ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0357.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biology And Life Sciences Keywords: Cardiomyopathy; myosin RLC; myosin ELC; N-terminal protein modification, S15D-RLC phosphomimetic, super-relaxed state (SRX); Tg mice
Online: 5 June 2023 (16:43:56 CEST)
This study focuses on mimicking constitutive phosphorylation in the N-terminus of the myosin regulatory light chain (S15D-RLC) as a rescue strategy for the mutation-induced cardiac dysfunction in transgenic (Tg) models of restrictive (RCM) and dilated (DCM) cardiomyopathy caused by mutations in myosin essential (ELC) or regulatory (RLC) light chains. S15D-RLC phosphomimetic was reconstituted in left ventricular papillary muscle (LVPM) fibers from two mouse models of cardiomyopathy, RCM-E143K ELC and DCM-D94A RLC, along with their corresponding Tg-ELC and Tg-RLC wild type (WT) mice. The beneficial effects of S15D-RLC in rescuing cardiac function were manifested by S15D-RLC-induced destabilization of the super-relaxed (SRX) state that was observed in both models of cardiomyopathy. S15D-RLC promoted a shift from the SRX state to the disordered relaxed (DRX) state, increasing the number of heads readily available to interact with actin and produce force. Additionally, S15D-RLC reconstituted fibers demonstrated significantly higher maximal isometric force per cross-section of muscle compared with reconstitution with WT-RLC protein. The effects of the phosphomimetic S15D-RLC were compared to those observed for Omecamtiv Mecarbil (OM), a myosin activator shown to bind to the catalytic site of cardiac myosin and increase myocardial contractility. A similar SRX↔DRX equilibrium shift was observed in OM=treated fibers as in S15D-RLC-reconstituted preparations. Additionally, treatment with OM resulted in significantly higher maximal pCa 4 force per cross-section of muscle fibers in both cardiomyopathy models. Our results suggest that both treatments with S15D-RLC and OM may improve the function of myosin motors and cardiac muscle contraction in RCM-ELC and DCM-RLC mice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0356.v1
Subject: Pharmacology And Toxicology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: NSCLC; JAC4; DNA repair; radiotherapy; bidirectional effect
Online: 5 June 2023 (16:38:38 CEST)
More than 50% of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are treated with radiotherapy (RT) during different phases of treatment. However, radiation pneu-monitis (RP) and resistance often lead to RT failure in NSCLC patients. JWA, a tumor suppressor gene, is known to enhance DNA damage in gastric cancer cells while protect normal cells from DNA damage induced by cisplatin. Recently, we have re-ported that JWA agonist compound 4 (JAC4) effectively protects intestinal epithelium from RT triggered damage in mice. However, the potential synergistic and attenuated effects of JAC4 in chest RT of lung cancer are not been illuminated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of JAC4 on the radiotoxicities of both NSCLC and normal lung tissue. CCK-8 and colony formation assays showed that JAC4 played a bidirectional role in radiation-treated SPCA-1 and BEAS-2B cells. Western blotting and immunofluorescence assays showed that JAC4 in combination with RT increased DNA damage and apoptosis in SPCA-1 cells, while the opposite effect was observed in BEAS-2B cells. Mechanistically, JAC4 inhibited homologous recombination repair (HR) and non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) in SPCA-1 cells, but not in normal cells. JAC4 increased antioxidant capacity, and reduced oxidative stress and inhibited nu-clear factor Kappa-B (NF-κB, P65) translocation to the nucleus in BEAS-2B cells. Im-portantly, the bidirectional roles of JAC4 on RT were reversed by siJWA in both SPCA-1 and BEAS-2B cells. Finally, the bidirectional effects of JAC4 in combination with RT were further validated in NSCLC xenograft model mice. In conclusion, JAC4 enhanced effect of RT on tumor growth while alleviated RP and lung injury. Our re-sults may provide new strategy for optimizing RT regimen for NSCLC.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0355.v1
Subject: Biomaterials, Chemistry And Materials Science Keywords: chitosan; polyelectrolyte complexes; food packaging
Online: 5 June 2023 (16:38:20 CEST)
The current challenges in the food packaging field are, on one side, replacing plastic from non-renewable sources with biopolymers and, on the other hand, generating a packaging material with attractive properties for the consumer. Nowadays, the consumer is concerned ecologically; the food packaging industry must ahead satisfy their needs. In this sense, incorporating several compounds with properties such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, or nutraceutical properties results attractive for the consumers. However, many of these properties can be diminished, so an encapsulation system is required. A good encapsulating system is crucial for these purposes, so polyelectrolyte complexes (PECs) can be used with that finality. Nowadays, PECs are eye-catching in many fields because of their fascinating properties, which make them very attractive, mainly for being used as encapsulating systems. Hence, this paper reviews the use of PECs in food packaging where chitosan forms polyelectrolyte complexes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0354.v1
Subject: Nanotechnology, Chemistry And Materials Science Keywords: synthesis; CsPbX3; perovskite nanocrystals
Online: 5 June 2023 (16:35:12 CEST)
Compared with conventional semiconductors, halide perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) have a unique crystal structure and outstanding optoelectronic properties, which offer a wide potential for applications in optoelectronic devices such as solar cells, photodetectors, light emitting diodes, lasers and displays. Rational technological design is providing vital support for the development of perovskite optoelectronics. Herein, high-quality and monodisperse all-inorganic halide perovskite nanocrystals with consistent morphology, concentrated size distribution and cubic crystal phase were synthesized employing a modified one-pot hot injection method to independently modulate the stoichiometric ratios of three precursors involving cesium salt, lead source and halide. Mixing two kinds of perovskite NCs with different halogens, in combination with an anion exchange reaction, enables a transition from violet emission to green and finally to red emission over the entire visible region. Our work will be applied to enhance optoelectronic properties and stability of all-inorganic perovskite NCs for serving as light-emitting components in optoelectronic devices, as well as expanding the application areas of perovskite semiconductors for photocatalytic hydrogen generation, CO2 reduction and dye degradation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0353.v1
Subject: Oncology And Oncogenics, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: radiomics; radiotherapy; artificial intelligence (AI; prognosis prediction; clinical factors; machine learning; non-small cell lung cancer
Online: 5 June 2023 (16:32:52 CEST)
In this study, we propose a radiomics-clinical probability weighted model for the prediction of prognosis for NSCLC. The model combines radiomics features extracted from RT planning images with clinical factors such as age, gender, histology, and tumor stage. CT images with radiotherapy structures of 422 NSCLC patients were retrieved from The Cancer Imaging Archive (TCIA). Radiomic features were extracted from gross tumor volume (GTV). Five machine learning algorithms, namely decision trees (DT), random forests (RF), extreme boost (EB), support vector machine (SVM) and generalized linear model (GLM), were optimized by a voted ensemble machine learning (VEML) model. A probabilistic weighted approach is used to incorporate the uncertainty associated with both radiomic and clinical features and to generate a probabilistic risk score for each patient. The performance of the model is evaluated using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC). Radiomic model, clinical factors model and combined radiomic-clinical probability weighted model demonstrated good performance in predicting NSCLC survival with AUC of 0.941, 0.856 and 0.949 respectively. The combined radiomics-clinical probability weighted enhanced model achieved significantly better performance than radiomic model in 1-year survival prediction (chi-square test, p<0.05). The proposed model has the potential to improve NSCLC prognosis and facilitate personalized treatment decisions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0352.v1
Subject: Urban Studies And Planning, Social Sciences Keywords: Travel behaviour; Attitudes towards public transportation; social change; Ordinal Logistic Regression (OLR); Vision 2030; KSA
Online: 5 June 2023 (16:30:36 CEST)
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) is known for its high car ownership and usage as well its high GDP per capita. This is combined with low/ or no provision of public transportation (PT) systems, has been resulting in perceptual attitudes of full dependency on private car travel. The level of awareness of the benefits of reducing car use and increasing the travel by more sustainable options, has a great impact on social change and behaviour. The Kingdom is currently progressing towards a new phase of “national transfer” through implementation of strategic and sustainable measures and programs. The city of Riyadh is construction a massive metro-system in Riyadh, that is nearing completion and operation. The public is aware of the national agenda, aware of the newly constructed projects and aware of the needed social change to realize the new vision of the country. This paper aims to assess travel behaviour and attitudes towards public transportation of Saudi travellers’ who are witnessing the new transformation in the Kingdom and who are aware of the new sustainable projects. Depicted from the theory of random utility, a discrete choice model of the intent to use public transportation is calibrated as a function of social and attitudinal factors. An online survey was designed and carried out using social media means; a completed 399 questionnaires have been obtained and studied. The methodology includes examining attitudes and preferences of the participants towards using public transportation options against participants’ socio-economic data. The analysis was carried out using ordinal logistic regression analysis (OLR) which is an efficient technique that is derived from the theory of random utility. The results show a good support for PT; a higher support for public transportation modes, form participants who are young females, lower income groups and the university graduates were reported. The level of support seems higher with the higher level of awareness about the new PT system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0351.v1
Subject: Electrical And Electronic Engineering, Engineering Keywords: VIPV; passenger car; life cycle assessment; mileage; electrical architecture; thresholds; model; losses; shading; carbon footprint
Online: 5 June 2023 (16:25:22 CEST)
Among the explored solutions to reduce the environmental impact of the transport sector, Vehicle Integrated Photovoltaics. Thus, we developed a simulation tool of the distance covered by VIPV. It considers various usage patterns and vehicle types, several characteristics of the PV system and all the losses that may decrease energy yield. Focusing on passenger car, simulations indicate the order of influence of the parameters on the outputs of the model: geographic locality, shading, thresholds due to extra-consumption to charge the vehicle battery from PV and frequency of recharge with the grid. With projections of the technology in 2030, with 30 % shading, VIPV cover up to 1444 km yearly distance. This represents up to 12 % of the driven mileage. For the best month, it can get up to 14 km/day. For average Europe and worst-case conditions, VIPV cover only 293 km per year. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of solarized passenger car shows negative balance for low-carbon electricity mix and average solar irradiance. In favorable conditions, the carbon footprint is up to 489 kg CO2-equivalent avoided emissions on 13 years lifespan. Beyond km and LCA focus, VIPV may provide useful functions in non-interconnected zones and for resilience in disaster zones.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0350.v1
Subject: Other, Public Health And Healthcare Keywords: Children; Malnutrition; India; Overweight; Stunting; Anaemia
Online: 5 June 2023 (16:22:25 CEST)
The study examines malnutrition's triple burden, including anaemia, overweight, and stunting, among children aged 6-59 months. Using data from the National Family Health Survey-5 (2019-21), the study identifies risk factors and assesses the contribution at different levels to existing malnutrition burden. A random intercept multilevel logistic regression model and spatial analysis are employed to identify child, maternal, and household level risk factors for stunting, overweight, and anaemia. The study finds that 34% of children were stunted, 4% overweight, and 66% anaemic. Stunting and anaemia prevalence were higher in central and eastern regions, while overweight was more prevalent in the north-eastern and northern regions. At macro-level, the coexistence of stunting, overweight, and anaemia circumstantiates the triple burden of childhood malnutrition with substantial spatial variation (Moran’s I: stunting-0.53, overweight-0.41 and anaemia-0.53). Multilevel analysis reveals that child, maternal, and household variables play a substantial role in determining malnutrition burden in India. The nutritional health is significantly influenced by a wide range of determinants, necessitating multilevel treatments targeting households to address this diverse group of coexisting factors. Given the intra-country spatial heterogeneity, the treatment also needs to be tailor-made for various disaggregated levels.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0349.v1
Subject: Plant Sciences, Biology And Life Sciences Keywords: Alkaloids; Cells; Cranichideae; Ergastic substances; Leaf; Micromorphology; Orchidoideae; Rhizomes; Roots; Spiranthinae
Online: 5 June 2023 (16:19:40 CEST)
The orchid genus Brachystele Schltr. comprises 20 species distributed from Mexico to Argentina; 10 are found in Brazil. Anatomical studies of Orchidoideae Lindl. have been scarce, and the anatomy and histochemistry of Brachystele are still largely unknown. We characterized the vegetative organs of B. guayanensis (Lindl.) Schltr. using standard anatomical and histochemical microtechniques. Brachystele guayanensis was observed to display the anatomical characters commonly found in the vegetative organs of representatives of the Orchidaceae and Orchidoideae (including a uniseriate epidermis, thin cuticle, amphistomatic leaves, anomocytic, diacytic and tetracytic stomata, a homogeneous mesophyll, collateral vascular bundles, rhizomes with pericyclic fibers, roots with velamen, uniseriate exodermis, endodermis and pericycle). Histochemical tests confirmed the presence of lignin, proteins, and alkaloids, the lipidic nature of the cuticle, starch grains stored in spiranthosomes in the roots, and the composition of the raphides. Alkaloids were observed in great abundance, especially in the roots, and may have potentially useful medicinal activities, as has been observed in groups phylogenetically related to Brachystele.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0348.v1
Subject: Clinical Medicine, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Tissue biopsy guidance; Optical coherence tomography imaging; Artificial intelligence
Online: 5 June 2023 (16:17:17 CEST)
This paper presents a combined optical imaging/artificial intelligence (OI/AI) technique for real-time analysis of tissue morphology at the tip of the biopsy needle, prior collecting a biopsy specimen. This is an important clinical problem as up to 40% of the collected biopsy cores provide low diagnostic value due to high adipose or necrotic content. Micron-scale resolution optical coherence tomography (OCT) images can be collected with a minimally invasive needle probe and automatically analyzed by a computer neural network (CNN)-based AI software. The results can be conveyed to the clinician in real-time and used to select the biopsy location more adequately. This technology was evaluated on a rabbit model of cancer. OCT images were collected with a hand-held custom-made OCT probe. Annotated OCT images were used as ground truth for AI algorithm training. The overall performance of the AI model was very close to that of the humans performing the same classification tasks. Specifically, tissue segmentation was excellent (~99% accuracy) and provided segmentation that closely mimicked ground truth provided by the human annotations, while over 83% correlation accuracy was obtained for tumor and non-tumor classification.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0347.v1
Subject: Plant Sciences, Biology And Life Sciences Keywords: soil amendment; Fenton reaction; seedling growth; plant proteomics; Lettuce
Online: 5 June 2023 (16:14:19 CEST)
Information regarding physiological and molecular plant responses to the treatment with new biofertilizers is limited. In this study a fast-composting soil amendment (FCA), obtained from solid waste by means of a Fenton reaction, was tested to evaluate the effects on the growth of Lactuca sativa L. var. longifolia seedlings. Growth rate, leaves and roots biomass, chlorophyll concentration and total soluble proteins of seedlings treated with the 2% FCA soil amendment showed significant increase in comparison with control seedlings. Leaf proteomic analysis revealed that the FCA soil amendment induced the up-regulation of proteins belonging to photosynthesis machinery, carbohydrate metabolism and promoted the up-regulation of the water stress response. Root proteomics indicated that FCA strongly induced the organs morphogenesis and developments; root cap development, lateral root formation, post-embryonic root morphogenesis were the main biological processes enriched by the treatment. Overall, our data suggest that addition of FCA formulation to the base soils might ameliorate plant growth by inducing carbohydrates primary metabolism and the differentiation of a robust root system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0346.v1
Subject: Public Health And Health Services, Public Health And Healthcare Keywords: HPV vaccine; Vaccine awareness; Vaccine hesitancy
Online: 5 June 2023 (16:12:21 CEST)
Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a widespread sexually transmitted infection linked to various types of cancers. Although vaccination against HPV is available, global HPV vaccination rates remain low. This study aimed to evaluate the awareness and knowledge of the HPV vaccine and to identify predictors associated with vaccine hesitancy among health college students in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional survey was distributed to students enrolled in health colleges. The association of vaccine hesitancy with sociodemographic characteristics was examined using logistic regression analysis. The study found that approximately half of the students (49.9%) were aware of the HPV vaccine. Students from the College of Medicine showed the highest level of knowledge. Only a small proportion (5.2%) reported receiving the vaccine. The overall HPV vaccine hesitancy was 59.1% (43.9% for women and 75.9% for men). The most common reasons for vaccine hesitancy was not knowing enough about it. Men were twice as likely as women to believe that they did not need the HPV vaccine. The odds for HPV vaccine hesitancy were greater among men and younger age group compared to women and older age group. In conclusion, the study underscores the importance of awareness campaigns on HPV vaccination, targeting primarily male students.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0345.v1
Subject: Organic Chemistry, Chemistry And Materials Science Keywords: Multicomponent reactions; medicinal chemistry; green chemistry; polymerisation; synthesis
Online: 5 June 2023 (16:08:18 CEST)
Multicomponent reactions (MCRs) have been used for more than a century; since their discovery in 1850 by Strecker. To date, MCRs route is regarded as a beneficial strategy due to its capacity to quickly produce molecular diversity and structural complexity of interest for a variety of applications. Despite having famous MRCs such as the Ugi, Passerini, Biginelli, and Hantzsch, this re-view portrays the importance of MCRs in the synthesis of desired products towards applications such as medicinal purposes, sustainable chemistry, and polymerisation. MCRs provide ad-vantages such as reducing the number of sequential multiple reactions to one step, atom economy, recyclable catalysts, mild conditions, preventing waste and reduce solvent use.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0344.v1
Subject: Energy And Fuel Technology, Engineering Keywords: defect density; capture cross-section; perovskite solar cell; SCAPS, interfaces.
