelers regarded as halal tourism. More careful research of the literature shows that the truth is somewhere in between, as none of the above definitions is correct. Overall, it is this lack of clarity that has prompted an additional inquiry into the essence of halal tourism. This essay is a modest academic endeavor to ascertain what halal tourism is and what ideologies lie at its foundation. To answer these questions, the author employs the literature review research methodology, scrutinizing number sources. Ultimately, this essay has established that halal tourism not confined to religious pilgrimages alone. Indeed, halal tourism occurs whenever a Muslim individual travels for religion, business or leisure and uses only those services and facilities that conform to the teachings of Islam.
Sun, 18 September 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0055.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Archaeology Keywords: change detection; Cultural Heritage; texture analysis
Online: 18 September 2016 (08:38:10 CEST)
The intentional damages to local Cultural Heritage sites carried out in recent months by the Islamic State have received wide coverage from the media worldwide. Earth Observation data provide important information to assess these damages in such non-accessible areas, and automated image processing techniques would be needed to speed up the analysis if a fast response is desired. This paper shows the first results of applying fast and robust change detection techniques to sensitive areas, based on the extraction of textural information and robust differences of brightness values related to pre- and post-disaster satellite images. A map highlighting potentially damaged buildings is derived, which could help experts at timely assessing the damages to the Cultural Heritage sites of interest. Encouraging results are obtained for two archaeological sites in Syria and Iraq.
Sun, 5 February 2017
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0018.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Other Keywords: mastery learning strategy; learning retention; achievement; physical geography; conventional method
Online: 5 February 2017 (10:01:59 CET)
The need to alleviate the difficulties of abstraction and improve students’ achievement in Physical Geography informed this research. This study investigated the Effects of Mastery Learning Strategy and Learning Retention on Senior Secondary School Students’ Achievement in Physical Geography. The study adopted the quasi experimental non-equivalent pre-test, post-test control group design. The Multi-stage sampling technique at four levels was used to select four co-educational secondary schools in Ganye Educational Zone in Nigeria. The sample for the study was 218 Senior Secondary School two (SS II) students offering Geography from four intact classes in the four selected secondary schools. The instrument used for data collection was “Physical Geography Achievement and Retention Test” (PGART). The reliability of the instrument was established using Kendall tau b statistic. This gave a reliability index of 0.74. Data collected were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U and t-Test. The results showed that Mastery Learning Strategy has the potentials to improve students’ learning outcomes, retention and achievement in all spheres of cognitive domain in Physical Geography better than the Conventional Method. Hence the need to incorporate this teaching strategy during instruction so that learners would be guided to learn meaningfully and be assisted to retain content learnt in Geography.
Mon, 27 March 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0199.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Music Studies Keywords: auditory arts; psychiatry; heavy metal music; mental disorder; bipolar; education; awareness
Online: 27 March 2017 (10:45:03 CEST)
1) Background: Bipolar or manic-depressive disorder is a malign mental disease that frequently faces social stigma. Educational and thinking models are needed to increase people’s awareness and understanding of the disorder. The arts have potential to achieve this goal. 2) Methods: This paper builds on the recent use of heavy metal music as a thinking and education model. It emphasizes the artistic component of heavy metal and its potential to characterize the symptomatology during the episodes of (hypo)mania and depression and the recurrence of these episodes. Heavy metal music has diversified into subgenres that become allegorical to both the symptoms of episodes and the recurrence of bipolar cycles. 3) Results: Examples of songs are given that mirror distinct facets of the disorder. 4) Conclusion: Although the links drawn between art (music) and science (psychiatry) are inherently subjective, such connections might be used to trigger a learning process, facilitate judgment and decision-making, and induce affective reactions and memory formation in the listener. The approach may facilitate collaborative efforts and serve healthcare professionals and educators as a communication tool to aid the public’s comprehension of the disease and an associated social paradox: On one hand, bipolar disorder incurs substantial costs to society. On the other hand, it benefits from the creative artistic and scientific endeavors of bipolar individuals from which cultural and political gains may ensue.
Wed, 3 August 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0034.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Media Studies Keywords: piracy; pirate party; political mobilization; political parties; information politics; social media; activism
Online: 3 August 2016 (16:36:14 CEST)
Since the 1990s, the understanding of how and where politics is made has changed radically. Scholars such as Ulrich Beck and Maria Bakardjieva have discussed how political agency is enacted outside of conventional party organizations, and political struggles increasingly focus on single issues. Over the past two decades, this transformation of politics has become common knowledge, not only in academic research but also in the general political discourse. Recently, the proliferation of digital activism and the political use of social media is often understood to enforce these tendencies. This article analyzes the Pirate Party in relation to these theories, relying on almost 30 interviews with active Pirate Party members in Sweden, the UK, Germany, the USA, and Australia. The Pirate Party was initially formed in 2006, focusing on copyright, piracy, and digital privacy. Over the years, it has developed into a more general democracy movement, with an interest in a wider range of issues. This article analyses how the party’s initial focus on information politics and social media connects to a wider range of political issues and to other social movements, such as Arab Spring protests and Occupy Wall Street. Finally, it discusses how this challenges the understanding of information politics as a single issue agenda.
Mon, 26 December 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0129.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, History Keywords: history; museology; Israeli culture; Holocaust; Israeli society
Online: 26 December 2016 (10:43:31 CET)
Tiny by physical size, the State of Israel retains some of the world’s most important cultural treasures, along with many other great cultural institutions. Archeological treasures have yielded much information as far as biblical history and have been well adapted to a Zionist narrative by both the Jewish press and international news organizations, such as the New York Times whose archives are replete with reports of Jewish history being dug up by the Jewish people. Once the State of Israel gained independence in 1948, the course was set for the development of historical museums whose discourse would reflect the most significant events in Jewish history, most especially the Holocaust and the state of constant warfare that continues to imbue the cultural consciousness of its citizens. In this paper we outline, through categorization, the various historical museums, which are currently operating. Furthermore, this article hopes to shed some light upon the cultural sensibilities conveyed through these institutions.
Wed, 20 November 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0183.v2
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: informal settlement; sustainable neighborhood; approaches; district 13 of Kabul city Afghanistan
Online: 20 November 2019 (11:20:52 CET)
Abstract: Afghanistan witnessed rapid urbanization in recent decades due to the post-war recovery process. When the war ended in 2001 by fall of Taliban regime, most Afghans refugees returned to urban areas of Afghanistan, especially in Kabul city. Moreover, the rapid urbanization, migration from rural areas, and population growth impacted on Kabul city with the manifestation of informal settlement. The residents of informal settlements suffer social and economic exclusion from the benefit and opportunity of an urban environment. Furthermore, the residents of informal settlements experience disadvantages by geographical marginalization, shortage of basic infrastructure, improper governance framework, vulnerability into the effect of poor environment, and natural disasters. With all the above, the problems of informal settlements are considered enormous challenges for informal residents. Therefore, this paper aims to identify the proper approaches to addressing informal settlement problems in District 13 of Kabul city. To reach the aim of the research, the interview and questionnaires survey used as an instrument in data collection. Consequently, the finding of this paper indicates that through the resident’s preferences, government capacity, and District 13 physical condition there are three approaches which can be implemented and adopted for improvement of informal settlement in District 13 of Kabul city, which is settlement upgrading as the first option, the land readjustment as the second option and urban redevelopment as the last option.
Fri, 21 July 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0061.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Religious Studies Keywords: scientific materialism; genetics; reincarnation; soul; religions; science; Buddhism
Online: 21 July 2017 (05:18:59 CEST)
Scientific materialism is the largely unquestioned basis for modern science's understanding of life. It also holds enormous sway beyond science and thus has increasingly marginalized religious perspectives. Yet it is easy to find behavioral phenomena from the accepted literature that seriously challenge materialism. A number of these phenomena are very suggestive of reincarnation. The larger test for science's paradigm, though, as well as for any potential general import from reincarnation - is the DNA (or genetics)-based model of heredity. If that conception-beget, DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)-carried model can be confirmed at the individual level then in a very substantial way we would be confirmed as material-only creatures. In particular, can behavioral genetics and personal genomics confirm their DNA-based presumptions? During the last decade enormous efforts have been made to find the DNA origins for a number of health and behavioral tendencies. These efforts have been an "absolutely beyond belief" failure and it is here that the scientific vision faces its biggest challenge. The common premodern reincarnation understanding, on the other hand, fits well on a number of specific conundrums and offers a broad coherence across this unfolding missing heritability mystery. For people trying to make sense of a religious perspective or simply questioning materialism, you should be looking at the missing heritability problem.
Mon, 18 February 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0138.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: Raul Lino, architecture, city, circumstance, modernity, continuity
Online: 18 February 2019 (09:54:25 CET)
Over a period of nearly one hundred years, Raul Lino da Silva (1879-1974) experienced the profound political, social and economic changes that marked the twentieth century in Portugal. Having been born during the Constitutional Monarchy (1822-1910), he lived through the First Republic (1910-1926), the Military Dictatorship (1926-1933) and the Second Republic, or Estado Novo (New State, 1933-1974), and died shortly after the Carnation Revolution of 25 April 1974, at the dawning of the Third Republic. Raul Lino was the architect who published the most in Portugal, having become known through his advocacy of the “Campanha da casa portuguesa” (“Portuguese house campaign”), which provoked a great deal of controversy among his peers. He is less known for the transversal quality of his synthesis between architecture, the decorative arts and territory, and its underlying affirmation of an idea of the city, which we conjecture from a diagonal reading of his theoretical and plastic narrative. We limit the analysis to the first half of the 20th century, concentrating on ten case studies, that encompass architectural projects, urbanistic plans and reports. The above expound the broad conception which he defended in the same year as was held the First National Architecture Congress (1948), whose proposals ratified in Portugal the orthodoxy established in 1933 by the International Congresses of Modern Architecture (CIAM). Quoting Aristotle Raul Lino conceived the city as the locus of happiness, shaping the possibilities of consensus between tradition and modernity by means of architecture, which is both envelope and stage for our collective existence. In fact, Raul Lino anticipated themes to be found in the narratives of authors like Aldo Rossi (1966), Paul Virilio (2004, 2009) or Peter Zumthor (2006), and his thought proves particularly relevant and timely in the present day.
Mon, 2 January 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0005.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Philosophy Keywords: logical laws; normativity of logic; reasoning; thinking
Online: 2 January 2017 (11:12:15 CET)
In this paper it is examined how, if at all, logical laws can be normative for human reasoning, wherein the notion of normativity is analysed with respect to approaches to logic given in works of Aristotle, Descartes, Kant, Frege and Wittgenstein. During the ancient and medieval period, logic was being considered in terms of discourse and dialogical practice, but since Descartes and especially Kant it has been treated as a system of laws with which the process of individual human reasoning has been compared. Therefore, normativity can be investigated in private sphere (for thinking and reasoning) and in public sphere (for dialogic practices in a community). Wittgenstein discussed both aspects of normativity: in Tractatus, a focus is on laws of logic that are primarily normative for the state of affairs in the world, while in Philosophical Investigations an emphasis is on a social aspect of normativity (which is closer to Aristotle’s view), which is derived from adopted rules that have been applied in a certain community. Taken that way, logic is certainly normative in the public sphere, but the more difficult issue is whether logic is normative for thinking, regarding to the difference between the logical laws and those of thought.
Fri, 16 June 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0077.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Other Keywords: zoo; mobile zoo; mobile animal exhibits; animal display; mobile live animal programs; negative education
Online: 16 June 2017 (05:32:18 CEST)
This paper assesses whether there is intrinsic positive educational value in travelling animal presentations and exhibits, referred to here as Mobile Live Animal Programs (MLAPs). Given that educational claims serve as the basis for allowing MLAPs to operate in many jurisdictions throughout Canada and the United States, it is essential to examine whether these purported claims are valid. This study takes a twofold approach of examining first, what constitutes an MLAP and how such programs are situated within the larger context of animal observation and tourism, and second, what constitutes both positive and negative education, and how such learning can empirically be measured in these settings. This approach provokes the ethical question of whether or not MLAPs should be allowed to operate given the high price paid not only by the individual animals used, but also to our psychological, emotional, and intellectual relationship with other species when we use non-human animals for our own knowledge, pleasure or comfort. The paper concludes that we must consider that the pervasive problem of negative education, that using displaced captive wild animals as learning tools that highlights human control over them, their objectification and their exploitation, is not justified by the purported positive educational claims of MLAPs.
