COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1607.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Vortex-Induced vibration; Wake oscillator equation; Numerical simulation; Nonlinear modeling
Online: 25 September 2023 (13:04:13 CEST)
The oscillation of an elastically mounted rigid cylinder excited by steady fluid flow is investigated. Regarding the nonlinearity of real practical structures like marine risers and the stay cable of a long-span bridge, the dynamic behavior of the circular cylinder is described by double Duffing equations and the aerodynamic force performance of the wake flow is expressed by wake oscillator equation. Unlike previous studies, in the present investigation, attention is focused on coupling the wake oscillator equations, taking into account quadratic terms. Following this approach, the cylinder's combined cross-flow and in-line Vortex-Induced Vibrations (VIV) are modeled more accurately. Empirical coefficients are adjusted through comparison with previous credible experimental studies and the effects of changing coefficients of the quadratic terms on major VIV parameters are investigated. The oscillating amplitude calculated by the present model is close to that of the experiment. The relative error of results obtained by the present coupled model is lower than the previous model. Moreover, the present model successfully predicts the moving trajectories of a circular cylinder under VIV in a figure-of-eight shape.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1508.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: high-strength steel; Barkhausen noise; surface heterogeneity; asymmetry
Online: 22 September 2023 (09:17:26 CEST)
This study deals with two different aspects of the high-strength low-alloyed 1100 MC steel. The first is associated with the remarkable heterogeneity in the surface state produced during sheet rolling with respect to the sheet width. The variable-thickness surface layer exhibits a microstructure different from that of the deeper bulk. Variation of the thickness of the thermally softened near-surface region strongly affects Barkhausen noise, as well. This technique can be considered a reliable tool for monitoring the aforementioned heterogeneity. It can also be reported that the opposite sides of the sheet are different with respect to the surface state, heterogeneity distribution, and corresponding Barkhausen noise. These aspects indicate the different conditions during hot rolling followed by rapid quenching on the upper and lower rollers. The second aspect is related to the remarkable asymmetry of Barkhausen noise emission with respect to two consecutive bursts. This asymmetry is due to the presence of remnant magnetisation in the sheet produced during manufacturing. The remnant magnetisation is coupled to the magnetic field produced by the excitation coil of the Barkhausen noise sensor and strongly contributes to the aforementioned asymmetry. As soon as sufficient removal of this remnant magnetisation is carried out in the vanishing magnetic field (demagnetisation), the aforementioned remarkable asymmetry is fully lost.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1515.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: composite material; laminates orientation; optimization; simulated annealing; genetic algorithm
Online: 22 September 2023 (09:07:46 CEST)
The present work sets out the evaluation of composite laminates through optimization objective functions. Genetic Algorithms (GA), as well as Simulated Annealing (SA), were performed in order to determine the optimal ply orientations of a fiber-reinforced polymer laminate for three given load cases: 1) in-plane loads, 2) combined moments, and 3) in-plane loads and combined moments. It searches the optimal orientation layup, which fulfills at the same time both the maximum strain criterion and the Tsai-Wu failure criterion. Construction of an objective function based on the strains and the stresses involves a minimization process to deformations and a maximization of the safety factor. For the first load case, the initial solution is [±45/0/90/±45]s, and the best solution is [(45/135)2/452]s. For the second load case, [-45/45/45/-45/0/90]s is the initial layup sequence, then the best solution obtained is [(45/-45)2/452]s, where plies at 0° and 90º are not necessary even when axial loads are applied. For the third study case, the original layup sequence is [0/45/-45/45/0/90]s; meanwhile, the best solution calculated is [21/24/145/140/45/49]s. An interesting observation is that each pair of layers has a 5º gap. The simulations show that the qualitative results from the GA are better than the SA, but with a significantly higher computational cost. These kinds of computational tools are expected to be used as a reference guide for an optimal fiber configuration with respect to the common orientations used when composite laminates are designed for a structural application.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1361.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Vibration control; Non-linear vibration; Viscoelastic damping; Endochronic materials.
Online: 20 September 2023 (13:56:42 CEST)
Abstract: Theoretical and non-dimensional investigations have been performed to study the vibration control potential of approaches that can be based on viscoelastic but also on endochronic elements. The latter are known from the endochronic theory of plasticity and provide the possibility to establish rate-independent schemes for vibration control. The main question that has to be answered is: Can rate-independent damping be efficiently used to reduce mechanical vibrations? To answer this question non-dimensional models for dynamical systems are derived and analyzed numerically in time-domain as well as in frequency-domain. The results are used to compare the performance of an optimally tuned endochronic absorber to the performance of an optimally tuned dynamic absorber with viscoelastic damping. Based on a novel closed form representation for non-linear systems with endochronic elements, it has been possible to prove that rate-independent control of vibration results in an overall control profit that is close to the control profit obtained by the application of well-established approaches. It has also been found that the new concept is advantageous if anti-resonances have to be considered in broadband vibration control. Based on these novel findings, a practical realization in the context of active vibration control is proposed in which the rate-independent control law is implemented on an appropriate signal processing hardware.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1380.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: additive manufacturing technologies; sustainable development; parametrized programs; computer numerical control; variable thickness deposition; mathematical model
Online: 20 September 2023 (10:01:14 CEST)
This paper presents an original method of additive manufacturing of cylindrical parts with variable circumference thickness, which allows the control of the deposition of molten material using an algorithm for decomposing the part geometry into volumetric elements with known dimensional configuration. In the absence of a post-processor capable of controlling additive manufacturing on a 5-axis numerical control machine, control of the deposition of molten material is done using parameterized programs, which can control both the feed speeds of the machine tool axes and the specific functions of the printing equipment. Additive manufacturing can make a positive contribution to sustainable development compared to traditional manufacturing technologies, thus making a positive contribution for a sustainable future. The aim of the work is to make it possible to 3D print parts with variable wall thickness using a CNC machining centre. To obtain the variable thickness layer we have implemented an original method of deposition with molten material (FDM), the coordination of the system composed of physical elements respectively programmable elements, is realized through control functions materialized in parameterized part programs, the generated outputs being the variable speed of the machine axes on a circular trajectory, the angular positioning, the filament advance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1276.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: rotor; moving foundation; nonlinear oscillations; critical frequency; natural oscillations; weakly conductive liquid; magnetic and electrohydrodynamics.
Online: 20 September 2023 (03:13:14 CEST)
The generalized dynamic model of the rotor system, presented in the paper, is the first model that takes into account the interconnected oscillations of the “rotor - weakly conductive fluid – foundation” system under the action of such parameters as fluid and rotor motion, linear eccentricity, friction forces, foundation vibration and nonlinear characteristics of rolling bearings, as well as the action of a magnetic field on the fluid. Consistent equations of motion for the system “rotor - weakly conductive fluid – foundation” were derived and solved analytically. Forced and natural oscillations of the system were analyzed, and the distinctive features of the rotor system dynamics were revealed. The values of frequencies and amplitudes, which are one of the main factors determining the dynamic behavior of the system, were obtained and studied.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1252.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Drill Bits; PCD Cutters; TCI Cutters; Wear Rate; Corrosion Resistance
Online: 19 September 2023 (08:19:29 CEST)
Tungsten carbide inserts (TCI) and polycrystalline diamond compact (PCD) cutters used in two types of drill bits for drilling oil and gas wells were evaluated by a pin-on-disc test. The morphology of the worn surface was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The behavior of corrosion resistance was evaluated with the electrodynamic polarization technique. The polycrystalline diamond compact cutter has a higher hardness, better corrosion, and wear behavior compared to tungsten carbide.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1229.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: closed rectangular aerostatic guideway; load capacity; stiffness; optimization
Online: 19 September 2023 (08:18:42 CEST)
In view of the floating rectangular aerostatic guideway problem of low load capacity and stiffness, this paper puts forward a kind of closed rectangular aerostatic guideway and its optimized design. Firstly, the analytic calculation formula of a closed rectangular aerostatic guideway was deduced. The use of MATLAB software for the numerical simulation and the parameter influence analyses was carried out in terms of the gas supply pressure on load capacity and stiffness. A simulation model of the rectangular air bearing was also built using the Fluent software, and the model was used for simulation calculations. Secondly, the static performance of the rectangular air bearing was analyzed by analyzing the distribution position and number of orifices on its load capacity and stiffness. On this basis, the response surface optimization design method is used to analyze the variation law of the load capacity and stiffness of the air bearing under different restrictor structural parameters. Finally, the optimal design parameters for the rectangular air bearing are obtained. The simulation results show that the optimized rectangular air bearing designed in this paper has a good load capacity and stiffness of 644.58N and 63.405N N∙μm^(-1).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1098.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Graphene oxide paper; Nanocomposite; Sound pressure level; Compliance; Line-indented pattern; Curve-indented pattern
Online: 18 September 2023 (13:12:02 CEST)
The goal of this paper is to fabricate innovative diaphragm headphones using graphene oxide paper (GOP) and GOP/epoxy nanocomposites (GOPC). Initially, graphene oxide suspension is fabricated, and the vacuum filtration method is adopted to make GOP. Then vacuum bag molding is used to fabricate GOPC from GOP. Hot pressing and associated molds are adopted to fabricate line-indented (GOPC-L) or curve-indented patterns (GOPC-C) on the GOPC. The performance of one kind of GOP and three kinds of GOPC diaphragm headphones is analyzed based on their sound pressure level (SPL) curves achieved by the Soundcheck measurement system. There are four important processing parameters that will influence the performance of the diaphragm, including material type GOP versus GOPC, indented pattern type, sonication time on suspension, and graphene weight fraction in suspension. Compliances of various diaphragms are measured by the Klippel LPM laser measurement system. The results indicate that effects of sonication time and graphene weight fraction on SPL of GOP and GOPC headphones are in reverse, and this is associated with their difference on compliance (modulus), mass, damping ratio, and microstructure uniformity. Either GOPC-L or GOPC-C seems to improve the microstructure of the GOPC, and leads to better SPL performance. The correlation between the previous four factors and SPLs of four kinds of diaphragm headphones is proposed by using scanning electron microscope (SEM) to examine the microstructure of these diaphragms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1116.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics; Finite Volume Method; Rheology; Non-Newtonian Fluids; Viscoelasticity; Thixotropy; Worm-Like Micellar Solutions
Online: 18 September 2023 (05:21:29 CEST)
In this work, we incorporate a thixotropic-viscoelastic model into the widely used Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software OpenFOAM, along with the rheoTool library. The model we implement is known as the Modified-Bautista-Manero (MBM), and effectively describes the rheological behavior of worm-like micellar solutions in extensional flows. We provide a detailed explanation of the numerical implementation of the model, specifically using the log-conformation tensor approach. Unlike previous works focused on this kind of fluids, we simulate inertial flows while considering convective terms in the governing equations, thus obtaining a more realistic behavior on the calculated results. The MBM model implementation is validated through numerical simulations on two different industrial-relevant geometries: the planar 4:1 contraction and the 4:1:4 contraction-expansion configurations. Furthermore, we investigate the influence of inertial, viscoelastic, and thixotropic effects on various flow field variables. These variables include velocity, viscosity, normal stresses, and corner vortex size. Our analysis encompasses both transient and steady solutions of corner vortexes across a range of Deborah and Reynolds numbers. Our results are also directly compared with simulations obtained using the non-thixotropic rubber network-based exponential Phan-Thien-Tanner (EPTT) model. From our planar 4:1 contraction results, we found that vortex-enhancement is seen when high elasticity is coupled with quick structural reformation and very low inertial effects. From our planar 4:1:4 contraction-expansion simulations, we show that an increase in inertia leads both to vortex-inhibition in the upstream channel and slight vortex-enhancement in the downstream channel. Lastly, we show the strong effect of the convection of fluidity into the fluidity profiles and into the upstream/downstream corner vortex sizes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1039.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: γ-graphyne; graphdiyne; graphyne-3; graphyne-4; hole; nonlinear finite element analysis; mechanical properties
Online: 15 September 2023 (13:38:53 CEST)
Graphyne is a material that has unique mechanical properties, but little is known about how these properties change when the material has holes. In this work, the effect of hole geometry, considering circular, triangle, and rhombus hole configurations, on the mechanical nonlinear response of γ-graphyne structures is studied. Graphyne, graphdiyne, graphyne-3, and graphyne-4 structures are under investigation. An efficient nonlinear finite element analysis (FEA) method is adequately implemented under large deformations for this purpose. The study varied the size and shape of the holes to understand how these changes affect the nanostructure's mechanical response. The results indicate that the hole geometry significantly impacts the mechanical nonlinear response of γ-graphyne structures. The holes' size and shape affect the structures' elastic behavior, deformation, and strength. The findings can be used to optimize the design of γ-graphyne structures for specific mechanical applications. The study highlights the importance of considering the hole geometries in the design and fabrication of these materials.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1031.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Dynamic models; identification; UAV; swarm; simulation
Online: 15 September 2023 (05:36:04 CEST)
The article presents the method of identification of dynamic models for different flight states of a rotary-wing UAV. Experimental flights were conducted to obtain data necessary for the identification process. Such models can later be implemented in simulations to represent the behavior of real-life objects. Simulation of UAV swarms is the first stage of developing a swarm system, where prototyping with physical models is problematic. Therefore, obtaining accurate models is crucial for the simulation process to be reliable. Also, verification of obtained models was performed to make sure that they were identified correctly. In particular, the presented method was proven effective and successfully used in some applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1024.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: inducer; centrifugal pump; cavitation; computational fluid dynamics
Online: 15 September 2023 (05:31:12 CEST)
An inducer is one of the most important components of centrifugal pumps, whose presence will result in a significant increase in hydraulic performance and pump efficiency. The primary function of the inducer, however, is to delay the destructive phenomenon of cavitation, which has presented a considerable design challenge. Nevertheless, the amount of improvement and increase in inducer performance in both cavitation and non-cavitation modes depends critically on the radial laxity of the blade tip. As part of this study, the performance of the inducer in the cavitation state has been simulated and compared with the experimental data, which are in good agreement. This paper examines the effect of blade tip lagging on cavitation, and the results indicate that this will improve cavitation and delay this destructive phenomenon but will negatively affect the non-cavitation performance. With the increase in clearance, the range of the return current will increase at the tip of the inducer blade as well.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0949.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: wind turbine; gearbox; calculation parameters; tooth width; weight; modulus; allowable stress at surface pressure; allowable stress at bending
Online: 14 September 2023 (07:11:18 CEST)