Online: 5 June 2023 (16:06:02 CEST)
This paper focuses on the impact of defects density and carrier capture cross-section area in the electron transport material (ETM), hole transport material (HTM), and absorber layers on the performance of perovskite solar cells and quantum efficiency (QE). Furthermore, the impact of defects density at the interface between ETM/absorber and absorber/HTM is also studied. SCAPS-1D software is used in the current study in determining solar cell performance. The proposed perovskite solar cell structure is a planar FTO/TiO2/ CH3NH3PbI3/ Cu2O. The results indicated that increasing the defect density in the absorber layer significantly affects cell performance, while in ETM and HTM layers, the cell parameters remain unaffected. It is also found that the defect capture cross-section has a similar behavior to the defect density in the main layers (ETM, absorber, and HTM). In addition, it is observed that by increasing the defects density in the ETM/absorber and absorber/HTM interfaces layer, the cell parameters FF, Jsc, and PCE have been slightly decreased, with no effect on Voc. Moreover, it is also noted that the quantum efficiency QE is sharply reduced. Finally, this paper introduced the correlation between the defect density and the capture cross-section, which is the first attempt to find such a relationship in perovskite solar cells to the knowledge of the authors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0343.v1
Subject: Telecommunications, Engineering Keywords: IoT; OpenHAB; Sensors; Wireless communication; Energy efficiency; Occupant comfort; Smart building; Data analysis
Online: 5 June 2023 (16:04:07 CEST)
This paper presents the design and implementation of a versatile IoT testbed utilizing the openHab platform along with various wireless interfaces, including Z-Wave, ZigBee, WiFi, 4G-LTE, and IR, and an array of sensors for motion, temperature, luminance, humidity, vibration, UV, and energy consumption. First, the testbed architecture, setup, basic testing, and collected data results are described. Then, by showcasing a typical day in the laboratory, we illustrate the testbed's potential through the collection and analysis of data from multiple sensors. The study also explores the capabilities of the openHab platform, including its robust persistence layer, event management, real-time monitoring, and customization. The significance of the testbed in enhancing data-collection methodologies for energy assets and unlocking new possibilities in the realm of IoT technologies is particularly highlighted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0342.v1
Subject: Pharmacology And Toxicology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: chromone derivatives; oral squamous cell carcinoma; tumor-specificity; keratinocyte toxicity; neurotoxicity; signaling pathway
Online: 5 June 2023 (15:45:48 CEST)
Background. Many anticancer drugs used in clinical practice cause adverse events such as oral mucositis, neurotoxicity, and extravascular leakage. We have reported that two 3-styrylchromone derivatives, 7-methoxy-3-[(1E)-2-phenylethenyl]-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one (compound A) and 3-[(1E)-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethenyl]-7-methoxy-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one (compound B) showed the highest tumor-specificity against human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cell lines among 291 related compounds. After confirming their superiority by comparing their tumor specificity with newly synthesized 65 derivatives, we investigated the neurotoxicity of these compounds, in comparison with 4 popular anticancer drugs. Methods: Tumor-specificity (TSM, TSE, TSN) was evaluated as the ratio of mean CC50 for human normal oral mesenchymal (gingival fibroblast, pulp cell), oral epithelial cells (gingival epithelial progenitor), and neuronal cells (PC-12, SH-SY5Y, LY-PPB6, differentiated PC-12) to OSCC cells (Ca9-22, HSC-2), respectively. Results: Compounds A and B showed one-order of magnitude higher TSM as compared with newly synthesized derivatives, confirming its prominent tumor-specificity. Docetaxel showed one order of magnitude higher TSM, but two order of magnitude lower TSE than compounds A and B. Compounds A and B showed higher TSM, TSE and TSN values than doxorubicin, 5-FU and cisplatin, damaging OSCC cells at concentrations that do not affect the viability of normal epithelial and neuronal cells. QSAR prediction based on the Tox21 database suggested that compounds A and B may inhibit the signaling pathway of estrogen-related receptors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0341.v1
Subject: Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: tuberculosis infection; tuberculosis disease; tuberculosis preventive treatment; latent tuberculosis infection; diabetes mellitus; adverse events; isoniazid; rifampicin; randomized controlled trial
Online: 5 June 2023 (15:01:24 CEST)
Tuberculosis (TB) associated with diabetes (DM) is a growing problem, particularly in low and medium-resource countries. We conducted an open-label, parallel-group, randomized, and controlled trial in a tertiary care center in Mexico City to assess TB preventive treatment with isoniazid (INH) or rifampicin (RIF) in people with DM. Participants were assigned six months of INH 300mg/day plus pyridoxine 75mg or three months of RIF 600mg/day. The primary outcomes were adverse events resulting in permanent treatment cessation and considered possibly or probably related to study drugs. We included 130 subjects, 68 randomized to INH and 62 to RIF. We prematurely halted the study based on recommendations of the Adverse Event Safety Panel. There was no difference between arms in the overall frequency of adverse events. However, the INH group had significantly more permanent treatment interruptions due to grade 2 recurrent or grade 3 or 4 hepatoxicity. In comparison, the RIF arm had more treatment interruptions due to grade 3 or 4 gastrointestinal intolerance. TB preventive treatment is not safe enough to be considered a universal indication to patients with DM and LTBI. These results underline the need to search for alternative TB prevention in DM patients with better safety profiles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0340.v1
Subject: Other, Engineering Keywords: GNSS height component; GNSS time series; velocity estimation; meteorological parameters; simple linear regression; autoregressive moving average
Online: 5 June 2023 (14:58:42 CEST)
It is common knowledge that estimating the height component of GNSS stations in general is much more problematic than estimating the horizontal position. Many different effects, such as tectonic signals, non-tectonic signals, atmospheric delay, noise, etc., are known to affect the height component of GNSS stations more than the horizontal component. However, the height component of GNSS stations is still poorly estimated. In this study, the height time series of 37 continuous GNSS stations covering the 2014–2019 date range is used from the Turkish National Permanent GNSS Network-Active (TUSAGA-Active). Since it is easier to interpret the effects of the height component due to its topographic features and seasonal changes being more effective than in the rest of the country, stations were chosen in the Eastern Anatolia region of Turkey. The daily coordinates of the GNSS stations were obtained as a result of the GAMIT/GLOBK software solution. By applying time series analysis to the daily coordinate values of the stations, statistically significant trends, periodic and stochastic components of the stations were determined. As a result of the analysis, the vertical velocities of the GNSS stations and the standard deviations of the vertical velocities were determined. Furthermore, when the height components of continuous GNSS stations were examined, it was seen that there were seasonal effects, and it was investigated whether the height components were related to meteorological parameters. For that, simple linear regression analysis was performed to determine how dependent the height components of the continuous GNSS stations were on meteorological parameters. As a result of the analysis, the height components of the continuous GNSS stations are dependent on meteorological parameters such as temperature, pressure, relative humidity, wind speed, and precipitation. In addition, height component time series analysis of continuous GNSS stations was performed by using Autoregressive Moving Average (ARMA) models from linear time series methods. As a result of the study, the performance of the ARMA modeling results again indicated the dependence of the height component of the continuous GNSS stations on the meteorological parameters.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0339.v1
Subject: Clinical Medicine, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Chronic Pain; Hypermobile Ehlers–Danlos syndrome; Linguistic content analysis; Metaphors; Pain; Symbolizing process
Online: 5 June 2023 (14:36:19 CEST)
Ehlers–Danlos syndromes (EDS) are a heterogeneous group of heritable connective tissue disorders (HCTDs) characterized by joint hypermobility, skin hyperextensibility, and tissue fragility. Among the different types, the hypermobile EDS (hEDS) is the most frequent, and includes generalized joint hypermobility as the major diagnostic criterion. Joint hypermobility in hEDS is often associated with pain that not always allow the use of effective pain-reducing treatments. Patients with hEDS always talk about pain using a lot of descriptions. Eighty-nine patients with diagnosis of hEDS were recruited and evaluated. They were asked to write down what grief was to them. The texts were analyzed through LIWC. Correlational analyses were conducted between pain perception and language. A comparison of high/low pain perception and quality of metaphors was carried out. The results showed, depending on the level of pain perception, different language quality is evidenced. The greater the pain the lesser the positive effects and the greater the negative effects and dehumanizing metaphors. Moreover, greater pain seems to be related to a verbal experience of greater isolation and less self-care. In conclusion, the use of metaphors is a useful tool for exploring illness experience and may help clinicians in the rehabilitation program.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0338.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: COVID-19; ACE2; severity; post-COVID-19 patients; comorbidity.
Online: 5 June 2023 (14:36:06 CEST)
ACE2 impact on the severity of COVID-19 is widely discussed but still controversial. To estimate its role in aspects of the main risk factors and comorbidities, we involved post-COVID-19 patients in Ternopil region (Ukraine). Recruitment period was July 2020 to December 2021. Medical records, treatment modalities and outcomes were recorded and analyzed. Serum human ACE2 protein was measured with Cusabio ELISA kits (Houston, TX, USA). Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS21.0 software (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). The level of ACE2 serum protein was significantly higher (p < 0.001) in patients with mild symptoms compared to more severe course of disease, and inversely had changed from 1 to 90 days after recovery. In patients with mild COVID-19, ACE2 level significantly decreased over time, while among critical patients, it increased by 34.1percent. Such results could be explained by ACE2 shedding from tissues into circulation. Loss of the membrane-bound form of the enzyme decreases the virus entry into cells. Our studies did not identify any sex-related ACE2 serum levels correlation. The most common comorbidities were hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, respiratory diseases and diabetes mellitus. All comorbidities except respiratory diseases contribute to the severity of disease and correlate with ACE2 blood serum level.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0337.v1
Subject: Agricultural Science And Agronomy, Biology And Life Sciences Keywords: agricultural management; antagonistic activity; fermentation formulation; copper-containing fungicides
Online: 5 June 2023 (14:31:43 CEST)
Sweet pepper is an important vegetable in the world. Bacterial leaf spot caused by the pathogen Xanthomonas perforans, is a limiting factor that significantly reduces the quality and yield of sweet pepper To control this disease, the use of chemical fungicides is currently the main disease control method. Thus, we want to develop an alternative method by using antagonistic microorganisms. Under this demand, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens PMB04 has strong antagonistic effects against pathogens and can inhibit the occurrence of diseases. B. amyloliquefaciens PMB04 has the potential for the development of a disease control product. Primarily, PMB04 revealed to contain a strong inhibitory effect against all isolated X. perforans strains. In the inoculation assay, the severity of bacterial spot disease on sweet peppers was reduced by PMB04 bacterial suspensions. To increase the convenience of field application for future prospects, the development of PMB04 fermentation liquid was carried out with different ratios of brown sugar and yeast extract in a 30-liter fermentation tank subsequently. Results exhibited that the fermentation liquid of 3-1 formula obtained the highest bacterial population in a 30-liter fermentation tank. The fermentation liquid of 0.5-0.5 formula was the most stable formula under two different conditions in terms of consistent bacterial population and sporulation. In addition, the 200-fold dilution of 3-1 and 0.5-0.5 fermentation liquids revealed best control efficacy on bacterial leaf spot of sweet pepper. Additionally, the results of the 0.5-0.5 fermentation liquid (PMB4FL) with different dilution concentrations also showed that the 200- and 500-fold dilutions had the best control efficacy. To understand the effect of commonly used copper-containing fungicides on sweet peppers on the application of microbial agent PMB4FL, the effects of copper hydroxide and tribasic copper sulfate on the growth of X. perforans strains and B. amyloliquefaciens PMB04 were assayed. The results exhibited that the above two fungicides did not have any inhibitory effect on the growth of PMB04, but had a strong inhibitory effect on the X. perforans strain. In the follow-up control experiment, the treatment of copper hydroxide had no synergistic effect with PMB4FL to control bacterial leaf spot. We concluded that the use of PMB4FL fermentation liquid alone on the leaves can effectively control the occurrence of bacterial leaf spot in sweet pepper crops.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0336.v1
Subject: Education, Social Sciences Keywords: distributed leadership; school principal’s practices; teacher leadership; teacher profes-sional development
Online: 5 June 2023 (14:30:33 CEST)
Distributed leadership is based on increasing the knowledge of the skills of those who exercise the role of leaders in the school. The objectives are a) to analyse school principals’ practices aimed at creating professional development opportunities linked to teacher leadership for school improvement and b) to relate the perceptions of teacher leaders with professional development opportunities granted by principals. The methods of the study were based on an examination of 21 interviews, between individual semi-structured interviews with school principals and group interviews with teacher leaders at six public schools in Chile, as well as a documentary analysis of institutional educational projects using grounded theory and NVivo 12 software. The results are presented in three categories: management of principals about school organisation, development of the professional capacities of teacher leaders, and management of principals about school coexistence and participation of teacher leaders. The conclusions detailing school principal practices show that distributed leadership practices are helpful in developing teachers’ leadership competencies. Furthermore, this study suggests that training amplifies the beneficial effects of distributed leadership on teachers’ development. Finally, the findings imply that school principals should regularly fulfil their managerial responsibilities and pay more attention to teacher training to improve the school.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0334.v1
Subject: Energy And Fuel Technology, Engineering Keywords: sofc; ammonia; sputtered barrier layers; fuel flexibility
Online: 5 June 2023 (14:27:19 CEST)
We investigated the influence of the fuel change, from pure hydrogen to hydrogen-ammonia mixture at different percentage, on the electrochemical behaviour of 50 mm in diameter Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) with sputtered thin buffer layers of Gd doped Ceria, varying the working temperatures from 800°C to 650°C. The results show that the performances of the cells are not affected by the fuel change for the high working temperatures (800°C and 750°C). As an example, a power density value of 802 mW∙cm-2 at 1 A∙cm-2 is found when directly feeding the cell with 8 Nml∙min-1cm-2 of ammonia and with an equivalent flowrate of 12 Nml∙min-1cm-2 of H2. These power density output values are comparable to those obtained in industrial State of Art (SoA) SOFC cells with screen printed buffer layers fed with higher hydrogen flowrates, thanks to the improved electrochemical performances obtained in the case of cells with sputtered thin buffer layers of Gd doped Ceria. At lower working temperatures (700°C and 650°C), slight changes in the electrochemical behaviour of the cells are observed. Nevertheless, also in this temperature range, we obtain an output current density value of 0.54 A∙cm-2 in pure ammonia flowrate of 12 Nml min-1cm-2, at 800 mV and 700°C, equal to the value observed in SoA button cells with industrial screen printed GDC barrier layer fuelled with 16 Nml∙min-1cm-2 of H2. These results pave the way towards the use of innovative SOFC structures with sputtered thin buffer layers fuelled by ammonia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0333.v1
Subject: Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation, Public Health And Healthcare Keywords: virtual reality (VR); COVID-19; motor rehabilitation; multidisciplinary; virtual reality activity; serious games; game design; health communication
Online: 5 June 2023 (14:26:52 CEST)