Thu, 20 April 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0133.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Music Studies Keywords: quantitative musicology, biodiversity, ecology, interdisciplinary research, music analysis
Online: 20 April 2017 (10:43:40 CEST)
This paper introduces an ecological approach to quantifying diversity in musical compositions. The approach considers notations with distinct pitches and duration as equivalents of species in ecosystems, measures within a composition as equivalents of ecosystems, and the sum of measures (i.e., the entire composition) as a landscape in which ecosystems are embedded. Structural diversity can be calculated at the level of measures (“alpha diversity”) and the entire composition (“gamma diversity”). An additional metric can be derived that quantifies the structural differentiation between measures in a composition (“beta diversity”). We demonstrate the suitability of the approach in music using specifically composed examples and real songs that vary in complexity. We discuss the potential of the approach with selected examples from a potentially ample spectrum of applications within musicology research. The method seems particularly suitability for hypothesis testing to objectively identify many of the intricate phenomena in music. Because the approach extracts information present in the compositions – it lets the songs tell their structure – it can complement more complex modeling approaches used by music scholars. Combined such approaches provide opportunities for interdisciplinary research. They can help to fill knowledge gaps, stimulate further research and increase our understanding of music.
Wed, 28 December 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0131.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Philosophy Keywords: physicists, experimental set-up, drawings, spirituality, interaction
Online: 28 December 2016 (10:24:28 CET)
To understand the possibility of interaction between scientific experimenting and artistic drawing in the form of drawings made in notebooks, assumed is a common element, a spiritual property, and transference as a mechanism for causality. Scientists, scientific experiments and artistic drawings all have different merits. Here the concept ‘speaking out’ in its meaning of expressiveness is proposed to bridge these differences. Scientific action and artistic action cannot be compared directly. However, a common spiritual element will make the investigated object, experimental set-up and notebook drawings comparable in the sense of translations authorized by the physicist. They all then speak out from the same source. In this paper considered are recent drawings made by physicists during experimentation, in notebooks and diaries. Discussed is transferal causality between the physicist, the artistic drawing and all the relevant objects belonging to the experiment. Spiritual properties are introduced for the physicist being a person, and for the investigated object, the experimental set-up and the drawings as objects.
Fri, 20 April 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0263.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Archaeology Keywords: antiquities trafficking; archaeometry; archaeological looting; expert evidence; judicial proceedings
Online: 20 April 2018 (11:17:32 CEST)
For most of its history, archaeology has taken an indulgent attitude toward looting and antiquities trafficking. The primary response to these dangers has been to publish the main findings made outside of academia. As a result of this approach and the prominent role played by police techniques in investigating such crimes, investigations are primarily based on documentary research. This approach makes it harder to determine such essential factors in this field as an object’s collecting history or discovery date. This paper offers an overview of the state of the research on the fight against antiquities trafficking. It then proposes new ways of studying collecting history, drawing on research projects on the use of archaeometry to shed light on cases of looting or trafficking involving police, court, or government intervention; hence, its qualification as “forensic.” Although the current state of knowledge does not enable the presentation of novel research, we believe that researchers and interested institutions should be made aware of the advisability of using archaeometry more directly in the fight against these scourges.
Fri, 3 March 2017
EDITORIAL | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0020.v1
Online: 3 March 2017 (07:24:05 CET)
This Special Issue of Humanities comes at a time when the viability of the humanities are challenged on numerous fronts. On the one hand, the humanities face material threats as the politics of austerity continues throughout Europe and the United States, diminishing public support and making profit margin and “job creation” the primary measure of value or the basis of state university funding decisions. On the other, the humanities face conceptual, theoretical and ethical challenges, as the emergence of post-racial and post-humanist discourses signal what Foucault called “a change in the fundamental arrangements of knowledge.” The defining boundaries of constructs such as “race” and “human” have been radically called into question, challenging us to rethink the classificatory systems that found hierarchical relationships between, for example, the “fully human” and sub-human or non-human others. Despite dominant nations’ professed commitment to a universal human rights paradigm, racialized identities are still often the targets of disenfranchisement and dehumanization, while the exploitation and destruction of the natural world continues in the name of “progress” and profits.
Tue, 4 April 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0015.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: electrical-thermal two-way coupling; flux-switching permanent magnet motor; thermal analysis; permanent magnet material characteristics
Online: 4 April 2017 (08:38:40 CEST)
Flux-switching permanent magnet (FSPM) motors have gained increasing attention in the electric vehicles (EVs) applications due to the advantages of high power density, high efficiency. However, the heat sources of both permanent magnet (PM) and armature winding are located on the limited stator space in the FSPM motors, which may result in the PM overheated and irreversible demagnetization caused by temperature rise and it is often ignored in the conventional thermal analysis. In this paper, a new electrical-thermal two-way coupling design method is proposed to analyze the electromagnetic performances, where the change of PM material characteristics under different temperatures is taken into consideration. Firstly, the motor topology and design equations are introduced. Secondly, the demagnetization curves of PM materials under different temperatures are modeled due to PM materials are sensitive to the temperature. And based on the electrical-thermal two-way coupling method, the motor performances are evaluated in details, such as the load PM flux linkage and output torque. Then, the motor is optimized, and the electromagnetic performances between initial and improved motors are compared. Finally, a prototype motor is manufactured, and the results are validated by experimental measurements.
Tue, 25 April 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0155.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: architecture; 19th century; 20th century; Nordic countries; natural stone; national romanticism; geology
Online: 25 April 2017 (04:56:44 CEST)
In the second half of the 19th century new methods for quarrying and processing natural stone are developed. In the Nordic countries Sweden, Norway and Finland this technological progress goes hand in hand with a systematic geological mapping and large-scale exploitation of natural stone deposits. As a result, new constructions are developed—changing the building practice in these countries. With the end of historicism a new architecture arises that particularly in Norway and Finland acquires a national-romantic character. This paper examines the interaction between geological exploration, commercial development, technical inventions and the development of a national-romantic architecture.
Mon, 10 April 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0055.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: Brazil, agrarian reform policy, land less movement, rural social movements.
Online: 10 April 2017 (07:49:04 CEST)
In Brazil, during the four last administrations of Worker’s Party (PT) 2003-2015, the support to the agrarian reform seems to have stagnated, even with the influence of landless workers' movements. Thus in 2016, the impeachment President Dilma Roussef have marked a brutal stop in the agrarian reform process. How to explain that which seems at first to be a contradiction and has become a decadence of an important federal public policy?. Furthermore, how can we evaluate the debates within Brazilian society and the federal government on this theme? The article analyzes the tensions, debates, advances and impasses of the past fifteen years of agrarian reform policy in Brazil looking at the interaction between social movements and public policies. The method associates bibliography, official statistic synthesis and research results in Northeast, Amazônia and Cerrado regions among several projects. The first part results put on evidence the crescent reduction of agrarian reform settlements and beneficiary families since 2006. The second part presents the main reasons offering an analysis of government and society debates in Brazil about land reform. The analysis conclude to the less of power and representation in the society of the pro agrarian reform large and popular coalition.
Fri, 19 May 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0147.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Religious Studies Keywords: domestic violence; religion; families; women; abuse; theology; language
Online: 19 May 2017 (09:56:02 CEST)
Carol Winkelmann, in her book ‘The Language of Battered Women’ describes not only the fact that domestic abuse is almost a daily occurrence in the lives of many women but that the language of religion and faith is often used by women in attempts to explain, understand and cope with such abuse . While religious belief and domestic violence may seem contradictory in terms of religious values of faith, virtue and love, research demonstrates that domestic violence in religious families and amidst religious congregations is prevalent. In fact, religious beliefs and practices are often embedded in cultural contexts and thus perpetuate patriarchal notions of dominance, power and submission. Abused Christian women, for example, are more likely to seek help from (male) ministers and others in positions of authority in their local church communities and are equally more likely to remain in or return to unsafe relationships, citing their religious beliefs to support their avoidance of ‘family break-ups’ because of abuse. What, then, is the response of ministers and church authorities to domestic abuse in their congregations? Despite recent calls for the training of pastors and other religious leaders in an understanding of domestic violence and in the recognition of appropriate, helpful responses, the language of some Christian churches can be seen to foster notions of submission so that women and pastors alike can appear confused concerning the experience of abuse. Religious congregations, while acting in love to help the poor and needy, for example, often fail to recognise domestic abuse amongst their own members and, indeed, such a topic can remain taboo in some church communities. Women, in turning to their pastors or other Christian leaders for help, can be silenced by the language of the religion itself, so that the role of wives and mothers may be seen to be submissive and the ‘keeper of the home’; to leave an abusive relationship may thus ‘break-up’ a home and imply failure of the woman to understand her role and fulfil her ‘maternal vocation’. On the other hand, religious beliefs offer victims of domestic violence both hope and comfort. Religious practices, such as prayer, liturgies and corporal (physical) works of mercy, can provide solace and practical assistance for women who suffer abuse. Domestic violence in religious congregations can be addressed within the context of the faith itself, with an emphasis on love and respect, helping women to understand their dignity with avenues of help so that the women can remove themselves and their children from abusive relationships, and the religious congregation and its leaders can call the partners to accountability. This paper seeks to outline a picture of domestic violence in religious congregations, specifically Christian church communities, by drawing on current research in the Western world. It then describes the language of some religious congregations that perpetuates domestic violence, with emphasis on contemporary studies in religious belief and domestic abuse. Finally, the paper makes some suggestions on how religious belief and practice can, in contrast to perpetuating abuse through norms, serve to assist women as victims of domestic violence, and how the connections between domestic violence and religious language or belief can be severed.
Tue, 19 December 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0137.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Archaeology Keywords: Archaeology; Archaeogenetic Model; Neolithic; Chalcolithic; Bronze Age; Migration
Online: 19 December 2017 (15:49:22 CET)
Migrations are much more important than currently recognised, for explaining important patterns observed in the European archaeology record – according to this archaeology led model. At a high level, they explain the introduction of different farming, monument building, the spread of metalworking and patterns of trade and exchange. This paper presents an archaeogenetic model based on a strategic review of the Neolithic and Chalcolithic archaeology of Europe, alongside a review of recently published ancient DNA data. The model is archaeology led. It takes archaeology themes and proposes migratory events to explain them. Ancient DNA data and further archaeology evidence is then used to test these proposed migrations- to reject or refine them. The model introduces a new and more strategic way of looking at archaeological cultures - that updates early 20th century approaches to studying archaeology cultures, and integrates with the detailed ‘post processual’ studies of the late 20th Century. The model consists of seven maps – each showing multiple migration events – with key evidence to support each migration map. It proposes a new category of a ‘Black Sea’ related population that makes a major genetic contribution to the Middle Neolithic of Europe. The proposed migrations provide an explanation for the observed patterns of archaeology, for example: • multiple Neolithic migrations that introduced, farming and metalworking into Europe; • a major ‘Black Sea’ related ‘Middle Neolithic’ migration that carried advanced knowledge of astronomy that can be recognised in a variety of types of monument from the Neolithic through to Bronze Age Europe; and, • migrations of related cultures (‘supercultures’) that explain patterns of trade and exchange in Bronze Age western Europe. The model also provides ancient DNA and archaeology based support for the key aspects of Childe’s ‘dawn of civilisation’ in Europe and Egypt and Gimbutas’ ‘Old Europe’ and “three waves of migration from the Steppe”.
Tue, 18 April 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0111.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Religious Studies Keywords: technology; ontology; will; mastery; Hannah Arendt; George Grant; Iris Murdoch
Online: 18 April 2017 (11:48:02 CEST)
One purported benefit of technology is that it gives humans greater control over how they live their lives. Various technologies are used to protect humans from what are perceived to be the capricious whims of indifferent natural forces. Additionally, technology is used to create circumstances and opportunities that are believed to be preferable because they are more subject to human control. In large measure, the lives of late moderns are effectively constructed and asserted as artifacts of what they will themselves to be. This control is seen prominently at the beginning and end of life. Technology is employed to overcome infertility, prevent illness, disability, and undesirable traits, to select desirable traits and increasingly enhance them. At the end of life, late moderns have a far greater range of options at their disposal than past generations: they can choose to delay death, control pain, or end their lives at the time and with the means of their choosing. The greater control that technology offers helps humans to survive and even flourish, but it comes at a price. One such cost is that it tends to reduce humans to being little more than a will confined within a body. The body is thereby effectively perceived to be an impediment to the will that should be overcome. Is this troubling? Yes. I argue that the purported control technology offers often serves as a distraction or blind spot that may prevent humans from understanding and consenting to their good. In making this argument I draw upon the Christian doctrine of the incarnation as a way of disclosing the creaturely good of finitude against which the will should conform rather than attempting to overcome. I also draw upon Iris Murdoch’s and Simone Weil’s concept of “unselfing” as a way of conforming the will with this good. I revisit issues related to the beginning and end of life to draw-out some of the implications of my argument.
