REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0209.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: Bovine Tuberculosis; Human, Interface, Livestock, Wildlife,Ethiopia
Online: 11 November 2022 (02:39:22 CET)
Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is endemic in Ethiopian cattle. BTB is caused by Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) and has economic and public health significance. which has significant impact on the health of livestock and human. It has been significantly a cause for great economic loss in animal production. Associated risk factors contributed to the prevalence of the disease in cattle and its transmission. Moreover, the majority of cattle owners lack awareness about the disease and its public health significance. The presence of multiple hosts including wild animals, inefficient diagnostic techniques, absence of defined national controls and eradication programs could impede the control of bovine TB. Awareness rising about the disease, its transmission andzoonotic implication however, in Ethiopia Bovine Tuberculosis in Human-Livestock-Wildlife Interface is not well studied in the country and there were no studies concerning the burden of the disease between human ,animal and wild life which is of great importance for reduction and control measures. This paper aims to review the potential health and economic impact of bovine tuberculosis control in order to safeguard human and animal population in Ethiopia
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0195.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: EHDV; Tunisia; virus characterization; EHDV serotype 8; circulation
Online: 10 November 2022 (09:59:16 CET)
Epizootic haemorrhagic disease (EHD) is a Culicoides-borne viral disease caused by epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) and associated with clinical manifestations in cervids and bovids. In late September 2021, EHDV was reported in cattle farms in central/western Tunisia. It rapidly spread throughout the country with more than 200 confirmed outbreaks. A combination of classical and molecular techniques was applied to characterize the causative virus as a member of EHDV-8 serotype. This is the first evidence of EHDV- 8 circulation since 1982 when the prototype EHDV-8 strain was isolated in Australia. This work highlights the urgent need for vaccines for a range of EHDV serotypes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0183.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR); Bats; Zoonotic spillover; Planetary health; One health
Online: 10 November 2022 (02:35:46 CET)
As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as other outbreaks such as SARS and Ebola, bats are recognized as a critical species for mediating zoonotic infectious disease spillover events. While there is a growing concern of increased antimicrobial resistance (AMR) globally during this pandemic, knowledge of AMR circulating between bats and humans is limited. In this paper, we have reviewed the evidence of AMR in bats and discussed the planetary health aspect of AMR to elucidate how this is associated with the emergence, spread and persistence of antibiotic resistance at the human-animal interface. The presence of clinically significant resistant bacteria in bats and wild life has reflective and broad impact on zoonotic pandemic surveillance, disease transmission and treatment modalities. We searched MEDLINE through PubMed and Google Scholar to retrieve relevant studies (n=38) that provided data on resistant bacteria in bats till September 30, 2022. There is a substantial variability in the results from studies measuring the prevalence of AMR based on geographic location, bat types and time. We found all major groups of gram positive and gram negative bacteria in bats which are resistant to commonly used antibiotics. The most alarming issue is- recent studies have increasingly identified Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), ESBL producing and Colistin resistant Enterobacteriaceae in samples from bats. This evidence of superbugs abundance in both humans and wild mammals like bats, could facilitate a greater understanding of which specific pathways of exposure should be targeted. We believe that these data will also facilitate future pandemic prepareness as well as global AMR containment during the pandemic events and beyond.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0283.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: Wolinella; Virulence genes; Helicobacter pylori; genomic homology