As wind turbine power requirements have evolved from the order of kilowatts (kW) to the order of several megawatts (MW), wind turbine components have been subjected to more demanding and critical operating conditions. The wind turbine must cope with higher wind loads due to larger blade sizes, which are also time-varying and ultimately higher power levels. One of the challenges in the manufacture of high-power wind turbines lies in the gearbox and consists of achieving ever greater power density without compromising efficiency, i.e., greater load capacity with lower weight (and production cost) and reduced power losses. In this paper we will analyze the influence that certain design parameters have on the size and weight of the gearbox components and therefore of the gearbox itself. For this purpose, the theoretical model of the gearbox will be planned and the influence of calculation parameters on the gearbox design will be analyzed. The influence of material, modulus and tooth width on the size and weight of the gearbox will be observed. Critical stresses are also calculated. The goal is to prepare the theoretical basis for an optimization process that will result in a gearbox as compact as possible without compromising the service life of the components.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0925.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: trackside acoustics; Doppler distortion; cyclostationary
Online: 14 September 2023 (03:30:23 CEST)
Due to the non-contact measurement characteristics of trackside acoustic technology, it is now utilized for train bearing fault diagnosis. However, the relative motion between the train and the trackside acoustic detection device introduces Doppler aberration in the collected acoustic signal, which affects bearing fault diagnosis. Moreover, when a fault occurs in the train bearing, its acoustic signal exhibits cyclic smoothness characteristics that can be effectively analyzed using the cyclic smoothness method for more accurate judgment. In order to minimize diagnostic errors and enhance accuracy in bearing fault diagnosis, this study integrates bearing fault characteristics with Doppler aberration correction methods and cyclic smoothness techniques for current-stage bearings diagnostics. The overall time-domain graph becomes more compact with an approximately 50% increase in amplitude after correction compared to pre-correction values; other parameters experience enhancements ranging from 20-60%. These results validate the feasibility of our proposed approach and establish a framework for conducting bearing fault diagnosis based on cyclically smoothed Doppler aberration correction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0792.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: vibration qualification testing; random vibration; non-gaussian signals; kurtosis control; test tai-loring; mission synthesis
Online: 13 September 2023 (02:54:29 CEST)
In many industrial, automotive, and aerospace applications, electro-mechanical systems are subjected to random vibration excitations, and the most critical components are required to undergo qualification tests to verify their suitability. Measured field data are commonly considered as reference for the synthesis of random stationary signals used as shaker input excitations in laboratory tests. For the most popular procedures of random-control testing, the user sets the input profiles in terms of power spectral density (PSD) associated with randomized phases generated by the shaker controller to finally provide the physical motion. As a result, the overall probability distribution of the test signal tends toward Gaussian, whereas many real-life random excitations prove non-Gaussian due to distinctive bursts and peaks. The quantitative estimate of the number and amplitudes of peaks present in a certain signal is usually made through the statistical parameter known as kurtosis. The so-called kurtosis control methods presented in the literature are conceived to perform qualification tests with random and non-Gaussian vibration excitations. In this paper, two novel algorithms able to synthesize shaker input signals for random-control testing with prescribed PSD and kurtosis value are proposed, and the results of their application are comparatively discussed to assess their effectiveness and potentialities in different kinds of qualification testing, including accelerated fatigue-life tests.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0775.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Bogie; Sound field distribution; Acoustic finite element method
Online: 13 September 2023 (02:37:53 CEST)
In this paper, we aim to address the challenge of airflow interference during fault detection in high-speed train bogies by introducing a flow field and investigating the characteristics of the sound field distribution of critical components under its influence. This approach overcomes the limitation observed in previous studies that ignored the impact of the flow field. Furthermore, we evaluate and compare various layouts for inter-track acoustic sensor arrays. The proposed sensing methods hold significant practical engineering value, and the collected data serves as a valuable reference for acquiring acoustic signals from key bogie components in future research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0776.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Cold spraying; Selective laser melting; Microstructure characteristics; Hardness and interfacial bonding strength
Online: 12 September 2023 (16:47:12 CEST)
The development of the additive manufacturing (AM) technology proffers challenging requirements for forming accuracy and efficiency. In this paper, a hybrid additive manufacturing technology combining fusion-based selective laser melting (SLM) and solid-state cold spraying (CS) was proposed in order to enable the fast production of near-net-shape metal parts. The idea is to fabricate a bulk deposit with a rough contour first via “fast” CS process and then add fine structures and complex features through “slow” SLM. The experimental results show that it is feasible to deposit SLM part onto CS part with good interfacial bonding. However, the CS parts must be subject to heat treatment to improve their cohesion strength before being sending for SLM processing. Otherwise, the high tensile residual stress generated during SLM process will cause fracture and cracks in the CS part. After heat treatment, pure copper deposited by CS undergoes grain growth and recrystallization, resulting in improved cohesive strength and release of the residual stress in the CS parts is released. The tensile test on the SLM/CS interfacial region indicates that the bonding strength increased by 38% from 45±7 MPa to 62±1 MPa after the CS part is subject to heat treatment, and the SLM/CS interfacial bonding strength is higher than the CS parts. This study demonstrates that the proposed hybrid AM process is feasible and promising for manufacturing free-standing SLM-CS components.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0735.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Hybrid nanofluids; titanium alloy; lubricating properties; synergistic lubrication
Online: 12 September 2023 (08:51:50 CEST)
Titanium alloys are difficult to machine and have poor tribological properties. This paper investigates the lubricating performance of γ-Al2O3/ZnO hybrid nanofluids for Ti-6Al-4V. The pure and hybrid nanofluid are compared, and the effects of γ-Al2O3/ZnO ratios are studied. The results show that γ-Al2O3/ZnO hybrid nanofluids outperform pure nanofluid in terms of lower friction coefficients and better surface quality. Moreover, the hybrid nanofluid with a mass ratio of Al2O3 to ZnO of 2:1 demonstrates the best lubrication performance with a reduced friction coefficient of up to 22.1% compared to the base solution, resulting in improved surface quality. Al2O3 nanoparticles can adhere to the surface of ZnO nanoparticles and work as a coating, which further enhances the lubrication performance of the water-based nanofluid.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0738.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Turbine; profile loss; organic Rankine cycle (ORC)
Online: 12 September 2023 (07:23:16 CEST)
Results of profile loss measurements, including trailing edge flow details, are presented for the flow of an organic vapor through a linear turbine cascade. The so-called VKI-I blade profile from the open literature was chosen for the cascade, and the working fluid was NOVEC 649. Pitot probes and hot wire anemometry were employed to measure the flow field up and downstream of the cascade. Details of the unsteady flow caused by the trailing edge of the blades and the turbulent spectrum were investigated using hot-wire anemometry. The new organic vapor flow results were compared with literature data obtained for air and with the prediction of conventional literature loss models. It was found that under certain thermodynamic conditions, specific traditional loss models can reasonably predict organic Rankine cycle (ORC) turbines' profile loss. Still, significant deviations between the loss models and the experimental data can also occur.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0676.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: remaining useful life; maximum correlation kurtosis deconvolution; multi-scale permutation entropy; long short-term memory
Online: 11 September 2023 (11:30:22 CEST)
The performance of bearings plays a pivotal role in determining the dependability and security of rotating machinery. In intricate systems demanding exceptional reliability and safety, the ability to accurately forecast fault occurrences during operation holds profound significance. Such predictions serve as invaluable guides for crafting well-considered reliability strategies and executing maintenance practices aimed at enhancing reliability. In order to ensure the reliability of bearing operation, this article investigates the application of three advanced techniques—Maximum Correlation Kurtosis Deconvolution (MCKD), Multi-Scale Permutation Entropy (MPE), and Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) recurrent neural networks—for the prediction of the remaining useful life (RUL) of rolling bearings. Each technique's principles, methodologies, and applications are comprehensively reviewed, offering insights into their respective strengths and limitations. Case studies and experimental evaluations are presented to assess their performance in RUL prediction. Findings reveal that MCKD enhances fault signatures, MPE captures complexity, and LSTM excels in modeling temporal patterns. The root mean square error of the prediction results is 0.007. The fusion of these techniques offers a comprehensive approach to RUL prediction, leveraging their unique attributes for more accurate and reliable predictions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0639.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Clean power; Hydraulic pump; Modelling; Renewable energy; Sustainable propulsion; Water
Online: 11 September 2023 (07:56:14 CEST)
This paper presents a parametric study of the multistorey hydro-powered pump, known as "Bunyip," which has demonstrated significant potential in contributing to rural regions. The study aims to understand the underlying physics of the system and enhance its hydraulic performance. A transient three-dimensional model using the commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) tool Ansys-Fluent is utilized to gain insights into the fundamental flow mechanics, operational efficiency, standard capacity, and relative delivery. The investigation involves an initial assessment of performance for three Bunyip devices based on manufacturing data. Parametric analysis is conducted, and a parametric dataset is generated through meticulous application and numerical modelling. The CFD results are validated against experimental data. Three design configurations are considered, and 58 sets of varied input parameters are examined. The best design configuration is evaluated against five cases of conventional hydro-power pump systems. The results indicate that a smaller diameter of the pressure chamber and a higher supply head lead to higher pressure, achieving a target head of 3 m with 15% efficiency and a flowrate of 11.82 l/min.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0649.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Planetary gear transmission; Graph theory; Kinematic and static force analysis; Power flow and efficiency analysis
Online: 11 September 2023 (07:39:10 CEST)
Using graph theory, computer aided motion, static force and power flow analysis of planetary gear mechanism is realized. The motion, static force and efficiency calculations of 6HP26 automatic transmission are carried out. Based on kinematic and static force analysis model, related matrices are acquired. Hence, kinematic and static force analysis of planetary gear mechanism is achieved. The link power can be determined by the link speed and torque. Power flow diagrams of each gear are acquired. The efficiency is calculated by transmission ratio method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0528.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Pressure-dependent Viscosity; Generalized Brinkman Equation
Online: 7 September 2023 (13:37:34 CEST)
Unidirectional flow of a fluid with pressure-dependent viscosity through a porous structure is considered when the viscosity-pressure relationship is an exponential function of a pressure power function in order to investigate effects of the viscosity-pressure relation on the flow characteristics. The flow is governed by the generalized Brinkman’s equation with constant permeability, and a model flow domain of flow down an inclined porous channel is chosen for the sake of studying flow behaviour. Although the current work considers flow in a constant permeability porous structure, it does represent a first step in studying the more general, flow through a variable permeability porous channel. The arising governing equations are solved numerically using MATLAB and the flow is simulated to illustrate the effects of fluid properties as well as flow and medium parameters on the velocity profiles and shear stress.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0178.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: air plasma jet; PDMS plasma treatment; DBD plasma; plasma surface treatment
Online: 5 September 2023 (04:48:29 CEST)
PDMS samples may be used in various microfluidic applications by hydrophilizing their surfaces. This study examines the effects of air plasma jet (APJ) and dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma on the surface hydrophilicity of polydimethylsiloxane. In order to increase the hydrophilicity of PDMS sample surfaces, two plasma sources including APJ and DBD were compared. Both DBD and APJ setups were measured for voltage and current, and their respective power was calculated and compared based on their characteristics. It is important to note that the electrical specifications of APJ and DBD were identical, and the source power rates for APJ and DBD plasma were 306W and 300W respectively. UV-vis spectroscopy was used to characterize the plasma, and an electrical characterization of the plasma's power supply was carried out. The effects of parameters such as the distance from the nozzle tip, the duration of the process, and the source voltage on the hydrophilicity of the surfaces during the treatment by APJ were also examined, and samples were then examined for a period of time to determine whether surface hydrophilicity was preserved. On the PDMS surface, a contact angle of about 5.1° was observed using short-term plasma treatments of 10 seconds. In the same conditions, the effect of DBD treatment was superior to that of APJ treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0195.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Spirally corrugated tube; Twisted tape; Heat transfer enhancement; Friction factor; Nusselt number; Computational fluid dynamics (CFD); Star CCM+
Online: 5 September 2023 (02:54:41 CEST)
Abstract: In this study, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation was conducted to validate the CFD model with experimental data from Zimparov et.al (2012), which investigates the heat transfer performance in a spirally corrugated tube that has a twisted tape inserted. The heat transfer was then compared to a simple corrugated tube without the twisted tape and to a smooth tube with no corrugations and no twisted tape. This simulation is compared with a previous experimental study conducted by (Zimparov et al. 2012), which focuses on tubes with a height-to-diameter ratio e/Di > 0.04 and small relative pitches of the twisted tape, H/Di. The largest improvement was noticed in the tube with e/Di= 0.057 and ridge pitch-to-height ratio p/e=6.77 with a twisted tape of H/Di= 4.7. This tube is labeled 5035. Tube 5035 was found to have the most significant enhancement, hence the focus of the CFD simulation will be on this tube, and the simulation will range for Reynolds numbers, 3.5 x 103 < Re < 5.0 x 104. The focus of this simulation is the evaluation of heat transfer and friction factors; a metric was used to obtain an empirical representation of the tube’s performance. Keywords: Spirally corrugated tube; Twisted tape; Heat transfer enhancement; Friction factor; Nusselt number; Computational fluid dynamics (CFD); Star CCM+
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0094.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Arachis quality; pod separation; plant extraction; peanut
Online: 1 September 2023 (16:38:26 CEST)
Keywords: Arachis quality; pod separation; plant extraction, peanut
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2162.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Titanium Vanadium Nitride; Sputtering; Tribology; Friction; Wear
Online: 31 August 2023 (10:41:28 CEST)
Magnetron sputtering was used for producing Titanium Vanadium Nitride (TiVN) coatings on a variety of substrates. In this research, we investigate how changing the sputtering power and nitrogen: argon (N2:Ar) gas ratio affects the structural and tribological properties of TiVN coatings. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) technique was used to examine TiVN coating surface morphology. Both variants showed a gradual increase in the intensity of the TiVN coating's (111) and (222) peaks. TiVN coating's tribological properties were examined using a pin-on-disc tribometer with varying loads, speeds, and sliding distances. The wear rates of TiVN-coated brass pins were in the range of 2.5×10-4 to 9.14×10-4 mm3/Nm depending on load, sliding distance, and gas ratio variation, when compared to the wear rates of TiVN-coated brass pins deposited at various power, which ranged from 1.76×10-3 to 5.87×10-3 mm3/Nm.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2131.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: thermoplastic matrix composite; fibre reinforced polymer; thermoforming; design of experiments; basalt fibres; BF/PA6; hybrid laminate
Online: 31 August 2023 (07:35:13 CEST)
Process induced defects during thermoforming are widespread problems in laminate manufacturing. The aim of this study is to describe the effects of holding time and pressure on several properties of the manufactured laminate. A design of experiments is performed, followed by an analysis of variance to examine significant effects. Subsequently, a regression model is created to predict the laminate’s properties, which is also validated. The highest values of tensile strength and elongation at break are found for low settings of holding time and pressure. The fibre volume fraction is not affected by the process parameters. As holding time and pressure increase, significant fibre misalignment takes place, leading to a decrease of the mechanical properties. The regression model corresponds well with the validation and should be extended with further variables in subsequent studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1848.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: evaporative condenser; R744; subcritical; pressure drop; air conditioning
Online: 29 August 2023 (04:23:57 CEST)