Fri, 20 October 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0138.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Religious Studies Keywords: preservation; environment; quran; issues; Malaysia
Online: 20 October 2017 (10:11:16 CEST)
Currently, various issues on environment have been discussed, whether the importance, destruction or ways to prevent the destruction of the environment. This paper will explore the issue from the conventional viewpoint as well as from the Islamic perspective. Destruction of the environment in recent times has worsened due to the uncontrolled exploitation of natural resources by human beings in order to generate profits. In view of the increasing technological development in Malaysia presently, this matter should not have occurred because the citizens intellectual abilities can be considered advanced. In other words, these people should be able to weigh between positive and negative consequences of voraciously exploiting natural resources. However, the greed that engulfs some of these people has obscured their view from grasping the future consequences of their acts. Based on the Islamic perspective in which the Quran is the ultimate reference, destruction of the environment can actually be prevented if every individual is aware of his or her trustworthiness or responsibility as His caliphate in this universe. Nevertheless, is there any specific verse in the Quran which explains about preservation of the environment? Can lessons from the Quran provide solutions to the environmental crises in Malaysia? This study provides explanations to the questions based on literature surveys and content analyses. By interpreting some selected verses that relate to preservation of the environment, findings from the discussions have identified that the Quranic verses are valuable resources for the sustainability of the environment.
Mon, 20 November 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0123.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Religious Studies Keywords: Protestantism; Protestant Churches; post-Soviet Russia; ethnic groups; national intelligentsia; native peoples; social activity
Online: 20 November 2017 (08:10:47 CET)
This paper considers two types of Protestant ethnic groups of some areas of Urals and Western Siberia. The first type consist of representatives of members of different ethnic groups consisting of well-educated professionals, incorporated into industrial society and associated with the intellectualism of Protestantism. The second type is represented by the indigenous peoples of the Polar Urals and Western Siberia, who use the Protestant religious organizations as tool for restoring life-sustaining elements of the native peoples’ traditional economy. I employed the inductive approach and the comparison method; during the fieldwork I used ethnographic participant observations, sociological structured interviews and closed-ended questionnaires. The empirical data have been collected in the Southern, Middle and Polar Urals and Western Siberia.
Mon, 5 March 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0029.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Theory Of Art Keywords: functions; contexts; traditional pottery; northern; Ghana
Online: 5 March 2018 (04:00:32 CET)
The aim of this paper is to identify and document some functions and contextsof traditional pottery within northern Ghana. The descriptive approach of the qualitative research methodology was employed. Interview and observation methods were employed as the data collection methods. They were used to ascertain reasons why some potteryare engaged in certain contexts andfor certainfunctions. The data was tabulated to include the traditional name of the pot, the function and the context. The data were then analyzed and the indications were that, the potters make interesting forms of traditional pottery for different purposes; and the local name given to each pot perfectly defines their functions and contexts within northern Ghana. On the flipside of the coin, the function and context of every pot can also be dictated by its end user. Base on this, the researchers were able to discover some functions and contexts of the indigenous pottery which were put into some groups. On the first hand, the researchers classified the functions into five groups of purpose. These included: domestic purposes, religious purposes, agricultural purposes, rites of passage purposes and traditional herbal medicinal purposes. On other hand, seven groups of contexts were also discovered at the time of the study. These included: courtyards, bedrooms, bathrooms, graveyards, kitchens, shrines, and hencoops as places where these pots can be found among the people of the Northern Ghana.
Fri, 18 August 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0068.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: Terrestrial Laser Scanning; orthoimage; heritage; remote sensing; preservation; archaeology
Online: 18 August 2017 (16:49:13 CEST)
This article presents a methodology to process information from a Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS) from three dimensions (3D) to two dimensions (2D), and to two dimensions with a color value (2.5D), as a tool to document and analyze heritage buildings. Principally focused on the loss of material in stone, this study aims at creating an evaluation method for loss control, taking into account the state of conservation of the building in terms of restoration, from studying the pathologies, to their identification and delimitation. A case study on the Cathedral of the Seu Vella de Lleida was completed, examining the details of the stone surfaces. This cathedral was affected by military use, periods of abandonment, and periodic restorations.
Fri, 15 February 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0141.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Archaeology Keywords: the Late Bronze Age; Bashkir Transurals; Srubnaya-Alacul type of monuments; interdisciplinary methods in archaeological investigation
Online: 15 February 2019 (11:16:37 CET)
The Late Bronze Age on the territory of Southern Transurals is represented by two major archeological cultures: Srubnaya and Andronovskaya (Alakul culture and Fyodorovskaya – type). Their interaction of constitutes a special mix of material cultures which preserves common features of two independent, Srubnaya and Andronovskaya cultures, but also creates novel local material features. These cultural groups are also known to have brought to the region the technology of bronze production. This is evidenced, amongst others, by the proximity of the largest copper mining in the region, Kargaly mines Chernykh (2002). New methods to produce ceramics and to work bones were also developed, combining two traditions, coming from Srubnaya and Andronovskaya cultures respectively. Importantly, the features of these cultures are commonly encountered together in a single cultural horizon across the distribution ares. These diffusion processes took place in a vast area (more than 120,000 km2) andwere reflected in archeological micro-district of the Urshak river basin. We present here the most recent results of the scientific examination of the Late Bronze Age settlements in southern Transurals and attempt to address a peculiar cultural co-habitation of two distinct cultural groups in this region. We also discuss their synchronism based on absolute dates and elaborate on this cultural syncretism in the entire territory of the Volga-Ural region.
Fri, 16 June 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0076.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Religious Studies Keywords: Cameroon; terrorism; religion; Islam; Boko Haram; Christian churches; peace
Online: 16 June 2017 (05:13:32 CEST)
The spillover of the terrorist activities of Boko Haram, a Nigerian jihadi group, into Cameroon’s northern region has resulted in security challenges and humanitarian activity opportunities for Christian churches. The insurgents have attacked and destroyed churches, abducted Christians, worsened Muslim-Christian relations, and caused a humanitarian crisis. Aggregately, these ensuing phenomena have adversely affected Christian churches in this region, triggering an aura of responses: coping strategies, humanitarian work among refugees, and inter-faith dialogue. These responses are predicated on Christianity’s potential as a resource for peace, compassion, and love. In this study we emphasize the role of Christian churches in dealing with the Boko Haram insurgency. It opens up with a contextualization of Boko Haram in Cameroon’s north. This is followed by an examination of the brutality meted out on Christians and church property. The final section is an examination of the spiritual, humanitarian and relief services provided by Christian churches. The paper argues that although Christian churches have suffered at the hands of Boko Haram insurgents, they have engaged in various beneficial responses underpinned by the Christian values of peace and love.
Wed, 11 October 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0070.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Archaeology Keywords: Remote sensing; direct detection; GIS mapping; Caribbean Archaeology; landscape archaeology
Online: 11 October 2017 (16:23:29 CEST)
Satellite imagery has had limited application in the analysis of pre-colonial settlement archaeology in the Caribbean; visible evidence of wooden structures perishes quickly in tropical climates. Only slight topographic modifications remain, typically associated with middens. Nonetheless, surface scatters, as well as the soil characteristics they produce, can serve as quantifiable indicators of an archaeological site, which can be detected by analysis of remote sensing imagery. A variety of data sets were investigated, with the intention to combine multispectral bands to feed a direct detection algorithm, providing a semi-automatic process to cross-correlate the datasets. Sampling was done using locations of known sites, as well as areas with no archaeological evidence. The pre-processed very diverse remote sensing data sets have gone through a process of image registration. The algorithm was applied in the northwestern Dominican Republic on areas that included different types of environments, chosen for having sufficient imagery coverage, and a representative number of known locations of indigenous sites. The resulting maps present quantifiable statistical results of locations with similar pixel value combinations as the identified sites, indicating higher probability of archaeological evidence. The results show the variable potential of this method in diverse environments.
Tue, 28 November 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0178.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Art History & Restoration Keywords: art history; Nordic countries; life reform movement; Ellen Key; 19th Century; 20th Century
Online: 28 November 2017 (05:29:23 CET)
In the second half of the 19th century a wave of modernisation, industrialisation and urbanisation swept the Nordic countries, catapulting what had until then been lagging and primarily rural countries into modernity. These major upheavals, however, also plunged the Nordic countries into a profound social and cultural crisis resulting from their consciousness of their own backwardness vis-a-vis the countries on the European continent, as well as the recognition that a nostalgic nationalism recalling a mythical past had become obsolete in the industrial age. In response to this crisis, a life reform movement emerged that was based on Arts and Crafts movements as well as various artistic and literary reform movements and—equally absorbing rural traditions and progressive social ideas—tried to establish a new national everyday culture. In this article, the two key terms coined by Ellen Key, “Festive Customs” (‘festvanor’) and “Everyday Beauty” (‘vardagsskönhet’)—the programmatic core of the Nordic life reform movement—are analysed and illustrated in various typical manifestations. It also examines to what extent the Nordic life reform movement with these two key concepts as its core agenda found expression in arts and crafts, in painting as well as in the architecture of the late nineteenth and early twentieth century and contributed to the progress of social and cultural renewal.
Mon, 28 August 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0098.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Other Keywords: theatre for adolescents; theatre for young audiences; art for youth
Online: 28 August 2017 (08:44:33 CEST)
In this paper I analyze the three plays produced during the inaugural season (2011) of the Theatre for Young Audiences Research Center of the National Theater Company of Korea and place it within the context of contemporary ideas and realities surrounding Korean youth. In the first part of this paper I explore how Korean youth are perceived by society and the reality in which they live. In the second part I analyze the aforementioned plays, especially through the directions of the production and portrayal of adult and young characters. The last part offers concluding thoughts. Through this study I ask the question of whether if it is possible for theatre to actually portray the realities of adolescents, when in fact the identities of youth are still fluid and the experiences of youth as diverse as those of adults. I suggest that theatre artists break free to depict reality or educate audiences and focus on providing a critical experience to adolescents.
Tue, 22 January 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0218.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Linguistics Keywords: cross-linguistic influence (CLI); L3 Spanish; borrowing; functional transfer; language distance
Online: 22 January 2019 (11:41:10 CET)
Studies in the area of cross-linguistic influence (CLI) have attracted the focus of multi-linguistic learners. However, little research on CLI deals with Asian learners, particularly Chinese-speaker with knowledge of two or more foreign languages. The present study explores CLI in L1 Chinese learners with both English (L2) and Spanish (L3) as foreign languages who are studying in Madrid, a Spanish-speaking community; their studies coincided with data collection. English learners were instructed to speak for analysis purposes, with the following aims: (i) to observe the most frequent category (functional transfer, code-switching, borrowing and coinage) in the CLI instances; (ii) to determine the source language of CLI; (iii) to investigate whether CLI factors, including language distance, L2 status, proficiency and recency of use, intervene in the appearance of CLI instances in the participants. Data was gathered from 16 female Chinese students at Complutense University of Madrid (UCM). These were master students aged 22 to 26, who visited Spain for more than 5 months when they participated in the present study. The instrument used was an English semi-structured interview. Results primarily reveal that (a) borrowing is the most prevalent category, accounting for 70% of the CLI instances; (b) Spanish is the main source language of CLI while Chinese plays a functional role in the transfer process; (c) language distance proves to be the strongest predictor of CLI.
Thu, 24 May 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0352.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: folklore, ethnographic study, Indian tribes, myths, social anthropology, Gujarat
Online: 24 May 2018 (14:25:07 CEST)
The focus of this ethnographic expedition is to study the folklore and traditions amongst the existing tribal populations of Barumal village in southern Gujarat, India. The fieldwork revolves around cultural and socio-economic aspects of their livelihood and this paper encompasses the knowledge from one such lens out of many. It tries to identify the importance of mythology and its roots. The data collected from three different population groups are Varlis, Kukanas, Dhodiya Patels that are set within the caste system based hierarchy inhabiting in the same region. The interview method was employed throughout with open-ended questions. The varied customs and traditions appearing in their lifestyle, occupation, and festivals are always associated with one god or another. The key informants felt the need to distinguish the history of their own tribe from the others by taking the help of myths passed down from their ancestors. Most of the key informants were mature adults including both males and females.
Fri, 30 March 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0270.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Linguistics Keywords: chemical engineering; journal publications; lexical choices; collocations; impact factor; training
Online: 30 March 2018 (11:25:20 CEST)
The combination of increased pressures for high-volume, high-impact publications in English language with the high rejection rates of submitted manuscripts for publications presents an often unsurpassable obstacle for (early career) researchers. At the same, the register requirements of peer-reviewed journals -that can contribute to whether a paper is accepted for publication- has received little attention. This paper redresses this gap, by investigating the linguistic choices in 60 published manuscripts in four journals, with impact factor (IF) above 2; all 4 journals, publish original research papers in the field of chemical engineering science and specifically focus on wastewater treatment. Our survey shows that chemical engineering research publications tend to comply to a set of unwritten requirements: multidisciplinarity, brevity, co-authorship, focus on the description of practical results (rather than methods), and awareness of non-specialised audiences. It is found that less discipline-specific vocabulary was used in higher IF journals and this is interpreted within the current context of manuscript publication and consumption. Also, a complex relationship between the advertised scope of each journal and the actual published papers exists, indicating that guide for authors and aims and objective published by the journal's editorial office should be critically evaluated.