Online: 20 September 2022 (02:06:43 CEST)
Wolinella spp. and Helicobacter spp. have been repeatedly reported in the oral cavity of dogs and are associated with periodontal disease. Wolinella strains predominate in the oral cavity of dogs. The only known species of this genus, Wolinella succinogenes, was considered non-pathogenic until sequence analysis of its genome revealed homologous genes resembling virulence factors in Helicobacter pylori. This has led researchers to question the nonpathogenic status of W. succinogenes. The cagA and babA genes are examples of crucial virulence factors in H. pylori pathogenesis; thus, the present study evaluated the prevalence of these genera and assessed the Wolinella strain genome in terms of the presence of these virulence factors. Multiple specific PCR tests were performed on oral secretion samples collected from 62 dogs by sterile cytobrush to evaluate the genera, species, and presence of virulence genes. The species-specific 16s rRNA genes from the Helicobacter and Wolinella genera were detected in 58.06% and 83.87% of the oral samples, respectively. H. pylori were not detected in the specimens. No cagA and babA genes were detected in the Wolinella spp. or non-pylori Helicobacter genomes. Our results confirmed that Wolinella spp. is the predominant population compared to Helicobacter in the oral cavity of dogs. Apparently, the incidence of Helicobacter infections is generally associated with non-pylori Helicobacter organisms. Despite the hypothesis of genomic homology between W. succinogenes and H. pylori, cagA and babA virulence genes were not identified in any of the oral samples from the dogs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0402.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: antimicrobial resistance; One Health; poultry; poultry farmers; antibiotic use; Pakistan
Online: 26 July 2022 (10:33:42 CEST)
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) due to community carriage of antibiotic-resistant bacteria is highly prevalent in the WHO South-East Asia region. One of the major reasons is the misuse of antibiotics in animal farming practices and at community level, which threatens both human and animal health. However, this multifaceted One Health (OH) problem of antibiotic use (ABU) in poultry farms and respective farmers is not well studied in countries like Pakistan. Therefore, we conducted n OH cross-sectional study in rural Punjab to explore the current practices of ABU in poultry and poultry farmers, associated factors, their healthcare-seeking behaviour and biosecurity practices. We found all the participating farmers using antibiotics for poultry, 60% of which were Colistin sulphate and Amoxicillin trihydrate. The significant consumption of antibiotics in poultry farms (60%) and poultry farmers (50%) was without prescription. Most of the farms (85%) had no wastewater drainage system, causing direct shedding of poultry waste and antibiotic residue in the surrounding environment. Lack of farmers’ education, professional farm training and duration of farming experience were the significantly associated factors with ABU and knowledge of AMR. Our study implies the necessity of an integrated OH-AMR policy with the inclusion of farmers’ education, mass awareness, and strict antibiotic usage guidelines.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0338.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: Non-typhoidal Salmonella; poultry; risk factor; Nigeria; fowl typhoid; pullorum disease
Online: 22 July 2022 (13:12:50 CEST)
Salmonellosis is a bacterial zoonosis with array of health conditions. Non-typhoidal salmonellosis (NTS) have a discrete adaptation to certain animals; in poultry, pullorum and fowl typhoid are its primary disease manifestations. The diseases are prevalent in the Nigerian poultry and have been well studied in Nigeria, but less so in the north central Nigeria (NCN). Using field sampling, laboratory methods and semi structured questionnaire in 1000 poultry farms from NCN, we explore the incidence and risk factors for the persistence of NTS infection in poultry. Approximately 41.6% of the farms have experienced NTS but only 6.3% have current infection with NTS. Farm experience of NTS moderately predicted awareness of salmonellosis. Increasing stock in smallholder farms, self-mixing of concentrate on the farm, usage of stream water, pen odour, non-adherence and partial adherence of farms to recommended poultry vaccination against pullorum and fowl typhoid, and lack of and non-adherence to biosecurity were identified risk factors that increased the odds of NTS infection in poultry. Antibiotic use practice may have reduced the isolation rate of NTS, yet NTS continues to challenge poultry farms in Nigeria. Identified risk practices must be mitigated intentionally and biosecurity and hygiene must improve to reduce the burden of NTS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0105.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: Melaleuca armillaris; essential oil; erythromycin; Staphylococcus aureus; synergism; mastitis