Background: This work presents Com@Rehab, a technological patient-centred activity for individuals needing a physical rehabilitation approach and with a specific loss of functionality. Within this scope, this paper focuses on the description of the activity in virtual reality (VR), its components, design and user profile, and its versatility and future adaptability regarding different ages, pathologies and rehabilitation contexts. Methods: The VR activity has been customised according to the patient's clinical needs while replicating an activity of daily living, namely showering. In addition, to validate and get feedback on the developed system, a validation questionnaire was applied to a group of healthy individuals to test the efficiency of the technology that supports the VR activity. Results: Preliminary results show that 94% of the participants recommended the experience, the performance of the various components of the system was successfully implemented, participants quickly adhered to the VR technology, and the UI assistant’s functionality should be improved. Conclusion: This solution creates a more effective, interactive, humanised rehabilitation approach based on a Virtual Reality (VR) activity. The Com@Rehab Communication Module improves human-human and human-machine communication while contributing to health literacy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0335.v1
Subject: Oncology And Oncogenics, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma; Aggressive; Malignant; Prognosis; Risk stratification; Lymph node
Online: 5 June 2023 (14:26:22 CEST)
Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (EHE) is an extremely rare vascular sarcoma with variable aggressive clinical behavior. In this retrospective study we aimed to investigate prognostic factors based on clinicopathologic findings in a molecular/immunohistochemical confirmed nationwide multicenter cohort of 57 EHE. Patients had unifocal disease (n=29), multifocal disease (n=5), lymph node metastasis (n=8) and/or distant metastasis (n=15) at the time of diagnosis. The overall survival rate was 69.6% at 1 year and 50.5% at 5 years. Survival did not correlate with sex, age or histo-pathological parameters. No survival differences were observed between multifocal and metastatic disease suggesting that multifocality represents early metastases and treatment options are limited in comparison to unifocal disease. In unifocal tumors, survival could be predicted using the risk stratification model of Shibayama et al. dividing the cases into low (n=4), intermediate (n=15) and high (n=3) risk-groups. Larger tumor size (>3cm) and higher mitotic count (>1/10HPF) was asso-ciated with progressive unifocal disease course. Lymph node metastases at time of diagnosis oc-curred in 14.0% of the cases and was mainly associated with tumor localization in the head and neck area proposing lymph node dissection. In conclusion, our results demonstrate the aggressive behavior of EHE, emphasize the prognostic value of a previous described risk stratification model and may provide new insights regarding tumor focality, therapeutic strategies and prognosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0332.v1
Subject: Psychology, Social Sciences Keywords: Cognitive–Attentional Syndrome; COVID-19 pandemic; stress and trauma related disorders; psychopathology; adjustment disorder
Online: 5 June 2023 (14:21:16 CEST)
Background: According to metacognitive theory, Cognitive–Attentional Syndrome (CAS) is a transdiagnostic factor and main mechanism of psychopathology maintenance. The main goal of this study was to examine whether CAS predicted symptoms of stress and trauma-related symptomatology in the first months of the COVID-19 pandemic and three months later. Methods: Initially 1,792 participants were recruited online via social media; data was collected at two time points. Measures included the Cognitive–Attentional Syndrome Questionnaire, Adjustment Disorder – New Module 20, the International Trauma Questionnaire, and additional measures. Results: Structural equation modeling was conducted in order to determine relations between reported stressors, CAS, and symptomatology. At both time points, CAS was a significant mediator between stressors and symptoms of adjustment disorder. Despite the decrease in the intensity of adjustment disorder symptoms between waves, it was a significant predictor of other psychopathology at both time points, except for traumatic stress. Conclusions: The findings confirm the assumption that CAS is a transdiagnostic factor of psychopathology, and has a mediating role in the relationship between stressors and adjustment disorder and co-occurring symptomatology. The effect was particularly significant in the initial phase of the pandemic, which was highly stressful for many people.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0331.v1
Subject: Civil Engineering, Engineering Keywords: strain sensor; monitoring; the pavement; perception system
Online: 5 June 2023 (13:58:32 CEST)
This chapter aims to construct a relatively complete, universal, and highly reliable road surface state monitoring and perception system through the research of the A1 contact road reconstruction project of an international airport (hereinafter referred to as the “airport”). The system design is based on on-the-spot investigation, theoretical analysis, and engineering practice, using vibrating string type and resistive strain sensors as sensing means, real-time high-frequency signal acquisition technology as the guide, 4G router for wireless communication technology as the media, and storage technology for monitoring system based on server storage terminals. In combination with engineering background, aircraft motion state, main landing gear configuration, sensor selection and evaluation, and other major factors, the actual monitoring information needs of the plane are fully taken into account, as well as the difference in sensor information types, and the system design is carried out by stratification and classification.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0330.v1
Subject: Dentistry And Oral Surgery, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Laser sintered metal grid; Digitally printed orthodontic grid; Interceptive treatment; Anchorage area
Online: 5 June 2023 (13:52:42 CEST)
In interceptive treatments in which impacted teeth (incisor or first permanent molar) should be included into the dental arch, the main clinical problem is the provision of an anchorage area and a suitable appliance. The use of laser sintered metal orthodontic grids, designed and printed digitally, has expanded the boundaries of orthodontic treatment, especially in its interceptive phase. Our aim is to describe a digital model for providing anchorage during orthodontic-surgical traction of impacted teeth in the mixed dentition period. We present the treatment of three clinical cases with digitally projected and printed metal grids used for anchorage. In the described clinical cases, individually designed anchorage systems were used. They were created through design software and after that the metal grids were printed. The devices are placed in the oral area and don’t disturb the aesthetics of the patient in any way. The advantages of individual designed metal support grids allow to accommodate the features of relief of the hard palate and alveolar bone. This makes the grids comfortable for the patient and rigid enough to perform orthodontic tractions at the same time. The printed additional grids are applicable in mixed dentition and in complicated clinical cases in permanent dentition. Their individuality allows segmental treatments or treatments in cases requiring additional anchorage further from the active force.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0329.v1
Subject: Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2 vaccine side effect; vaccines and Heart rhythm disorders; Spike Protein and cardiac arrhythmias; ACE system and heart conduction; Angiotensin II and cardiac arrhythmias
Online: 5 June 2023 (13:40:58 CEST)
-529391451442Citation: To be added by editorial staff during production. Academic Editor: Firstname Lastname Received: date Revised: date Accepted: date Published: date Copyright: © 2023 by the authors. Submitted for possible open access publication under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).0Citation: To be added by editorial staff during production. Academic Editor: Firstname Lastname Received: date Revised: date Accepted: date Published: date Copyright: © 2023 by the authors. Submitted for possible open access publication under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).Abstract: SARS-CoV-2 vaccination offered the opportunity to get out of the pandemic and thereby worldwide health, social, and economic disasters. However, in addition to efficacy, safety is an important issue for any vaccine. The mRNA-based vaccine platform is considered to be safe but side effects are being reported more frequently as more and more people around the world become treated. Myo-pericarditis is the major, but not the only cardiovascular complication of this vaccine, hence it is important not to underestimate other side effects. We report a case series of patients affected by cardiac arrhythmias post mRNA vaccine from our clinical practice and the literature. Reviewing the official vigilance database emerged that heart rhythm disorders after Covid vaccination are not uncommon and deserve more clinical and scientific attention. Since Covid vaccine is the only vaccination to have been related to this side effect questions arose about whether these vaccines could affect heart conduction. Although the risk-benefit is clearly in favor of vaccination heart rhythm disorders are not a negligible issue and there are red flags in the literature about the risk of post-vaccination malignant arrhythmias in some predisposed patients. In light of these findings, we investigated the potential mechanism for the Covid vaccine to impact on cardiac electrophysiology and cause heart rhythm disorders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0328.v1
Subject: Business And Management, Business, Economics And Management Keywords: ESG; State-owned equity; Top management incentives; Sustainability; Digital transformation
Online: 5 June 2023 (13:38:27 CEST)
This study examines the unique circumstances surrounding state-owned equity participation in non-state-controlled enterprises in China. Specifically, this study examines the impact of state-owned equity participation on the environmental, social, and governance (ESG) performance of non-state-controlled enterprises. Focusing on A-share listed firms on the Shanghai and Shenzhen Stock Exchanges and using data from 2013 to 2021, empirical testing shows that state-owned equity participation can significantly improve the ESG performance of non-state-controlled enterprises, with this conclusion remaining reliable after a series of robustness tests. Top management incentives is a mediating mechanism for state-owned equity participation in enhancing ESG performance. This study also finds that when state-owned equity participates in large enterprises or companies with a high degree of digital transformation, the effect on ESG performance is greater than that of small to medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) or enterprises with a low level of digital transformation. The findings of this study add to the current body of the existing field of research on the factors influencing corporate ESG performance and the impact of state-owned equity on corporate non-financial performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0327.v1
Subject: Insect Science, Biology And Life Sciences Keywords: Circadian clock; Frankliniella occidentalis; Feeding; Mating; Behavior
Online: 5 June 2023 (13:35:11 CEST)
The western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis, is invasive and polyphagous. Its visual signal plays a crucial role in host location, suggesting that thrips has diurnal behavior. However, any diel rhythmicity of the thrips behavior is not yet well understood. This study analyzed the diurnal rhythmicity of the feeding and mating behaviors of thrips, and the patterns were explained in terms of diel rhythmicity by assessing the expression of genes associated with the circadian clock. Most feeding behaviors were observed during photophase in both larvae and adults. In mating behavior, which is mainly exhibited in 2~3 days-old young adults after emergence, most adults copulated at photophase. This diurnal pattern of the mating behavior was further supported by the analysis of a temporal calling behavior for mating, which was biased toward photophase. Four genes associated with the circadian clock were predicted in the F. occidentalis genome: period (PER), Timeless (TIM), Doubletime (DBT), and clock (CLK). All these genes exhibited a characteristic diel pattern in their gene expressions in a 24 h-period. The high expression peaks of these genes except for DBT were observed at photophase. To confirm the functional association of these genes with the feeding and mating behaviors, individual RNA interference specific to each gene was executed by feeding the gene-specific double-stranded RNA. Aside from DBT, suppression of these gene expressions resulted in significant deviations of the diel rhythms of the behaviors. These results suggest that the genetic components of the diel rhythmicity mediate the diurnal feeding and mating behaviors of F. occidentalis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0326.v1
Subject: Public Health And Health Services, Public Health And Healthcare Keywords: Dominicans; Hypertensive; Salt intake; Sodium and potassium excretion; Sodium-to-potassium ratio
Online: 5 June 2023 (13:29:58 CEST)
Higher salt (sodium) intake has been associated with a higher blood pressure (BP). The association degree may be influenced by factors such as age, origin and dietary components. This study aimed to evaluate the 24-hours urinary sodium (Na) and potassium (K) excretion in normotensive and hypertensive Dominicans adults and estimate their salt intake. 163 volunteers (18-45, 46-80 years) participated in a cross-sectional study. 24-hours Na and K urinary excretion were measured using an ion selective electrode technique. Na and K urinary excretion (99.4±46.5 and 35.0±17.5 mmol/24h) did not correlated with BP, except in the normotensive group in which K correlated with SBP (0.249, p=0.019). Na and K excretion were similar for normo- and hypertensive subjects. Na-to-K molar ratio (3.1±1.3) was higher in younger subjects (p=0.040). Na-to-K ratio was associated with DBP in the total group (r=0.153, p=0.052), in the hypertensive group (r=0.395, p<0.001) and in the older group with SBP (0.350, p=0.002) and DBP (0.373, p<0.001). In the older group, Na-to-K ratio and DBP correlated after controlling for subjects with hypertension controlled by treatment (r=0.236, p=0.041). The Na-to-K ratio correlated, when salt intake was over 5g/d (52.2%), with SBP (rho=0.219, p=0.044) and DBP (rho=0.259, p=0.017). Determinants of BP were age-dependent and in younger subjects were: sex (SBP, beta: 14.02±2.87, p<0.001) and body mass index (BMI) (beta:-12.07±3.72, p=0.001, beta:9.44±2.87, p=0.001, for SBP and DBP, respectively) and, in the olders, the Na-to-K ratio, for SBP (beta:6.7±2.4, p=0.005) and DBP (beta:3.8±1.1, p<0.001). The mean Na and salt intakes (2.3 and 5.8 g/d) were slightly higher and K intake lower (1.4 g/d) than WHO recommendations.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0325.v1
Subject: Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Streptococcus intermedius; brain abscess; lung abscess; endocarditis
Online: 5 June 2023 (13:24:39 CEST)
Streptococcus intermedius is frequently associated with brain and liver abscesses, while pleuropulmonary infections are considered rarer. Even less frequent is the association of lung and brain abscess due to this agent with left heart endocarditis. We describe the case of a 40-year-old man with a brain abscess due to S. intermedius and concomitant lung abscess and aortic native valve endocarditis. He was treated with surgical drainage of the brain abscess and a 4-week course of intravenous ceftriaxone, followed by oral amoxicillin/clavulanate, obtaining healing of the lesions without relapse of the infection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0324.v1
Subject: Nanotechnology, Chemistry And Materials Science Keywords: porous gold nanoparticles; plasmons, optical absorption,; dewetting, dealloying; support-free nanoparticles
Online: 5 June 2023 (13:20:35 CEST)
3D metal nanostructures are often the basis of several applications such as in catalysis, plasmonics, medical diagnosis, therapy, drug screening, ophthalmologic, and biomedical applications. Porous gold nanoparticles (PGNs) are intensively investigated due to their outstanding morphological as well as advantageous optical properties. Unfortunately, the thermal stability of these open-porous structures is poor, i.e. even as a result of low-temperature annealing (150$^\circ$C in air), their porosity disappears and they lose their favorable optical properties. In order to preserve their beneficial properties, a thin metal oxide coating can be applied. Changing the coating's thickness and/or composition, the optical response of the PGNs can also be tuned in a wide wavelength region. Moreover, these nanoparticles can be synthesized also in support-free form, which makes them more attractive from an application point of view. This review article summarizes some of the preparation modes of these complex nanostructures (fixed and support-free), as well as their thermal stability and optical responses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0323.v1
Subject: Information Systems, Computer Science And Mathematics Keywords: text mining; semantic analysis; labeling bull-bear words; futures corpus; generative AI
Online: 5 June 2023 (13:18:24 CEST)
For highly time-constrained very short-term investors, reading and extracting valuable information from financial news poses significant challenges. The wide range of topics covered in these news articles further compounds the difficulties for investors. The diverse content adds complexity and uncertainty to the text, making it arduous for very short-term investors to swiftly and accurately extract valuable insights. Variations in authors, media sources, and cultural backgrounds also introduce additional complexities. Hence, performing a bull-bear semantic analysis of financial news using text mining technologies can alleviate the volume, time, and energy pressures on very short-term investors while enhancing the efficiency and accuracy of their investment decisions. This study proposes labeling bull-bear words from a futures corpus detection method that extracts valuable information from financial news, allowing investors to understand market trends quickly. Generative AI models are trained to provide real-time bull-bear advice, aiding investors in adapting to market changes and devising effective trading strategies. Experimental results show the effectiveness of various models, with Random Forest and SVMs achieving an impressive 80% accuracy rate. MLP and Deep learning models also perform well. By leveraging these models, the study reduces the time spent reading financial articles, enabling faster decision-making and increasing the likelihood of investment success. Future research can explore the application of this method in other domains and enhance model design for improved predictive capabilities and practicality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0322.v1