Thu, 6 June 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0050.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Philosophy Keywords: mind brain interaction, Avicenna, consciousness, cognition, incorporeity of mind, mind matter interaction
Online: 6 June 2019 (12:58:52 CEST)
Mind and brain/matter interaction is one of the important and controversial issues in Islamic philosophy. In fact, in the resources of Islamic philosophy, one of the basic parts of philosophical discussions is related to mind’s nature and its interaction with the brain. Especially, in Avicenna’s philosophy, there are many articles and books which have addressed the topic of mind and brain and the relation between them. Avicenna was a profound philosopher, an expert physicist and a proficient physician of his time. Because of his experimental proficiency in medicine and surgery and his deep philosophical analysis, his discussion about mind and brain is very interesting for our time, due to recent advances in neuroscience. In this article, we have explained one of Avicenna’s arguments (in his famous opus “al-Isharat”) about the incorporeity of mind (self), which is very close to modern neuroscience and physics literature. In addition, we explain his model of mind and brain interaction. Avicenna described the mechanism of the causal effect of mind on the brain via a third identity, which works as an interface between them (in his main book “al-Shifa”). We try to illustrate his model by the use of some examples, inspired from modern physics. Also, we explore the philosophical constraints which must be considered in any model of mind-matter interaction, within the Islamic philosophy framework. In fact, we propose a new understanding of Avicenna’s philosophy which is in agreement with modern physics and neuroscience.
Sun, 18 February 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0117.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Art History & Restoration Keywords: Public Art; Cultural identity; Islamic society; Art history; Pakistan.
Online: 18 February 2018 (13:16:07 CET)
The significance of arts incorporated with culture inclusion makes the arts a matter of pressing interest. The arts are vital elements of a healthy society that benefits the nations even in difficult social and economic times. Based on the previous studies this research was conducted for the first time in Pakistan to explore the historical background of public art correlated with cultural and religious ethics. Though, Pakistan has a rich cultural history yet the role of modern public art is new and often used unintentionally. Our findings of different surveys conducted in Pakistan including oldest cities such as Lahore, Peshawar and newly developed, the capital city, Islamabad concluded that Public art has a rich cultural and historical background and the local community are enthusiastically connected to it. Different community groups prefer different types of public art in their surroundings depends on the city’s profile, cultural background, and religious mindset of the local community. Overall, the sculptures and depiction of animated beings are not considering right and debatable among the Pakistani societies. On the other hand, the cultural and historical monuments are highly appreciated and welcomed by the local community of Pakistan. This study may create scope for future estimation and development of public art in Pakistan in association with Islamic laws and cultural norms of the local society.
Mon, 8 January 2018
Online: 8 January 2018 (09:56:06 CET)
This brief essay explores both the social and biological dimensions of human sexuality in light of the possibility of a substantial commerce in sexually-enabled robots, and concludes with some potentially strategic considerations for those who find themselves involved with their design, production, and/or marketing.
Mon, 15 January 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0121.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: social criteria; building assessment tools; sustainable development; social sustainability
Online: 15 January 2018 (07:55:41 CET)
The social criteria of sustainable development have remained underexplored. Moreover, a large number of green building assessment tool and social sustainability documentations have been developed which, has had a direct impact on social criteria issues, but there seems to be a substantial gap in the study of social criteria in green building assessment tools. In examining the problem facing social sustainability, taking into consideration social sustainability in sustainable development reviews and green building assessment tool towards social aspects. This paper through analysis identified a centripetal conceptual framework composed of seven key components equity, education, participation & control, social cohesion, health & safety, accessibility & satisfaction, and cultural values. The interpretation of the social sustainability in green building assessment tool would impact building practitioners towards implementing social criteria in GBAT. The aim was to identify social categories as well as consider a starting point for the development of an effective social criteria assessment tool for green building.
Mon, 21 January 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0197.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Literary Studies Keywords: post-2003 Iraq; fiction; Iraqi diaspora; sectarianism; secularism; Shīʿism; ethno-religious identity; alterity
Online: 21 January 2019 (08:00:48 CET)
The prerogative to narrate the experience of marginal identities, particularly ethno-religious ones, appeared only in the post-occupation era in Iraqi fiction. Traditionally, secular Iraqi discourse struggled to openly address “sectarianism” due to the prevalent notion that sectarian identities are mutually exclusive and oppositional to national identity. It is distinctly in post-2003 Iraq—more precisely, since the sectarian violence of 2006–2007 began to cut across class, civil society, and urban identities—that works which consciously refuse to depict normative Iraqi identities with their mainstream formulations become noticeable. We witness this development first in the Western diaspora, where Iraqi novels exhibit a fascination with the ethno-religious culture of the Iraqi margins or subalterns and impart a message of pluralistic secularism. This paper investigates the origins of the taboo that proscribed articulations of ethno-religious subjectivities in 20th-century Iraqi fiction, and then culls examples of recent diasporic Iraqi novels in which these subjectivities are encoded and amplified in distinct ways. In the diasporic novel, I argue, modern Iraqi intellectuals attain the conceptual and political distance necessary for contending retrospectively with their formative socialization experiences in Iraq. Through a new medium of marginalization—the diasporic experience of the authors themselves—they are equipped with a newfound desire to unmask subcultures in Iraq and to write more effectively about marginal aspects of Iraqi identity inside and outside the country. These new diasporic writings showcase processes of ethnic and religious socialization in the Iraqi public sphere. The result is deconstruction of mainstream Iraqi identity narratives and instrumentalization of marginal identities in a nonviolent struggle against sectarian violence.
Mon, 19 March 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0159.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Art History & Restoration Keywords: Medea; Argonauts; Etruscan art; Cavatha
Online: 19 March 2018 (11:33:17 CET)
It could be said with some precision, that in Antiquity the myth of the Argonauts and especially of Medea herself as a personage of this myth, has enjoyed popularity not only in Greece but also outside its territories. The first among the Italic tribes to be introduced to the personage of Medea no doubt were the Etruscans, who were the first to establish intensive contacts with the Greeks from Euboea founding a colony in Cumae, Italy. It is noteworthy that the first image of Medea in the World Art is seen on Etruscan ceramics. The paper gives detailed analyses of Etruscan artefacts on which Medea appears, providing a solid precondition for substantive conclusions. Some new versions of an interpretation expressed in relation to each of the artefacts on the basis of critical analysis of Etruscan archeological material, of classical texts and of previously undertaken modern research, are provided. Images of Medea in Etruscan art confirmed from the Orientalist era to the Hellenization period represent an original, local interpretation of Medea's image. Medea's magical art turned out to be familiar to the Etruscans, who were well known all throughout the Mediterranean for divination and being experts of magic. In contrast to the Greeks, they turned Medea into an object of cult worship, identifying her with the Etruscan sun god Cavatha.
Mon, 11 December 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0058.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Linguistics Keywords: speech synthesis; evaluation; hesitation; virtual agents; interaction
Online: 11 December 2017 (07:03:14 CET)
Conversational spoken dialogue systems that interact with the user rather than merely reading text can be equipped with hesitations to manage the dialogue flow and the users' attention. Based on a series of empirical studies, we built an elaborated hesitation synthesis strategy for dialogue systems that inserts hesitations of scalable extent wherever needed in the ongoing utterance. So far, evaluations of hesitating systems have shown that synthesis quality is affected negatively by hesitations, but that there is improvement in interaction quality. We argue that due to its conversational nature, hesitation synthesis needs interactive evaluation rather than traditional MOS-based questionnaires. To prove this point, we dually evaluate our system’s speech synthesis component: on the one hand, linked to the dialogue system evaluation, on the other hand, in the traditional MOS way. This way we are able to analyze and discuss differences that arise due to the evaluation methodology. Our results suggest that MOS scales are not sufficient to assess speech synthesis quality, which has implications for future research that are discussed in this paper. Furthermore, our results indicate that hesitations work well to increase task performance and that an elaborated strategy is necessary to avoid likability issues.
Tue, 12 December 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0071.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Art History & Restoration Keywords: history of architecture; architectural models; architectural media
Online: 12 December 2017 (07:05:09 CET)
Architecture is more than just buildings. Its associated production and reception processes take place through a variety of different media. Among those media, the model is of special significance: because architecture, like almost every science or art, works with models as representationally or theoretically simplified images mediating between the abstract and the reality. The properties that characterise models give them a special significance in architecture—both in the abstract, as well as in the concrete. The following article sketches out the history of the architectural model as a medium in a short tour d’horizon. A special focus is placed on showing the versatility of the model—for design and presentation and as an artefact, teaching resource and research medium. It transmits a specific form of knowledge which can be replaced by no other medium.
Fri, 29 September 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0147.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Philosophy Keywords: history of psychology; humanism; reformation; metaphysics; empirical psychology
Online: 29 September 2017 (03:41:09 CEST)
Subjectivity has always been a part of philosophical speculations. However, Immanuel Kant is mentioned as the main figure to bring in subjectivity in modern philosophy by comparing the Critique of Pure Reason with the Copernican revolution. We might include Descartes as well, and not least the followers of Kant, like Fichte and Hegel. Yet none of these end up with subjectivity as the only premise for thinking, but rather combine it with objectivity. Hence, subjectivity has appeared as a stranger in philosophy and yet not fully accepted. In this paper, I try to pursue the aspect of subjectivity by not looking at philosophy, but rather at psychology. The appearance of the term can be dated back to 1520 when the Croatian humanist Marcus Marulus published the thesis entitled “Psychology, the Nature of the Soul”. This thesis is lost, but by pursuing the appearance of the term, four different movements seem to contribute with and highlight an aspect of subjectivity. One is Humanism, the other is Reformation, the third is a focus on the empirical aspects of science and the fourth is the dissemination of folk culture to academics and aristocracy by means of the art of printing. The finding, therefore, is that psychology is not to be regarded as a discipline that grows out of philosophy, but rather as a discipline that conflicts philosophy, but nevertheless intervenes it and makes it progress.
Tue, 2 January 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0013.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: resilient urban design; smart planning; climate change; resilient regional laws; pleasant public space
Online: 2 January 2018 (12:03:30 CET)
The manuscript wants to investigate the debate on urban resilience and climate change linking theory and practice, describing the possible innovations that concern urban design, urban normative and regional laws developing in different countries. The approach pursued would encourage resilience and flood protection through smart planning and through the architectural and urban project; considering public space as strategic soil where developing the resilient city, using engineering technical climate defence as new space for citizens and communities. Resilience themes are included in all levels of government and in spatial and strategic development policies such as in some project concerning public and private space and in municipal plans; the urban defense structures has to become new pleasant space for the city; these actions will not only contribute to making cities more resilient but will contribute to the creation of a more pleasant and attractive urban environment. The Resilience is the main keyword of some strategic vision of the Netherlands and of Italian laws and the concept is tested in some best practice such as in Rotterdam, in Bordeaux, in London and in the research carried out by "Arquitectos de Cabecera" in Barcelona. Resilience is seen as a new paradigm of smart planning.
Wed, 8 November 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0049.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: spatial perception; Perceived Restorativeness Scale; urban greening; cognitive mapping; environmental restorative effect; perceptual range
Online: 8 November 2017 (03:11:06 CET)
In daily living environments, an individual’s state influences spatial perception. The current study, based on Attention Restoration Theory, aimed to explore differences in the health utility of nature according to individual differences in spatial perception. Cognitive mapping and the Perceived Restorativeness Scale (PRS) were used to assess spatial perception ranges and the restorative effect of the environment. Two spatial perceptual groups were defined: one describing only the internal area of a green space, and another illustrating the external area of this green space on a larger scale. The former had higher overall PRS, Being Away, Fascination, and Compatibility scores. The latter had higher scores only on the Coherence subscale. These results illustrate that frequency of nature visits and time spent traveling to do so differently influence the two groups’ attentional restoration, which has great implications for landscape planning in highly stressful urban environments.
Sat, 14 September 2019
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0143.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Other Keywords: sustainability; consumer behavior; clothing; clothing behavior; environmental sustainability; fashion; textiles; fashion sustainability; clothing sustainability; textile sustainability
Online: 14 September 2019 (19:10:15 CEST)
Consumer, as one of the vital stakeholders of fashion supply chain, has a significant role to play to transition fashion industry into sustainable direction. From purchasing and care practice to donation and disposal, every step of their decision has impact on the environment. Various internal and external variables, including culture, custom, value, belief, norm and assumption, economy, gender, and education etc. influence forming that decision. The result of the decision not only directly impacts he environment and society, but also consumer culture and future business opportunity. This study synthesizes a wide spectrum of consumer behavior related to clothing consumption and associated environmental impact. Building on the synthesis, a holistic discussion is offered which can provide relevant behavioral guideline to consumers as well as other stakeholders.