Numerical simulations and experiments on evaporative condensers in air conditioning systems using R744 were performed. Two configurations were given to study the feasibility of operating the subcritical R744 cycle. It indicated the capable of evaporative cooling condensing R744 to liquify by analyzing the outlet temperature at the end of the condenser reached from 28.7oC to 30.3oC with the operating pressure from 72.6 bar to 68.5 bar. The mass flow rate in the study increases from 14.34 kg/h to 46.08 kg/h, the pressure drop also increases from 0.23 bar to 0.47 bar for the simulation and 0.4 bar to 0.5 bar for the experiment, respectively. This study indicates that a 5-layers of copper tubes configuration causes a higher pressure drop and lower COP when compared to an 8-layers of copper tubes that split into 2 sets for smaller pressure drop. In this study, the evaporative condensers using mini tubes that are flooded in the cooling water tank are suitable for the subcritical R744 air conditioning system. The results obtained from the experimental data are in good agreement with those obtained from the numerical results, with the deviation less than 5%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1822.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: PIV; image acquisition; measurement; smartphone; high-speed camera; low-cost
Online: 29 August 2023 (03:48:21 CEST)
The study of velocimetry is important for characterizing and comprehending the effects of fluid flow, and the Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique is one of the primary approaches for understanding the velocity vector field in a test section. Commercial PIV systems are expensive, with one of the main cost factors being high-speed camera equipment capable of capturing images at high frames per second (fps), rendering them impractical for many applications. This study proposes an evaluation of utilizing smartphones as image acquisition systems for PIV technique application. An experimental setup inspired by the known angular displacement of synthetic particles is proposed. A stepper motor rotates a plate containing an image of synthetic particles on its surface. The motion of the plate is captured by the smartphone camera, and the images are processed using PIVlab-MatLab® software. The use of two smartphones is assessed, with acquisition rates of either 240 fps or 960 fps and varying angular velocities. The results were satisfactory for velocities up to 0.7 m/s at an acquisition rate of 240 fps and up to 1.8 m/s at 960 fps, validating the use of smartphones as a cost-effective alternative for the PIV technique.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1841.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Compliant mechanism; fused silica; femtosecond laser; Bragg grating sensor
Online: 28 August 2023 (10:26:08 CEST)
Fused silica glass is a material with outstanding mechanical, thermal and optical properties. Being a brittle material, it is challenging to shape. In the last decade, the manufacturing of monolithic flexible mechanisms in fused silica has evolved with the femtosecond laser-assisted etching process. However, instrumenting those structures is demanding. To address this obstacle, this article proposes to inscribe a Bragg Grating sensor inside a flexure and interface it with an optical fibre to record the strain using a spectrum analyzer. The strain sensitivity of this Bragg Grating sensor is characterized at 1.2 pm/μϵ (1 μϵ = 1 microstrain). Among other applications, deformation sensing can be used to record a force. Its use as a micro-force sensor is estimated. The sensor resolution is limited by our recording equipment to 30 μN over a measurement range above 10 mN. This technology can offer opportunities for surgery applications or others where precision and stability in harsh environments are required.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1422.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: friction; casing wear; wear factor; wear mechanisms; SM2535 steel; oil based mud; water based mud
Online: 28 August 2023 (04:16:01 CEST)
This work aims to explore the impact of side loads, drill-pipe tool-joint (DP-TJ) speed (RPM), and mud type on the austenitic stainless steel SM2535-110 casing wear characteristics. Actual field drill pipe tool joints, casings, and drilling muds are used in this study. The results of the study show that under both types of lubrication, the wear volume increased with radial load and DP-TJ speed. SM2535-110 casing specimens tested under oil-based mud (OBM) lubrication had higher casing wear volumes than those obtained under water-based mud (WBM) lubrication. This unexpected behavior is mainly due to the increase in the surface hardness of the casing specimens tested under WBM. The results also show that the specific wear factor (K) values of specimens tested under WBM are in general 2 to 4 times higher than those obtained under OBM. While K values under WBM increase with both the side load and RPM, those under OBM show a sharp decrease with RPM. This behavior under OBM is due to this lubricant’s higher viscosity and the change of lubrication regime from thin film to thick film lubrication at higher RPM. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the digital microscopic imaging (DMI) of SM235-110 casing specimens show that an aggressive combination of adhesive, abrasive, and plastic deformation was observed under WBM, while the dominant wear mechanism under OBM is abrasive wear.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1735.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Mine electric trackless rubber-tired vehicle; Brake-by-wire; Electro-Mechanical Brake actuator; Active braking system; Force/Position switch strategy
Online: 24 August 2023 (09:57:10 CEST)
Electro-mechanical braking(EMB) which represents development direction of autonomous and intelligent braking plays very useful role on enhancing the braking response performance and intelligence level for mine underground electric trackless rubber-tired vehicle (ETRV). However,there is no Electro-Mechanical Brake system applied practically in coal mine UTRV until now.The accurate control of braking clamping force can determine the length and precision of braking distance of mine ETRV.In addition,because of poor working conditions in underground coal mine tunnel ,braking clamping force sensor may be easy to occur failure,which may cause vital accident.Therefore,A cascaded three-closed-loop EMB system with a positive clamping force sensor or force estimator built for ETRV is established to achieve autonomous elimination and reset of braking clearance and reliable braking force tracking ability via utilizing the electro motor rotor angle displacement and hysteresis effect of mechanical components in this EMB.The results of simulation and experiment indicate that clamping force response is faster than traditional hydraulic disk braking system and proposed force estimator presents good fault-tolerant ability when sensor is fault.This EMB can replace the current hydraulic brake system to enhance automation level of braking control for ETRVs and braking force response performance, reduce oil pollution and cost of maintenance, which is also key technology support for really precise motion control of mine autonomous driving vehicles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1733.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Energy harvesting; Cantilever beam; Maximizing power output; Resonance frequency; Geometric configuration
Online: 24 August 2023 (08:53:55 CEST)
Cantilever beams are the most widely used form of strain-driven energy harvesting, which uses piezoelectric materials. Although researchers are constantly seeking improved power output from cantilever-beam-driven piezoelectric energy harvesters, a systematic and fundamental analysis of the effect of beam geometry on the power capacity of energy harvesters warrants further investigation. Most of the previous research accounts for beams that are fully coated with piezoelectric material. While a larger coating area increases energy output, it also escalates costs as piezoelectric materials are very expensive. Considering the high cost of piezoelectric materials when dealing with limited piezoelectric material, enhancing power output can be achieved by employing a larger base beam and coating a portion of it at the fixed end. As such, the aim of this work is to investigate a wide variety of cantilever beam shapes (e.g., trapezoidal, triangular, V-cut, concave, and convex) with partial piezoelectric material coating on the base beam to maximize the power output capacity of the harvester. To ascertain a comparable argument, the surface area, volume, and mass of all the considered beam shapes are kept consistent, as these parameters influence the power output of the harvester. The geometry of each shape is systematically varied to understand the effect of geometric configuration on the output power density. Finally, the power capacities of all types of beams are compared, and a design is proposed to obtain the maximum power output. It was found that when the surface area of both the beam and piezoelectric material is kept constant and piezoelectric material is located at the fixed end, a trapezoidal beam with a smaller base width and larger free end width is the most efficient in generating power as long as the structural integrity is maintained. The finding is completely opposite as was suggested by previous studies, which proposed that a trapezoidal beam with a smaller free end yields higher output. Instead, this study demonstrates that an inverted trapezoidal beam produced higher output, considering partial coating compared to the full beam coating used in previous studies. Additionally, a correlation is presented on how the beam resonance frequency shifts with variation in beam parameters.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1697.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: CNC milling system; the energy consumption of the operator; exergy analysis; the specific exergy loss
Online: 24 August 2023 (03:25:36 CEST)
Modeling and assessing the sustainability of machining systems has been considered to be a crucial approach to improving the environmental performance of the machining processes. As the most common machining system, the computer numerical control (CNC) milling system is a typical man-machine cooperative system where the activities of the machine tool and operator generate material and energy consumption. However, the energy consumption of the operator in the CNC milling system has often been ignored in most existing research. Therefore, existing methods fail to provide a comprehensive understanding of the sustainability of the CNC milling system. To fill this gap, an exergy loss assessment method is proposed to investigate the sustainability of the CNC milling system, where the energy consumption of the operator, the energy consumption of the machine tool, and material consumption are taken into consideration. The key performance indexes of the energy consumption of the operator, the energy consumption of the machine tool, the exergy loss, and the specific exergy loss (SEL) are analyzed and modeled. To demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method, a case study was carried out on a three-axis machining center (XH714D), in which SEL was found to be 88.04J/mm3. The proposed method is effective to assess the sustainability of the CNC milling system, and the established exergy loss models build a good basis for exergy efficiency optimization.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1578.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: forecasting; prevision; wind speed; wind power; renewable energy; Scopus base; Bibliometrix
Online: 23 August 2023 (07:27:24 CEST)
The most important step for the installation of a wind farm is to know the wind regime in the region, since an error in estimating this wind speed causes an error proportional to the cube of power, resulting in financial losses for investors. Therefore, knowing the methods used for predicting wind speed becomes important and the knowledge of how research and studies in this area are going helps map the subject and outline strategies for developing research in strategic areas. For this purpose, the Scopus database was used considering some keywords, such as ("forecast" OR "prevision") AND "wind" AND ("turbine" OR "power" OR "energy" or "velocity" or "speed"), considering the period since 2019, and analyzing the data of the documents found using the Bibliometrix package. With the results found, it was possible to map researchers, institutions that are developing work in this area, in addition to the most cited articles, among other aspects analyzed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1483.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: tri-generation systems; CCHP; greywolf optimization; solar photovoltaic thermal collectors; net power; exergy efficiency; CO2 emission
Online: 22 August 2023 (09:56:25 CEST)
Energy demand and consumption in recent times have witnessed a rapid proliferation influenced by technological developments, increased population and economic growth. This has fuelled research trends in the domain of energy management employing tri-generation systems such as the combined cooling, heating and power (CCHP) systems. Furthermore, the incorporation of renewable energy, especially solar energy, to complement the thermal input by fossil fuels has facilitated the effectiveness and sustainability of CCHP systems. This study proposes a new approach to improve the overall efficiency of CCHP systems and compute the optimal design parameters in order to assist decision makers to identify the best geometrical configuration. A multi-objective optimization formulation of a solar-assisted CCHP system was adopted to maximize the net power, the exergy efficiency and minimize the CO2 emission using the greywolf optimization technique. In addition, the effects of the decision variables on the objective functions were analysed. The proposed optimization approach yielded 100 set of Pareto optimal solutions which would serve as options to the decision maker to make a selection in order to improve the performance of a solar-assisted CCHP system. This study demonstrates that the proposed approach is potentially suitable for the optimization of a solar-assisted CCHP system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1397.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: sound absorption; micro-perforates; panels vibration; global optimization
Online: 21 August 2023 (09:49:57 CEST)
Broadband noise reduction over the low-mid frequency range in the building and transportation sectors requires compact lightweight sound absorbers of typical sub-wavelength size. The use of multi-layered closely-spaced (micro-)perforated membranes or panels, if suitably optimized, contribute to these objectives. However, their elasticity or modal behaviors often impede the final acoustical performance of the partition. The objective of this study is to get insights into the vibrational effects induced by elastic limp membranes or panels volumetric modes on the optimized sound absorption properties of acoustic fishnets and functionally-graded partitions (FGP). Cost-efficient global optimization of the partition total frequency-averaged dissipation is achieved from simulated annealing with vibrational effects included through an impedance translation method. Critical coupling analysis reveals how the membranes or panels vibrations redistribute the locations of the Hole-Cavity resonances as well as their cross-coupling with the panels first volumetric mode. It is found that elastic limp micro-perforated membranes broaden the first pass-band of acoustic fishnets while smoothing out the dissipation ripples over the FGP optimiza-tion bandwidth. Moreover, the resonance frequency of the first panels mode sets an upper limit to the broadband optimization of FGPs, up to which high dissipation, low reflection and low trans-mission can be achieved.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1345.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: floating offshore wind turbine; numerical modelling; physical testing; scale models
Online: 18 August 2023 (11:31:07 CEST)
Design, analysis, manufacture, and deployment of offshore wind turbines mounted on a floating base is a novel industry that is attracting interest from both academia and industry. In an effort to comprehend the sophisticated aerodynamics and hydrodynamics of the floating offshore wind turbines (FOWTs), numerical and physical modelling of these complex systems began to develop with their appearance. The strong coupling between the aerodynamics of the rotor-nacelle assembly (RNA) and the hydrodynamics of the floating platform makes modelling FOWTs a challenging task. However, the scaling mismatch between Froude scaling and Reynolds scaling made it more difficult to physically test scaled-down prototypes of FOWTs, whether in a wind tunnel or an ocean basin. In this regard, developing high-fidelity numerical modelling that is both cost-effective and accurate has been receiving increased attention as a potential replacement for or complement to physical testing. However, numerical engineering tools, which are frequently used in the offshore oil and gas industry, are known as mid-fidelity to low-fidelity tools and lack the degree of accuracy that is desirable for FOWTs. In recent years, a variety of numerical tools have been established or developed to uncover the complex nature of the dynamics of FOWTs. This study aims to provide a comprehensive survey of numerical tools available for simulating FOWTs, assessing their capabilities and limitations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1244.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Intelligent Data Analyzing; energy consumption; thermal comfort; inclusion; exclusion criteria; Delphi method
Online: 18 August 2023 (10:45:39 CEST)
This paper evaluates norms and assesses the level of knowledge in air conditioning project management within the construction industry. A total of 25 questions were distributed to multiple candidates, who were filtered based on pre-established inclusion and exclusion criteria. Thirty-nine candidates were ultimately approved to participate in the survey. The questions were designed to address five hypotheses, with each set of five questions corresponding to one hypothesis. The results were obtained after pre-processing the data using Matlab software. The data was pre-processed using Matlab software, and the results were analyzed using the Delphi method. The analysis revealed that only two hypotheses were approved: No matter whether there are nationalized safety rules or not, the impact of data sciences and smart technologies, including air conditioning management systems, is critical for human life in the building business.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1287.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: machinery; prognosis framework; vibration data; roller bearings; stochastic models
Online: 18 August 2023 (09:04:20 CEST)
Machinery parts gradually wear out over time due to regular usage. To improve machinery health and prevent critical issues, a reliable prognosis framework can be implemented by monitoring the behaviour of machinery parts and issuing warnings before they reach a critical state. To achieve this, vibration data from roller bearings experiencing various fault conditions have been collected. Different techniques from the literature were combined to analyze the distinct configurations in the vibration data sets and identify the main defects in roller bearings. The significant features extracted from this analysis were then used to create optimized stochastic model equations, separately regressing inner and outer race fault features to healthy bearing features under random conditions. These models can help engineers design more dependable systems, optimize their performance, and minimize the risk of failures and downtime.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1218.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: deformation; finite element method; mechanical damage; mechanical properties; numerical simulation.