Online: 7 July 2022 (04:05:55 CEST)
Staphylococcus aureus frequently causes subclinical mastitis around the world with high impact in milk industry and public health. Essential oils (EO) are recognized antimicrobials that can be synergistic with antibiotics. The main objective of this study was evaluating the essential oil (EO) of Melaleuca armillaris as an adjuvant of erythromycin (ERY) for the alternative treatment of bovine mastitis caused by S. aureus. The Minimum Inhibitory and Bactericidal Concentrations (MIC and MBC) of EO, ERY, and its combinations were established against S. aureus at different pHs (7.4, 6.5 and 5.0), emulating extra and intracellular conditions. Sensible (N=3) and resistant (N=3) strains to ERY and S. aureus ATCC 29213 as control were used. Math models were applied to described the antibacterial activity of EO and combinations EO-ERY. The EO was bactericidal against all the strains independently of the pH with a slightly improvement in acid conditions. The synergism between EO and ERY was estimated by the Fractional Inhibitory Concentration Index (FIC) and by mathematical modeling of the bacterial killing data. Synergism was observed with ERY, where combinations had bactericidal activity also even with pH modification. M. armillaris EO is an interesting adjuvant for ERY, being a promissory option for further analysis of intracellular efficacy against S. aureus.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0403.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: African elephants; broncholoalveolar lavage; Hain CMdirect V1.0; ku PCR; Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex; non-tuberculous mycobacteria; rhinoceros; rpoB PCR; trunk wash; Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra
Online: 30 May 2022 (16:33:30 CEST)
Since certain Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) members, like M. bovis, are endemic in specific South African wildlife reserves and zoos, cases of clinically important nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in wildlife may be neglected. Additionally, due to the inability of tests to differentiate between host responses to MTBC and NTM, the diagnosis of MTBC may be confounded by the presence of NTMs. This may hinder control efforts. These constraints highlight the need for enhanced rapid detection and differentiation methods for MTBC and NTM, especially in high MTBC burden areas. We evaluated the use of the GeneXpert MTB/RIF Ultra, the Hain CMdirect V1.0, and novel amplicon sequencing PCRs targeting the mycobacterial rpoB and ku gene targets, directly on antemortem respiratory samples from known MTBC-infected and NTM culture-positive African elephants (n=26 animals) and rhinoceros (n=23 animals). Our findings suggest that the Ultra is the most sensitive diagnostic test for MTBC DNA detection directly in raw antemortem respiratory specimens and that the rpoB PCR is ideal for Mycobacterium genus DNA detection and species identification through amplicon sequencing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0101.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: mast cell tumor; dog; canine; proliferation indices; grade; prednisone; Ki67; AgNOR; mitotic count; mitotic index
Online: 9 May 2022 (05:22:20 CEST)