Mon, 28 January 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0278.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Art History & Restoration Keywords: cultural identity; conservation; cultural landscape; value; Uraman Takh
Online: 28 January 2019 (12:11:03 CET)
Identity is the basis and foundation of the cultural landscape. Despite the emphasis of international documents and charters on its various aspects and necessity, today, the cultural landscape is threatened by extinction due to changes of many parameters. Accordingly, it is crucial to find an approach that can sustain cultural identity and its values in the changing world of the twenty-first century. Given the qualitative and the changing nature of cultural identity, achieving an approach which can lead to its continuation is not straightforward. By reviewing and analyzing international conventions and documents, on the one hand, and expert opinions, on the other hand, the present study, therefore, aimed to find out how the approach of cultural landscape values conservation can lead to the continuation of cultural identity in the natural and cultural heritage of Uraman Takht. This paper employed qualitative research methods as a basis for data collection and analysis, which primarily involved the use of content analysis along with field observations and interviews with stakeholders and indigenous residents.
Fri, 23 March 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0201.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Other Keywords: Finland; Nordic; cultural objects; manuscripts; research ethics; import regulation; export regulation; cultural heritage
Online: 23 March 2018 (15:32:08 CET)
In this article we shed light on the position of Finland in conversations on the movement of unprovenanced cultural objects, within the national, the Nordic and the global contexts. Finland’s geopolitical position, as a ‘hard border’ of the European Union neighbouring the Russian Federation, and its current legislative provisions which do not include import regulation, mean that nonetheless has the potential to be significant in understanding the movement of cultural property at transnational levels. In particular, we outline a recent initiative started at the University of Helsinki to kick-start a national debate on ethical working with cultural object and manuscripts. We analyse exploratory research on current awareness and opinion within Finland, and summarize our current work to produce robust research ethics to guide scholars working in Finland. Although Finland has a small population and is usually absent from international discussions on the illicit movement of cultural property (save a few exceptions), we argue that it is still possible — and important — to affect policy and attitudes concerning art crime, provenance, and the role of stakeholders such as decision-makers, traders and the academy.
Tue, 30 January 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0278.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, General Humanities Keywords: resettlement; psychological risks; development-induced displacement
Online: 30 January 2018 (06:48:20 CET)
In resettlement planning literature, much has been written on economic, land valuation and compensation, infrastructure and services aspects of the land. Psychological risks and stresses of resettled communities, however, have been under-researched. The current research looks at the psychological risks of resettlers in a Development-Induced Displacement and Resettlement (DIDR) project in Sri Lanka. Focusing on the stages of resettlement planning process discussed by Scudder and Colson four-stage model (1980) and the psychological risks discussed by Cernea’s (1990) impoverishment risks and reconstruction (IRR) model. This study evaluates the significant level of the psychological risks faced by the communities in DIDR projects in Sri Lanka relating to before and after resettlement. Moragahakanda Resettlement Project (MRP) was selected as the case study which is located in Naula DS division of Matale District, Central Province, Sri Lanka. A questionnaire survey, documents and field observations were used to evaluate the current psychological risks. The responses received from multiple choice questions were analyzed by Significant Point (SP) index. The research findings point that there are no conspicuous changes of psychological risks related to before/after resettlement has occurred in re-settlers. The findings highlight that the psychological risk levels in transition stage have remained the same level in the potential development stage. This research provides a systematic guidance enabling the physical planners to prioritize the most significant psychological risks which should be considered in the decision-making process of DIDR projects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0281.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Other Keywords: migrants; sense of belonging; small town; stranger; South Sudanese
Online: 30 January 2018 (10:35:53 CET)
Australian regional areas are now receiving significant numbers of migrants from the African continent. Predominantly Anglo-Saxon communities perceive these ‘newcomers’ as physically and culturally different. Asking, however, how African migrants themselves construct relationships with local communities and build a sense of belonging in regional and rural areas is a very different question. This paper explores South Sudanese migrants’experiences conceptualising their sense of belonging in a small county town: Castlemaine, Victoria. Focus group discussions show that even with the welcoming atmosphere and support from the local community, South Sudanese migrants are still attracted to metropolitan environments that have greater diversity, feeling more at home in such settings. Using the theoretical background of a stranger, this paper argues the cities allow strangers be un-noticed letting them feel at ‘home’. Findings from the study show settings with greater diversity encourage negotiating difference openly and easing power imbalances among different groups.Finally, the locality of Castlemaine, within easy commuting distance to metropolitan Melbourne and suburbs, is considered in relation to hypermobility reducing the capacity to construct ‘bridging capital’ within such local communities.
Wed, 4 April 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0057.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Archaeology Keywords: auto-extraction; remote sensing archaeology; tuntian; LATTICs; GF-1; Silk Road; Miran
Online: 4 April 2018 (11:56:47 CEST)
This paper describes the use of the Chinese Gaofen-1 (GF-1) satellite imagery to automatically extract tertiary Linear Archaeological Traces of Tuntian Irrigation Canals (LATTICs) located in the Miran site. The site is adjacent to the ancient Loulan Kingdom at the eastern margin of the Taklimakan Desert in western China. GF-1 data was processed following atmospheric and geometric correction, and spectral analyses were carried out for multispectral data. The low values produced by SSI indicate that it is difficult to distinguish buried tertiary LATTICs from similar backgrounds using spectral signatures. Thus, based on the textual characteristics of high-resolutionGF-1 panchromatic data, this paper proposes an automatic approach that combines joint morphological bottom and hat transformation with a Canny edge operator. The operator was improved by adding stages of geometric filtering and gradient vector direction analysis. Finally, the detected edges of tertiary LATTICs were extracted using the GIS-based draw tool and converted into shapefiles for archaeological mapping within a GIS environment. The proposed automatic approach was verified with an average accuracy of 95.76% for 754 tertiary LATTICs in the entire Miran site and compared with previous manual interpretation results. The results indicate that GF-1 VHR PAN imagery can successfully uncover the ancient tuntian agricultural landscape. Moreover, the proposed method can be generalized and applied to extract linear archaeological traces such as soil and crop marks in other geographic locations.
Thu, 7 December 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0041.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Archaeology Keywords: conceptual model; Evolutionary Determinants of Health; greened city; human evolution; Palaeolithic genome; urban greenspace; urban wellbeing; Western Lifestyle Diseases
Online: 7 December 2017 (07:15:37 CET)
To cope with a projected global population increase from 7.2 bn to 9.6 bn by 2050, many more cities must be built. Although there are great benefits to modern urban living, there also great costs, such as the seemingly unstoppable rise in Type 2 diabetes, obesity, coronary issues and various cancers. The new towns should be designed to contain or constrain the epidemic of those ‘Western Lifestyle Diseases’ that currently plagues today’s cities. But how might this be achieved? It is suggested here that a greater understanding of human evolution combined with the potency of the ‘Palaeolithic genome’ holds the key to our future urban wellbeing. Consequently, a new paradigm is suggested that underpins positive forward thinking on townplanning and city lifestyles to create healthier urban environments. This builds directly on the ‘Evolutionary Determinants of Health’ programme initiated at University College London (UCL). A four-stage model is proposed that integrates and develops both evolutionary-concordant personal and institutional health behaviours with appropriately reconfigured town-planning and building regulations. When integrated, these strands could deliver a healthier urban culture within greened, active townscapes by proactively constraining or eliminating some of the key underlying causes of the so-called ‘Western Lifestyle Diseases’.
Thu, 1 February 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0282.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: environmental cues; fear of crime spots; sense of safety; social cues
Online: 1 February 2018 (07:59:02 CET)
Streets are primary elements through which the character of urban neighborhoods are experienced and expressed. The “sense of safety” in neighborhood streets is paramount to social and psychological wellbeing of its residents and visitors. The intention of this study was to explore environmental and social cues of a neighborhood, which evoke fear of crime, which will help designers to prevent the generation of such negative feelings and promote more safe and comfortable spaces in our cities. This study used interviews, group discussions and observations to identify fear-generating factors with a sample of participants in the multi ethnic neighborhood of Kotahena in Colombo, Sri Lanka. Field data was analyzed through visual documentation and photographic surveys. Moreover, group discussions, interviews and personal observations were used to synergize the study objectives. The findings inform that fear of crime on streets is influenced by both environmental and social cues to varying degrees. Feelings of fear were associated with gender, ethnicity and less familiarity with the place as participants were from an ethnic minority within the community. Literature has emphasized that fear of crime has a connection to actual crime locations. The research findings, however, indicate that fear of crime spots identified by the residents do not have a direct relationship to the actual crime locations.
Sun, 10 November 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0111.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Philosophy Keywords: predictive brain; modularity of the mind; cognitive function; functional segregation
Online: 10 November 2019 (13:40:28 CET)
Modularity is arguably one of the most influential theses guiding research on brain and cognitive function since phrenology. This paper considers the following question: is modularity entailed by recent Bayesian models of brain and cognitive function, especially the predictive processing framework? It starts by considering three of the most well-articulated arguments for the view that modularity and predictive processing work well together. It argues that all three kinds of arguments for modularity come up short, albeit for different reasons. The analysis in this paper, although formulated in the context of predictive processing, speaks to broader issues with how to understand the relationship between functional segregation and integration and the reciprocal architecture of the predictive brain. These conclusions have implications for how to study brain and cognitive function. Specifically, when cognitive neuroscience works within an acyclic Markov decision scheme, adopted by most Bayesian models of brain and cognitive function, it may very well be methodologically misguided. This speaks to an increasing tendency within the cognitive neurosciences to emphasise recurrent and reciprocal neuronal processing captured within newly emerging dynamical causal modelling frameworks. The conclusions also suggest that functional integration is an organising principle of brain and cognitive function.
Tue, 17 July 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0310.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Archaeology Keywords: Atlantis; Obsidian; Pantelleria; Strait of Sicily; Plato
Online: 17 July 2018 (12:01:43 CEST)
The legend of Atlantis was almost certainly invented by Plato to promote the political ideal of his masterwork The Republic, while praising the heroism of his own ancestors. This paper suggests that, in assembling the story, Plato might have reworked the myth of the foundation of Egypt, attributed to divine invaders bringing agriculture and unknown technologies to the country. The key issue explored is the curious coincidence between the period of the alleged foundation of Egypt (according to traditional Egyptian sources) and some remarkable events that characterized the end of the Ice Age. Indeed, besides the sudden increase in temperature and the consequent rise in sea level, the period was also marked by the birth of agriculture and the appearance of totally new technologies in diverse Middle Eastern locations. The memory of these events would have been handed down through the myth of the foundation of Egypt and, through this, to Greek culture, enabling Plato to exaggerate the antiquity of his noble ancestors while embellishing the characteristics of the invaders. Such occasional technological leaps may also have occurred elsewhere in the world, for instance on the deltas of the Indus or the Yangtze, driven by the same change in climate that affected the whole planet. Although today there is no archaeological evidence of such events besides in the Middle East, the article suggests that the possible discovery of obsidian in a submerged site would be a strong indication of a local technological leap. To this end it examines, amongst suspected Mediterranean sites, some flooded islands in the Strait of Sicily, which, lying on the route to Pantelleria, may retain traces of ancient obsidian exploitation.
Mon, 14 May 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0183.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, General Humanities Keywords: death; bodies; human rights; burial; ethics; tourism; heritage; culture; memory
Online: 14 May 2018 (05:32:40 CEST)
In The Work of the Dead: A Cultural History of Mortal Remains, Thomas Laqueur argues that the work of the dead is carried out through the living and through those who remember, honour, and mourn the dead. Further, he maintains that the brutal or careless disposal of the corpse “is an attack of extreme violence”. To treat the dead body as if it does not matter or as if it were ordinary organic matter would be to deny its humanity. From Laqueur’s point of view it is inferred that the dead are believed to have rights and dignities that are upheld through rituals, practices, and beliefs of the living. Drawing on dark tourism scholarship and cultural memory theory, this paper examines the display of human bones at Sedlec Ossuary, Czech Republic and the tourist culture that has built up around the site. Primarily, my writing calls into question the commoditization of burial places as a conceivable violation of the human rights of the dead. My research is driven by a number of questions: What is it that draws tourists to burial grounds and how do heritage sites negotiate visitor experiences? What are the ethical boundaries when a final resting place with bodies on display is also marketed as a tourist site? Do the dead have human rights and how are the living responsible for preserving those rights?
Mon, 15 January 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0059.v2
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Religious Studies Keywords: multi-faith spaces; secularisation; multi-faith paradigm; unaffiliated; multi-belief
Online: 15 January 2018 (08:24:56 CET)
Multi-Faith Spaces (MFS) are a relatively recent invention that quickly gained in significance. On the one hand, they offer a convenient solution for satisfying needs of people with diverse beliefs in the institutional context of hospitals, schools, airports, etc. On the other hand, as Andrew Crompton pointed out, they are politically significant because the multi-faith paradigm “is replacing Christianity as the face of public religion in Europe” (2012, p. 493). Due to their ideological entanglement, MFS are often used as the means to promote either a more privatised version of religion, or a certain denominational preference. Two distinct designs are used to achieve these means: negative in the case of the former, and positive in the latter. Neither is without problems, and neither adequately fulfils its primary purpose of serving diverse groups of believers. Both, however, seem to follow the biases and main problems of secularism. In this paper, I analyse recent developments of MFS to detail their main problems and answer the question, whether the MFS, and the underlying Multi-Faith Paradigm, can be classified as a continuation of secularism.