Online: 17 August 2023 (09:45:57 CEST)
The flavor, aroma and color of coffee may change due to mechanical damage, reducing its qual-ity. To measure the mechanical response of materials, compression tests can be performed, de-termining the effect of force application on the mechanical behavior of the fruit at different stages of ripeness. In this context, this study aimed to analyze the deformation, strain energy and equivalent von Mises stress of coffee fruits at mature, semi-mature and immature maturation stages and compressed by collapse forces. Compression in three directions (x, y and z) was sim-ulated on coffee fruit models using the finite element method, with a compression support in the direction opposite to the force application axis. The numerical simulation of the compression process allowed to verify that the more mature the fruit, the greater the associated mean defor-mation (2.20 mm mm-1, 0.78 mm mm-1 and 0.88 mm mm-1), the lower the mean strain energy (0.07 mJ, 0.21 mJ and 0. 34 mJ) and the lower the mean equivalent von Mises stress (0.25 MPa, 1.03 MPa and 1.25 MPa), corresponding to ripe, semi-ripe and immature fruits; and these proper-ties may be used to analyze how processes in the production chain affect the amount of mechan-ical damage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1239.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Crank Knee press; double-rod press; high-class mechanisms; output link dwell; numerical experiment; crank press design
Online: 17 August 2023 (04:33:22 CEST)
In crank presses, an important role is played by the presence of actuators with dwell, in which, with continuous movement of the input links, the output working link remains stationary at some part of the work. The use of a high-class structural group (fourth class) expands the functionality of the crank press, including it can ensure the link dwell of the working link on a given section of movement during the required period of time. As a result of the conducted research, four variants of actuators of the crank knee press were designed. Due to the rational choice of the positions of racks and crosshead guide, the best layout of the dimensions of the press mechanism has been achieved, changing the coordinates of the racks accordingly allows to design a mechanism with upper or lower dwells of the working links. When synthesizing (selecting) parameters such as: l_2 and h, it is possible to obtain a height of different duration. All this is shown on the basis of a numerical experiment based on kinematic analysis. In addition, the complex structure of the mechanism makes it possible to ensure the exact link dwell, which cannot be achieved due to the well-known knee presses based on the second-class mechanism .
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1163.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Reverse Yielding, Plastic Conditioning, Plastically Joined Interference Fits, Elastic Stress Limits, Strain Hardening, Plastic Behavior of Materials, Residual Stresses, Joint Pressure
Online: 16 August 2023 (20:25:04 CEST)
Interference fits are a very common shaft-hub connection due to their low manufacturing cost and excellent technical properties. Plastic Conditioning of this machine element is a new and not very well known method. By exploiting residual stresses and the associated increase in the yield point, these components can absorb operating loads such as rotating bending moments, torsion, temperature changes and centrifugal forces purely elastically and avoid plastic deformation during operation. Compared to conventionally joined interference fits, the load bearing capacity in the elastic range can be increased by almost 200% and a specifically defined additional safety against plastic deformation in the elastic-plastic range can be ensured. This paper examines the effects of Reverse Yielding on the technology of Plastic Conditioning of Interference Fits in Power Transmission Engineering. Based on the Shear Stress Hypothesis (SH), the Plane Stress State (PSS) and the ideal plastic behavior of materials, the stress-mechanical relationships are explained, the influencing parameters are examined and conclusions are drawn for the plastic conditioning process. Taking into account the theoretical knowledge according to the state of the art, modified material behavior assumptions (isotropic hardening) and the Von Mises Yield Criterion (VMYC) are also considered. In addition, the method of plastic conditioning of interference fits is introduced and its basic principles are briefly explained. Along with computational suggestions to avoid Reverse Yielding, open issues requiring further research are identified.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1146.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: PHM; CBM; diagnosis; lightGBM; random forest; contextual diagnosis; RUL; forklift
Online: 16 August 2023 (11:33:09 CEST)
This study examined ways to prevent failures in the front-end of forklifts by addressing the center of gravity of heavy objects carried by forklifts, predicting the remaining useful lifetime (RUL), and the fault diagnosis based on alarm rules. In the research process, acceleration signals were acquired from the outer beam of the front-end of the forklift. A one-second window was applied to extract the time-domain statistical features, which were then set as variables. An exponentially weighted moving average was used to smooth the noise in the feature data set. The AWGN and LSTM autoencoders were used for data augmentation. Based on them, random forest and lightGBM models were used to develop classification models for the weight center of heavy objects carried by a forklift. In addition, contextual diagnosis performed by applying exponentially weighted moving averages to the classification probabilities of the machine learning models showed that random forest achieved an accuracy of 0.9563 and lightGBM achieved an accuracy of 0.9566. In addition, the acceleration data were collected through experiments to predict forklift failure and RUL because of the repeated forklift use when the center of heavy objects carried by the forklift was skewed to the right. The time-domain statistical features of the acceleration signals were extracted and set as variables by applying a 20-second window. Subsequently, logistic regression and random forest models were used to classify the failure stages of the forklifts. The f1-score (macro) obtained were 0.9790 and 0.9220 for logistic regression and random forest, respectively. In addition, the random forest probabilities for each stage were combined and averaged to generate a degradation curve and derive the failure threshold. The coefficient of the exponential function was calculated using the least squares method on the degradation curve, and the RUL prediction model was developed to predict the failure point. In addition, the SHAP algorithm was used to identify the significant features in classifying the stage. The alarm rule-based fault diagnosis was performed using the threshold of the normal stage distribution of the significant features.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0960.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Rapid impregnating; Thermoset resins; Thermoplastic resins; Fiber reinforced composites
Online: 14 August 2023 (12:16:48 CEST)
As environmental regulations become stricter, weight- and cost-effective fiber-reinforced polymer com-posites are being considered as alternative materials in the automobile industry. Rapid impregnation of the resin into the reinforcing fibers is critical during liquid composite molding, and the optimization of resin impregnation is related to the cycle time and quality of the products. In this review, various resins capable of rapid impregnation, including thermoset and thermoplastic resins, are discussed for manu-facturing fiber-reinforced composites used in the automobile industry, along with their advantages and disadvantages. Finally, vital factors and perspectives for developing rapidly impregnated resin-based fiber-reinforced composites for automobile applications are discussed
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1007.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Graph Neural Networks; Fused Deposition Modeling; 3D Printing; Polylactic Acid; Tensile strength
Online: 14 August 2023 (09:41:51 CEST)
This paper presents the use of Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) to predict the tensile strength of Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) specimens. In the present work, there are four main input parameters i.e. Infill percentage, Layer height, Print speed and Extrusion temperature while the Tensile Strength is an output parameter were considered. This study includes use of central composite design based response surface methodology to finalize the experimental layout. 3D printed specimen were manufactured as per the ASTM E8 standard on FDM printer using Polylactic Acid (PLA) as filament. Micro-tensile test were performed on the printed specimen as per ASTM E8 standard. The GNN algorithm was trained on a dataset of FDM specimens, achieving a mean squared error (MSE) of 2.47, mean absolute error (MAE) of 1.14, and R-squared value of 0.78. An adjacency matrix, which shows the connections between nodes in a graph. The obtained plot for nodes and weights in a GNN provide valuable information about the model and its performance. The results show the potential of using GNNs in predicting the mechanical properties of additively manufactured specimens and provide a promising direction for further research in this field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0968.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: abrasive water-jet cutting; difficult-to-cut materials; vibration measurements
Online: 14 August 2023 (09:18:02 CEST)
The cutting of difficult-to-machine materials, including their preconditioning, often requires specialised tools and machinery. An alternative processing technology can be cutting materials with a water jet. From the initial stage, the selection of appropriate technological parameters will influence what further finishing treatments will be applied. Vibrations occurring during this process can negatively affect the quality of the cutting edges and surfaces. Therefore, this study analysed vibrations during water-jet cutting with variable technological parameters (speed vfi and pressure pi). To measure the vibrations, a three-axis accelerometer from SEQUOIA was used in water-jet cutting of three materials: aluminum alloy, titanium alloy, and steel. Based on the study, it was found that the maximum value of vibration amplitude reaches the lowest value of vibration acceleration for aluminum alloy (not exceeding 5 m/s2), regardless of the value of pressure during the cutting process. This, taking into account the material properties, indicates that aluminum alloy is the material most susceptible to the cutting process while maintaining a high quality of the cutting surface. Significantly higher values of vibration acceleration amplitude (reaching up to 60 m/s2) during cutting were registered for steel and titanium alloy in all zones and phases of the process (entry zone, cutting zone, and exit zones).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0870.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Combined cycle; Gas turbine; Steam injection; Recompression Supercritical carbon dioxide; Energy analysis; Exergy analysis
Online: 10 August 2023 (12:54:43 CEST)
Gas turbine power plants have important roles in the global power generation market. The examines thermodynamically the impact of steam injection for a combined cycle including a gas turbine cycle with a two-stage turbine and carbon dioxide recompression. The combined cycle is compared with the simple case without steam injection. Steam injection’s impact is observed on important parameters such as energy efficiency, exergy efficiency, and output power. It is revealed that steam injection reduces exergy destruction in components compared to the simple case. The efficiencies for both cases are obtained. The energy and exergy efficiencies respectively are found to be 30.4% and 29.4% for the simple case, and 35.3% and 34.1% for the case with steam injection. Also, incorporating steam injection reduces emissions of carbon dioxide.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0836.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: rolling bearings；remaining useful life；grey wolf optimization algorithm；neural network
Online: 10 August 2023 (10:49:04 CEST)
In order to assess the degradation state of rolling bearings and accurately grasp the remaining life information of rolling bearings, a bearing remaining life prediction method based on the grey wolf optimization algorithm to improve the BP neural network model is proposed. The method consists of two steps, firstly, using the craggy value and root mean square value to determine the first failure time of rolling bearings so as to approximate the input features, and secondly, using the Grey Wolf optimization algorithm to optimize the BP neural network to construct the degradation model of the bearings through machine learning. The method reduces the prediction error compared with conventional techniques, indicating that the method can effectively simulate the bearing degradation process and predict the remaining useful life (RUL) of the bearing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0807.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: thermoelectricity; copper (I) sulfide; 3D printing; sulfur infusion; direct ink writing
Online: 10 August 2023 (07:29:20 CEST)
Copper(I) sulfide (Cu2S) is a low-cost, earth-abundant, and non-toxic thermoelectric material for applications in the middle-high temperature range (>650 K). Although 3D printing these materials can simplify their manufacturing, elevated temperatures observed during sintering impair their crystal structure and energy conversion efficiency. In this study, we demonstrated a novel post-processing methodology to revert the thermoelectric properties of the 3D printed Cu2-xS materials back to the unimpaired state via sulfur infusion. After printing and sintering, sulfur was infused into the specimens under vacuum to optimize their crystal structure and achieve high thermoelectric efficiency. Chemical analysis and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) tests showed that after the sulfur infusion process, the Cu/S ratio was reverted close to the stoichiometric level. 3D printed Cu2-xS showed p-type thermoelectric behavior with electrical conductivity peaking at 143 S-cm-1 at 750 K and Seebeck coefficient of 175 µV-K-1 at 627 K. Figure of merit (ZT) value of 1.0 at 780 K was achieved which is the highest value ever reported for a 3D printed Cu2-xS thermoelectrics at this temperature. Fabrication of environmentally friendly thermoelectric materials with extended dimensional freedom and conversion efficiency has the potential to impact the thermoelectric industry with new energy conversion applications and lowered manufacturing costs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0788.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: stress concentration factors; fatigue life; finite element analyse (FEA); stress analysis; fatigue notch factor; solidworks
Online: 9 August 2023 (14:34:55 CEST)