Glucocorticoid administration is a common clinical practice in attempt to decrease inflammation associated with, and improve resectability of, canine mast cell tumors (MCTs). However, the impact of neoadjuvant glucocorticoids on histological features and proliferation indices of canine MCTs is unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in tumor grade, mitotic count, Ki67, AgNOR, and AgNORxKi67 scores following short-course, anti-inflammatory neoadjuvant prednisone in canine patients with MCTs. This was a prospective, single-arm pilot study. Client-owned dogs with treatment-naïve, cytologically-confirmed MCTs were enrolled. Patients underwent an initial incisional biopsy followed by a 10-14 day course of anti-inflammatory prednisone, and surgical resection. All histological samples were randomized, masked, and evaluated by a single pathologist. Unstained paired pre- and post-treatment samples were submitted to a commercial laboratory for Ki67 and AgNOR immunohistochemical analysis. There were 11 dogs enrolled with 11 tumors. There were no statistical differences between the pre- and post-treatment histological parameters of mitotic index, Ki67, AgNOR, or Ki67xAgNOR. There were no clinically-significant alterations between pre-treatment and post-treatment in the assignment of tumor grades. A short-course of anti-inflammatory prednisone does not appear to alter the histological parameters that affect grade-determination, nor significantly alter the proliferation indices in canine MCTs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0090.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: dog; diffuse large B-cell lymphoma; IL-1R8; TLR7; TLR9; qRT-PCR
Online: 11 April 2022 (09:15:27 CEST)
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common haematological malignancy in humans and dogs. Several studies disclosed some similarities between the two species, including the constitutive activation of NF- κB pathway as a fundamental underlying pathogenetic mecha-nism. In humans, downregulation of IL-1R8 is implicated in DLBCL development, but its role in dogs has not been explored so far. To gain insight into the pathogenesis of this tumor in dogs, we evaluated the mRNA and protein expression of IL-1R8 in 12 hyperplastic lymph nodes ob-tained from dogs not bearing tumors and from 50 dogs with DLBCL. Moreover, we analysed through qRT-PCR the expression of TLR7, TLR9, MYC, and p52 genes that are known to be in-volved in the IL-1R8 regulatory network. IL-1R8 and p52 were downregulated in DLBCLs com-pared to control lymph nodes (p<0.001), while a higher expression of TLR7, TLR9 and MYC was observed in tumors (p<0.01). Immunohistochemistry confirmed gene expression results, reveal-ing a significantly lower IL-1R8 staining score in DLBCLs compared to control lymph nodes (p<0.0001). Taken together, these results suggest that IL-1R8 downregulation may represent one of the mechanisms driving DLBCL pathogenesis in dogs, mainly through dysregulation of the Toll-like/Interleukin receptors signalling cascade and the aberrant activation of classical NF-κB pathway.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0250.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: Tick bites; Ixodidae; epidemiology: emerging diseases; Spain
Online: 17 March 2022 (10:18:51 CET)
Ticks drive a wide diversity of pathogens to a great variety of hosts, including humans. We conducted a tick surveillance study in northwestern Spain between 2014 and 2019. Ticks were removed from people and were identified. Tick numbers, species, development stages, evolution over time, seasonal and geographical distribution, and epidemiological characteristics of people bitten by ticks were studied. We collected ticks from 8143 people. Nymphs of Ixodes ricinus were the most frequently collected. Rhipicephalus bursa, Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (s.l), Hyalomma marginatum, Hyalomma lusitanicum, Dermacentor marginatus, Dermacentor reticulatus and Haemaphysalis punctata were also found, with adults as the main stage. Hyalomma spp. and R. bursa have been progressively increasing over time. Although bites occurred throughout the year, the highest number of incidents were reported from April to July. The distribution patterns of the tick species were different between the north and the south of the region, which was related to cases detected in humans of the pathogens they carried. Adult men were more likely to be bitten by ticks than women. Ticks were most frequently removed from adults from the lower limbs, while for children they were mainly attached to the head. Epidemiological surveillance is essential given the increase in tick populations in recent years, mainly of species potentially carrying pathogens causing emerging diseases in Spain, such as the Crimean Congo Hemorraghic Fever (CCFH).
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0029.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: Allergy; Alternaria; Aspergillus; dermatophytes; fungal allergens; immunocompetence; indoor/outdoor allergens; Malassezia.