Sat, 30 November 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0380.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Linguistics Keywords: TESOL; English teaching; ESL; EFL; teaching methodology research interests
Online: 30 November 2019 (04:41:57 CET)
This paper provides a systematic review of the research around teaching English as a second or foreign language over the last ten years. The review aims to help second and foreign language researchers to recognize the trends that have impacted English teaching and learning research. More than 400 articles from four leading journals (TESOL Journal, TESOL Quarterly, ELT Journal, and Second Language Research) were reviewed to examine the trends and method that were used. The findings suggested that the research interests in the TESOL field have changed as many topics and trends have risen based on students’ academic and social needs. Topics such as teaching methodology, digital literacy, and using technology to teach English have dominated the research during the last decade.
Thu, 25 April 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0274.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Linguistics Keywords: computer-aided translation; machine translation; speech translation; translation memory-machine translation integration; user interface; domain-adaptation; human-computer interface
Online: 25 April 2019 (07:59:18 CEST)
When using computer-aided translation systems in a typical, professional translation workflow, there are several stages at which there is room for improvement. The SCATE (Smart Computer-Aided Translation Environment) project investigated several of these aspects, both from a human-computer interaction point of view, as well as from a purely technological side. This paper describes the SCATE research with respect to improved fuzzy matching, parallel treebanks, the integration of translation memories with machine translation, quality estimation, terminology extraction from comparable texts, the use of speech recognition in the translation process, and human computer interaction and interface design for the professional translation environment. For each of these topics, we describe the experiments we performed and the conclusions drawn, providing an overview of the highlights of the entire SCATE project.
Fri, 11 October 2019
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Philosophy Keywords: evo-devo; individuality; novelty; pregnancy; reproduction; transition
Online: 11 October 2019 (05:38:00 CEST)
The question of how to conceive of the relation between the pregnant female and the embryo has become a recent focus of debate in the philosophical literature. Here we consider this problem in the context of current debates on individuality in the philosophy of biology by looking at how pregnancy is individuated in different disciplinary contexts. Firstly, we review different notions of biological individuality in the literature, examine how each of them applies to the case of pregnancy, and claim that recent work on the evolution of eutherian reproduction offers insights for new criteria for rethinking the individuality of pregnancy. Then, we reconstruct the main assumptions underlying the established biological account of pregnancy. Finally, we develop an alternative account based on the hypothesis that pregnancy is an evolved relational novelty and maintain that pregnant females are conceived as historical reproductive individuals. In the final section before the conclusions, we discuss how the historical reproductive biological individuality of pregnancy differs from, and coexists with, other views of individuality, and examine some of its consequences.
Fri, 1 June 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0008.v1
Online: 1 June 2018 (08:09:03 CEST)
The article examines church architecture in modern Russia. The historical processes of the development of church architecture are analyzed and systematized not only from the point of view of formal stylistic but also global significance. For this purpose, for the first time, a wide range of sources containing information on the sacred component of church art and on the monuments of temple architecture was studied. At the same time, many fragments of sources were first translated into English. The article uses historical and retrospective research methods that allowed to study the theoretical legacy of the modern period in the history of Russia and at the same time to generalize the place of Russian church architecture in the general context of European architectural development.
Mon, 7 May 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0101.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Other Keywords: E raining; digital learning objects; electronic assessment; tablets; smartphones
Online: 7 May 2018 (06:09:24 CEST)
This research assess the effects of training program based on the usage of the digital learning objects in teaching practice at the Northern Borders University staff. E Assessment through the tablets and smart phones and the teachers’ attitudes towards such way of evaluation is the major objective of this study as the researcher expects that the assessment mechanism in the university through utilization of tablets and smart phones and its application will inevitably bring in a systematic improvement in the assessment and evaluation process of the curricula. Moreover, making use of the e learning objects in training will make a significant change in e training program of the university. Hence, the researcher has chosen voluntary random samples from the university teaching staff (men\women) from various different faculties (medicine, medical sciences, science, education and arts, business administration, home economics, and science and literature). These samples included 300 members of the teaching staff. In a group of 20 to 25 members, a personal training was conducted regarding the usage of tablets and smart phones and its applications in the assessment process. Each group participated by producing a complete e-assessment for their students in the Northern Borders University and by the e learning system i.e. Blackboard and Question Mark. The research also depends on the semi-experimental design of multiple groups and on testing the groups’ pre and post achievement tests. In addition, the research identifies the level of the university teaching staff in using the tablets and the smartphones and its applications in the assessment process by the note card that the individuals have during the test.
Fri, 12 October 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0265.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Religious Studies Keywords: inclusion; worldview education; universal design for learning; learning in the presence of the other; reflexive inclusion
Online: 12 October 2018 (11:25:02 CEST)
In the context of the increasing migration into Germany that has taken place in recent years and German efforts to establish an inclusive school system, which enables learners from different religious, ethnic, language and social backgrounds with and without disabilities to participate, religious education has become a key topic for interdisciplinary discourse between theology, philosophy, and pedagogy in German schools. The following questions are of special interest: How can we manage diversity in inclusive classroom settings in general, and specifically: how can we do so with regard to worldview diversity? Does worldview diversity in schools exist, and if so, how can we recognize it in its plurality and complexity? How can we acknowledge different worldviews in the context of a changing inclusive school system? In this article, we would like to present the theoretical foundation, the research setting and the first findings of our ongoing pilot studies of worldview education at an inclusive German school. The experiments are part of a larger project context that is also described. The case study presented in this article, in which innovative language and machine learning technology was used for data analysis, illustrates the potential of inclusive methods and didactic concepts such as Universal Design for Learning , Learning in the Presence of the Other [2,3] and Reflexive Inclusion  for inclusive worldview education in the context of a religiously pluralized and secularized society.
Sun, 8 April 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0093.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: community building; quality of life; built form typology; front-yard; physical accessibility; visual permeability; human behaviour
Online: 8 April 2018 (11:29:30 CEST)
The residential built form, including open space, provides the physical environment for social interaction. Understanding urban open space, including semi-public and public domains, through the lens of physical accessibility and visual permeability can potentially facilitate the building of a sense of community contributing to a better quality of life. Using an inner-city suburb in Perth, Western Australia as a case study, this research explores the importance of physical accessibility patterns and visual permeability for socialising in semi-public and public domains, such as the front yard and the residential streets. It argues that maintaining a balance between public and private inter-relationship in inner city residential neighbourhoods is important for creating and maintaining a sense of community.
Tue, 3 July 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0035.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Media Studies Keywords: choice poetics; poetics; narrative games; choices; player goals; roleplay; complicity
Online: 3 July 2018 (10:41:24 CEST)
Choice poetics is a formalist framework that seeks to capture the impacts choices have on player experiences within narrative games. Developed in part to support algorithmic generation of narrative choices, the theory includes a detailed analytical framework for understanding the impressions choice structures make by analyzing the relationships between options, outcomes, and player goals. The theory also emphasizes the need to account for players’ various modes of engagement, which vary both during play and between players. In this work, we illustrate the non-computational application of choice poetics to the analysis of three different choices, in order to further develop the theory and make it more accessible to others. We focus first on analyzing so-called false choices in the game “Mass Effect”, and show how they actually provide meaningfully different outcomes for players who are utilizing certain modes of engagement. Second, we use choice poetics to examine the central repeated choice in “Undertale”, and show how it can be used to contrast two different player types that will approach a choice differently. Finally, we give an example of fine-grained analysis using a choice from the game “Papers Please”, which breaks down options and their outcomes to illustrate how the choice pushes players towards complicity via the introduction of uncertainty. Through all of these examples, we hope to show the usefulness of choice poetics as a framework for understanding narrative choices, and to demonstrate concretely how one could productively apply it to choices ‘in the wild’.
Mon, 16 April 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0173.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: renaissance; architecture; duomo; Leonardo; Bramante
Online: 16 April 2018 (05:15:25 CEST)
Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) is considered one of the greatest geniuses of the Renaissance. His studies developed advanced ideas for his time, even in its most unknown aspects, such as: architecture, urban planning and restoration. He never studied formally, but he learned everything due to his method of observation, the study of other treatises and especially the group of artists with whom he collaborated. After the study of its codices a great interest and knowledge is detected, related to the design, the structural calculation, the materials and the constructive systems, in such a way that their proposals influenced the architecture of the Renaissance, through the work of other authors of your time. The purpose of this article is to make a critical analysis of its excellent architectural proposal in the cupola of the Duomo of Milan and the reasons why it was not carried out under its name. This proposal is included within a discipline in which it has never been recognized as such, but which demonstrated the same qualities as in other fields where it is recognized prestigiously.
Thu, 19 July 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0363.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Theory Of Art Keywords: art-making; experience; phenomenology; feeling; intention; lifeworld; cognitive dualism
Online: 19 July 2018 (14:57:28 CEST)
In considering the question of machine as artist, the art object can be analytically separated from its making, and its making can be dualistically conceptualized as process on one hand and experience on the other. One of the reasons we value art is that there was an experience of its making. To better understand what is meant by the experience of art-making, this paper presents results from a qualitative, phenomenological study of a group of artists. These results appear in three groups: feeling, intention and lifeworld. Machines cannot experience art-making, at least not in the same way as humans, and thus they cannot create art but only art-like objects. Even so, in the present century, we should not be asking whether machines can be artists, but rather how machines can help more people experience art-making for themselves.
Thu, 20 September 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0403.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Philosophy Keywords: philosophy; epistemology; empirio-criticism; neuroscience; brain
Online: 20 September 2018 (08:04:55 CEST)
The French-Swiss Professor in inductive philosophy Richard Avenarius (1843-1896), the father of empirio-criticism together with Ernst Mach, is one of the most underrated and misunderstood philosophers ever. It mostly depends upon his terminology, which displays an insurmountable difficulty. However, influenced by the most innovative proposals of his times of transition between the idealistic/rationalist legacies and the new Materialism/scientific interpretation of reality – i.e, by cultural evolutionism, linguistics, biomechanics, entropy/energy and, above all, by the newborn experimental psychology-, he produced a complete system of philosophy and innovative methods of investigation of the laws of knowledge. Hints (chunk, scrap, fragments) of his original ideas can be found not only in philosophers of mind after him - such as Gestalt, phenomenalism, behaviourism, functionalism and cybernetics, autopoiesis, dynamical systems theory, embedded/embodied mind, free-energy principle of the brain – but also in recent neuroscientific theories – nervous transduction, electric spikes, cracking of neural code, multisensory integration -. Our aim is to provide the first chronological English summary of his masterpiece, the “Kritik”, to give the possibility to the (almost) totally unaware English speakers to appreciate such a neglected and innovative thinker.
Wed, 2 October 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0030.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Other Keywords: Pakistan; Rahim Yar Khan; female employment; gender discrimination
Online: 2 October 2019 (10:52:18 CEST)
As a traditional Muslim country, the problem of gender discrimination in employment among women in Pakistan is more common. If we let it develop without taking measures, it will seriously restrict the speed and quality of Pakistan’s domestic economic development in the long run. In this study, the author obtained the first-hand information on the employment status of professional women in the Rahim Yar Khan region of Pakistan through questionnaire survey, supplemented by the public data of the Federal Statistical Office of Pakistan, and combined with the existing research results of the predecessors. Sex discrimination in employment of professional women in Pakistan. Through the collection of the data obtained from the questionnaire, the author found that economic factors are one of the main factors that cause local women to encounter gender discrimination in employment. Specifically, it includes the imbalance of labor supply and demand and the pursuit of maximum profits. At the same time, the traditional Muslim culture, women's own literacy and the imperfect legal system in Pakistan are also the key factors that cause female employees in the local area to encounter gender discrimination in employment. Women’s gender discrimination in employment is a universal problem. In any country in the world, gender discrimination may exist as long as women are involved in the work. Based on Pakistan's basic national conditions and relevant professional knowledge, the author provides several suggestions for eliminating the problem of gender discrimination in employment for local female employees in Pakistan. 1) The Pakistani government should further promote the domestic economic growth, increase the number of jobs, and ease the imbalance between the supply and demand of labor. At the same time, encourage self-employment and provide corresponding policy support. A variety of measures are also intended to address local gender discrimination in employment for women. 2) The government's leadership accelerates the transformation of the concept of the whole society. On the one hand, it requires the whole society to correctly understand the social status and social contribution of women, and strives to bring the concept of equality between men and women into the hearts of the people. It is intended to encourage qualified women to go out of the family to participate in social work. At the same time, correctly guide corporate values. Enterprises should not unilaterally pursue the maximization of interests, and should take the initiative to assume social responsibilities. 3) Women should also actively and consciously improve their literacy. Including not only active learning advanced cultural knowledge and professional skills. For the professional skills that have already been mastered, you must study harder and make yourself more and more progressive. At the same time, families should guarantee that girls of the appropriate age receive the education they deserve, so that they can gather their strengths in the workplace in the future.