Subject: Obstetrics And Gynaecology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: phosphohistone H3; vitamin D; vitamin D receptor; progesterone; endometriosis; immunohistochemistry
Online: 5 June 2023 (13:14:21 CEST)
(1) Background: To investigate the effect of phosphohistone H3 (PHH3) and vitamin D receptor (VDR) in the risk assessment of endometriosis, in two cohorts of women with this pathology, those receiving hormonal treatment, and those without treatment; (2) Methods: In 60 cases of women with endometriosis, the paraffin-embedded endometriosis tissue samples, retrieved after surgery, were immunohistochemically (IHC) analyzed aiming to determine the expression status of PHH3 and VDR; (3) Results: The IHC positive index of PHH3 and VDR of these two groups were compared. PHH3 levels were positively correlated with vitamin D levels, both being increased in patients without treatment. Within the group without treatment, PHH3 and VDR expressions were positively associated; (4) Conclusions: IHC analysis of PHH3 and VDR can be used as an additional tool for risk stratification and prognostic assessment in patients with endometriosis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0321.v1
Subject: Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: right ventricular; tricuspid valve; tricuspid regurgitation; right ventricular remodeling
Online: 5 June 2023 (13:10:08 CEST)
In new Guideline for the Management of Patients with Valvular Heart Disease for tricuspid regurgitation (TR) is focused the importance of measurement of right-sided diastolic pressures and right ventriculography, pulmonary artery pressures, and pulmonary vascular resistance. Assessment of right ventricular (RV) dimensions and function is pivotal to select patients with severe tricuspid regurgitation who may benefit from tricuspid valve intervention. However, with the exception of tricuspid valve annulus diameter, there is no other cut-off value that defines severe RV dysfunction or dilation for this specific group of patients. It may be difficult, if not impossible, to establish a cut-off value of RV dysfunction since the RV may be exposed to pressure and volume overload, myocardial ischemia, intrinsic myocardial disease or pericardial constraint. Furthermore, the response of the RV to tricuspid valve intervention may vary according to each aetiology and the time course of the disease (acute or chronic). Comprehensive assessment of RV function should address in shape remodelling; functional remodelling; tissue remodelling. This assessment should be performed in optimal loading conditions and after euvolemia has been achieved. It’s now that there is no other cut-off value that defines severe RV dysfunction or dilation for patients with severe TR with the exception of tricuspid valve annulus diameter. It may be difficult, if not impossible, to establish a cut-off value of RV dysfunction since the RV may be exposed to pressure and volume overload, myocardial ischemia, intrinsic myocardial disease or pericardial constraint. In this review we analyze the relationship between right ventricular (RV) and TR in term of outcomes and mortality predictor in patients undergoing percutaneous or invasive treatment for severe TR.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0320.v1
Subject: Food Science And Technology, Biology And Life Sciences Keywords: Blueberries; quality; firmness; fungal infection; anthocyanin content; phenolic content; antioxidant capacity
Online: 5 June 2023 (13:04:55 CEST)
Blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) are becoming increasingly popular for their nutritional and health benefits, and their economic value is therefore increasing. Loss of quality that can occur due to softening and fungal attack is an important consideration when marketing blueberries. Despite the added value of blueberries, no studies have been carried out on how the fruit arrives at the outlets just before purchase by the consumer in terms of firmness, physico-chemical parameters, phenolic compounds and fungal growth. The aim of this work has been, therefore, to investigate possible differences in quality parameters between blueberries purchased from ten different outlets, regardless of the supplier. The results showed that all samples were of acceptable quality, although they all had a low maturity index at the point of sale. On the other hand, differences in the parameters measured were observed between samples of the same cultivar while we could not find differences between conventionally and organically grown blueberries, suggesting that preharvest and postharvest factors could influence the final quality when they reach the consumer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0319.v1
Subject: Primary Health Care, Public Health And Healthcare Keywords: Pneumocystis pneumonia; immune status; real-time PCR; staining methods
Online: 5 June 2023 (12:55:05 CEST)
Background: Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) commonly affects immunocompromised individuals, whereas in immunocompetent persons, it occurs relatively rarely, and in most cases the Pneumocystis infection is detected as an asymptomatic colonization. The present study aimed to establish the prevalence of Pneumocystis jirovecii infection in human hosts with different immune status (immunocompromised and immunocompetent), using molecular diagnostic methods, and to compare their diagnostic value with that of classical staining methods. Methods: We used the collected to this moment data from a prospective study on the prevalence of pneumocystosis among the Bulgarian population. Clinical specimens (including throat secretion, induced sputum, tracheal aspirate, and bronchoalveolar lavage collected from 220 patients suspected of PCP (153 immunocompetent and 67 immunocompromised patients) were examined with staining microscopic methods and real-time PCR for detection of P. jirovecii. Results: DNA of the pathogen was detected in 38 (17%) specimens (32 immunocompromised patients and 6 immunocompetent subjects). From all 220 clinical samples examined by staining methods, only in five (2%) P. jirovecii cysts were detected by the Gomori's stain. All patients with PCP were treated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, but in ten of them (HIV- positive patients) the disease was with fatal outcome. Conclusions: This study is the first for the country including the main available laboratory methods for diagnosis of human pneumocystosis in Bulgaria. Regarding the etiological diagnosis of PCP, in our study the sensitivity of real-time PCR was higher compared to the staining methods. The choice of a method for sample collection and examination has an important role in the efficiency of the laboratory diagnostics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0318.v1
Subject: Dietetics And Nutrition, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: nutraceutic; dendritic cells; T lymphocytes; anti-inflammatory response; autophagy; apoptosis
Online: 5 June 2023 (12:50:29 CEST)
Background: Sulforaphane (SFN) is an isothiocyanate of vegetables origin with potent antioxidant and immunomodulatory properties. The pleiotropic activities characterization in human dendritic cells (DCs) is poorly summarized. The aim of this work was the study of the immunomodulatory power of SFN in response to an inflammatory microenvironment on human monocyte derived DCs (moDCs). Methods: The immunological response induced by SFN was studied, evaluating apoptosis and autophagy assays by flow cytometry in moDCs and cancer cell line (THP-1), including moDCs maturation, lymphocyte proliferation and cytokines production under different experimental conditions associated or not with an inflammatory microenvironment, which was induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Results: Our results demonstrated that SFN can interact with moDCs, significantly reducing autophagy process and enhancing apoptosis, such as THP-1 cells, in chronic inflammatory microenvironment. Under this chronic inflammation, SFN modulated the phenotypical characteristics of moDCs, which reduction the expression of all markers (CD80, CD83, CD86, HLA-DR and PD-L1), and significantly reduced the Th2 proliferative response together with the reduction of the IL-9 and IL-13 levels. Although we did not find changes in the regulatory proliferative response, we observed an increase in IL-10 levels. Conclusion: These findings demonstrate that SFN exerts protective effects against LPS-induced inflammation through moDCs/T-cells modulation towards a regulatory profile. Therefore, SFN may be a potential candidate for use in the treatment of pathologies with an inflammatory profile.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0317.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: exhaustion; disability; illness; disorder; adopted child; adoptive parent; single mom; single dad
Online: 5 June 2023 (12:07:39 CEST)
Although early work on parental burnout in the 1980s did not link parental burnout to specific parenting situations, the idea that parents affected by specific vulnerability factors were particularly at risk of burnout quickly emerged. Based on the etiological model of parental burnout (i.e., the balance between risks and resources), the objective of this study was to determine if there were specific vulnerability factors that significantly increase the risk of parental burnout. 2,563 parents participated in the study. We compared parents with a child with special needs (n = 25), parents who had adopted a child (n = 130), and single parents (n = 109), to strictly matched control groups of parents. Parents with a child with special needs displayed higher burnout and lower balance between risk and resources than the control group; parents with an adopted child had similar levels of both parental burnout and balance; and single parents had higher parental burnout but similar balance. Parents who combined specific several vulnerability factors were at greater risk of burnout. Single parenthood and adoption do not in themselves trigger a process leading de facto to other risk factors, but having a child with special needs does.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0316.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Primary Health Care Keywords: primary care; grievances; complaints; satisfaction
Online: 5 June 2023 (12:04:49 CEST)
Primary Health Care is crucial in the healthcare system, being the first level of contact with health services for users and patients to take action using the available resources. Patient care units are created to facilitate direct user participation through the circuit of complaints, grievances, and suggestions, allowing the analysis of the population's unmet expectations and needs. To study complaints and grievances regarding the treatment and information received by users in the Santiago and Barbanza healthcare area during the year 2022. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted, in which complaints filed by patients in the year 2022 in the Santiago and Barbanza healthcare area were analyzed. A total of 326 users who filed a total of 512 complaints were studied in the year 2022, with 358 (70.0%) related to treatment/information. The mean age was 33.5±16.2 years. 72.4% were women (n=236). A Pearson correlation was performed to establish whether there was a dependence between the number of healthcare visits in both primary care and hospital settings in 2022 and the number of complaints filed in the same year. Pearson correlation coefficient was 0.14; 95% CI (0.02 - 0.27), p=0.012. There is a correlation between the number of consultations and the number of complaints filed. Frequent users are more likely to file a complaint. However, there is no correlation between the number of consultations and the likelihood of filing a complaint regarding treatment/information. Therefore, there seems to be a good relationship between healthcare personnel and users, which impacts patient satisfaction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0315.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: Financial Viability; Life Cycle Cost Analysis; LPWAN; Pragmatic Computational Tools; Design Science Research, Data-driven decision making
Online: 5 June 2023 (12:00:41 CEST)
This paper focuses on quantifying the economic and financial viability of NB-IoT and LoRaWAN technologies, two low-power wide-area network (LPWAN) technologies with unique characteristics that make them suitable for IoT applications. The purpose of the study is to propose an artefact for performing life cycle cost analysis and demonstrate its application to these technologies. The methodology uses pragmatic computational tools to facilitate the analysis and considers all relevant economic and financial factors, such as operating costs, equipment costs, and revenue potential. The main finding of the study is that NB-IoT and LoRaWAN technologies have different cost structures and revenue potentials, which may affect their economic and financial viability for different IoT applications. Ultimately, the study concludes that a comprehensive life cycle cost analysis is critical to making informed decisions about technology adoption, and that the proposed methodology can be applied to other IoT technologies to gain insight into their economic and financial viability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0313.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Liquid biopsy; EGFR; NSCLC; T790M mutation; NGS; PCR
Online: 5 June 2023 (11:06:11 CEST)
Background: The detection of the EGFR T790M (T790M) mutation in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients who progressed under treatment with first- or second-generation EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) is important to offer a subsequent therapy with a third-generation EGFR-TKI. Liquid biopsy is a powerful tool to determine the T790M mutation status. Several liquid biopsy platforms with varying degrees of accuracy are available to test for T790M mutations and sensitivities may differ among these methods. Methods: As no standard exists for the testing of T790M mutation in liquid biopsy, we performed a collaborative study to describe and compare the sensitivity of different in-house liquid biopsy platforms for the detection of the T790M mutation, EGFR exon 19 deletion (del19) and EGFR L858R mutation (L858R) across multiple participating laboratories in seven Central and Eastern European countries. Results: Of the 25 invited laboratories across Central and Eastern Europe, 21 centers participated and received 10 plasma samples spiked with cell-line DNA containing the T790M, del19, or L858R mutation in different concentrations. In-house PCR-based and NGS-based methods were used accordingly, and results reported as in routine clinical practice. Two laboratories, which used the AmoyDx® EGFR 29 Mutations Detection Kit (AmoyDx) with Cobas® cfDNA Sample Preparation Kit and QX200 Droplet Digital PCR (ddPCR) with the QIAamp Circulating Nucleic Acid Kit identified all ten samples correctly. Cobas® EGFR Mutation Test v2 (Cobas), the NGS methods, and the IdyllaTM detection method used in this study performed within the known sensitivity range of each detection method. Conclusions: If a negative result was obtained from methods with lower sensitivity (e.g. Cobas), repeated liquid biopsy testing and/or tissue biopsy analysis should be performed whenever possible, with the aim of identifying T790M-positive patients to allow them to receive the optimal second-line treatment with a third-generation EGFR TKI.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1217.v2
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: sustainability; cement-based materials; concrete; perlite; physico-mechanical properties; energy performance
Online: 5 June 2023 (10:57:15 CEST)
There is an international concern for reducing energy consumption and protecting the environment in the construction industry. The energy efficiency of a building depends on the thermal resistance of concrete, and utilizing concrete products with elevated thermal resistance can enhance this aspect. This study analyzes the impact of perlite, as an addition, on the physico-mechanical properties of concrete, with the aim of identifying perlite concrete products that will respond to the improvement of the heat transfer resistance of the building envelope. The study examines the effect of replacing different amounts of concrete aggregates with perlite in percentages of 10%, 20%, 30%, and 100%. The results show that substituting sand with perlite improves the thermal performance of concrete, but its mechanical properties are negatively affected. The research carried out highlighted that perlite can be successfully introduced in the production of concrete blocks used for external non-bearing wall panels, the outstanding feature being the reduction of energy consumption in buildings. Overall, the paper identifies an efficient and environmentally friendly way of using perlite in the construction industry, enhancing the energy efficiency of buildings while minimizing the environmental footprint caused by the construction industry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0311.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: Rural; Telemedicine; Telehealth; Patient-Centered; Attitudes; Perceptions; Audio-only
Online: 5 June 2023 (10:51:10 CEST)
Purpose: This study aims to provide a foundational understanding of patient-centric perceptions of telemedicine implementation in rural Minnesota. Methods: This retrospective cohort study utilized a mail questionnaire to assess patient attitudes and behaviors regarding telemedicine during the emergency response to COVID-19. The target population was patients of a Primary Care clinic in eastern Minnesota. Descriptive statistics were used to assess respondents’ level of agreement with survey items scored on a 0-10 scale. Results: A majority of the respondents indicated that they were satisfied with using telemedicine (73.96%); that they gained an additional sense of control over their health condition due to the availability of telemedicine (52.08%); that they would support the use of telemedicine in the future (61.05%); that telemedicine increased access to care (65.63%); telemedicine was preferred over the clinic (61.46%), and that they would purchase new equipment to increase the utility of telemedicine services (54.17%). 51.04% of the respondents indicated a 10/10 level of satisfaction with telemedicine services. 48.96% indicated the strongest level of disagreement related to difficulty using telemedicine or a preference for in-person clinical appointments. Conclusions: Patients were found to have favorable perceptions of telemedicine overall. Though providers continue to recognize the benefit of face-to-face visits, their patients show an increased predilection for virtual care and telemedicine will likely remain an essential tool for providers to reach patients who would otherwise choose not to seek care.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0310.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: exercise training; aortic stenosis; heart failure; isolated papillary muscle; isolated cardiomyocyte; calcium handling.