Online: 2 February 2022 (11:30:49 CET)
Fungi kingdom comprises ubiquitous forms of life with 1.5 billion years, mostly phytopathogenic and commensal for humans and animals. However, in the presence of impaired conditions fungi may cause disease by intoxicating, infecting or sensitizing with allergy. Different genera may be implicated as etiological agents for humans and animals, with Alternaria, Aspergillus, dermatophytes like Microsporum and Trichophyton, and Malassezia as the commonly implicated. Alternaria and Malassezia stand as the most commonly associated to either allergy or infection, immediately followed by Aspergillus, while dermatophytes are usually associated to ring worm skin infection. Research in veterinary field is not much but necessary.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0461.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: Biocontainment; Bioexclusion; Biosecurity; Health-management; Poultry
Online: 31 January 2022 (13:19:29 CET)
Biosecurity is a tool used to alleviate the introduction, emergence and spread of diseases caused by infectious agents. It comprises different health-management activities that need to be followed to reduce the passage and dissemination of infectious agents within and among farms, poultry flocks, and humans, as well as within a country, among countries, or the whole globe. In terms of public health measures, biosecurity applies to practices that will reduce contact between poultry and humans and thereby reduce zoonotic disease transmission. Two of the common biosecurity measures are bioexclusion and biocontainment which themselves are further categorized as segregation/isolation, movement control and hygiene/sanitation/disinfection. Isolation is about putting poultry under an exclusively isolated environment where it lives alone without any interference from any source external to the poultry or at least under reduced and controlled interference. Movement/traffic control and sanitation measures are practices to follow the isolation of poultry or preparatory phase as in the case of sanitation of poultry houses before introduction of poultry. These techniques have been effective in controlling poultry diseases like avian influenza, exotic Newcastle, Marek’s disease, and any other diseases. Depending upon the underlying situation either bioexclusion or biocontainment measure will be used to control these infectious diseases of poultry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0010.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: infrared thermal imaging; infrared thermography; veterinary thermal imaging; pain assessment; osteoarthritis; canine back pain; canine brief pain inventory; photobiomodulation therapy; laser therapy
Online: 17 December 2021 (14:32:16 CET)
Historically, the evaluation and assessment of the clinical response to treatment for canine back pain is subjective and relies on owner and clinician assessment of pain. This study evaluated the use of sequential infrared thermal images as a measure of the response of canine patients with back pain to a prescribed series of photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) treatments. Qualifying participants had histories of pain and dysfunction associated with spinal osteoarthritis or intervertebral disk disease, or of non-specific uni- or bilateral back pain along the paravertebral epaxial muscles. Each patient was initially thermally imaged prior to PBMT treatment and then received multiple PBMT treatments delivered to the appropriate spinal area on days 1, 2, 3, and 4. Participants were reimaged on day 7. Thermal images provided an objective measure of superficial temperature changes over the area of PBMT treatment of each patient after the PBMT regimen. The temperature correlated with statistically significant changes in Colorado State University Canine Chronic Pain Scale scoring (CPS) and owner assessment using the Canine Brief Pain Inventory (CBPI), which includes a Pain Severity Score (PSS) and Pain Interference Score (PIS). The correlation of objective thermal imaging data with more subjective outcome measures suggests thermal imaging may be a valuable additional tool in monitoring therapy outcome.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0500.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: Abdominal wall; Transversus abdominis plane block; Comparative anatomy; Animal models
Online: 26 November 2021 (10:47:30 CET)
With the increased use of simulation based training using animal models for the education of surgical and anaesthetic techniques, an increased understanding of the anatomy of such models and how they compare to humans is required. The transversus abdominis plane block is a regional anaesthetic technique that requires an understanding of the abdominal wall anatomy along with proficient ultrasound use. The current review aims to compare the anatomy of the abdominal wall across species, particularly focussing on the pertinent differences within the class of mammals, and secondarily, it aims to address the implications of these differences for simulation based training of the transversus abdominis plane block. To achieve this, the PubMed, Web of Science and Google Scholar databases were searched for relevant literature. The mammalian abdominal wall differs in its musculature, vasculature or innervation from that of amphibians, birds or reptiles, however, among species of mammals, the structure of the abdominal wall follows a similar framework. Particular differences among mammals include the additional muscular layer of the panniculus carnosus found in most mammals other than humans, the variable arterial origins and dominant vascular supply of the abdominal wall and the number of thoracolumbar nerves innervating the abdominal wall. When using animal models for simulation based training, the pig is recommended for the transversus abdominis plane block given its closely homologous abdominal wall structure, availability and larger comparative size.