Fatigue failure remains a critical concern in structural engineering and material science, prompting extensive research to understand and predict the behaviour of materials under cyclic loading conditions. The present study aims to investigate the fatigue life of carbon steel specimens containing opposite semicircular edge notches through a comprehensive experimental and numerical analysis. In this study, stress concentration factors (SCF, Kt) of rectangular plate with opposite semicircular notches are considered under uniform tensile stress to analyse the notch deformation because of stretching of plate. Furthermore, the research focuses on quantifying stress concentration factors (SCFs) for these notches based on S-N curves of carbon steel. The study employs a combination of experimental and numerical techniques to understand the influence of these notches on the fatigue performance of carbon steel structures. A plate with opposite semicircular edge single notches under the axial load creates stress concentration near the notch and it is much larger than the average stress on the plate. Both analytical and finite element methods are used to calculate the maximum stress around the notch. SOLIDWORKS Premium Student Edition 2023 has been employed for modelling and SOLIDWORKS Simulation Premium Student Edition 2023 has been used for stress analysis and fatigue notch factor of rectangular plate of size 31 mm x 25.4 mm x 6.35 mm. The uniform tensile load with a magnitude of 20195 N is applied on one sides of rectangular plate normal to the sides of notches with ratio h/r = 1, for the semicircular notch. The result obtained on both analytical and finite element methods are compared and the percentage of error has been evaluated. Subsequently, these specimens undergo fatigue testing under varying loading conditions to capture their fatigue behaviour. The acquired fatigue data is then plotted against stress amplitude to construct S-N curves, forming the foundation for assessing the fatigue life of the notched specimens. To complement the experimental findings and to gain a deeper understanding of the stress concentration phenomenon, numerical simulations are conducted using advanced finite element analysis (FEA) techniques. The finite element models are carefully calibrated against the experimental results to ensure their accuracy and reliability. The FEA simulations enable the determination of stress concentration factors at critical locations within the notched specimens, further validating the experimental observations. The investigation reveals crucial insights into the effect of opposite semicircular edge notches on the fatigue life of carbon steel structures. The obtained S-N curves allow engineers and designers to predict the fatigue life of components with similar notches, aiding in the development of reliable and durable structures in practical applications. Moreover, the stress concentration factors determined from the numerical simulations provide valuable data to assess the potential failure modes and to optimise designs, effectively mitigating fatigue-related failures. The combination of experimental and numerical approaches ensures a comprehensive and rigorous analysis of the fatigue behaviour in notched specimens, offering a reliable basis for making informed engineering decisions. The comparison between the analytical method and the Finite Element Method (FEM) demonstrated good agreement, with an error percentage of 4.272%. The analysis revealed that the specimen would experience failure after approximately 2882 cycles, with a maximum stress of 395.914 MPa. This research study enhances the understanding of fatigue life in carbon steel structures containing opposite semicircular edge notches and contributes valuable data to the field of fatigue mechanics. The outcomes serve as a valuable resource for professionals engaged in structural engineering, material science, and design optimisation, ultimately leading to safer and more durable industrial components in critical applications. The findings of this research contribute to the understanding of fatigue behaviour in carbon steel components with stress concentration effects caused by semicircular notches. Moreover, the validated numerical simulations and data curves facilitate the prediction of fatigue life and aid in determining the critical conditions leading to fatigue failure. In conclusion, this research highlights the significance of combining experimental testing with numerical simulations to comprehensively analyse the fatigue life of carbon steel specimens with opposite semicircular edge notches. The obtained stress concentration factors provide crucial information for structural integrity assessment and offer potential for further optimising design criteria to mitigate fatigue-related failures. The findings of this study could play a vital role in enhancing the reliability and safety of carbon steel structures subjected to cyclic loading conditions. The comprehensive experimental and numerical analyses establish a foundation for future studies exploring other materials and geometries with notches, fostering advancements in fatigue life prediction and structural integrity assessment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0693.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: wind energy; solar energy; renewable energy; machine learning; forecasting ensembles
Online: 9 August 2023 (10:56:29 CEST)
In this paper, solar irradiance and wind speed forecasts were performed considering time horizons ranging from 10 min to 60 min, under a 10 min time-step. Global horizontal irradiance (GHI) and wind speed were computed using four forecasting models (Random Forest, k-Nearest Neighbours, Support Vector Regression, and Elastic Net) to compare their performance against two alternative dynamic ensemble methods (windowing and arbitrating). Forecasting models and dynamic forecasting ensembles were implemented in Python for performance evaluation. The performance comparison between the prediction models and the dynamic ensemble methods was carried out by evaluating the RMSE, MAE, R² and MAPE, to evaluate whether the dynamic ensemble forecasting method obtained greater. According to the results obtained windowing dynamic ensemble method was the most efficient among the tested. For the wind speed data, by varying its parameter λ (from 1 to 100), a variable performance profile was obtained, where from λ =1 to λ = 74, windowing proved to be the most efficient, reaching maximum efficiency for λ = 19. Windowing was the best method for the GHI analysis, reaching its best performance for λ = 1. The efficiency gain using windowing was 0.56% when using the wind speed model and 1.96% for GHI.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0748.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: MEMS; MEMS Gyroscope; Vibrating Ring Gyroscope; Inertial sensors; IMU; MEMS Design; Mechanical Design; Electrical Design; Damping Design
Online: 9 August 2023 (07:44:20 CEST)
Microelectromechanical System (MEMS) vibrating gyroscope design considerations are always intriguing due to their microscale mechanical, electrical, and material behavior. MEMS vibrating ring gyroscopes have become important inertial sensors in inertial measurement units (IMU) for navigation and sensing applications. The design of a MEMS vibrating ring gyroscope incorporates an oscillating ring structure as a proof mass, reflecting unique design challenges and possibilities. This paper presents a comprehensive design analysis of the MEMS vibrating ring gyroscope from the mechanical, electrical, and damping perspectives. The mechanical design of the MEMS vibrating ring gyroscope investigates the various frame designs of the vibrating ring structure, as well as the various beam structures, including curved, rectangular, and semicircular beam structures, which are analyzed using mathematical models and finite element analysis (FEA) simulations that provide an in-depth analysis of the stiffness and deflection of the vibrating structures. The electrical designs of the MEMS vibrating ring gyroscope were analyzed using various electrode configurations, electrostatic actuation, and capacitive detection mechanisms, respectively. The design analysis of various forms of damping, including viscous, structural, thermoelastic, and anchor damping, has been discussed. The variety of design structures investigated for MEMS vibrating ring gyroscopes' mechanical, electrical, and damping performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0682.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Duffing equation; deep learning; neural networks; recurrent neural networks; long short term memory.
Online: 8 August 2023 (12:58:08 CEST)
This study uses machine learning to predict the convergence results of the Duffing equation with and without damping. The Duffing equation represents a nonlinear second-order differential equation with interesting behavior in undamped free vibration and forced vibration with damping. Convergence alternates randomly between 1 and -1 in undamped free vibration, depending on initial conditions. For forced vibration with damping, multiple factors influence vibration patterns. We utilize the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method to collect convergence results for both conditions. Machine learning techniques, specifically the long short term memory (LSTM) and LSTM-Neural Network (LSTM-NN) method, are employed to predict these convergence values. The LSTM-NN model is a hybrid approach that combines the LSTM method with the addition of hidden layers of neurons. Both the LSTM and LSTM-NN models are thoroughly explored and analyzed in this research. The research process involves three stages: data preprocessing, training, and verification. The results show that the LSTM-NN model becomes more adept at predicting binary datasets, boasting an impressive accuracy of up to 98%. However, when it comes to predicting multiple solutions, the traditional LSTM method outperforms the LSTM-NN approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0671.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Basketball Rim and Backboard; Modal Analysis; Frequency; Damping
Online: 8 August 2023 (11:52:49 CEST)
Six mode shapes, including bending and torsion, were documented for five different basketball rims and backboards at the United States Military Academy, West Point, New York, USA. The frequency and damping ratio of each mode shape were also determined. The empirical process began with the time-domain excitation and response of each rim-backboard system. The impulse of excitation came from an impact hammer separately applied to sequentially, to each node. The sinusoidal response was gathered from an accelerometer at a fixed location, node 1. Each time-domain excitation-response was then converted to a frequency domain Bode plot for each node by a B&K 2034 Signal Analyzer, giving transfer functions of output/input versus frequency. Structural Measurements System (SMS) Software was used to fit mode shapes to the Bode plots. Each of the six mode shapes were fitted to the Bode plots of each node at a specific modal frequency. Each of the six mode shapes were a function of the locations of the nodes, and the Bode plot gathered at each node. The first and second modes were critical for showing that the Energy Rebound Testing Device statistically correlated with the energy transferred to the rim and backboard. A known perturbation mass was selectively attached to the rim, to help isolate the dynamic masses and spring rates for the rim and backboard, to ascertain the kinetic energy transferred to the rim had a 95.67% inverse correlation with rim stiffness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0636.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: insoluble contaminants; hydraulic oil; varnish; Membrane Patch Colorimetry; ASTM D7843 – 21
Online: 8 August 2023 (09:30:41 CEST)
Insoluble contaminant or a varnish is a result of oil degradation by products and sometimes depleted additive molecules. This process is in most cases initiated by thermal stress placed on the oil. In tribology varnish becomes a significant problem for modern complex machinery lubrication systems as it has severe debilitating effects such as loss of operating clearances and heat transfer. Problems arising from varnish build-up in lubricants can be inhibited by timely oil analysis which gives us important information about oil-degradation level and current insoluble contaminants potential of oil. There are several laboratory testing methods to describe varnish potential. The most applied one is a colorimetric analysis, also known as MPC (Membrane Patch Colorimetry) as it tends to be reasonably quick and cost-effective. This study applies principles generally used for MPC test of turbine oils to measure lubricant generated insoluble contaminants of hydraulic fluids. For this purpose, in-service oil samples were taken from hydraulic circuits of rubber vulcanizing presses and analyzed using testing method based on method defined by standard ASTM D7843 – 21. Accuracy of this testing method is dependent on development time of tested sample. Therefore, we not only try to proof applicability of this method for hydraulic oils but also want to determine incubation time needed for efficient and accurate determination of concentration of insoluble contaminants in the sample.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0551.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Turbomachinery; Design optimization; Adjoint methods; Radial compressor; Volute
Online: 8 August 2023 (03:35:40 CEST)
Numerical optimization methods are widely used for designing turbomachinery components due to the cost and time savings they can provide. In the available literature, shape optimization of radial compressors is mainly focused on improving the impeller alone. However, it is a well-established knowledge that the volute plays a key role in the overall performance of the compressor. The aim of the present paper is to perform the adjoint-based optimization of a volute that is designed for the SRV2-O compressor. The CAD model is first created, using a parametrization of 33 design parameters. Then, a butterfly topology is applied to mesh the computational domain with a multi-block structured grid, and an elliptic smoothing procedure is then used to improve the quality of the fluid grid. A steady-state RANS CFD solver with Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model is used to solve the Navier-Stokes equations, and flow sensitivities are computed with an adjoint solver. The objective function consists in minimizing the loss coefficient of the volute. The optimization is performed to obtain an improved design with 14% losses reduction. Detailed flow and design analysis is carried out to highlight the loss reduction mechanisms followed by the optimizer. Finally, the compressor map of the full stage is compared between the baseline and the optimized volute through CFD simulations using a mixing plane interface. This research demonstrates the successful use of a gradient-based optimization technique to improve the volute of a radial compressor and opens the door towards optimizing simultaneously the wheel and the volute.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0540.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Molded hole, drilled hole, lap joint strength, epoxy composites
Online: 7 August 2023 (11:48:39 CEST)
Natural Fibre Reinforced Composites (NFRCs) represent a significant category of materials that has the capacity to contribute to the worldwide objectives of sustainability and environmental preservation. To maximise the potential of composite materials, it is essential to establish their high quality and cost-effective manufacture. While the basic production procedures for producing items based on NFRCs have reached a high level of development, more research efforts are needed to advance their secondary manufacturing processes, namely in the areas of machining and joining. The primary factor leading to the rejection of composite goods with holes is the damage generated during the drilling process. The present experimental study aims to examine the effectiveness of hole production during the moulding phase. A comparative analysis has been conducted to assess the mechanical characteristics of moulded and drilled holes in jute fibre reinforced epoxy composite. It was observed that the moulded holes exhibit superior performance compared to the drilled holes for jute/epoxy materials. Additionally, the load extension curves indicate that the moulded holes experience greater extension in comparison to the drilled holes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0487.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Physics Informed Neural Network; transport equation; architected materials; BCC lattice structure
Online: 7 August 2023 (11:26:21 CEST)
In this research, the application of the Physics-Informed Neural Network (PINN) model is explored to solve transport equation-based Partial Differential Equations (PDEs). The primary objective is to analyze the impact of different activation functions incorporated within the PINN model on its predictive performance, specifically assessing the Mean Squared Error (MSE) and Mean Absolute Error (MAE). The dataset used in the study consists of a varied set of input parameters related to strut diameter, unit cell size, and the corresponding yield stress values. Through this investigation, the aim is to understand the effectiveness of the PINN model and the significance of choosing appropriate activation functions for solving complex PDEs in real-world applications. The outcomes suggest that the choice of activation function may have minimal influence on the model's predictive accuracy for this particular problem. The PINN model showcases exceptional generalization capabilities, indicating its capacity to avoid overfitting with the provided dataset. The research underscores the importance of striking a balance between performance and computational efficiency while selecting an activation function for specific real-world applications. These valuable findings contribute to advancing the understanding and potential adoption of PINN as an effective tool for solving challenging PDEs in diverse scientific and engineering domains.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0279.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: additive manufacturing; laser-powder bed fusion; functionally graded materials; multi-material layer-level; nickel superalloy; stainless steel.