Sun, 8 April 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0088.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, History Keywords: historical dataset; geocoding; localisation; geohistorical objects; database; GIS; collaborative; citizen science; crowd-sourced; digital humanities
Online: 8 April 2018 (09:13:10 CEST)
The latest developments in digital humanities have increasingly enabled the construction of large data sets which can easily be accessed and used. These data sets often contain indirect localisation information, such as historical addresses. Historical geocoding is the process of transforming the indirect localisation information to direct localisation that can be placed on a map, which enables spatial analysis and cross-referencing. Many efficient geocoders exist for current addresses, but they do not deal with temporal information and are usually based on a strict hierarchy (country, city, street, house number, etc.) that is hard, if not impossible, to use with historical data. Indeed, historical data are full of uncertainties (temporal, textual, positional accuracy, confidence in historical sources) that can not be ignored or entirely resolved. We propose an open source, open data, extensible solution for geocoding that is based on gazetteers composed of geohistorical objects extracted from historical topographical maps. Once the gazetteers are available, geocoding an historical address is a matter of finding the geohistorical object in the gazetteers that is the best match to the historical address searched by the user. The matching criteria are customisable and include several dimensions (fuzzy string, fuzzy temporal, level of detail, positional accuracy). As the goal is to facilitate historical work, we also propose web-based user interfaces that help geocode (one address or batch mode) and display over current or historical topographical maps, so that geocoding results can be checked and collaboratively edited. The system has been tested on the city of Paris, France, for the 19th and the 20th centuries. It shows high response rates and is fast enough to be used interactively.
Thu, 8 November 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0213.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Philosophy Keywords: Quantum field theory, Quantum gravity, Causality, Unitarity, Fakeons, Quantization, Correspondence principle, Philosophy, Philosophy of science
Online: 8 November 2018 (11:52:55 CET)
We discuss the fate of the correspondence principle beyond quantum mechanics, specifically in quantum field theory and quantum gravity, in connection with the intrinsic limitations of the human ability to observe the external world. We conclude that the best correspondence principle is made of unitarity, locality, proper renormalizability (a refinement of strict renormalizability), combined with fundamental local symmetries and the requirement of having a finite number of fields. Quantum gravity is identified in an essentially unique way. The gauge interactions are uniquely identified in form. Instead, the matter sector remains basically unrestricted. The major prediction is the violation of causality at small distances.
Tue, 3 July 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0047.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Art History & Restoration Keywords: Mudejar, Mexico, Antonio de Mendoza, Guilds, Carpentry.
Online: 3 July 2018 (12:30:33 CEST)
This article aims to approach the Mudejar architecture developed in Mexico during the 16th and 17th centuries. The subject has been little studied although both general and specific contributions have been made by the author’s research group. At the methodological level, this study is based on the existing bibliography as well as archive and field research which allow an accurate scientific approach and results. The article analyses the social and productive conditions in Mexico during the Viceregal period along with the systematization carried by the Viceroy Antonio de Mendoza, the guild ordinances and the architectural typologies. The perception of territory and the use of constructive models by the Viceregal authorities would justify the use of the Mudejar style as cultural and unity criteria
Tue, 15 May 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0208.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Religious Studies Keywords: Nondual Kashmir Śaivism; apoha; information theory; structuralism; pragmatic semiotics
Online: 15 May 2018 (07:51:35 CEST)
This paper builds upon my earlier studies, in interpreting interculturally how the Kashmiri nondual Śaiva thinkers, Upaladeva (c. 900-950 CE) and Abhinavagupta (c. 950-1020 CE), in their Pratyabhijñā philosophical theology respond to and reinterpret the Buddhist semantic theory of reference as the exclusion of the inapplicable (anyāpoha). It engages the issues in the Pratyabhijñā debate with the Buddhists, with the interrelations of Claude Shannon and Warren Weaver’s theory of Information, de Saussurean structuralist semiotics and Peircean pragmatic semiotics.
Tue, 5 June 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0068.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: sustainability; urban planning; parametric model; informal settlements; GIS
Online: 5 June 2018 (12:56:11 CEST)
The non-existence of a land ownership database in most of the developing countries moves the inhabitants to the occupation of public lands. Some of this situation are the origin to areas of informal housing, commerce and agriculture and in the end into new informal settlements. Informal settlements become a serious problem in developing countries. The most common typology of informal settlements is that they are the population settled in public lands without any infrastructures and against the administrator's will. Thought this action the result in an uncontrolled land occupation process that promotes new informal areas without any proper built-up utilities, located in risk areas on the territory, barely ensuring the minimum requirements for a heaty living of the population and in various cases incentives to an informal economy. The process of build a cadastral map in informal settlement areas is a fundamental base to support the future transformation of illegal areas and to regulate the occupation of new subdivision planning and into the creation of new expansion areas. In this paper, it is presented a methodology developed to be applied to support a new register of land and to management. The transformation of informal settlement areas. The model to register the land tenure has been associated with allows the process application to multiple typology of informal settlements. The model to register land tenure has developed on a series of qualitative and quantitative data that determine the identification and classification of the buildings and its physical and functional description. The model was developed using Geographic Information System and with an initial survey of existing land titles of possession and public proposals to develop new expansion areas. A case study of the method is presented, where the land management model was implemented - Chã da Caldeiras in Ilha do Fogo an informal settlement in Cape Verde. The results are a great acceptance of the proposal by the population and local authorities and the starting of the implementation phase.
Wed, 4 April 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0050.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: Chinese architecture; standardization; environmental architecture; Beijing urban layout
Online: 4 April 2018 (06:20:50 CEST)
A correlation between Chinese traditional architecture and cultural concepts has been established to analyze the formalization of architectural and urban patterns in relation to environmental features. In this regard, we have discussed the process of standardization from architectural elements or modules related in different levels of composition and articulated around empty spaces following ancient cosmic concepts to achieve harmony with nature. The conclusions show that Chinese architectural patterns can only be understood in relation to nature, and in turn have profound environmental values from which lessons can be learned to advance towards a more sustainable architecture.
Thu, 3 October 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0036.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: housing; Santiago de Chile; internal rate of return; net present value; affordability; profitability index
Online: 3 October 2019 (04:26:56 CEST)
Chile faces a serious crisis on housing affordability given that most of the population is unable to secure a house. While housing prices between 2008 increased by 70.96%, wages only increased by 20.43%. This article presents the analysis of the housing prices configuration for the main district in the country: Santiago Centro. The assessment focuses on verticalised housing buildings constructed between 2015 and 2019. The article develops an exploratory study on the price of housing in the city of Santiago de Chile, to generate a diagnosis to identify the role played by expectations of profitability when configuring that price. Based on the information generated, we seek to contribute to the discussion on public policies that advance towards the development of affordable housing for households in central communes with high urban value, as is the case of Santiago Centro. We hypothesize that profitability expectations of real estate developers play a key role in the housing prices and an adjustment in the profit ratios may increase the affordability keeping the housing market over profitable rates. The research is relevant due to the lack of data transparency in the Chilean housing market, where access to investment costs, land values, yields and house price formation are not part of the public discussion, even though this implies that many households are facing severe difficulties in paying for access to decent housing.
Wed, 2 May 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0030.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: green building; risk management; risk factors, risk mitigation measures; architect
Online: 2 May 2018 (16:55:58 CEST)
The number of green buildings has increased to address the global environmental crisis. However, green buildings face risks resulting from new materials and methods. In addition, these buildings are expected to perform at higher levels than traditional ones. The objectives of this study are to identify the possible risk factors for architects developing green building projects in South Korea and to assess risk mitigation measures. To attain this goal, fourteen risk factors and twelve mitigation measures were identified from a comprehensive literature review. A questionnaire survey was administered to architects practicing green building design. Findings revealed the ‘adoption of new technology and processes’ was the largest difference between green and traditional building projects. This study identified ‘financial risk,’ ‘design changes,’ and ‘client’s goal uncertainty’ as the top three risk factors in green building design. Additionally, the survey proposed the four most effective risk mitigation measures for green building projects: (1) ‘contract indicating each party’s roles, liabilities and limitations clearly’; (2) ‘utilizing integrated design process’; (3) ‘understanding client’s goal in green building projects’; and (4) ‘improving communication and coordination among stakeholders.’ There are a few studies focusing on the architects’ perceived risk concerning green building projects; however, this study expands the knowledge and fills the literature gap. Additionally, this study provides a comprehensive understanding of critical risks and mitigation measures that can benefit South Korea’s green building design practice through better risk management.
Mon, 8 January 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0059.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Religious Studies Keywords: multi-faith spaces; secularisation; multi-faith paradigm; unaffiliated; multi-belief
Online: 8 January 2018 (09:56:57 CET)
The Multi-Faith Spaces (MFS) are a relatively new invention, and yet they quickly gained in significance. On one hand, they are a convenient solution for satisfying needs of people having diverse beliefs in the institutional context of places such as hospitals, schools, airports and the like. On the other hand, as Andrew Crompton pointed out, they are politically significant because the multi-faith paradigm “is replacing Christianity as the face of public religion in Europe” as successor of secularism (2012, p. 493). Due to their ideological entanglement, however, they are often used as the means to promote either a more privatised version of religion, or a certain denominational preference. Two diverse kinds of design are used to achieve these means: negative in the case of the former, and positive for the latter. Neither is without problems, and neither adequately fulfils their primary purpose of serving diverse groups of believers. Both, however, seem to follow the biases and main problems of secularism. In this paper, I analyse recent developments of the MFS to detail their main problems and answer the question, whether the MFS, and the underlying Multi-Faith Paradigm, can be classified as a continuation of secularism.
Wed, 13 June 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0222.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: Funerary Art, Social Identities and Stratification, Torajan Communities, Indonesia.
Online: 13 June 2018 (16:52:48 CEST)
Since very few empirical endeavors have looked into statue and funerary art that represents social identities, this study aims to fill this gap. The research article aims to portray social status from the funeral arts, traditions and rituals. This longitudinal case study used interviews and a series of observations. The finding reveals that each funerary art represents particular class of noble families. Every funerary art also depicts specific insightful meaning for their noble families. The process of ritual and funeral ceremony is performed according to each status of noble families. This paper also describes the implication of the funerary art in social and cultural interactions.
Fri, 8 June 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0143.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Philosophy Keywords: induction; naturalism; evidence and justification; epistemic norms; induction and concept formation; induction and discovery of laws
Online: 8 June 2018 (16:24:17 CEST)
Epistemological naturalism dismisses the notion that epistemology is a basis for the empirical sciences. In particular, it rejects the demand for a general justification of induction. Making inductive generalisations is a basic habit among humans. There is no such thing as a logic of inductive inference. The role of induction in science is heuristic; it is our way of inventing new theoretical predicates and developing theories. We discover new laws by applying inductive thinking; but this is not any kind of inference which can be evaluated as more or less rational.
Fri, 30 November 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0635.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Philosophy Keywords: justice, fascism, Nazi, Gnosticism, power, ethics, will
Online: 30 November 2018 (15:49:55 CET)
To show that underlying Schmitt's account of fascist politics lies a Gnostic-like metaphysical dualism separating the realms of value and power. Contrary to the normative political tradition of the West, which defends an ethical politics, Schmitt - jurist and theorist of the Nazis - aligns himself with Machiavelli and Hobbes to defend realpolitik: where sovereignty is ultimately a function of the Dictator's will alone. This paper shows the contradiction within such a position, which criticizes values in politics but by its advocacy, and its defense of the Dictator's willing, relies on valuation, choice, and hence the ethical.
Mon, 25 June 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0372.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: delta project; university living lab; ecological corridor
Online: 25 June 2018 (07:59:08 CEST)
The University of Guayaquil, which shares the same name as the city where it is located, faces the challenge of transforming its image for the XXI century. It was deemed necessary to identify details about the urban evolution of the historic link with the city, in relation to the changes produced by the project’s siting and its direct area of influence. The goal is to integrate the main university campus within a framework which guarantees sustainability and allows innovation in the living lab. To achieve this, the action research method was applied, focused on participation and the logic framework. For the diagnosis, proposal, and management model, integrated working groups were organized with internal users such as professors, students, and university authorities, and external actors such as residents, the local business community, Guayaquil city council, and the Governorate of Guayas. As result of the diagnosis, six different analysis dimensions were established which correspond to the new urban agenda for the future campus: compactness, inclusiveness, resilience, sustainability, safety and participation. As a proposal, the urban design integrates the analysis dimensions whose financing and execution are given by the Town Hall, at the same time the Governorate integrates the campus with its network of community police headquarters.