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0077.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: Knowledge; One Health; Pet ownership; Pets; Portugal; Public Health; Zoonoses
Online: 3 November 2021 (09:21:40 CET)
Pet ownership is common in modern society. In Portugal, 38% and 31% of all households own, at least, one dog or cat, respectively. Few studies have ascertained the knowledge of pet owners about pet ownership and zoonoses, and none of them was carried out in Portugal. The aim of the present study was to assess household knowledge and practices related to pet ownership and zoonoses in the North of Portugal. A questionnaire was completed by 424 pet owners, during November 2019 to February 2020. Most respondents (97.2%) considered pets as an important part of the family, especially women (p = 0.036); 73.1% allowed their pets free access to indoors; 41.3% denied sharing the bed with their pets and 29% assumed they did it daily; 20.3% reported never kissing their pets/pets licking their faces; 73.6% considered animals as potential sources of diseases to humans, but only 25.9% reported knowing the definition of zoonoses; 96.9% considered important the role of veterinarians in protecting public health. The low level of knowledge of pet owners and the occurrence of high-risk behaviors indicate a need to strengthen communication between veterinarians, physicians, pet owners and the general public to reduce the risk of acquisition and transmission of zoonoses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0263.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: Antibody titer; Broiler chicken; IBD vaccines; Immunogenicity evaluation
Online: 19 October 2021 (08:51:54 CEST)
Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is one of the most endemic diseases of commercial poultry in Ethiopia. Vaccination has been practiced as the major means of IBD prevention and control. A study was conducted to determine and compare the immunogenicity of two commercially available IBD vaccines in broiler chicken with maternally derived antibody (MDA). Day-old chickens of 270 were randomly assigned to three groups, group 1 vaccinated with brand 1 vaccine at 7th and 19th days and group 2 with brand 2 vaccine at 15th and 22nd days while group 3 were kept as control. Six chickens were also randomly selected and bled on day 1 for differential leukocyte count (DLC) and determination of MDA. Representative chickens from each group were bled at 24th and 42nd days of age for antibody titration using the indirect ELISA test. DLC scores were determined in the 1st and 24th days. The result revealed highly significant differences (P = 0.001) between group 1 and group 2 in DLC at 24th days of age. Antibody titers against IBD were differed significantly (P = 0.02) at 24th and 42nd days of age in broilers vaccinated with brand 1 and brand 2 vaccines. It is concluded that although both brands of vaccine induce an adequate immunological response at the end of the experiment, brand 1 vaccine has shown significantly high antibody titers against the IBDV and DLC than brand 2.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: One Health; zoonotic disease; zoonotic disease control; anthrax; brucellosis; rabies; rift valley fever; zoonotic influenza
Online: 24 September 2021 (14:19:16 CEST)
Effectively preventing and controlling zoonotic diseases requires a One Health approach that involves collaboration across sectors responsible for human health, animal health (both domestic and wildlife), and the environment, as well as other partners. Here we describe the Generalizable One Health Framework (GOHF), a five-step framework that provides structure for using a One Health approach in zoonotic disease programs being implemented at the local, sub-national, national, regional, or international level. Part of the framework is a toolkit that compiles existing resources and presents them following a stepwise schematic, allowing users to identify relevant resources as they are required. Coupled with recommendations for implementing a One Health approach for zoonotic disease prevention and control in technical domains including laboratory, surveillance, preparedness and response, this framework can mobilize One Health and thereby enhance and guide capacity building to combat zoonotic disease threats at the human-animal-environment interface.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0562.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: female reproductive tract; organoid; co-culture; crosstalk; blastocyst
Online: 31 August 2021 (11:19:56 CEST)