Online: 3 August 2023 (10:22:26 CEST)
In this work, a systematic study was conducted on the fabrication of multi-material components obtained employing Laser-Powder Bed Fusion (L-PBF) technology. The idea of making multi-material components is a winning capability of additive technologies because it allows the fabrication of Functionally Graded Materials (FGMs) with the customization of parts according to different required properties. The transition from one material to another was achieved gradually and continuously within the same layer using ad-hoc equipment designed for L-PBF systems with a powder spreading technique based on coaters or rollers. The influence of the relative position of the different materials within the powder chamber and the geometry of the developed equipment on the metallurgical and mechanical properties of the manufactured samples was evaluated. The performed tests involved the use of two materials, a nickel-based superalloy, and a stainless steel, having different chemical, physical and mechanical properties to obtain gradual properties variation in the manufactured samples. Based on the results of post-process characterization obtained through metallographic, chemical, and mechanical analysis, the relative positions of the materials and the geometry of the developed equipment have a limited effect on the sample’s manufactured properties. The characteristics of the FGM zone depend on the nature of the employed powders, and its extent coincides with that defined during the design of the divider.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0278.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: UMAT; viscoplasticity; 316 Stainless Steel; Zircaloy-4
Online: 3 August 2023 (10:19:21 CEST)
This paper describes the formulations for viscoplasticity of metals based on the Chaboche and Delobelle model. The implementations of the viscoplastic models were detailed herein and then implemented via user subroutines for material models (UMAT) in ABAQUS. Two typical metals, i.e., 316 Stainless Steel and Zircaloy-4, were chosen as examples and their viscoplastic behaviors were captured. Numerical simulations are compared to reported experiments to validate the models and the UMAT codes. Typical viscoplastic behaviors of both metals, such as stress relaxation and creep, were captured well against available experiments. We publicize all the data and codes via: https://github.com/XJTU-Zhou-group/ABAQUS_UMAT_316ss_Zr4.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0225.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Trametes versicolor; Gloephyllum trabeum; mycelium; young’s modulus; zinc-oxide; composite; impact energy
Online: 3 August 2023 (09:52:02 CEST)
Wood plastic composite usage and demands have increased due to chemical, and mechanical properties when compared to plastic materials. However, because of the possibility of structural and mechanical changes of the material when exposed to external environment more research needs to be done. In the present study yellow birch/HDPE composites materials made by injection molding were treated by zinc oxide and exposed to fungal rots. Mechanical properties of the composites were assessed by Tensile and Izod impact test. The impact energies of the samples loaded with 30 % ZnO-treated fibers and exposed to G. trabeum and T. versicolor decreased, compared to when samples were not treated with ZnO. The mechanical properties of all samples treated with ZnO and exposed to rot decreased which were reported as a decreased Young's modulus and impact energies. ZnO prevented mycelium proliferation which was nonexistent on samples. It has been noted that the decrease in mechanical properties of treated samples was due to NaOH used to dissolve the ZnO powder.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0223.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: compound and coupled planetary gear systems; series-parallel planetary gear systems; power flow; circulating power flow
Online: 3 August 2023 (02:46:01 CEST)
Comparisons of power flows and efficiencies in two structurally quite similar cylindrical series-parallel planetary gear systems (PGSs) were performed in three separate parts of this paper. Each of these single degree of freedom (DoF) systems consists of three different 2KH subsystems connected in series-parallel. The main goal was to prove that apart from complex, structurally and dynamically coupled PGSs, there are also complex and only structurally coupled PGSs, in which the phenomenon of power flow circulation inside closed loops does not occur. Such a half-coupled type of PGS is herein called pseudo-coupled. Therefore, Part I discusses in detail the geometry, kinematics and statics of coupled PGSs in order to determine power flow paths. A comparison of the directions of power flow in both types of PGSs can be made in Part II after determining the power flow paths in the second planetary gear in a similar way. The directions of power flow in both types of PGSs were determined in a relatively simple way, thanks to the distinction between active and passive torques and thus active and passive shafts of individual subsystems. The efficiency comparison made in Part III will show whether power circulation has an influence on the efficiency value, at least in these two types of PGSs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0159.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Local ratcheting; kinematic hardening model; backstress evolution; the Neuber rule; degree of interference fit (DIF); press-fitted and non-press-fitted samples
Online: 2 August 2023 (11:22:51 CEST)
The present study evaluates ratcheting response of notched and press-fitted Al 7075-T6 specimens under stress-controlled asymmetric cycles. The degree of interference fit (DIF) directly influenced progressive plastic strain magnitude and rate at notch root region. Local ratcheting at the hole-pin interference region was analyzed by means of two kinematic hardening rules of Ahmadzadeh-Varvani (A-V) and Chaboche coupled with the Neuber rule. Ratcheting strains at notch root of aluminum samples with DIF=0 (non-press-fitting samples) were measured to be highest in magnitude. For the press-fitted samples, however ratcheting strains dropped noticeably as DIF increased from 1% to 2%. Press-fitted samples plastically deformed the perimeter edge of notches and improved materials locally at the notch edge, resulting in a better resistance against ratcheting progress. Local ratcheting at different distances of 0.5, 1.3 and 3.0 mm from the notch root were evaluated for both pinned and unpinned samples through the hardening rules and compared with those of measured values. The predicted ratcheting curves by means of the A-V and Chaboche hardening rules closely agreed with experimental data and respectively positioned above and below the measured data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0197.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: hydrogen embrittlement; room temperature; strain rate; water electrolysis test
Online: 2 August 2023 (10:08:30 CEST)
Research has been actively conducted on the materials used to commercialize finished products that use hydrogen energy. Hydrogen embrittlement that occurs when hydrogen atoms penetrate metals is the largest problem that must be addressed first regarding safety. Because liquefied hydrogen has an 800 times higher density than hydrogen gas, hydrogen has been stored and transported through liquefaction at -253℃ using helium gas as a refrigerant. However, even if extreme temperatures below zero are maintained, natural vaporization loss that reduces liquefied hydrogen by 3 to 5% of the tank storage capacity per day occurs. In addition, when liquefied hydrogen is converted into high-pressure hydrogen gas for use, it is difficult to completely prevent the loss of the gas, even if sealing technology is applied to prevent gas leaks in transport and storage tanks. Therefore, methods to minimize the loss of hydrogen, establishment of assessment criteria for the embrittlement caused by a small amount of hydrogen gas, and related research are essential. We researched the hydrogen embrittlement resistance of SUS316L rods according to the tensile speed by conducting water electrolysis testing at room temperature, at which hydrogen gas is used to present hydrogen embrittlement assessment criteria for primary ring-shaped forged products.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0154.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Radio Telescope; Azimuth Wheel-Rail; Surface Damage; Electromagnetic Ultrasonic Testing
Online: 2 August 2023 (10:05:35 CEST)
The azimuth wheel-rail of large aperture radio telescope is the key component, it not only sup-ports the whole weight of the antenna, but also directly affects the pointing performance of the antenna with its surface accuracy. The whole weight of the radio telescope is hundreds or even thousands of tons, its azimuth frame rollers have great contact stress with the wheel-rail surface, repeated rolling can cause rolling contact fatigue on the wheel-rail surface, resulting in wear, cracks and other damage to the wheel-rail, and even lead to failure or fracture of the wheel-rail in serious cases, so it is very important to monitor the damage of the antenna wheel-rail. In order to visually detect the use of antenna wheel-rail surface, this paper proposed the method using electromagnetic ultrasonic detection to detect the damage of antenna wheel-rail surface for the first time. Based on the electromagnetic ultrasonic nondestructive testing principle, the simplified wheel-rail model containing wear, corrosion and crack damage is simulated. The results show that this method can effectively detect the surface damage of the antenna wheel-rail surface, and it can provide an important reference for the research of wheel-rail damage detection of large radio telescope.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0163.v1
Online: 2 August 2023 (08:44:22 CEST)
The automation of welding processes requires the use of automated systems and equipment, in many cases industrial robotic systems, to carry out welding processes that previously required human intervention. Automation in the industry offers numerous advantages, such as increased efficiency and productivity, cost reduction, improved product quality, increased flexibility and safety, and greater adaptability of companies to market changes. The field of welding automation is currently undergoing a period of profound changes due to a combination of technological, regulatory, and economic factors worldwide. Nowadays, the most relevant aspect of the welding industry is to meet customer requirements by satisfying their needs. To achieve this, the automation of the welding process through sensors and control algorithms ensures the quality of the parts and prevents errors such as porosity, unfused areas, deformations, excessive heat, etc. This paper proposes an intelligent and adaptive system based on the measurement of welding joints using laser scanning and the subsequent analysis of the obtained point cloud to adapt the welding trajectories.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0110.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Nickel-based Superalloy; finite element analysis; chattering analysis; milling stability; parameters optimization
Online: 2 August 2023 (08:14:44 CEST)
Nickel-based Superalloy Inconel 718 is widely used in the aerospace industry for its excellent high-temperature strength and thermal stability. However, milling Inconel 718 presents challenges due to significantly increased cutting force and vibration, which is a typical difficult-to-machine material. This paper focuses on the milling process of Inconel 718, establishing a milling force model to analyze the force trends under various processing parameters. Finite element analysis is employed to study the stress and temperature fields during milling. Dynamic equations for milling Inconel 718 are developed, and stability lobe diagrams are generated based on modal experiments. Milling experiments on Inconel 718 validate the milling force model and finite element analysis results. The fmincon optimization algorithm is utilized to identify the optimal machining parameters for Inconel 718. Through this research, valuable insights into enhancing the efficiency and quality of Inconel 718 machining are provided. This study contributes to a deeper understanding of Inconel 718 milling behavior, offering crucial guidance for more efficient machining processes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0029.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: rapeseed silique; swing impact method; impending fracturing method; pod-shattering characteristic; trial; analysis
Online: 2 August 2023 (05:33:21 CEST)
In order to reduce the silique shattering loss of rapeseed mechanical harvesting process, based on the state of force on the silique during rapeseed harvesting reel branch, Ningza 1810, Zhenyou 8 and Fengyou 306 were used as research objects, and the experimental research on the factors affecting rapeseed siliques shattering was carried out using the swing impact method. The experimental analysis showed that: rapeseed varieties, silique moisture content, silique growth position, collision material, impact speed, force position and other factors had significant effects on silique shattering. The impact velocity was less than 1.5m·s-1, the difference on the effect of each factor on pod-shattering was not significant, it was not easy to shatter when the moisture content of rapeseed silique was higher. The impact resistance of the front side of rapeseed was 2 to 4 times that of the bonding surface of rapeseed petals, the shattering rate of the top rapeseed silique was twice that of the bottom siliques, when siliques were supported, they were more likely to shatter under external forces than when they were unsupported. The experimental study of the mechanical properties of rapeseed siliques was carried out using the impending fracture method, the experimental analyses showed that the support position and force position of the silique, the loading speed and the growth position of the silique had a significant effect on the mechanical properties of the silique. The maximum cracking force was higher and bending strength was stronger when the body of the silique was supported, which the range of the maximum cracking force were 3.05N to 4.16N, and the bending strength range were 8.48 MPa to 11.57 MPa. The maximum cracking force and bending strength of the silique was stronger when the front side of the silique petal was pressurized than when the bonding surface of the petal was pressurized. Based on Pearson's correlation and grey correlation analysis, the morphological characteristics of rapeseed siliques were ranked in order of their influence on the performance of siliques in terms of the angle between silique and stalk, stalk diameter, petal thickness, beak length, silique thickness, silique width and silique length. This study can be used as a reference for the design and optimization of the rapeseed harvesting reel branch mechanism and the selection of machine harvestable rapeseed varieties.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0050.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Horizontal liquid layer, boiling, critical heat flux, instabilities, capillary-porous coating, void fraction.
Online: 2 August 2023 (04:30:36 CEST)
: Two-dimensional instability of a horizontal layer of boiling liquid with a finite height is experimentally studied. In this layer, “vapor columns” rose at the corners of a square rectangular grid. The symmetry of “vapor column” location on the heating surface is considered. The model considers the approach to the boiling crisis in terms of both developed nucleate boiling and transitional boiling (the Zuber problem). When dealing with developed nucleate boiling, the layer of boiling liquid is considered in calculations as an isotropic homogeneous system (foam). It is shown how the conditions on the heating surface (capillary-porous coating) affect external hydrodynamics of the liquid layer and, ultimately, the value of the critical heat flux. The calculation ratio obtained by approaching the boiling crisis with regard to developed nucleate boiling takes into account the dependence of the critical heat flux on the void fraction of the boiling liquid layer. A new solution to the boiling crisis problem is proposed when approaching the crisis from the point of transitional boiling (the Zuber problem). This new solution eliminates some shortcomings of the classical problem (in particular, the void fraction of the layer corresponds to the experiments).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0045.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Plasticizer plasticizing; Thermoplastic starch; Box–Behnken design; Response surface method; Starch-based composite packaging material
Online: 1 August 2023 (10:18:48 CEST)
Due to the non-degradability of petroleum-based packaging materials, serious environmental pollution and the depletion of non-renewable resources have become pressing issues. In order to actively promote green production and address these concerns, there is an urgent need for new packaging materials to replace traditional plastic products. Starch-based packaging materials, composed of starch, fiber, and plasticizers, offer a degradable and environmentally friendly alternative. Starch alone cannot undergo thermoplastic processing due to its inherent structural characteristics. Therefore, researchers have explored modifications by incorporating plasticizers to create processable thermoplastic starch (TPS). However, there are challenges related to the high crystallinity and poor compatibility between TPS and fibers, resulting in decreased mechanical properties. To address these challenges, a novel approach combining plasticizer optimization and response surface method (RSM) optimization has been proposed to enhance the mechanical properties of starch-based packaging materials. This method leverages the advantages of composite plasticizers and process parameters. The findings demonstrate that the composite plasticizer effectively disrupt the hydrogen bonding and granule morphology of starch, leading to a significant reduction in crystallinity. Based on these findings, the optimal process parameters are determined using the RSM, resulting in a forming temperature of 198 °C, forming time of 5.4 minutes, and AC content of 0.84 grams. Compared with the non-optimized values, the tensile strength increases by 12.2% and the rebound rate increases by 8.1%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0010.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: soft robotics; soft gripper; pneumatic mechanism; variable stiffness; mechanical structure
Online: 1 August 2023 (09:37:40 CEST)
In recent times, the soft robotics field is gaining numerous research focus owing to its high level of manipulation capabilities unlike traditional rigid robots, which gives room for an increasing use in other areas. However, compared to traditional rigid gripper robots, being capable of controlling/obtaining overall body stiffness when required is yet to be further explored since soft gripper robots have inherently less rigid properties. unlike previous designs with very complex variable stiffness systems, this paper demonstrates a soft gripper design with minimum system complexity while being capable of varying the stiffness of a continuum soft robotic actuator and proves to have potential applications in gripping objects of various shapes, weights & sizes. The soft gripper actuator comprises two separate mechanisms; the pneumatic mechanism for bending control and the mechanical structure for stiffness variation by pulling tendons using stepper motors which compresses the actuator, thereby changing the overall stiffness. The pneumatic mechanism was first fabricated and then embedded into another silicon layer during which it was as well merged with the mechanical structure for stiffness control. By first pneumatically actuating the actuator which causes bending and then pulling the tendons, we found out that the actuator stiffness value can be increased up to 145 % its initial value, and the gripper can grasp & lift a weight of up to 2.075 kg.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.2059.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: austenitic steel; hydrogen charging; impact toughness; tribology
Online: 31 July 2023 (10:36:17 CEST)
In this work a solution-annealed AISI 316H grade austenitic stainless steel was studied in terms of investigating the electrolytic hydrogen charging effects on the resulting Charpy impact toughness and dry sliding tribological behavior. Conventional Charpy impact bending tests were employed to study the mechanical response of the investigated material to dynamic loading conditions, whereas dry linear sliding tribological tests were used to study the material friction and wear behavior. The obtained mechanical and tribological properties were correlated with corresponding fracture and tribological mechanisms determined from morphological observations of fracture surfaces and tribological tracks. The applied testing procedures were individually carried out for the non-hydrogenated, hydrogen-charged, and dehydrogenated material conditions. The observed changes of individual properties due to applied hydrogen charging were rather small which indicated good resistance of the solution-annealed AISI 316H steel against material degradation in currently used electrolytic hydrogenation conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1968.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Casson Fluid; Entropy generation; Heat Transfer; Porous medium; Finite Element Method; Natural Convection.