Mon, 8 July 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0110.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Philosophy Keywords: causality; deep learning; machine learning; counterfactual; explainable AI; blended cognition; mechanisms; system
Online: 8 July 2019 (08:10:29 CEST)
Causality is the most important topic in the history of Western Science, and since the beginning of the statistical paradigm, it meaning has been reconceptualized many times. Causality entered into the realm of multi-causal and statistical scenarios some centuries ago. Despite of widespread critics, today Deep Learning and Machine Learning advances are not weakening causality but are creating a new way of finding indirect factors correlations. This process makes possible us to talk about approximate causality, as well as about a situated causality.
Mon, 3 June 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0016.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Other Keywords: 15th-century illuminated manuscripts; smalt; bismuth ink; non-invasive analyses; Raman spectroscopy; XRF mapping; UV-vis-NIR reflectance spectroscopy
Online: 3 June 2019 (10:04:02 CEST)
This paper discusses a cross-disciplinary, international collaboration aimed at researching a series of 15th century choir books at the abbey of San Giorgio Maggiore on the homonymous island in Venice. Produced for the abbey itself, the books have never left the island during their 500-years history, thereby allowing a unique opportunity to analyse historic artefacts, which have undergone little modification over time. Prompted by ongoing cataloguing work on the manuscripts, a week-long analytical campaign using a combination of non-invasive analytical methods used in portable configuration allowed the comprehensive characterisation of ten volumes. The manuscripts’ palette and painting techniques were analysed using near-infrared imaging, reflectance spectroscopy in the UV-vis-NIR range, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence mapping and digital microscopy. The paper will discuss the challenges linked to the fragility and the large dimensions of the volumes as well as the most interesting results of the investigation. These include the detection of unusual painting materials such as bismuth ink, as well as the discovery of a less homogeneous palette than originally expected, which prompted a partial revision of the attribution of the decoration in one of the volumes to a single artist.
Wed, 4 July 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0074.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Religious Studies Keywords: Islamic Education; Pesantren; Indonesia; madrasah; moderate Islam
Online: 4 July 2018 (14:36:35 CEST)
Muslim school is an important element of education in Indonesia. The school has been in place long time before Indonesia’s independence in 1945. The school educates Indonesian Muslim children to understand and practice religion, and simultaneously, promotes the sense of nationalism. Thanks to Muslim schools, Indonesian Muslims are recognized as being moderate (Hefner, 2000). In the last few years, however, the moderate nature of Indonesian Islam is challenged by the spirit of conservative Islam (Van Bruinessen, 2013). Issues such as Islam and democracy, Islam and modern state, Muslim and non-Muslim relation, and rights of citizen that have been resolved and agreed upon are being reinstated. As Hefner (2007) argues that there is a relationship between politics and education, especially religious education, it is important to see the relationship between schools and the changing society. The question is how the current conservative trend in Indonesian Islam is occurring at schools. This paper explores how the curriculum of (Islamic) religious education potentially contribute toward the development of Indonesian conservative Islam, and how religious education teachers view sensitive issues concerning conservative Islam. To answer the questions, analysis of religious education’s curricula and interviewing experts serve as the primary method of data collection. Four religious education teachers from different provinces of Indonesia were interviewed to reveal their opinions on various religion-related issues. This paper discusses how Islamic education in Indonesia has been designed to present moderate Islam, but at the same time faces a number of challenges that try to turn religious education into a conservative one.
Thu, 5 July 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0098.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, General Humanities Keywords: Historic urban landscapes; Weberian administration; tactical urban planning; buffer zones.
Online: 5 July 2018 (15:10:03 CEST)
In this article, a critical reflection is made that involves questioning the notion of historic urban landscapes profiled in the Memorandum of Vienna (UNESCO, 2005) and the Paris Recommendation (UNESCO, 2011) as a conceptual paradigm on which to base urban conservation in the 21st century. Its limited methodological development and the assumption of change as an inherent part of the urban condition constitutes the source of many of the problems and difficulties posed by management and protection of contemporary cities, since there is no consensus as to what the acceptable limits of change should be in historic urban landscapes - difficulties that become ever more apparent, given the background of Weberian administrative doctrines present in current governance models. Likewise, the concept of Buffer Zones as a landscape management tool is analyzed, with the aim of establishing new methodological proposals that enable spatial organization to be regulated by defining areas of harmonization that are made up of flexible and multifunctional spaces for cooperation where territorial scale comes into contact with modernization of the historical fabric.
Mon, 12 November 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0193.v2
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Linguistics Keywords: translation equivalence (TE); translation equivalents (TEs); vocabulary knowledge; receptive vocabulary; word learnability
Online: 12 November 2018 (05:29:18 CET)
One of the most pivotal challenges that learners may face, during foreign language learning, is building a reliable lexicon. Insufficient vocabulary knowledge may put serious obstacles in the foreign language learning process. Thus, students need to equip themselves with different strategies to cope with these difficulties. Translation equivalence (TE) is one of these strategies. Since the success or failure of any vocabulary learning strategy depends on two main factors: developing the learners’ vocabulary knowledge and the extent of difficulty or ease with which the learner acquires new words, this research aims at investigating the impact of this strategy on EFL learners’ vocabulary knowledge and word learnability. 258 Tunisian 9th graders participated in this project. Two vocabulary recognition tests, one using translation equivalence and the other using only-English strategies, were used to test the hypotheses. Different statistical tests and techniques were employed to analyze data. Findings showed that TE has a positive impact on learners’ vocabulary knowledge and revealed that students, at this level of proficiency, learn vocabulary through translation better than any other strategy using only English.
Mon, 21 May 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0275.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: An anthropological study; Agro-industrial food system; Institutional settings; formal and informal institutions; common pool resources
Online: 21 May 2018 (12:59:07 CEST)
Agriculture is the backbone of Kenya’s economy, supporting up to 80% of the rural livelihoods. Kenya’s export horticulture is currently the leading Agriculture subsector in Kenya has evolved from small-holder farming to agro-industrial large-scale export farming dominated by multinational companies. It is regarded as an agro-industrial food system based on the economies of scale producing for mass markets outside of the production area. Much of the food consumed from this food system has undergone multiple transformations and been subject to a host of formal and informal insitutions (rules, regulations, standards, norms and values). An Anthropological study of export horticulture in Northwest Mount Kenya was carried out utilizing qualitative data collection methods in Northwest Mount Kenya region. Data was coded and analysed thematically based on grounded theory approach. The study described the institutional settings of export horticulture from an emic perspective as changing and defining the operations of the food system access and management of common pool resources, namely water and land. With the agro-industrial food system competing for these scarce resources in a semi-arid zone, there is potential for conflict and also reduced production and overall benefits to the different actors in the study area.
Wed, 2 October 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0011.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Archaeology Keywords: copper slag; sulphide; chalcocite; сovellite; bornite; LA-ICP-MS; South Ural; Kazakhstan; Bronze Age
Online: 2 October 2019 (03:32:26 CEST)
In the paper, the results of an investigation into trace elements found in slag sulphides from 14 archaeological Bronze Age settlements of the Cis-Urals, Trans-Urals and North and Central Kazakhstan are presented. The study used Cu-(Fe)-sulphides as indicator minerals. Cu-(Fe)-S minerals in slags are primarily represented by covellite and chalcocite, as well as by rarer bornite and single chalcopyrite grains. Slag sulphides formed relic clasts and neogenic droplets of different shapes and sizes. Supergenic ores in the Bronze Age in Urals and Kazakhstan played a significant role in the mineralogical raw material base. In sulphides, the main indicator elements Fe, Co, Ni, As, Se, Te, Sb, Ag, Pb, and Bi are important markers of copper deposit types. Sulphides from olivine Cr-rich spinel containing slags of Ustye, Turganik, and Kuzminkovskoe 2 are characterised by As-Co-Ni assemblages and confined to copper deposits in ultramafic rocks. Olivine sulphide-containing slags from Kamenny Ambar, Konoplyanka and Sarlybay 3 are characterised by Co-Se-Te assemblage and confined to mafic rocks. Glassy sulphide-containing slags from Katzbakh 6, Turganik, Ordynsky Ovrag, Ivanovskoe, Tokskoe, Bulanovskoe 2, Pokrovskoe, Rodnikovoe, and Taldysay are characterised by Ag-Pb-(Ba)-(Bi) assemblage and confined to cupriferous sandstone deposits. High As, Sb, Sn and Ba contents found in slags can be seen as indicators of alloying or flux components in primary copper smelting. These include samples from Ustye, Katzbakh 6, Rodnikovoe, and Taldysay sites, where high Ba and As slag contents are identified. The compilation of a database with a broad sample of sulphide compositions from Bronze Age slags and mines in the Urals and Kazakhstan will permit the further identification of ore types and raw materials associated with a particular deposit.
Mon, 4 June 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0021.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: architecture; complex buildings; cellular automaton; uses incubators; public space
Online: 4 June 2018 (07:48:34 CEST)
We explores the relational, dynamic elements of Complex Buildings, a type of architecture designed to incubate uses, located in urban areas with high housing density. The uses of Complex Buildings concern different elements, including the network of agents using or managing them, the environment, and the activities and functions that take place occasionally, temporarily or permanently. Data was gathered through ethnographic research lasting 6 months and a chronotopian approach was used to describe time and space. We analyzed and discussed the interaction of the elements of Complex Buildings through a cellular automaton model, a computational method that simulates the growth of complex systems. It was used here to generate patterns that suggest configurations of uses that can optimize management and therefore increase economic and social capital. The cellular automaton model was also used to develop an abstraction of the Centquatre, a public cultural center in Paris. This center is a good example of a Complex Building, being based on a public-private partnership and having an architectural configuration designed to host a wide range of art, social and productive activities. The building includes a large central space used as an urban public area open to different types of people. The importance of this case study lies in its capacity to produce economic value by combining different uses, and also by welcoming different people to the public space. Regarding the building as a living organism, the cellular automaton model reveals the determinant nature of the concepts of configuration, compatibility of uses and economic value generated by the presence of people. We argue that this approach makes it possible to show that the space-time design and public space dimensions are determinant factors in Complex Buildings.
Thu, 13 December 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0158.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: monster of troy; archaeology; Corinthian vase; fossil; Samotherium
Online: 13 December 2018 (06:47:37 CET)
It has been proposed that the Monster of Troy, depicted in a 6th Century BC Corinthian vase, is the earliest artistic record of a vertebrate fossil, possibly a Miocene giraffe (Samotherium sp.). I analyzed the giraffe hypothesis under four approaches: a double-blind random design in which 78 biologists compared the vase skull with Samotherium and several reptiles; an informed survey of 30 students who critically assessed the hypothesis; a computerized image comparison; and a morphological comparison. All of them rejected the giraffe hypothesis. Eye and teeth types unambiguously discard a fossil or living mammal as the model, which more probably was an extant carnivorous reptile.
Wed, 20 February 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0184.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: Land deal; Land grab; Oil Palm; Labour; Farmworkers; Plantation; Everyday politics
Online: 20 February 2019 (09:04:36 CET)
This study presents empirical evidence on the nature of the political struggles for inclusion on an oil palm land deal in Ghana. It examines the employment dynamics and the everyday politics of workers on an oil palm plantation in a predominantly migrant and settler society of the north-eastern part of Ghana, where large-scale production has only been introduced within the past decade. It shows that by the nature of labour organization, as well as other structural issues, workers do not benefit equally from the land deals and therefore express everyday forms of resistance against exploitation, and for better terms of incorporation. Particularly, they express agency through absenteeism and non-compliance, which especially, enables them to maintain their basic food sovereignty/security. Nonetheless, these everyday politics is not necessarily liberating in confronting the everyday peasant problems and unfavourable agrarian transitions associated with capitalist agriculture. Overall, this paper contributes to the land grab literature by providing context-specific dynamics of impacts and politics and how are they are shaped by a multiplicity of factors- beyond class.
Fri, 26 October 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0628.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Philosophy Keywords: natural philosophy; philosophy of science; Jungian psychology; depth psychology; analytical psychology; phenomenological psychology; evolutionary psychology; active imagination; Aristotle’s four causes; aesthetics in science; philosophy as a way of life
Online: 26 October 2018 (11:30:46 CEST)
A revitalized practice of natural philosophy can help people to live a better life and promote a flourishing ecosystem. Such a philosophy is natural in two senses. First, it is natural by seeking to understand the whole of nature, including mental phenomena, In particular, a comprehensive natural philosophy should address the phenomena of sentience by embracing first- and second-person methods of investigation. Moreover, to expand our understanding of the world, natural philosophy should embrace a full panoply of explanations, similar to Aristotle’s four causes. Second, such a philosophy is natural by being grounded in human nature, taking full account of human capacities and limitations. Future natural philosophers should also make use of all human capacities, including emotion and intuition as well as reason and perception, to investigate nature. Finally, since the majority of our brain's activities are unconscious, natural philosophy should explore the unconscious mind with the aim of deepening our relation to the rest of nature and enhancing well-being.