Online: 5 June 2023 (10:47:28 CEST)
Aerobic exercise training (AET) has been used in the management of heart disease. AET may, totally or partially, restore the activity and/or expression of proteins that regulate calcium (Ca2+) handling, optimize intracellular Ca2+ flow, and attenuate cardiac functional impairment in failing hearts. However, the literature presents conflicting data regarding the effects of AET on Ca2+ transit and cardiac function in rats with heart failure resulting from aortic stenosis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of AET on calcium handling and cardiac function in rats with heart failure due to aortic stenosis. Wistar rats were distributed into two groups: control (Sham; n= 61) and aortic stenosis (AoS; n= 44). After 18 weeks, the groups were redistributed into: non-exposed to exercise training (Sham, n = 28 and AoS, n = 22) and trained (Sham-ET, n = 33 and AoS-ET, n = 22) for 10 weeks. Treadmill exercise training was performed with a velocity equivalent to the lactate threshold. Echocardiogram, isolated papillary muscle, and isolated cardiomyocyte analyzed cardiac function. During isolated papillary muscle assay and isolated cardimyocyte was evaluated Ca2+. The expression of regulatory proteins of diastolic Ca2+ was analyzed via Western Blot. AET attenuated the diastolic dysfunction and benefited the systolic function. AoS-ET animals presented better response to post-rest contraction, and SERCA2a and L-type Ca2+ channels blocked than the AoS. Furthermore, AET was able to improve aspects of the mechanical function and the responsiveness of the myofilaments to the Ca2+ of the AoS-ET animals. AoS animals presented alteration in the protein expression of the SERCA2a and NCX, and AET restored SERCA2a and NCX levels near normal values. Therefore, AET increased SERCA2a activity, improved the cellular Ca2+ influx mechanism, and increased myofilament responsiveness to Ca2+, attenuating cardiac dysfunction at cellular, tissue, and chamber levels in animals with aortic stenosis and heart failure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0309.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Software Keywords: search engine optimization; seo techniques; python seo tool; machine learning seo
Online: 5 June 2023 (10:38:37 CEST)
In the present-day digital landscape, websites have increasingly relied on digital marketing practices, notably search engine optimization (SEO), as a vital component in promoting sustainable growth. The traffic a website receives directly determines its development and success. As such, website owners frequently engage the services of SEO experts to enhance their website's visibility and increase traffic. These specialists employ premium SEO audit tools that crawl the website's source code to identify structural changes necessary to comply with specific ranking criteria, commonly called SEO factors. Working collaboratively with developers, SEO specialists implement technical changes to the source code and await the results. The cost of purchasing premium SEO audit tools or hiring an SEO specialist typically ranges in the thousands of dollars per year. Against this backdrop, this research endeavors to provide an open-source Python-based Machine Learning SEO software tool to the general public, catering to the needs of both website owners and SEO specialists. The tool analyzes the top-ranking websites for a given search term, assessing their on-page and off-page SEO strategies, and provides recommendations to enhance a website's performance to surpass its competition. The tool yields remarkable results, boosting average daily organic traffic from 10 to 143 visitors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0308.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Wound healing; Antibacterial; Hydrogel; Meshfill; Silver nanocomposite
Online: 5 June 2023 (10:34:40 CEST)
Introduction: Among the many factors that may limit effective wound healing in patients with chronic ulcers, bacterial infection and poor cell recruitment are primary causes that contribute to prolonged healing. Thus, a novel strategy that aims to prevent bacterial infection within the wound, while at the same time providing structural scaffolding that promotes endogenous tissue repair, would be of great interest. Here, we developed a thermo-sensitive silver nanoparticle hydrogel composite as an antibacterial nutritional scaffold for the wound that contains all nutrients required for cell growth while preventing bacterial infection with the ability to fill up all the cavities and void areas in wounds regardless of their geometry. Methods: Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized by chemical reduction. After characterization, silver hydrogel nanocomposite was developed by reconstitution of collagen-based hydrogel powder in a nanoparticle suspension of varying AgNPs concentrations (200, 400, and 600 ppm). The antibacterial activity of the formulations was examined in vitro and in vivo in subcutaneous implant infected model. The wound healing efficacy of the hydrogel nanocomposite was also evaluated using a splinted wound model in rats through comparison of clinical wound measurements and histological assessments. Cytocompatibility assay and biochemical analysis of blood at the end of in vivo wound healing study were performed to evaluate the safety of formulations. Results: The synthesized nanoparticles were spherical and stable. While hydrogel alone did not show any bacterial reduction in vitro, the inhibition of bacterial growth was significant in all silver hydrogel nanocomposites compared to controls (p <0.05) and was dose-dependent, with maximum reduction observed in the 600 ppm group (4.56±0.26 LOG CFU/mL, P<0.001). All concentrations of AgNPs hydrogel composites showed significant antibacterial activity in vivo as well (P<0.0001). Treatment of splinted wounds with AgNPs hydrogel composite resulted in faster wound closure and accelerated wound re-epithelialization. The formulations were non-cytotoxic and did not differ significantly in hematological and biochemical factors from the control group in in vivo study. Conclusions: By presenting promising antibacterial and wound healing activity, silver hydrogel nanocomposite offers a safe therapeutic option that can be used as a functional scaffold for an acceleration of wound healing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0307.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: SMD inductor; loss tangent; effective permeability; Near-field coupling
Online: 5 June 2023 (10:30:01 CEST)
In this paper, we propose a methodology for analyzing the near-field coupling between two surface mount device (SMD) inductors using a 3-dimensional electromagnetic (3D-EM) model. To develop the 3D-EM model, we first extract the effective permeability of core magnetic material in the SMD using the loss tangent in the equivalent circuit model. Then the effective permeability is used in the magnetic material for the 3D-EM modeling of SMD inductor. The validity of the proposed 3D-EM model is confirmed by comparing the impedance and S-parameters obtained from both measured and EM-simulated values for the two near-field coupled SMDs. Finally, the near-field coupling effects between the two adjacent SMD inductors are visualized in terms of magnetic coupling path visualization (CPV) using the proposed 3D-EM model, which demonstrates its usefulness for near-field coupling analysis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0306.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: microfragmented adipose tissue; regenerative medicine; bone healing, osteotomy, cranial cruciate ligament
Online: 5 June 2023 (10:22:38 CEST)
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of autologous microfragmented adipose tissue (MFAT), obtained by mechanical fragmentation, on radiographic bone healing in dogs subjected to tibial plateau levelling osteotomy (TPLO). Twenty dogs with unilateral cranial cruciate disease were enrolled and randomly assigned to the treatment group (MFAT) or the control group (NT). The MFAT group underwent TPLO and autologous MFAT intra-articular administration while the NT group underwent TPLO alone. The adipose tissue was collected from the thigh region and MFAT was obtained by mechanical fragmentation at the end of the surgery. The patients were subjected to X-ray exam preoperatively, immediately postoperatively (T0) and at 4 (T1) and 8 (T2) weeks postoperatively. Two radiographic scores that had previously been described for the evaluation of bone healing after TPLO were used. A 12-point scoring system (from 0 = no healing to 12= complete remodelling) was used at T0, T1 and T2, while a 5-point scoring system (from 0 = no healing to 4 = 76%–100% of healing) was used at T1 and T2. The median healing scores were significantly higher at T1 and T2 for the MFAT group compared with the NT group for the 12-point (p < 0.05) and 5-point (p < 0.05) scoring systems. The intra-articular injection of autologous microfragmented adipose tissue can accelerate bone healing after TPLO without complications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0305.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Applied Chemistry Keywords: Fluoroquinolones; Lomefloxacin; Pefloxacin Metal-based complex; Spectroscopies; Biological activities
Online: 5 June 2023 (10:22:12 CEST)
Lomefloxacin (F1) and pefloxacin (F2) have a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activities against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. In this study, we investigated the complexation mode, morphological and biological properties of four metal-based complexes of F1 and F2 molecules with Mg(II), Ca(II), Zn(II), and Fe(III) metal ions. These complexes were prepared at ~60–70°C in a neutral medium using a 5% NH3 solution at pH ~7-8 with a 1:1 ratio. Multiple physicochemical methods were employed to characterize the binding mode between F1 and F2 with the metal ions under investigation. The results of these methods suggested that the gross formula of the complexes obtained with the metal ions were [MgF1(H2O)Cl]2H2O, [CaF1(H2O)Cl]3H2O, [ZnF1(H2O)Cl], [FeF1(H2O)2Cl2]Cl2H2O, [MgF2(H2O)Cl]2H2O, [CaF2(H2O)Cl]3H2O, [ZnF2(H2O)Cl], and [FeF2(H2O)2Cl2]Cl2H2O. The microscopic characterizations indicated that the Ca(II)-F1 complex had an interesting surface topography. Its particles had a homogenous, short, rod-like shaped structure that clustered together to form a tree shape. Using the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion protocol, the synthesized metal-based complexes were screened in vitro against different Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial and fungal species. The antimicrobial profile of the Fe(III)-F1 complex indicated that it had remarkable inhibitory activity against all the tested bacterial and fungal species with potency equal to that of the standard drugs (streptomycin and ketoconazole).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0304.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: agro-ecotourism; sustainability; community; West Java; Indonesia
Online: 5 June 2023 (10:19:16 CEST)
Agro-ecotourism is a tourism development activity in a location with ecological and agricultural advantages, leading to business utilization to generate economic value. Agro-ecotourism in West Java has a selling point in the form of natural potential, agriculture, arts, handicrafts, to the traditional culinary processing typical of the village. This research aims to analyze the sustainability level and the sensitive factors or attributes that affect the level of sustainability of community-based agro-ecotourism in West Java. The study used a survey method on 237 agritourist actors. Data were analyzed using Multi-Dimensional Scaling in the Rapid Appraisal-Tourism technique. The study results show that community-based agro-ecotourism in West Java is quite sustainable (57.07). This study analyzed sustainability through economic, social, cultural, institutional, ecological, and technological dimensions. The social dimension has the highest value because agriculture-based village tourism is carried out in the community. Meanwhile, the lowest value is the technology dimension. The availability of infrastructure influenced the value obtained and means of transportation as well as environmentally friendly farming techniques.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0303.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: time-of-flight; LiDAR; indoor mapping; ROS; SLAM
Online: 5 June 2023 (10:17:11 CEST)
This manuscript presents a system that can generate a 2D grid map and a 3D voxel model of an environment by fusing multiple sensors integrated into a robot. The fusion of these sensors is done by utilizing Robot Operating System (ROS) and some of its libraries. The sensors that are fused in the robot are a Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR), Inertial Measurement Units (IMU), wheel encoders, and a Time-of-Flight camera. With the fusion of the point cloud data information obtained with the Time-of-Flight camera, the laser information of the LIDAR sensor, in addition to the odometry generated with the other sensors, a 2D grid map and a 3D model of two different environments were created, thus testing the performance of the system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0302.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: hybrid material; hydroxyapatite formation; amorphous calcium phosphate; platelet-poor plasma; phase composition
Online: 5 June 2023 (10:14:48 CEST)
Applying of blood biopolymers to regulate the phase composition is promising in designing the hydroxyapatite-based hybrid biomaterials with controllable resorbability. Hybrid materials based on hydroxyapatite and platelet-poor plasma (PPP) were formed in conditions of chemical precipi-tation at pH 11, [Ca2+] / [PO43–] ratio 1.67, PPP volume fraction of 6–24%, maturing time of 4–9 days. Mineral component of the materials was represented as 53% hydroxyapatite / 47% amor-phous calcium phosphate after 4 days of maturation, and 100% hydroxyapatite after 9 days of maturation. Varying PPP content from 6% to 24% provided forming of materials with rather de-fined content of amorphous calcium phosphate and biopolymer component, having desired mor-phology ranging from typical apatitic conglomerates to hybrid apatite-biopolymer fibers. Co-precipitated hybrid materials based on hydroxyapatite and PPP are promising for bone regen-eration in osteoplastic and maxillofacial applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0301.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: pruritus; 3D-accellerometer; monitoring; allergic skin disease; canine atopic dermatitis
Online: 5 June 2023 (10:13:20 CEST)
Medical management of chronic canine pruritic dermatologic conditions is challenging and often frustrating. This is a report that shows one way of aiding the management of pruritic dogs using a remote monitoring device. It is often difficult for veterinarians to get dog owners to return to the clinic once a dog is treated. It is possible that a 3-D accelerometer device could provide information to the clinic staff on the success or failure of a pruritus treatment plan while the dog was cared for at home. Eighty-seven dogs and their owners came to a Florida dermatology specialty clinic or its general practice hospital to be evaluated and treated for pruritus. An ANIMO® 3-D accelerometer was placed on the collar of dogs diagnosed and treated for pruritus. Dogs that completed the study were monitored for 120 days (4 months). The ANIMO app monitored a dog’s daily scratching, shaking, sleeping, activity, resting, barking and calories consumed and summarized this information in a daily report visible on the pet owner’s smart phone. An additional variable (grooming minutes per day) could be seen by the Sure Petcare R&D Team that was not yet available in the app. The use of a 3-D accelerometer enabled veterinarians to continuously monitor dogs at home when they were being treated for itching. Clinic staff kept in touch with the owners by phone and could change therapy or bring the dog back for a recheck if problems were seen. Daily reports were combined into line charts that showed plots of scratching, shaking, grooming and sleeping over four months. Veterinarians were able to remotely monitor dogs that had been treated for pruritus for up to four months through the use of a collar-borne monitoring device. Dog owners and clinic staff used the daily summaries which were accessible through a smart phone app. Dogs seemed to tolerate the device well because of its small size and unobtrusive nature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0300.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: CART algorithm; Accuracy; Synthetic Minority Over-sampling Technique; Particle Swarm Optimization
Online: 5 June 2023 (10:10:36 CEST)
Diabetes is a serious health problem throughout the world, including in Indonesia. The International Diabetes Federation (IDF) reports that the number of adults with diabetes is increasing every year. The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) is a survey conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in the United States. Classification methods in data mining techniques are used to classify diabetics and non-diabetics. The data mining process is carried out by preprocessing, feature selection, and dataset classification stages. In the preprocessing stage, data cleaning, data formatting, and data oversampling are carried out using the Synthetic Minority Over-sampling Technique (SMOTE). Next, the feature selection stage is carried out using the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm to find the best attributes. The dataset classification stage is carried out using the CART Model Decision Tree algorithm. The results of the performance evaluation of the CART algorithm are calculated using the confusion matrix and the MAE value, the results obtained for the CART algorithm without SMOTE and PSO obtained the best accuracy of 75.34% and the MAE value of 0.2466, while the CART algorithm using SMOTE and PSO can increase accuracy by 10 .94% to 86.28% and an MAE value of 0.1372.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0299.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: anaerobic digestion; microbial structure; microbial interactions; operating parameters; digestion efficiency
Online: 5 June 2023 (10:09:58 CEST)
Anaerobic digestion has emerged as an increasingly popular method for the effective management of organic waste and wastewater with the potential to generate renewable energy. However, efficient digestion depends heavily on the complex and diverse microbial communities mediating this process. This review paper delves into the complex microbiome that exists within anaerobic digestion digesters, playing a critical role in the efficient and sustainable conversion of organic waste into biogas. Its primary focus falls within the scope of how various operational and environmental factors, including temperature, pH, hydraulic retention time, substrate loading rates, and the presence of inhibitory compounds, can substantially impact the microbiome of these systems. Through an extensive analysis of the existing literature, the microbial ecology of anaerobic digestion, including the composition and function of the microbial community, their interactions, and responses to different stressors, are evaluated. By offering critical insights into the distribution patterns of active microbial populations upon alterations in various process parameters, a better understanding of the microbial dynamics within these systems is provided, enhancing their efficiency. Overall, this paper emphasizes the importance of unraveling the microbial evolution within AD reactors to optimize biogas production and sustainable waste management and proposes future perspectives in this direction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0298.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: sustainability assessment; Sustainable Development Goals; Agenda 2030; peri-urban fringe; multidimensional indicators; evaluation tools; sustainable development; spatial decision support system
Online: 5 June 2023 (10:08:30 CEST)
This research experiments with a sustainability assessment based on the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) of Agenda 2030 through a process of their territorialisation and implementation. This process enables the development of a Spatial Decision Support System (SDSS) that can be integrated with strategic environmental assessments in urban planning. The assessment takes place on the transversality of the sustainability concept by trying to consider together the three dimensions (environmental, social and economic) into a single assessment through the Spatial Sustainability Assessment Model (SSAM) by integrating Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and multi-criteria analyses. Economic development, social equity, and ecological integrity represent three common visions for rethinking peri-urban edges.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0297.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Theoretical Physics Keywords: Tunable deflection; epsilon-near-zero; metamaterial.