Online: 28 July 2023 (08:42:15 CEST)
This study presents a comprehensive investigation of entropy generation during natural convection in a porous medium with Casson fluid. The governing equations, including the momentum, energy, and entropy balance equations, are solved numerically using finite element method. Through the analysis, various parameters affecting entropy generation are investigated, such as the Casson fluid parameter, Radiation, Prandtl number, and Rayleigh number. The results indicate that the Casson fluid parameter significantly influences the flow and heat transfer characteristics, while the Darcy number and Rayleigh number control the intensity of natural convection. Moreover, the Prandtl number determines the relative significance of heat transfer compared to viscous effects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1561.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: axial compressor; rotor blade; blade-disc connection; FEM; FSI
Online: 27 July 2023 (09:19:10 CEST)
In the following work, the assessment of the strength properties of the critical area of the rotor stage of the turbine jet engine was undertaken. This is the place of fixing the blade in the rotor disc. An important aspect of this issue are characteristic geometrical dimensions and operating factors e.g., change in rotor speed. In this paper, the assessment of the strength properties of the existing trapezoidal blade-disc connection was undertaken using parametric analysis considering FSI. Virtual models of the compressor rotor stage were developed, including parametric blade-disc connections and discrete models for FEM and CFD analyses. In the parametric analysis of the blade-disc connection, one-way fluid-structure coupling was used. The parametric analysis was aimed at assessing selected geometric parameters in terms of their impact on the maximum reduced stresses in the blade root. It was examined how the adopted value of the friction coefficient influences the maximum reduced stresses in the rotor stage of the compressor.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1780.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: flexible touch sensor; biomimetics; bio‐inspired material; bio‐inspired structure; bioinspired sensor
Online: 26 July 2023 (10:56:58 CEST)
Wearable touch sensors, which can convert force or pressure signals into quantitative electronic signals, have emerged as an essential smart sensing devices and played an important role in various cutting-edge fields, including wearable health monitoring, soft robots, electronic skin, artificial prosthetics, AR/VR, and the Internet of Things. Flexible touch sensors have made significant advancements, while construction of novel touch sensors via mimicking the unique properties of biological materials and biogenetic structures always remains a hot research topic and significant technological pathway. This review provides a comprehensive summary of the research status of wearable touch sensors constructed by imitating the material and structural characteristics in nature, and also summarizes the scientific challenges and development tendency of this aspect. Firstly, the research status for constructing flexible touch sensors based on biomimetic materials is summarized, including hydrogel materials, self-healing materials, and other bioinspired or biomimetic materials with extraordinary properties. Then, design and fabrication of flexible touch sensors based on bionic structures for performance enhancement are fully discussed. These bionic structures include special structures in plants, special structures insects/animal, and special structures in human body. Moreover, a summary of the current issues and future prospects for developing wearable sensors based on bioinspired materials and structures is discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1651.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: superconductor; strain measurement; neutron scattering; MgB2
Online: 25 July 2023 (09:23:11 CEST)
MgB2 is a hexagonal superconducting material, and its simple composition has led to the development of low-cost practical wires. However, the problem is that the strain characteristics of filaments are inferior to those of other practical wires, but there have been no strain measurements using diffraction method. The reason for this is presumably that it is a little too thick for synchrotron radiation measurements, and the large absorption cross section of the included boron-10 makes it difficult to obtain elastic scattering for neutron measurements. We prepared a wire substituted with boron-11, an isotope with small neutron absorption cross section, and attempted to measure its strain under tensile loading using pulsed neutron.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1636.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: roughness; surface topography; geometric deviations
Online: 25 July 2023 (05:26:57 CEST)
Shaped surfaces are increasingly used in the field of mould making for casting or injection moulding, where future products include shapes with different curvatures. These are surfaces that form convex curves, concave curves, or a combination thereof. Given these machined surfaces, it is important to know the impact of the finishing strategies on these surfaces. This paper deals with the comparison of finishing milling strategies in the production of shaped surfaces and the analysis of different methods for the evaluation of surface topography, surface roughness and the evaluation of deviations. The material used for the experiments was AlCu4Mg aluminium alloy, and Constant Z, Spiral and Spiral circle strategies were chosen for the finishing strategies. The evaluation of surface topography and surface roughness was carried out at three different sample heights with respect to the tool contact with the machined surface. The results showed changes in the toolpaths due to the variation of the effective diameter of the tool cutter to the machined surface as well as the choice of strategy. To produce specimens with corresponding shapes in terms of topography, the Constant Z strategy was the most suitable, in which uniform toolpaths were obtained over the whole height of the sample.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1590.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: PDC bit; heterogeneous granite; mixed cloth teeth; Box-Behnken; finite element analysis
Online: 25 July 2023 (04:22:49 CEST)
The cutter structure and layout scheme of PDC (Polycrystalline Diamond Compact) bits are important factors in improving efficiency. To further improve the drilling efficiency of PDC bits, axe, triangular prism, and cylindrical PDC cutters were used as research objects. Based on the measured granite data, a finite element model of non-homogeneous granite was established and verified by uniaxial compression simulation. The rock-breaking process of different cutter combination schemes was compared using the finite element method, and the parameters in the best scheme were optimized using the Box-Behnken response surface method. The results show that the constructed model of non-homogeneous granite is consistent with the stress-strain relationship of real granite and is reliable. The axe PDC cutter is more aggressive than the other two cutters and is more suitable for the front row of the bit blade tooth arrangement, while the triangular prism cutter is the second most aggressive and is suitable for the rear row of tooth arrangement, and the best combination scheme is the front row of axe cutter and the rear row of triangular prism cutter arranged alternately with the axe cutter. The optimal transverse and longitudinal distances of the optimized triangular prism cutter from the front axe cutter are 10mm and 7mm, and the optimal transverse and longitudinal distances of the rear axe cutter from the front cutter are 10.06mm and 7mm. The drilling speed is more stable during drilling and the PDC bit with mixed tooth arrangement has 16.8% and 16.6% higher rate of penetration(ROP) compared with the bit with single axe cutter and triangular prism cutter, and the drilling speed is more stable during working, which can effectively improve the rock breaking efficiency of the PDC bit. The field application proves that the bit with mixed cutter arrangement is easier to break the complex formations, with more stable ROP and better efficiency. The study can provide theoretical support for the cutter layout of the PDC bit.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1525.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: brushless motors; robotics; actuator design; efficiency
Online: 24 July 2023 (10:36:34 CEST)
In recent years, exterior-rotor brushless DC motors have become increasingly popular in robotics applications due to their compact shape and high torque density. However, these motors were originally used for continuous operation in drones. For applications such as exoskeletons, prostheses, or legged robots, short bursts of high power are often required. Unfortunately, vendors do not typically provide data on the motors' performance under these conditions. This paper presents experimental data on the torque-speed relationship, efficiency, and thermal responses of one of the most widely used outrunner-type brushless motors across its full operating range, including high-power, short-duration operation. The results of this study can inform the selection and design of actuators for a range of robotics applications, particularly those that require high power output for brief periods of time.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1518.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Inverse gas dynamics tables; Taylor’s series; Leibnitz theorem; Prandtl-Meyer angle; Isentropic expansion
Online: 24 July 2023 (02:15:20 CEST)
The available direct gas dynamic tables provide the area ratio and the Prandtl-Meyer(P-M) angle of isentropic expansion of gas as functions of the Mach number. But finding the value of the Mach number in terms of area ratio or P-M angle requires an inverse function. Currently, the Mach number is determined by either interpolation from the direct gas dynamics tables, or the application of non-linear equation solvers using numerical methods. Both methods are approximate. In this paper inverse functions for Mach number in the form of Taylor’s series expansions are reported to develop the so-called inverse tables. The advantage of this approach is that the Mach number with a greater accuracy, referred to as nearly exact can be obtained by reading from the inverse table. In the presentation, the necessary equations and new tables that can be used by the scientific community will be disseminated. The data and computer programs are made available on GitHub through https://github.com/anillals/Inverse-gas-dynamic-tables- and-codes. A paper describing the complete mathematical steps in the derivation of the equations can be found at https://rdcu.be/dgrlf
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1511.v1
Online: 24 July 2023 (02:12:27 CEST)
To increase the power density of the electromechanical drive train of wind turbines, journal bearings can be used as planetary gear bearings instead of rolling bearings. This technological change presents new challenges. For example, wind turbine drive systems are subject to dynamic and low-speed operating conditions which can lead to an accelerated abrasive wear of the journal bearings. In addition, oil supply failure or peak loads due to wind gusts and grid and power converter faults could potentially result in catastrophic failure due to adhesive wear in a very short time. Such operating characteristics are, therefore, critical regarding the journal bearing wear lifetime and must be considered in the design. The successful implementation of journal bearings in wind turbines depends on a reliable estimation of adhesive and abrasive wear. In this paper, five different models for the wear calculation of journal bearings are evaluated regarding their suitability of wear calculation of planetary gear bearings in wind turbines. For this purpose, the following evaluation criteria were defined: parameter uncertainty, parametrization effort, in particular number of parameters, parameterization method and load case dependency of parameters and calculation effort. In order to be able to evaluate the wear models, the wear models are numerically implemented and the wear of a test journal bearing is exemplarily calculated under load conditions, which are comparable to load conditions in a wind turbine. Relevant influences from the wind turbine system such as lubricant, material and manufacturing dependent surface influences like roughness and hardness are considered. The wear models are evaluated with respect to their fulfillment of the defined criteria. The resulting evaluation allows the selection of a wear model that can be used to calculate the wear of planetary gear journal bearings in wind turbines, considering the available input variables.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1466.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Web-Based Application; Waste Management; Laravel
Online: 21 July 2023 (05:23:06 CEST)
Waste management is a significant issue that Indonesia must face. The presence of waste will always exist as long as life continues. One of the main challenges in waste management is the proper separation of organic and inorganic waste. As a solution to address this issue, the Ministry of Environment has made efforts to develop Waste Banks. However, it also creates new problems related to manual data collection, lack of monitoring by the community in implementing waste management activities, and a lack of specific reports regarding waste management conducted by officers. We propose the creation of a website using the Agile Development SDLC method. This website involve several steps and incorporate functions for data digitalization and expedited data collection, such as the addition of QR Code functionality, Monthly Reporting Function, and enhanced data security. The method used in this research is Agile Development. The application has been developed with a user-friendly interface and the latest web development technologies to ensure smooth performance. Overall, the web-based application for organic and inorganic waste using Laravel is an important step to promoting sustainable waste management practices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1407.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Agricultural waste utilization; Waste reuse, recycling, and recovery; Recycling and reuse of waste plastic film; Fluid-solid coupling simulation; bonding V2 model; agglomerate disaggregation
Online: 20 July 2023 (10:11:20 CEST)
A tumbler screen type residual film–impurity mixture wind separator as a key equipment for secondary utilization of farmland residual film. During the working process, the proportion of impurities in the separated waste mulch film intermittently increases, resulting in poor working stability of the device, which may hamper long-term operation. In this study, the material inside the separation unit was continuously monitored, and the main factor affecting separator per-formance was determined to be the challenges in the effective depolymerization of some residual film–impurity mixtures. The principles of agglomeration and depolymerization of the residual film–impurity mixtures were analyzed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and discrete element method (DEM) flow-solid coupling simulation methods. The key factor affecting the disaggregation of the mixture was the collision force between the residual film–impurity mixture and the trommel screen. The collision force was maximum when the residual film–impurity mixture first collided with the trommel screen when it was fed into the separation device. As determined by force analyses, the key factors affecting the collision force of the process were the material feeding amount and the structure of the inlet. Furthermore, simulations were carried out for different inlet structure forms; the evaluation index was the maximum collision force of the residual film–impurity mixture agglomerate on the trommel screen. The best disaggregation effect was obtained with a square feed inlet and at a feeding rate of 202 kg/h. A prototype was built using these specifications for verification. The average value of the ratio of impurities in the re-sidual film was 6.966%, the coefficient of variation was 7.38%, and the dispersion of statistical results was small. The ratio of impurities in the residual film was kept constant during the con-tinuous operation of the wind separator. Thus, this study analyzed the agglomerate disaggregation process and provided theoretical insights for deter-mining the optimal structures of the inlets of various cleaning devices and the feeding volumes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1296.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Friction stir welding; Numerical models; Strain and temperature distributions; Material flow; Force and torque
Online: 19 July 2023 (12:42:53 CEST)
Employing numerical methods to simulate manufacturing processes and study their influential factors is increasing. The development of computers and engineering software has increased the ability and accuracy of numerical methods in simulating various aspects of different processes. One of the manufacturing processes that has been considered by many industries in recent years to join metals in solid-state with unique properties is called friction stir welding. It is challenging and, in some cases, impossible to experimentally study the various aspects of this process, such as temperature distribution, stress distribution, and material flow, due to severe plastic deformation in the weld zone. In this case, numerical methods are used to investigate these parameters and better understand the process. This study first investigates various numerical methods researchers use to simulate the process. The ability, pros, and cons of these methods to simulate the process are also examined. Then, the applications of numerical models in simulating the temperature distribution during the process as well as the effects of input parameters on the temperature history of the process, are deeply considered. Next, the application of numerical methods in material flow modeling during the process is investigated. Finally, the modeling of the microstructure of the welding zone is investigated using numerical methods that help significantly in predicting the weld microstructure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1320.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: pulsed laser; pulse width; cavitation; mechanical surface treatment; peening
Online: 19 July 2023 (09:55:44 CEST)