Hormones must be balanced and dynamically controlled for the Female Reproductive Tract (FRT) to function correctly during the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and delivery. Gamete selection and successful transfer to the uterus, where it implants and pregnancy occurs, is supported by the mucosal epithelial lining of the FRT ovaries, uterus, cervix, fallopian tubes, and vagina. Successful implantation and placentation in humans and other animals rely on complex interactions between the embryo and a receptive female reproductive system. The FRT's recent breakthroughs in three-dimensional (3D) organoid systems now provide critical experimental models that match the organ's physiological, functional, and anatomical characteristics in vitro. This article summarizes the current state of the art on organoids generated from various parts of the FRT. The current analysis examines recent developments in the creation of organoid models of reproductive organs, as well as their future directions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0365.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: Dirofilaria immitis; macrocyclic lactones; resistance; diagnosis; treatment; prevention
Online: 17 August 2021 (14:13:15 CEST)
Dirofilaria immitis infection is one of the most severe parasitic diseases of dogs. Prevention is achieved by the administration of drugs containing macrocyclic lactones (MLs). These products are very safe and highly effective, targeting the third and fourth larval stages (L3, L4) of the parasite. Until 2011, claims of ineffectiveness of MLs, reported as “Lack of Efficacy” (LOE), were generally attributed to owners’ non-compliance, or other reason for inadequate preventative coverage. There was solid argumentation that a resistance problem is not likely to occur because of i) the great extent of refugia, ii) the complexity of resistance development to MLs, and iii) the possible big number of genes involved in resistance selection. Nevertheless, today it is unequivocally proven that ML resistant D. immitis strains exist, at least in the Lower Mississippi region, USA. Accordingly, tools have been developed, to evaluate and confirm the susceptibility status of D. immitis strains. A simple, in-clinic, microfilariae suppression test, 14-28 days after ML administration, and a “decision tree” (algorithm), including compliance and preventatives’ purchase history, and testing gaps, may be applied for assessing any resistant nature of the parasite. On the molecular level, specific SNPs may be used as markers of ML resistance, offering a basis for validation of clinically suspected resistant strains. In Europe, no LOE/resistance claims have been reported so far, and the existing conditions (stray dogs, rich wildlife, majority of owned dogs not on preventive MLs treatment) do not favor selection pressure on the parasites. Considering the genetic basis of resistance and the epizootiological characteristics of D. immitis, ML resistance neither establishes easily nor spreads quickly, a fact confirmed by the current known dispersion of the problem, which is limited. Nevertheless, ML resistance may propagate from an initial geographical point, via animal and vector mobility, to other regions, while it can also emerge as an independent evolutionary process in a new area. For these reasons and considering the current chemoprophylaxis recommendations and increasing use of ML endectoparasiticides as a potential selection pressure, it is important to remain vigilant for timely detection of any ML LOE/resistance, in all continents where D. immitis is enzootic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0493.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: Chronic diarrhea, idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease, microbiota, dysbiosis
Online: 21 June 2021 (08:56:30 CEST)
The long-term impact of treatment of dogs with steroid-responsive enteropathy (SRE) on the fe-cal microbiome and metabolome has not been investigated. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the fecal microbiome and metabolome of dogs with SRE before, during, and following treatment with standard immunosuppressive therapy and an elimination diet. We retrospec-tively selected samples from 9 dogs with SRE enrolled in a previous clinical trial, which received treatment for 8 weeks, and had achieved remission as indicated by the post-treatment clinical scores. Long-term (1 year) samples were obtained from a subset (5/9) of dogs. Samples from 13 healthy dogs were included as controls (HC). We evaluated the microbiome using 16S rRNA sequencing and qPCR. To evaluate the recovery of gut function, we measured fecal metabolites using an untargeted approach. While improvement was observed for some bacterial taxa after 8 weeks of treatment, several bacterial taxa remained significantly different from HC. Seven-ty-five metabolites were altered in dogs with SRE, including increased fecal amino acids and vitamins, suggesting malabsorption as a component of SRE. One year after treatment, however, all bacterial species evaluated by qPCR and 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and all but thirteen me-tabolites were no longer different from healthy controls.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0173.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: Fade abruptly, abnormal respiratory noise, dynamic overground endoscopy, upper respiratory tract, horse.