Online: 5 June 2023 (10:07:51 CEST)
Epsilon-near-zero nanoantennas can be used to tune the far-field radiation pattern due to their exceptionally large intensity-dependent refractive index. Here, we propose hybrid optical antenna based on indium tin oxide (ITO) to optically tune the deflection of radiation. In particular, a hybrid structure antenna of ITO and dielectric material, which makes the deflection angle changes 17 ∘ as incident intensities increases. Finally, the array of ITO or hybrid nanodisks can enhance the unidirectionality to be needle-like, with the angular beam width α< 8∘ of main lobe. The deflection angle of radiation pattern response with needle-like lobe pave the way for further studies and applications in beam steering and optical modulation where dynamic control of the nanoantennas is highly desirable.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0271.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: waste plastic composites; poly carbonate; polycarbonate composite; sand; plastic and sand composites; plastic sand bricks; concrete; construction; compressive strength; mechanical properties
Online: 5 June 2023 (10:00:49 CEST)
Concrete contributes 8% of all global carbon emissions making the need to find substitute critical for environmental sustainability. Research has indicated the potential for recycled plastics to be used as concrete substitutes. This study extends existing research by investigating the use of polycarbonate (PC) in plastic sand bricks as a mechanical equivalent to concrete. PC has high compressive strength, durability, impact strength, thermal resistivity, clarity, fatigue resistance, and UV resistance. This work provides a method and mold to produce a matrix of sand-plastic sample compositions with dimensions adhering to ASTM D695 standard for compressive properties of rigid-plastic. Compositions of 0% (control), 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50% sand by weight were tested. Samples were tested for compressive strength until yield and stress-strain behaviors plotted. The results for 100% PC demonstrated an average and maximum compressive strength of 71 MPa and 72 MPa, respectively. The 50% PC and 50% sand composition yielded an average and maximum compressive strength of 71 MPa and 73 MPa respectively with an increase in compressive stiffness, and transition to shear failure resembling cement. With a composite density of 1.86 g/cm3 against concrete’s average 2.4 g/cm3, and a compressive strength exceeding commercial concrete demands of 23.3 MPa to 30.2 MPa, this lightweight alternative meets the strength demands of concrete, reduces the need for new construction materials, and provides an additional recycling opportunity for nonbiodegradable waste plastic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0296.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Robotics Keywords: Mobile Robot; Non-holonomy; Driftless Control
Online: 5 June 2023 (10:00:22 CEST)
In this paper is presented the design and syntheis of a dynamic output feedback neural network controller for a non-holonomic mobile robot. First the dynamic model of a non-holonomic mobile robot is presented, in which these constraints are considered for the mathematical derivation of a feasable representation for this kind of robot. Then two control strategies are provided based on kinematic control for this kind of robot. The first control strategy is based on driftless control, this means, that considering that the velocity vector of the mobile robot is orthogonal to its restriction a dynamic output feedback and neural network controller is designed in order that the control action would be zero only when the velocity of the mobile robot is zero. The Lyapunov stability theorem is implemented in order to find a suitable control law. Then another control strategy is designed for trajectory tracking purposes, which similar to the driftless controller, a kinematic control scheme is provided but suitable to implement in more sophisticated hardware. In both control strategy a dynamic control law is provided along with a feedforward neural network controller, so in this way, by the Lyapunov theory the stability and convergence to the origin of the mobile robot position coordinates is ensured. Finally, two numerical experiment are presented in order to validate the theoretical results synthetized in this research study. Discussions and conclusions are provided in order to analyze the results found in this research study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0295.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: computing resources; Gaussian process fitting model; multi-criterion sampling strategy; high-quality pixel pairs; alpha matte
Online: 5 June 2023 (10:00:19 CEST)
Natural image matting is an essential technique for image processing that enables various applications, such as image synthesis, video editing, and target tracking. However, the existing image matting methods may fail to produce satisfactory results when computing resources are limited. Sampling-based methods can reduce the dimensionality of the decision space and therefore reduce computational resources by employing different sampling strategies. While these approaches reduce computational consumption, they may miss an optimal pixel pair when the number of available high-quality pixel pairs is limited. To address this shortcoming, we propose a novel multi-criterion sampling strategy that avoids missing high-quality pixel pairs by incorporating multi-range pixel pair sampling and high-quality samples selection method. This strategy is employed to develop a multi-criterion matting algorithm via Gaussian process, which searches for the optimal pixel pair by using the Gaussian process fitting model instead of solving the original pixel pair objective function. Experimental results demonstrate that our proposed algorithm outperforms other methods even with 1% computing resources, and achieves alpha matte results comparable to those yielded by the state-of-the-art optimization algorithms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0276.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: Monolayer semiconductor; Band gap; Electronic structure; Biaxial strain; DFT calculations
Online: 5 June 2023 (09:58:45 CEST)
In recent years, two-dimensional (2D) materials have attracted significant attention due to their distinctive properties, including exceptional mechanical flexibility and tunable electronic properties. Via the first-principles calculation, we investigate the effect of strain on the electronic properties of monolayer SnP2S6 and GeP2S6. We find that monolayer SnP2S6 is an indirect band gap semiconductor, while monolayer GeP2S6 is a direct band gap semiconductor. Notably, under uniform biaxial strains, SnP2S6 undergoes an indirect-to-direct band gap transition at 4.0% biaxial compressive strains, while GeP2S6 exhibits a direct-to-indirect transition at 2.0% biaxial tensile strain. The changes of the conduction band edge can be attributed to the high-symmetry point Γ being more sensitive to strain than K. Thus, the relocation of the conduction-band and valence-band edges in monolayer SnP2S6 and GeP2S6 induces a direct-to-indirect and indirect-to-direct band-gap transition respectively. Consequently, the strain is an effective band engineering scheme which is crucial for the design and development of next-generation nanoelectronic and optoelectronic devices.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0294.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: automated vehicle; performance assessment; sensor; sound navigator; utilization level
Online: 5 June 2023 (09:57:22 CEST)
Enhancement of technology in our current world appreciates human being from day to day. Scholars from their side doesn’t resting to come up with new and innovative ideas to simplify human survival in different ways. Automated vehicles are part of newly upcoming vehicles in our modern world to do the same implication on human effort. It doesn’t need more of human power in order to driven from the initial to the destination point either passenger vehicle or carrying goods. Obviously known since automated system uses electric powers, sensor, cameras and Sound navigators to make tangible the operation its designed for, Automated vehicle also uses the same components too. Partaking this in mind, this paper reviews the utilization level of AV plus their performance depending on the promises planned to 2023 all-inclusive. So that this study may recapitulate the present conditions and according to different researches done per too many universities for enhance the implications. This review uses quantity and most statistical methods to suck the golden idea from those researches. In general, the paper studies on the status of autonomous vehicles. Their background and targeted company with their updates have been stated. The data for this study is from different research reviews and company daily updated profiles. From the information compiled, it can possibly be summarized as follows: even though the potentials of each company have been increasing on daily and annual bases, their success hasn’t been observed yet this data is written here. Currently, the status is lower than their promise. While considering utilization levels the same is true, which means less. Since most Autonomous companies in average more in California, cities like San Francisco (Cruise), Palo Alto (Tesla), Fremont (Pony.ai), Santa Monica (Motional), Mountain view (Waymo), Foster city (Zoox), etc. are starting to test the current status of autonomous levels.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0596.v2
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: Deep Learning; image-to-image translation; dosimetry; cycleGAN; CBCT; CT; limited FOV; artifact correction; Hounsfield unit recovery
Online: 5 June 2023 (09:53:36 CEST)
Radiotherapy commonly utilizes CBCT for patient positioning and treatment monitoring. CBCT is deemed to be secure for patients, making it suitable for the delivery of fractional doses. However, limitations such as a narrow field of view, beam hardening, scattered radiation artifacts, and variability in pixel intensity hinder the direct use of raw CBCT for dose recalculation during treatment. To address this issue, reliable correction techniques are necessary to remove artifacts and remap pixel intensity into HU values. This study proposes a deep-learning framework for calibrating CBCT images acquired with narrow FOV systems and demonstrates its potential use in proton treatment planning updates. Cycle-consistent GAN processes raw CBCT to reduce scatter and remap HU. Monte Carlo simulation is used to generate CBCT scans, enabling the possibility to focus solely on the algorithm’s ability to reduce artifacts and cupping effects without considering intra-patient longitudinal variability and producing a fair comparison between planning CT and calibrated CBCT dosimetry. To showcase the viability of the approach using real-world data, experiments were also conducted using real CBCT. Tests were performed on a publicly available dataset of 40 patients who received ablative radiation therapy for pancreatic cancer. The simulated CBCT calibration led to a difference in proton dosimetry of less than 2%, compared to the planning CT. The potential toxicity effect on the organs at risk decreased from about 50% (uncalibrated) up the 2% (calibrated). The gamma pass rate at 3%/2mm produced an improvement of about 37% in replicating the prescribed dose before and after calibration (53.78% vs 90.26%). Real data also confirmed this with slightly inferior performances for the same criteria (65.36% vs 87.20%). These results may confirm that generative artificial intelligence brings the use of narrow FOV CBCT scans incrementally closer to clinical translation in proton therapy planning updates.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0293.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Pseudomonas aeruginosa; chronic infection; respiratory; murine model; in vivo; S. aureus
Online: 5 June 2023 (09:50:00 CEST)
Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) is an opportunistic pathogen and is the leading cause of infection in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). The ability of P. aeruginosa to evade host responses and develop into chronic infection causes significant morbidity and mortality. Several mouse models have been developed to study chronic respiratory infections induced by P. aeruginosa, with the bead agar model being the most widely used. However, this model has several limitations, including the requirement for surgical procedures and high mortality rates. Herein, we describe novel and adapted biologically relevant models of chronic lung infection caused by P. aeruginosa. Three methods are described, a clinical isolate infection model, utilizing isolates obtained from patients with CF, an incomplete antibiotic clearance model, leading to bacterial bounce-back and the establishment of chronic infection, and an adapted water bottle chronic infection model. These models circumvent the requirement for surgical procedure and importantly, can be induced with clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa and in wild-type mice. We also demonstrate successful induction of chronic infection in the transgenic βENaC murine model of CF. We envisage that the models described will facilitate the investigations of host and microbial factors, and the efficacy of novel antimicrobials, during chronic P. aeruginosa respiratory infections.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0292.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: likelihood ratio order; usual stochastic order; cold-standby system; log-concave; logconvex; lifetime
Online: 5 June 2023 (09:42:54 CEST)
In this paper, we first establish upper stochastic bounds on the lifetime of a used cold standby system with arbitrary age, using the likelihood ratio order and the usual stochastic order. Then, stochastic comparisons are made between the lifetime of a used cold standby system with age t and the lifetime of a cold standby system consisting of used components with age t using the likelihood ratio order and the usual stochastic order. We use illustrative examples to explore the results presented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0291.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: obesity NASH
Online: 5 June 2023 (09:38:13 CEST)
A high prevalence of childhood obesity has been observed in the last years. Ultrasound of adi-pose tissue is technique validated in adults in order to detect risk of comorbidity as NAFLD and NASH, but no studies at pediatric population. The main objective is to assess measurement of preperitoneal fat by nutritional ultrasound as a screening method for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in obese children. Patients and methods: Prospective longitudinal study. A study of somatometry, bioelectrical impedancemetry and nutritional ultrasound has been car-ried out. Results : 102 patients were included, with a mean BMI (SDS) of 2.58. A linear and direct correlation was observed between the fat mass measured by bioelectrical impedancemetry and the total subcutaneous abdominal fat measured by nutritional ultrasound. We also observed a correlation between preperitoneal fat measured by nutritional ultrasound and NASH, with a cut-off point of 0.93 cm of preperitoneal fat (sensitivity 96% and specificity 94%).Conclusions: Measurement of preperitoneal fat by nutritional ultrasound is a good screening method for NASH in obese children.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0290.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: Posture; Athletic performance; Athletes; Cardiopulmonary performance
Online: 5 June 2023 (09:37:32 CEST)
This study assessed the relationship between body posture displacements and cardiopulmonary function test (CPET) and skill related physical fitness tests. One hundred male (60%) and female collegiate athletes (22.2 ± 4yrs) with a normal body mass index (BMI up to 24.9) were assessed via the PostureScreen Mobile app to quantify postural displacements as head, thorax and pelvis rotations and translations. CPET and physical performance tests including the agility T-test, the vertical jump test, the stork static balance test (SSBT) and the dynamic Y-balance test (YBT) were performed. Spearman correlation (r) and p-values are reported. Postural parameters were found to have moderate-to-high associations with CPET and the agility test, moderate correlations with the vertical jump test and the SSBT (head and pelvic postures only), and weak correlations with the YBT. As postural parameters were more asymmetric, both CPET and performance skills scores were worse. For examples: 1) a medium positive correlation was found between cranio-vertebral angle (CVA) and vertical jump test (r = 0.54; p-value < 0.001) and SSBT (r = 0.57; p-value < 0.001), while a strong negative correlation was found between CVA and agility test (r = -0.86; p-value < 0.001). 2) A strong positive correlation was found between CVA and oxygen uptake efficiency slope, load watts VO2 at VT, VO2 / kg, load watts at respiratory compensation point (RCP), (r = 0.65 and r = 0.71; p < 0.001). Conversely, a significant negative correlation was found between CVA and VE / VO2 at VT (r = -0.61; p < 0.001). Postural rotations and translations of the head, thorax and pelvis were statistically correlated with physical performance skills and CPET in young collegiate athletes. There were moderate-to-high associations with cardiopulmonary functions and agility tests, moderate correlations with the vertical jump test, and weak correlations with the YBT. Postural alignment may be important for optimal physical performance and optimal cardiopulmonary function. Further research is necessary to elucidate reasons for these correlations as found in our sample of young and healthy athletes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0289.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: Discrete distribution estimation, Local differential privacy, Item-oriented personalization, Randomized response
Online: 5 June 2023 (09:36:31 CEST)
Discrete distribution estimation is a fundamental statistical tool, which is widely used to perform data analysis tasks in various applications involving sensitive personal information. Due to privacy concerns, individuals may not always provide their raw information, which leads to unpredictable biases in the final results of estimated distribution. Local Differential Privacy (LDP) is an advanced technique for privacy protection of discrete distribution estimation. Currently, typical LDP mechanisms provide same protection for all items in the domain, which imposes unnecessary perturbation on less sensitive items and thus degrades the utility of final results. Although, several recent works try to alleviate this problem, the utility can be further improved. In this paper, we propose a novel notion called Item-Oriented Personalized LDP (IPLDP), which independently perturbs different items with different privacy budgets to achieve personalized privacy protection. Furthermore, to satisfy IPLDP, we propose the Item-Oriented Personalized Randomized Response (IPRR) based on the observation that the sensitivity of data shows an inverse relationship with the population size of respective individuals. Theoretical analysis and experimental results demonstrate that our method can provide fine-grained privacy protection and improve data utility simultaneously.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1218.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Mathematical Physics Keywords: rational Sturm-Liouville equation; Liouville transformation; complex Jacobi polynomials, classical Jacobi polynomials, Romanovski-Routh polynomials, Masjed-Jamei polynomials; quasi-rational solutions, almost-everywhere holomorphic solutions
Online: 5 June 2023 (09:30:19 CEST)
The paper examines common elements between Lévai’s and Milson’s potentials obtained by Liouville transformations of two rational canonical Sturm-Liouville equations (RCSLEs) with even density functions which are exactly solvable via Jacobi polynomials in a real or accordingly imaginary argument. We refer to the polynomial numerators of the given rational density function as ‘tangent polynomial’ (TP) and thereby term the aforementioned potentials as ‘e-TP’ A special attention is given to the overlap between the two potentials along symmetric curves which represent two different forms of the Ginocchio potential exactly quantized via Gegenbauer and Masjed-Jamei polynomials respectively. Our analysis reveals that the actual interconnection between Lévai’s parameters for these two rational realizations of the Ginocchio potential is much more complicated than one could expect based on the striking resemblance between two quartic equations derived by Lévai for ‘averaged’ Jacobi indexes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0288.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Early cancer diagnosis; cell free DNA; biomarker; integrative biology; pan cancer
Online: 5 June 2023 (09:20:14 CEST)
Blood-based circulating cell free DNA(cfDNA) detection offers a non-invasive and easily accessible way for early cancer detection. Despite the extensive utility of cfDNA, there are still many challenges to develop the clinical biomarkers. For example, cfDNA with genetic alterations often compose a small portion of the DNA circulating in plasma, which can be confounded by cfDNA contributed by normal cells. Therefore, filtering out the potential false-positive cfDNA mutations from health population will be important for the cancer-based biomarkers. Additionally, many low-frequency genetic alterations are easily overlooked in small amount of cfDNA-based cancer test. We hypothesize that, the combination of diverse types of cancer studies on cfDNA can provide us a new insight to identify low-frequency genetic variant across cancer types for early clinical detection of cancers. By building a standardized computational pipeline for 1358 cfDNA samples across seven cancer types, we prioritize 129 shard genetic variants in the major cancer types. Further functional analysis of the 129 variants found that they are mainly enriched in ribosome pathways such as cotranslational protein targeting to membrane, some of which are tumor suppressor, oncogene and related to cancer initiation. In summary, our integrative analysis revealed the important roles of ribosome proteins as the common biomarkers in early cancer diagnosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0287.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: autonomous driving; object detection; Position Adaptive Convolution; FANet