The impact induced by cavitation bubble collapse can be utilized for mechanical surface treatment to improve fatigue properties of metals including additive manufactured metallic materials. A peening method using cavitation impact induced by a pulsed laser is called “laser cavitation peening (LCP)”. Normally, a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser, whose pulse width is a few nanoseconds, is used for LCP, which improves the fatigue strength. The problem with LCP is that the processing time is too slow. If a laser pulse whose pulse width is a few hundred microseconds can be utilized for LCP, the repetition frequency can be increased drastically using other types of laser systems such as a fiber laser. In the present paper, in order to reveal the possibility of LCP using a pulsed laser width of a few hundred microseconds, the use of LCP with a normal-oscillation Nd:YAG laser (pulse width ≈ 200 us) was investigated. It is demonstrated that LCP with the normal-oscillation Nd:YAG laser produced curvature in an aluminum alloy plate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1172.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: corrugated board; bending stiffness; multilayer unsymmetrical panels, boundary conditions; finite element analysis
Online: 18 July 2023 (10:18:51 CEST)
In the laboratory practice, several standards for testing the bending stiffness of corrugated board are used. There are often cases of tests where the results depend on the way the sample is placed on the supports. The problem arises when the board is five-ply (with two corrugated layers with different corrugation heights) or when the board has asymmetrically selected papers on the flat layers. In this article, we focus our attention on the problem related to boundary conditions, with particular attention to the local effects of the support of the sample. Since the cardboard layers, both flat and corrugated, have a small thickness, a slight deformation of the papers can always be observed at the point of contact between the sample and the support, which affects the readings of the measured stiffness. The paper presents theoretical and numerical analyzes showing how much the method of supporting the sample affects the measured bending stiffness of various samples. Numerical observations were also compared with the results of analyzes presented by other scientists as well as with experimental results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1186.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Redistribution layer; layout impact; machine learning; thermo-mechanical simulation; equivalent material properties
Online: 18 July 2023 (08:16:16 CEST)
The decreasing width, increasing aspect ratio RDL presents significant challenges to design for reliability (DFR) of advanced package. Therefore, this paper proposes a ML based RDL modeling and simulation method. In the method, RDL is divided into blocks and subdivided into pixels of metal percentage, and the RDL is digitalized as tensors. Then, an ANN-based surrogate model is built and trained by a subset of tensors to predict the equivalent material properties of each block. Lastly, all blocks are transformed into elements for simulations. For validation, line bending simulations were conducted on an RDL, with the reaction force as accuracy indicator. The results show that neglecting layout impact causes critical errors as substrate thins. By the method, the reaction force error is 2.81% and the layout impact can accurately be considered with 200×200 elements. For application, the TCT maximum temperature state simulation was conducted on a CPU chip. The simulation indicates that for advanced package the maximum stress more likely occurs in RDL rather than bumps, both RDL and bumps are critical impacted by layouts, and RDL stress is also impacted by vias/bumps. The proposed method precisely concerns layout impacts with little resources, presents an opportunity of efficiency improvement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1180.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: laboratorní stroj, vibrace, plastový držák, válec dopravníku, podpěra, příčka, válec dopravníku
Online: 18 July 2023 (07:19:01 CEST)
The article describes the basic parts and the overall design of the laboratory machine, which can be used to measure vibrations generated by a rotating conveyor roller attached to the flattened parts of its axis in the cut-outs of the conveyor idler support. On the structurally modified support of the conveyor idler consisting of the insertion of a plastic element placed between the roller axis and the support cut-out, the vibration acceleration values of the rotating roller were measured and compared with the values of the traditional roller axis placement in the steel support. The size of the peripheral speed of the roller was determined, during the experimental measurements, by controlling the speed of the electric motor using a frequency converter. The obtained results of the measured values of vibration velocities in three mutually perpendicular planes showed a reduction in vibration values of about 15% when using plastic holders. The paper aims to present one of the possible technical solutions that can limit the vibration values transmitted to the supporting structure of the conveyor belt, generated by the rotating casing of the conveyor roller.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1167.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: artificial neural network; box strength estimation; buckling; corrugated board; packaging
Online: 18 July 2023 (05:24:47 CEST)
Artificial intelligence is increasingly used in various branches of engineering. In this article, artificial neural networks are used to predict the crush resistance of corrugated packaging. Among the analysed packages were boxes with ventilation openings, packages with perforations, and typical flap boxes, which makes the proposed estimation method very universal. Typical shallow feedforward networks were used, which are perfect for regression problems, mainly when the set of input and output parameters is small, so no complicated architecture or advanced learning techniques are required. The input parameters of the neural networks are selected so as to take into account not only the material used for the production of the packaging, but also the dimensions of the box and the impact of ventilation holes and perforations on the load capacity of individual walls of the packaging. In order to maximize the effectiveness of neural network training process, the group of input parameters was changed so as to eliminate those to which the sensitivity of the model was the lowest. This allowed the selection of the optimal configuration of training pairs for which the estimation error was on the acceptable level. Finally, models of neural networks were selected, for which the training and testing error did not exceed 10%. The demonstrated effectiveness allows to conclude that the proposed set of universal input parameters is suitable for efficient training of a single neural network model capable of predicting the compressive strength of various types of corrugated packaging.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1073.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Corrugated board; humidity; temperature; mechanical properties; numerical homogenization; sensitivity analysis
Online: 17 July 2023 (08:11:45 CEST)
Paper is a material whose mechanical properties are highly dependent on humidity and temperature. Which naturally also builds the relationship between the stiffness and strength of corrugated board and changing weather conditions. In this paper, attention is focused on the dependence of the physical properties of the cardboard on changes in humidity and temperature, which undergo dynamic fluctuations both during the production of corrugated board and during its storage. Two techniques were used to test this effect, namely numerical homogenization and global sensitivity analysis. Both methods were implemented to determine the theoretical relationships between the change in humidity and/or temperature in each layer of corrugated board and its global bending, compression and shear stiffness. The procedure was used to analyze different types of 5-ply and 3-ply cardboard. The obtained results allowed to build a complete map of the relationship between the change in humidity of selected layers and the strength characteristics of the full assembly.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0834.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: emotion recognition, auditory stimulation, EEG signals, convolutional neural network (CNN), long short term memory (LSTM), brain-computer interface (BCI)
Online: 13 July 2023 (04:53:51 CEST)
Emotions play a vital role in understanding human behavior and interpersonal relationships. The ability to recognize emotions through Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals offers an alternative to traditional methods, such as questionnaires, enabling the identification of emotional states in a non-intrusive manner. Automatic emotion recognition holds great potential, eliminating the need for clinical examinations or physical visits, thereby contributing significantly to the advancement of Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) technology. However, one of the key challenges lies in effectively selecting and extracting relevant features from the EEG signal to establish meaningful distinctions between different emotional states. The process of feature selection is often time-consuming and demanding. In this research, we propose a groundbreaking approach for automatically identifying three emotional states (positive, negative, and neutral) by leveraging auditory stimulation of EEG signals. Our novel method directly applies the raw EEG signal to a Convolutional Neural Network-Long Short Term Memory (CNN-LSTM) architecture, bypassing the conventional feature extraction and selection steps. This unconventional approach offers a significant departure from existing literature. Our proposed network architecture comprises ten convolutional layers, followed by three LSTM layers and two fully connected layers. Through extensive simulations and evaluations on 12 active channels, our algorithm demonstrates exceptional performance, achieving an accuracy of 97.42\% and 95.23\% for the binary classification of negative and positive emotions, as well as a Cohen's Kappa coefficient of 0.96 and 0.93 for the three-class classification (negative, neutral, and positive), respectively. These promising results highlight the efficacy of our novel methodology and its potential implications in advancing emotion recognition using EEG signals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0801.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Die pressing and sintering; powder metallurgical process; titanium aluminide powder
Online: 12 July 2023 (21:26:27 CEST)
Due to the high specific surface area of titanium aluminide powders, significant and unavoidable surface oxidation takes place during processing. The resulting oxides disrupt the conventional powder metallurgical process route (pressing and sintering) by reducing green strength and sintered properties. Oxide-free particle surfaces offer the potential to significantly increase particle bond strength and enable the processing of difficult-to-press material powders. In this work, the effect of milling titanium aluminide powder in a silane-doped atmosphere on the component properties after pressing and subsequent sintering was investigated. Ball milling was used to break up the oxide layers and create bare metal surfaces on the particles. With the help of silane-doped inert gas, the oxygen partial pressure was greatly reduced during machining. It was investigated whether oxide-free surfaces could be produced and maintained by milling in silane-doped at-mospheres. Furthermore, the resulting material properties after pressing and sintering were an-alyzed using density measurements, hardness tests, EDX-measurements and micrographs. It was concluded, that ball milling in a silane-doped atmosphere produces and maintains oxide-free particle surfaces. These oxide-free surfaces and smaller particle sizes improve the component properties after pressing and sintering.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0514.v2
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: photovoltaic systems; pumped hydroelectric; energy storage systems; annual energy production-energy demand.
Online: 11 July 2023 (10:17:09 CEST)
This paper focuses on designing and assessing Pumped Hydroelectric Energy Storage Systems (PHES), connected to the grid and PV system for self-consumption structured at Mutah university in an area of high solar potential. In focusing on PHES and PV literature was made to have data on the field, based on the grid code needed in Jordan. Next, a prospection to find the proper location for the installation was done. Afterward, a load profile was inserted to know the energy demand of the university. Then The productivity of the solar power plant of Mutah University was included. Finally, MATLAB software was used to realize the amount of energy to be stored, this data was used to implement the system which was chosen and sized. PHES layout was created to find the most accurate values for parameters to optimize the system performance, and to investigate the loss analysis. The system attains 9230.89 MWh/year. An annual load yields 4430 MWh/year, which covers the Mutah university demand with an estimated saving of 2039773 JD.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0528.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: UAV; synthetic fibers; biocomposites; airframe; natural fibers; drones
Online: 10 July 2023 (11:13:32 CEST)
Natural fibers have been widely used as a reinforcing material for the construction of drones. The main goal of this review is to identify a biodegradable natural fiber material that can be built for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). The review shows that natural fibers such as kenaf and PALF can be used as an alternative composite material, particularly for multifunctional applications where their smaller weight and less expensive characteristics make them incredibly realistic. This review also discusses the mechanical properties, advantages and disadvantages, and fabrication of the composites.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0559.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: High-strength steel; Q&P process; retained austenite; press hardening; press partitioning
Online: 10 July 2023 (09:40:06 CEST)
Limited availability of expensive alloying elements elevates low-alloyed steels to a unique position in the field of lightweight construction and mass production. Quenching and partitioning (Q&P) heat treatments of low-alloyed steels with exceptional property combinations are particularly promising. In this study, we characterize for the first time a new low-alloyed steel to be processed by Q&P heat treatments. In combined experimental and numerical studies, we design a novel approach that effectively combines the short cycle times of press hardening with the excellent property profiles of Q&P-treated steels. We identify appropriate transformation parameters for Q&P heat treatments by dilatometric studies and we adjust a number of reference conditions with different isothermal holding times. By means of SEM analysis and XRD measurements, we show that different fractions of retained austenite result in different mechanical properties. Initial numerical designs of the process can identify varying temperature profiles and cooling rates depending on the position in the die. The results show that the geometry of the part plays a minor role, but the die temperature is the dominant factor for successful partitioning directly in the press hardening process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0449.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: mechanization; design; film side outcrop cultivation; Codonopsis
Online: 7 July 2023 (05:36:39 CEST)
In response to the problem of no supporting equipment for the cultivation of Codonopsis in the hilly and mountainous areas of northwest China, a combined machine for transplanting outcrop of Codonopsis with micro ridge covered with film is designed. The key components of the prototype are analyzed and designed, and the structures and working parameters of the seedbed preparation device, seedling casting device, rotary tillage soil-covering device, film covering device, seedling head burial and film edge soil-covering device are determined. The transmission system scheme is established, and the working mechanism of the core components is analyzed. Field experiments show that when the target seedling spacing is 4.4cm and the machines moves forward at the speed of 0.1, 0.15, and 0.2m/s, the variation coefficient of planting spacing and the qualification rate of planting depth all meet the standard requirements. The qualified rate of planting posture and film side outcrop are greatly affected by the operating speed of the machine, and decrease with the increase of operating speed. When the operating speed reaches 0.1m/s, the average variation coefficient of planting spacing is 0.08%, the average qualified rate of planting depth, planting posture and film side outcrop is 95.83%, 94.17% and 93.33% respectively, which shows that the operating performance is better than that of the operating speed of 0.15m/s and 0.2m/s. This study provides new reference for the theoretical research and design of mechanized and automated transplanting machinery for Codonopsis seedlings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0369.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: autonomous vehicle; path planning; hybrid controller; dragonfly algorithm; fuzzy logic
Online: 6 July 2023 (07:52:20 CEST)
Navigation is the most challenging issue in autonomous vehicles. Researchers in the current era have developed many Artificial Intelligence techniques to navigate, generate paths, and avoid obstacles for optimum path planning for autonomous vehicles. Different studies have investigated bio-inspired techniques to overcome the navigation issue, including obstacle avoidance. This paper uses new meta-heuristic optimization techniques called Dragonfly Algorithm (DA) to set the goal by detecting and avoiding obstacles with minimum human interference. For effective results, the Dragonfly-Fuzzy hybrid algorithm is analyzed over the unstructured environment because individual techniques may not be sure of an optimal solution over all configurations. The main advantage of the proposed hybrid controller is that it combines the multiple features of different approaches into a single controller. This paper compares simulation and experimental findings over various environmental conditions to the individual algorithm. Regarding time and path optimization, the hybrid Dragonfly-Fuzzy controller performs better than the respective controller.