Online: 5 June 2023 (09:15:40 CEST)
3D object detection is essential for an accurate and reliable autonomous driving system. Currently, the methods used by the state-of-the-art two-stage detectors are not flexible enough and their fea-ture extraction capabilities are very limited to cope effectively with the disorder and irregularity of point clouds. In this paper, we combine the advantages of both PV-RCNN and PAConv (Position Adaptive Convolution) to create a completely new network, FANet, in order to overcome the ir-regularity and disorder of point clouds. The convolution in our network builds convolutional ker-nels from a basic weight matrix, whose combined coefficients are learned adaptively by LearnNet from relative points. This network allows for flexible modeling of complex spatial variations and geometric structures in the 3D point cloud, enabling better extraction of point cloud features and producing high-quality 3D proposal boxes. Compared to other methods, FANet is superior in terms of 3D object detection accuracy. Extensive experiments on the KITTI dataset have shown a signif-icant improvement in our approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0286.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV); Long-Term Non-Progressor (LTNP), Elite Controllers (EC); Viremic Controllers (VC); IFN-γ T cell responses; Human Leukocyte Antigens (HLA)
Online: 5 June 2023 (09:10:18 CEST)
We report the characterization of phenotype, genotype, and functional parameters such as CD4+ T cell, viral load, HIV-1 genotype, class I HLA genotype, CCR5 polymorphism, and IFN-γ producing cells from a cohort of 37 people living with HIV-1 (PLWH) (viremic controllers, were compared those on antiretroviral therapy (ART) from two sites in São Paulo, Brazil. Half the PLWH (51.4%) were classified as viremic controllers (Controller group - CG), compared to 48.6% were on ART. As expected, controllers showed baseline higher levels of CD4+ T cells and nadir compared to those under ART, confirming the ability of HIV-1 controllers to preserve these cells even in the absence of ART. IFN-γ-producing cells showed greater magnitude to the HIV peptides Gag in controllers (p<0.03). Our results demonstrated that HLA protective alleles are associated with strong production of IFN-γ to Gag, Nef and RT epitopes in people living with HIV controllers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0285.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Artificial Intelligence; Sustainable development; Deep Learning; Mineral Deposit Prediction; Multi-scale Features; Attention Mechanism
Online: 5 June 2023 (09:05:21 CEST)
In recent years, intelligent identification and prediction of ore deposits based on deep learning algorithm and image processing technology has gradually become one of the research frontiers in the field of geological and metallogenic prediction. However, this method also has many problems that need to be solved. For example, (1) very few trainable image samples containing mineral point labels; (2) The geological image features are small and irregular, and the image similarity is high; (3) It is difficult to calculate the influence of different geological prospecting factors on ore mineralization. Based on this, this paper constructs a deep learning network model Multiscale Feature Attention Framework (MFAF) based on geo-image data. The results show that MFCA-Net module in MFAF model can solve the problem of scarce mine label images to a certain extent. In addition, the channel attention mechanism SE-Net module can quantify the difference of influence of different source factors on mineralization. The prediction map is obtained by applying the MFAF model in the study of deposit identification and prediction in the research area of the southern section of Qin-hang metallogenic Belt. In the forecast map, many regions have high metallogenic potential. Through observation, it is found that the above predicted area covers 100% of the known ore deposits at present, which has a good prediction effect. Later, we can find out the specific reasons through field verification. The multi-scale feature fusion and attention mechanism MFA Framework in this paper can provide a new way of thinking for geologists in mineral exploration. The research of this paper also provides resource guarantee and technical support for the sustainable exploitation of mineral resources and the sustainable growth of society and economy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0284.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: River Planform; River Reaches; Automatic Identification; Geomorphics Elements and Units; Biobío Basin
Online: 5 June 2023 (09:02:24 CEST)
This paper addresses the issue of the automatic identification of river reaches and their planform type, given the (observed) set of geomorphic elements and units. It introduces further advances with respect to the original proposal by Nardini and Brierley. And it explores explicitly the ability of the algorithm and associated tools to work properly on significantly different rivers while adopting a given same parametrization. This was indeed an envisaged ability speculated as a challenging conclusion of the previous work. The Duqueco, Laja and Biobío rivers (Chile) are analyzed for this purpose. The conclusion is definitely positive, what opens future promising application horizons.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0283.v1
Subject: Engineering, Chemical Engineering Keywords: lithium-ion batteries; LIB; LiFePO4; electric vehicles; Cahn–Hilliard; principal component analysis; neural networks
Online: 5 June 2023 (09:01:49 CEST)
Lithium-ion batteries serve as the primary sources of power for electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). For vehicle applications, battery management systems (BMSs) are nec-essary to protect lithium-ion batteries from overheating and to ensure optimum vehicle perfor-mance. Our approach to developing a BMS was based on recent advances in the application of phase field models for lithium-ion batteries. In particular, our reduced-order model (ROM) uti-lized a dataset generated from the COMSOL® Multiphysics simulation of the Cahn–Hilliard equation for a single particle of a lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) cathode: an example of using a reduced-order model (ROM) based on a single-particle model (SPM). The main innovation of our ROM is that the SPM is fully coupled to a heat transfer model at the battery cell level. We utilized principal component analysis to identify a lower-order model that could reproduce the battery’s voltage and temperature response for ambient temperatures ranging from 253 to 298 K and for discharge rates ranging from 1 C to 20.5 C. The reduced-order dataset was then fitted to the ex-perimental data for an A123 Systems 26650 2.3 Ah cylindrical battery using deep neural network (DNN) regression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2091.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: Regional organisations; Gemeinschaft-Gesellschaft; Collectivism-Individualism; Cultural Agency Theory; metacybernetics; political development; social psychology; Mindset Agency Theory; normative personality; EU; ASEAN
Online: 5 June 2023 (09:00:10 CEST)
Regional organisations (ROs) are important in that they can enable states in their regions to pros-per and develop for improvement. Interest here lies in the European Union (EU) and the Associa-tion of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN). Their political development involves complex process-es for collective actions involving ingroup member RO states. To explore development, we firstly examine the rise of both the EU and ASEAN. The literature gives some attention to the behaviour-alist political approach to explain developmental differences using social organisation theory, often in terms of the Gemeinschaft-Gesellschaft paradigm of Tönnies. However, here we adopt a social psychology approach that distinguishes between operative structure (which directly determines behaviour), and substructure (housing normative personality deemed to be responsible for behav-ioural imperatives). This enables a relationship to be made between the Tönnies paradigm and the Collectivism-Individualism paradigm of Triandis. The theoretical approach adopted involves a complex adaptive systems model deriving from metacybernetics, and this also delivers Mindset Agency Theory as a qualitative methodology. Consistent with the general view, it is shown that the EU is more or less a coherent rational organisation, while ASEAN is more idealistic delivering pragmatic paradox. In particular, ASEAN is frequently descried as an organisation with contra-dictions, and for this reason its pathologies are explored in some detail
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0282.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Oceanography Keywords: Indian Ocean; North Atlantic; Thermoluminescence; calcareous biological ooze; paleoclimate
Online: 5 June 2023 (08:48:36 CEST)
Abstract. Natural Thermoluminescence (TL) from the core of MD81349 marine calcareous biological ooze samples in the ninetyeast ridge of the equatorial northeast Indian Ocean and samples from the core of IODP306-U1312B in the high latitudes of the North Atlantic Ocean was studied. The spurious TL intensity of 395 °C peak is dose independent when the heating rate is 6 °C/s in a nitrogen atmosphere . TL signals exhibit a significant correlation on the marine isotope stages (MIS) at the two oceans since the mid-Pleistocene. High TL intensity corresponds to a negative δ18O in the interglacial stages, and low TL intensity corresponds to a positive δ18O in the glacial stages. TL of both cores at the two oceans reveal that the global climate has experienced eight cold and warm cycles since the mid-Pleistocene. Single-frequency spectrum analysis of MD81349 and U1312 TL in the last 300 ka was performed.Near the equator of the Northeast Indian Ocean，it is more significant that the short cycle of 38 ka and 5 ka while it is more significant that the cycle of 8 ka at the North Atlantic.In addition, correlation analysis shows that the TL has a significant positive correlation with trace elements 135Ba, a significant negative correlation with 47Ti. The impurity ions (e.g. Ba2+, Mn2+ and Ti2+) doped in carbonate are acting as activators and suppressants respectively.Time series of the TL of calcareous biological ooze tests provide an important record of climate change. The source of TL signal is also discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0281.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: Infrared dim small targets; Object detection; Adaptive Fusion Attention Module; ISVD
Online: 5 June 2023 (08:47:09 CEST)
Infrared detection plays an important role in the military, aerospace, and other fields, which has the advantages of all-weather, high stealth, and strong anti-interference. However, infrared dim small target detection suffers from complex backgrounds, low signal-to-noise ratio, blurred targets with small area percentages, and other challenges. In this paper, we proposed a multiscale YOLOv5-AFAM algorithm to realize high-accuracy and real-time detection. Aiming at the problem of target intra-class feature difference and inter-class feature similarity, the Adaptive Fusion Attention Module - AFAM was proposed to generate feature maps that are calculated to weigh the features in the network and make the network focus on small targets. This paper proposed a multiscale fusion structure to solve the problem of small and variable detection scales in infrared vehicle targets. In addition, the downsampling layer is improved by combining Maxpool and convolutional downsampling to reduce the number of model parameters and retain the texture information. For multiple scenarios, we constructed an infrared dim and small vehicle target detection dataset, ISVD. The multiscale YOLOv5-AFAM was conducted on the ISVD dataset, compared to YOLOv7, mAP@0.5 achieves a small improvement while the parameters are only 17.98% of it. By contrast with the YOLOv5s model, mAP@0.5 was improved by 4.3% with a 6.6% reduction in the parameters. Experiments results demonstrate that the multiscale YOLOv5-AFAM has a higher detection accuracy and detection speed on infrared dim and small vehicles.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0280.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: sustainable leadership; sustainability leadership; environmental leadership; sustainability; leadership
Online: 5 June 2023 (08:46:16 CEST)
Leadership and sustainability have been researched and examined concurrently. We know much about sustainable, sustainability and environmental leadership as separate areas of research and the leadership behaviours and practices that facilitate achievement of sustainability outcomes. Whilst these research streams have developed alongside each other, we know little about the similarities and differences of each of these three leadership approaches. The purpose of this paper is to review and compare which sustainable, sustainability and environmental leadership approaches are predictive of improved organizational performance with a view to understanding leadership towards sustainability. Through a comprehensive review of the extant literature, we integrate the three leadership approaches and highlight areas of similarity and difference. From a theoretical perspective, this paper seeks to make a significant contribution to the scholarly literature by building on current knowledge and developing a unified framework that combines our findings on leadership practices and behaviours in terms of the types of leadership required for achieving sustainability outcomes. By unifying existing frameworks and clarifying points of integration and differentiation under the umbrella of ‘leadership towards sustainability’, this paper seeks to advance research on leadership approaches. From a practical perspective, a cohesive set of leadership behaviours and practices will be emphasized so that leaders can adapt these to suit the context of their organization, thus helping leaders make sense of the literature to inform their practice and reach sustainability goals. Thus, the main goal of this paper is to identify a range of leadership behaviours and practices that are required to improve the performance of sustainability in organizations thus informing the broader leadership field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0279.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: NDV; paramyxovirus; outbreak; pathogenicity
Online: 5 June 2023 (08:43:36 CEST)
In August 2022, in the Moscow region, Russia, on a backyard farm, the mortality was observed at chickens and all 45 birds of this farm died or were slaughtered after onset of symptoms within a few days. Paramyxovirus was isolated from diseased birds. Based on the nucleotide sequences of the F and NP gene fragments, the belonging of virus to subgenotype VII.1 AAvV-1 class II was established. The cleavage site of the F gene 109SGGRRQKRFIG119 and T in 546 and 555 position of NP gene, were typical for the velogenic type. The genetically closest NDV isolates were found in Iran. The mean time of death of 10-day-old chicken embryos upon infection with the minimal infectious dose was 52 hours, which is typical for the velogenic pathotype. The virus caused 100% death of six-week-old chickens during oral infection, as well as 100% mortality of all contact chickens, including those located in remote cages, which proves the ability of virus to spread not only by fecal-oral but also by aerosol route. That demonstrates a high level of pathogenicity and contagiousness of the isolated strain for chicken. However, the mice intranasally infected with high doses of the virus had not die.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0278.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: erectile dysfunction; social stress; ketamine; sexual dysfunction
Online: 5 June 2023 (08:41:13 CEST)
We aimed to investigate the mechanism underlying social stress (SS)-induced erectile dysfunction (ED) and evaluate the effects of a single sub-anesthetic dose of ketamine on SS-related ED. Male FVB mice were exposed to retired male C57BL/6 mice for 60 minutes daily over a 4-week period. In the third week, SS mice received intraperitoneal injections of either saline (SSS group) or ketamine (SSK group). Erectile function was assessed by measuring intra-cavernosal pressure (ICP) during electrical stimulation at the major pelvic ganglia. Corpus cavernosum (CC) strips were utilized for wire myography to assess their reactivity. Both SSS and SSK mice exhibited significantly lower ICP in response to electrical stimulation than control. SS mice showed increased contractility of CC induced by phenylephrine. Acetylcholine-induced relaxation was significantly reduced in SSS and SSK mice. Sodium nitroprusside-induced relaxation was higher in SSS mice compared to control and SSK mice. Nicotine-induced neurogenic and nitric oxide (NO)-dependent relaxation was significantly impaired in both SSS and SSK mice. Immunohistochemically analysis revealed co-localization of tyrosine hydroxylase and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)-immunoreactive fibers in the CC. These findings highlight the complex nature of SS-related ED and suggest the limited efficacy of ketamine as a therapeutic intervention in this condition.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0277.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Wave Energy Converter (WEC); IoT-based sensors; Wireless devices
Online: 5 June 2023 (08:39:34 CEST)
Ocean wave energy is a significantly well-liked renewable energy source. The Internet of Things (IoT) offers a great opportunity for development of the ocean wave energy research. The IoT technology significantly enhanced the performance of the ocean wave energy converter (WEC). The data obtained from IoT devices reduce the risk of using WEC. However, Integrating IoT devices with the WEC is a daunting task because controlling the WEC needs real-time data. This paper investigated the performance of WEC and estimate the lifetime of the modules. IoT devices integrated with various sensors determine different parameters and conditions of the ocean. The IoT platform is used for wireless voltmeters, wireless AC current meters, wireless voltage detection, wireless resistance sensors, wireless temperature sensor, wireless accelerometer, wireless pressure meters, and wireless water level sensors to determine the real-time condition of the ocean wave. These devices are also proven to be reliable and accurate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0274.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: participative policy; drought; floods; risk-management; climate change; resilience; Mexico
Online: 5 June 2023 (08:37:57 CEST)
Abstract: Floods can be defined as one of the most frequent and destructive disasters, that cause significant damage to people, while droughts present significant challenges in first place to most vulnerable communities. In consequence, state public policies are essential to manage the risk in the face of both phenomena and contribute to the construction of resilient communities. As a request of the National Water Commission of Mexico (CONAGUA) for the Regional Water Plan (PHR), we designed and applied a methodology based on virtual consultation fora in conjunction with digital survey tools to understand the population's perception of these phenomena. The workshops were organized in the five municipalities of Baja California Sur. Then, we performed an interdisciplinary analysis that combines hydrological considerations with the most critical social, economic, environmental, and law components, applying the PESTEL analysis. The results indicate that there is a clear and widespread awareness that floods and droughts increase the risk to the livelihoods of the population; however, there are deficiencies in different areas, which complicates risk management. Timely information and the inclusion of communities in mitigation and adaptation proposals would allow for achieving more successful cases with the efforts to minimize vulnerabilities and increase the resilience of the population in the face of a changing climate. This must be a collaborative work of the entire society, governmental, social, and private stakeholders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0275.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: day-case angioplasty; critical limb ischaemia; peripheral artery disease
Online: 5 June 2023 (08:37:51 CEST)
We evaluated the impact of COVID-19 restriction on the angioplasty service and outcome of critical limb ischaemia (CLI) patients undergoing lower limb angioplasty in a UK secondary care setting. Consecutive patients were analysed retrospectively. Pre-COVID-19 (08/2018-02/2020), 106 CLI-patients (91% Fontaine 4; 60% diabetes mellitus) and during COVID-19 (03/2020-07/2021) 94 patients were treated (86% Fontaine 4; 66% diabetes mellitus). While the average monthly number of patients treated did not change, the proportion of day cases significantly increased (53% to 80%) and hospitalised patients decreased. Patients treated in <=14/5 days after referral significantly increased to 64/63%. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis (30-day/1-year) showed that neither wound healing nor mortality were significantly changed during COVID-19. In day cases, 1-year but not 30-day major amputations significantly increased, and clinically driven target lesion revascularisation decreased during COVID-19. 1-year mortality was significantly worse in hospitalised as compared to day cases (14% vs 43%) at similar wound healing rates (83% vs 84%). The most frequent known-causes-of-death were infectious disease (64%) and cardiovascular (21%) was less frequent. Despite COVID-19 restriction a safe and effective angioplasty service was maintained while shortening waiting times. Very high mortality rates in hospitalised patients may indicate that CLI should be treated more aggressively and earlier.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0273.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: precision agriculture; durum wheat; Italy; case study; economic impact; agro-environmental impact; sustainability; nitrogen efficiency; profitability
Online: 5 June 2023 (08:32:28 CEST)
The European Green Deal has set a concrete strategic plan to increase farm sustainability. At the same time, the current global challenges, due to climate change and fuels and commodity market crisis, combined with the Covid-19 pandemic and the ongoing war in Ukraine, comprise the need for quality food, but also the reduction of negative external effects of agricultural production, with fair remuneration for the farmers. In response, precision agriculture has great potential to contribute to the sustainable development. Precision agriculture is a farming management that provides a holistic system approach to managing the spatial and temporal crop and soil variability within a field to improve the farm’s performance and sustainability. However, farmers are still hesitant to adopt it. On these premises, the study aims to evaluate the impacts of precision agriculture technologies on farm profitability, agronomic and environmental management by farmers adopting (or not) these technologies, using the case study method. In detail, the work focuses on the period 2014-2022 for two farms that cultivate durum wheat in Central Italy. The results suggest that the implementation of precision technologies can guarantee economic and agri-environmental efficiency. Results could serve as a basis for developing a program to start training in farms as well as suggest policy strategies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0272.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Sustainable Science And Technology Keywords: Product-Service System (PSS); Circular economy; Luggage; sustainable travel; sustainable con-sumption; sustainable production
Online: 5 June 2023 (08:30:48 CEST)
The travel-goods industry is an essential part of the larger travel and tourism sector, but it creates significant environmental impacts due to resource and energy consumption. This study investigates the feasibility and sustainability potential of servitisation concepts within the travel-goods industry, and the Product-Service System (PSS) models, in particular, to identify steps towards a more sus-tainable travel industry in the future. It explores the sustainability-related drivers within the luggage industry and identifies barriers to the adoption of servitisation models, and opportunities for value creation for both consumers and commercial organisations. Business models are mapped into a ty-pology to highlight different pathways to PSS adoption, underpinned with empirical data collected via a consumer sentiment survey and semi-structured interviews with industry experts. Even though the analysis revealed shifting consumer attitudes towards servitisation concepts within the travel-goods market, with a significant level of interest emerging for specific PSS models, at present, the widespread adoption of PSS is hindered. This is due to the fragmented nature of global supply chains and entrenched ownership values. Addressing supply chain issues regarding end-of-life systems to sustainably manage products beyond functional obsolescence is critical. In parallel, product-oriented PSS models are more likely to increase, driven by a burgeoning resale market and supported by digi-tal technologies, which in turn can lead to greater prospects for use-oriented PSS adoption and even-tually, reduced environmental impacts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0270.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Mycoplasma pneumoniae; CC16; CCSP; CC10; mass spectrometry; remodeling
Online: 5 June 2023 (08:28:04 CEST)
CC16 plays many protective roles within the lung; however, the complete biological functions, es-pecially regarding the pulmonary epithelium during infection, remain undefined. We have previ-ously shown that CC16 deficient (CC16-/-) mouse tracheal epithelial cells (MTECs) have enhanced Mp burden, compared to CC16 sufficient (WT) MTECs; therefore, in this study, we wanted to fur-ther define how the pulmonary epithelium responds to infection in the context of CC16 deficiency. Using mass spectrometry and quantitative proteomics to analyze proteins secreted apically from MTECs grown at an air-liquid interface, we investigated the protective effects that CC16 elicits within the pulmonary epithelium during Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mp) infection. When chal-lenged with Mp, WT MTECs have an overall reduction in apical protein secretion, whereas CC16-/- MTECs have increased apical protein secretion compared to their unchallenged controls. Fol-lowing Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) assessment, many of the proteins upregulated from CC16-/- MTECS (unchallenged and during Mp infection) were related to airway remodeling, which were not observed by WT MTECs. These findings sug-gest that CC16 is instrumental in providing protection within the pulmonary epithelium during respiratory infection with Mp, the major causative agent of community-acquired pneumoniae.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0267.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: Driver Monitoring System; Drowsiness Detection; Convolutional Neural Network; Grad-CAM Visualization
Online: 5 June 2023 (08:26:08 CEST)
Drowsiness detection is an important task in road safety and other areas that require sustained attention. In this article, an approach to detect drowsiness in drivers is presented, focusing on the eye region, since eye fatigue is one of the first symptoms of drowsiness. The method used for the extraction of the eye region is Mediapipe, chosen for its high accuracy and robustness. Three neural networks were analyzed based on: InceptionV3, VGG16 and ResNet50V2 that implement deep learning. The database used is NITYMED, which contains videos of drivers with different levels of drowsiness. The three networks were evaluated in terms of accuracy, precision and recall in detecting drowsiness in the eye region. The results of the study show that all three convolutional neural networks have high accuracy in detecting drowsiness in the eye region. In particular, the Resnet50V2 network achieved the highest accuracy, with a rate of 99.71% on average. For better visualization of the data, the Grad-CAM technique is used, with which we get a better understanding of the performance of the algorithms in the classification process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0269.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Tropical Medicine Keywords: Schistosoma mekongi; LAMP; Reservoir Animal; Domestic animal; Lao PDR; Mekong River;
Online: 5 June 2023 (08:25:55 CEST)
The prevalence of Schistosoma mekongi in humans in the Lao People’s Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) has been relatively well monitored and has decreased due to effective interventions such as preventative chemotherapy with mass drug administration of praziquantel and community awareness programs. However, the prevalence among potential domestic reservoir animals remains broadly unclear, except for a few villages in the endemic area. Therefore, we conducted S. mekongi surveys for the domestic animals that had contact with Mekong River water. We conducted a cross-sectional study of the domestic animals in the seven sentinel villages in the Khong and Mounlapamok Districts of Champasak Province in southern Lao PDR in 2018 by random sampling with a statistically reliable sample size. Stool samples of the five predominant domestic animal species, cattle (n = 160), pig (n = 154), buffalo (n = 149), dog (n = 143), and goat (n = 85), were collected and examined by experienced laboratory technicians using parasitological FECT method and the LAMP technique. The microscopic analysis did not detect any eggs of S. mekongi in the stool samples of any animal species. However, S. mekongi DNA was detected by the LAMP test in dog stool samples (0.7%; 1/143). Other helminth eggs were found during our microscopic analysis. These findings suggested that an intervention for S. mekongi infection should focus solely on human populations. However, periodic surveillance for S. mekongi infection among dogs should be conducted to monitor a possible resurgence of S. mekongi infection in the domestic animal population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0268.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: Magnetic nanoparticles; cobalt ferrite; barium ferrite; additive manufacturing; VAT Photopolymerization
Online: 5 June 2023 (08:25:47 CEST)
Additive Manufacturing and nanotechnology have been used as basic tools for the manufacture of nanostructured parts with magnetic properties to expand the variety of applications in additive processes by tank photopolymerization. Magnetic cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) and barium ferrite (BaFe12O19) nanoparticles with the size distribution of average value DTEM of 12 ± 2.95 nm and 37 ± 12.78 nm, respectively were generat-ed by hydroxide precipitation method. The dispersion of the nanoparticles on commercial resins (Anycubic Green and IRIX White resin) was obtained by mechanochemical reactions carried out in an agate mortar for 20 minutes, at room temperature and with limited exposure to light. The product of each reaction was placed in amber vials, also being kept in a box, to avoid contact with light. The photopolymerization process was carried out only at low concentrations (w/w % nanoparticles/resin) since, at high concentrations, there is no for-mation of pieces due to the high refractive index of ferrites. Raman shift spectroscopy of the final pieces showed that they contain the magnetic nanoparticles, with no apparent chemical changes. The EPR results of the pieces maintain the magnetic properties and apparently, they are not modified during the photopolymer-ization. Although significant differences were found in the dispersion process of the nanoparticles in each piece, we determined that the photopolymerization did not influence the structure and superparamagnetic behavior of ferrite nanoparticles during processing, and the magnetic properties were successfully transferred to the final 3D-printed magnetic obtained piece.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0266.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Flow boiling; Heat transfer coefficient; Two phase flow; hydrocarbons; Ethanol; Flow boiling correlations
Online: 5 June 2023 (08:21:06 CEST)
This study will present a comprehensive review of the two-phase flow boiling heat transfer coefficient of hydrocarbons such propane (R-290), butane (R-600) and iso-butane (R-600a) and ethanol at various experimental conditions. Studying the multiphase flow heat transfer coefficient has a crucial importance for many heat transfer equipment to achieve higher efficiency for more compact design and cost reduction. One reason behind choosing hydrocarbons as refrigerants in this study is because hydrocarbons have zero ozone depletion potential (ODP=0) and insignificant direct global warming potential (GWP = 3). Moreover, thermodynamic and thermophysical characteristics of hydrocarbons qualify them to be a strong candidate for more heat transfer applications. Initially, by constructing a database for the working fluids from various experimental work available in the literature. The current data that this study has collected for the flow boiling of spans wide ranges of parameters, such as: mass flux, heat flux, operating pressure, and saturation temperature, etc. Furthermore, by comparing the experimental multiphase heat transfer coefficient database with the anticipated values of each correlation, the prediction performance of 26 correlations found in the literature was assessed. This study leads to the selection of the best prediction method based on the minimum deviation of predicted results from the experimental database provided by calculated mean absolute error (MAE) from the assessed correlations. The findings of this study can also be useful in the development of more accurate correlation methods for these fluids and improve the prediction of their flow boiling characteristics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0265.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: astrovirus; wild raccoon dog; neurotropic-astrovirus
Online: 5 June 2023 (08:16:12 CEST)
Astroviruses (AstVs) have been detected in a wide range of animal species, including mammals and birds. Recently, a novel AstVs associated with neurological symptoms has been detected in the brain of some mammals. Raccoon dog AstV has been reported recently in China. However, there have been no reports in South Korea. Therefore, the present study aimed to detect and genetically characterize AstVs in intestine and brain tissues of 133 wild raccoon dogs collected in Korea between 2017 and 2019. Seven wild raccoon dogs were positive for AstV, four of which were also detected in brain tissue. Analysis of the capsid protein amino acid sequences of raccoon dog AstVs detected in Korea revealed a high similarity to canine AstVs, suggesting possible interspecies transmission between raccoon dogs and dogs. Phylogenetic and capsid protein amino acid sequence analysis of raccoon dog AstVs detected in brain 17-148B strain belonged to the HMO clade and exhibited conserved sequences found in neurotropic AstVs (NT-AstVs), indicating their potential as NT-AstVs. However, the pathogenicity and transmission routes of the raccoon dog AstV detected in Korea have not yet been elucidated, so further research and continued surveillance for AstV in wild raccoon dogs are needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0264.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: COVID 19; coagulation; viscoelastic tests; thrombosis; mortality
Online: 5 June 2023 (08:15:17 CEST)
Background and Objectives: Coagulation disorders during COVID-19 infection are associated with poor prognosis and disease severity, because two processes that interfere each other are thrombosis and inflammation. Very important issue for clinicians is timely and adequate hemostasis and inflammation monitoring in order to prevent and treat potentially lethal consequences. Materials and Methods: The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Clinical center Nis, Serbia. One hundered fourty two patients presented with COVID-19 ARDS were admitted to the ICU in Clinic for anesthesiology Clinical Center Nis, from 14th April 2020 to 25 th May 2020. On admission blood was collected for biochemical and coagulation testing. The data obtained was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS v. 25, Chicago, IL, USA). Results: Among all parameters assessed, mortality was associated with higher age (p<0.05), higher factor I (p<0.05), INR (p<0.001), D-Dimer (p<0.001), ADP (p<0.001), ASPI (p<0.001), TRAP (p<0.001), PSEP (p<0.001), A5 extest (p<0.01), A10 ex test (p<0.01), A5 fib (p<0.001), A10fib (p<0.001) and MCF fib (p<0.001) values, but lower CT extest values (p<0.05). Mortality was associated with extreme values of D-Dimer above 1000 (p<0.001), ADP above 590 (p<0.001), ASPI above 800 (p<0.001), TRAP above 1500 (p<0.001) and PSEP above 1000 (p<0.05). Conclusions: The key to success in the treatment of COVID 19 infection is timely and adequate therapy and patient monitoring, which is impossible without early risk stratification and mortality prediction. Sophisticated hemostasis parameters can contribute to early risk assessment, which was initially performed only on the basis of the patient's clinical status.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0426.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Internet of Medical Things (IoMT); data exchange: healthcare; medical data; interoperability
Online: 5 June 2023 (08:12:36 CEST)
A medical entity (hospital, nursing home, rest home, revalidation center, etc.) usually includes a multitude of information systems that allow for quick decision-making close to the medical sensors. The Internet of Medical Things (IoMT) is an area of IoT that generates a lot of data of different natures (radio, CT scan, medical reports, medical sensor data). However, these systems need to share and exchange medical information in a seamless, timely, and efficient manner with systems that are either located within the same entity or located in other healthcare entities. The lack of inter and intra entity interoperability causes major problems in the analysis of patient records and leads to additional financial costs (e.g., redone examinations). In order to develop a medical data interoperability architecture model that will allow providers and different actors in the medical community to exchange patient summary information with other caregivers and partners in order to improve the quality of care, the level of data security, and the efficiency of care, we take stock of the state of knowledge.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0186.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: age estimation; AFDEI; CNN; human gait; neural networks; GEI; invariant moments
Online: 5 June 2023 (08:12:12 CEST)
Accurately estimating a person's age is crucial for identity verification at all critical checkpoints, including airports, land borders, and seaports. Human gait may be used as a biometric identifier and indicator of age, among other things. This study aims to develop methods for estimating a person's age by observing their walk. In this paper, a novel technique for preprocessing the proposed gait dataset has been used by utilizing a combination of the gait energy image (GEI), the accumulated frame difference energy image (AFDEI), and the invariant moment of the image. The proposed technique outperformed state-of-the-art methods in terms of accuracy. The proposed method was tested and evaluated using a convolutional neural network (CNN), and it achieved an average accuracy of 90.35% across 14 different view angles within 5 K-Fold, the proposed method resulted in 94.68% and 94.54% in 30º and 75º view degree respectively. concluding that the approach is effective and promising for estimating age using human gait.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0263.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Colorectal cancer; tumor stroma; gut microbiome; gut-associated lymphoid tissue; Wnt signaling pathway; tumor budding; Conserved Oncogenic Signatures; metastasis
Online: 5 June 2023 (08:09:47 CEST)
This review systematically examines the multifaceted relationship between the tumor microenvironment, stromal interactions, and colorectal cancer (CRC) progression and metastasis. The analysis begins by assessing the gut microbiome's influence on CRC development, emphasizing its association with gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT). The role of the Wnt signaling pathway in CRC tumor stroma is scrutinized, elucidating its impact on disease progression. Tumor budding, its effect on tumor stroma, and implications for patient prognosis are investigated. The review also identifies conserved oncogenic signatures (COS) within CRC stroma and explores their potential as therapeutic targets. Lastly, the seed and soil hypothesis is employed to contextualize metastasis, accentuating the significance of both tumor cells and the surrounding stroma in metastatic propensity. In summary, this review highlights the intricate interdependence between CRC cells and their microenvironment, providing valuable insights into prospective therapeutic approaches targeting tumor-stroma interactions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0262.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: Multi-object tracking; DeepSORT; object detection; sensor fusion; deep learning, autonomous vehicles; radars; adverse weather; fog
Online: 5 June 2023 (08:09:38 CEST)
The presence of fog in the background can prevent small and distant objects from being detected, let alone tracked. Under safety-critical conditions, multi-object tracking models require faster-tracking speed while maintaining high object-tracking accuracy. The original DeepSORT algorithm used YOLOv4 for the detection phase, and a simple neural network for deep appearance descriptor. Consequently, the feature map generated loses relevant details about the track being matched with a given detection in fog. Targets with a high degree of appearance similarity on the detection frame are more likely to be mismatched, resulting in identity switches or track failures in heavy fog. We propose an improved multi-object tracking model based on the DeepSORT algorithm to im-prove tracking accuracy and speed under foggy weather conditions. First, we employed our camera-radar fusion network (CR-YOLOnet) in the detection phase for faster and more accurate object detection. We proposed an appearance feature network to replace the basic convolutional neural network. We incorporated GhostNet to take the place of the traditional convolutional layers to generate more features and reduce computational complexities and cost. We adopted a segmentation module and fed the semantic labels of the corresponding input frame to add rich semantic information to the low-level appearance feature maps. Our proposed method outperformed YOLOv5 + DeepSORT with a 35.15% increase in multi-object tracking accuracy, a 32.65% increase in multi-object tracking precision, the speed increased by 37.56%, and identity switches decreased by 46.81%.