Online: 7 June 2021 (12:41:43 CEST)
The purpose of the study was to find the source of complaints and to diagnose dynamic upper respiratory tract problems, which were derived from the horse owners, trainers, and jockeys, and to evaluate the overground endoscopic examination efficiency to determine the subclinical upper respiratory tract (URT) abnormalities, which were unable to diagnose with resting endoscopy. In the study, overground endoscopy has been used which nowadays there is a more useful and safe technique of performing endoscopy during ridden exercise in the natural field to diagnose dynamic upper respiratory tract (URT) abnormalities in comparison with the more traditional method of resting endoscopy. This study focused on 25 racehorses (Thoroughbred, n:22 and Arabian n: 3), which were admitted to Racehorse Hospital with complaints of fade abruptly and/or abnormal respiratory noise during the last meters of the race. All horses were examined for the complaints to be associated with systemic disorders and/or lameness, the racehorses with lameness and/or systemic disorders findings were excluded. Resting (post-exercise) and overground endoscopy by using Dr. Fritz® ETL-Equine Overground Endoscopy was performed on a polytrack racecourse in all racehorses. Observed abnormalities were recorded as simple and complex cases and the results of resting and dynamic examination were compared. It was concluded the overground endoscopic examination has a useful diagnostic value in determining the cause of abnormal respiratory noise and/or fade abruptly.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0704.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: Parascaris; carvacrol; nicotinic acetylcholine receptors; muscle contraction; electrophysiology; Xenopus oocytes; mode of action
Online: 27 April 2021 (10:54:16 CEST)
Parascaris sp. is the only ascarid parasitic nematode in equids and one of the most threatening infectious organisms in horses. Only a limited number of compounds are available for treatment of horse helminthiasis and Parascaris sp. worms have developed resistance to the three major anthelmintic families. In order to overcome the appearance of resistance, there is an urgent need for new therapeutic strategies. The active ingredients of herbal essential oils are potentially effective antiparasitic drugs. Carvacrol is one of the principal chemicals of essential oil from Origanum, Thymus, Coridothymus, Thymbra, Satureja and Lippia herbs. However, the antiparasitic mode of action of carvacrol is poorly understood so far. Here, the objective of the work was to characterize the activity of carvacrol on Parascaris sp. nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) function both in vivo with the use of worm neuro-muscular flap preparations and in vitro with two-electrode voltage-clamp electrophysiology on nAChRs expressed in Xenopus oocytes. We have developed a neuromuscular contraction assay on Parascaris body flaps and obtained acetylcholine concentration-dependent contraction responses. Strikingly, we observed that 300 µM carvacrol fully and irreversibly abolished Parascaris sp. muscle contractions elicited by acetylcholine. Conversely, carvacrol antagonized acetylcholine-induced currents from both the nicotine-sensitive AChR and the morantel-sensitive AChR subtypes. Thus, we show for the first time that the body muscle flap preparation is a tractable approach to investigate the pharmacology of Parascaris sp. neuro-muscular system. Our results suggest an intriguing mode of action for carvacrol being a potent antagonist of muscle nAChRs of Parascaris sp. worms which may account for its antiparasitic potency.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0122.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; canine; gastrointestinal; infection; virus
Online: 5 April 2021 (12:23:45 CEST)
SARS-CoV-2 infects a range of host species. However, the susceptibility of companion animals to SARS-CoV-2 and their potential ability to transmit the virus to humans remains unclear. Here, we present a detailed clinical description of an immunosuppressed dog that was infected with SARS-CoV-2. The dog had severe gastrointestinal (GI) clinical signs, coagulopathy, elevated hepatic transaminases, and met canine systemic inflammatory response syndrome criteria, without respiratory clinical signs, mirroring a subset of humans with GI-restricted COVID-19. Viral sequencing demonstrated divergence from other reported sequences, based on phylogenetic analysis. The dog shed high levels of virus for a prolonged time period with positive virus isolation. The dog’s immunosuppressed state may have increased both susceptibility to infection and disease progression. Together, our findings suggest that certain individual companion animals may be at higher risk for severe SARS-CoV-2 infection, COVID-19-like disease, and high viral shedding, which may pose a transmission risk to humans.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0620.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: risk factors; longevity, death; euthanasia; retirement; longitudinal; TeamMate; working dogs; herding dogs; working farm dogs
Online: 25 March 2021 (14:24:34 CET)
Working farm dogs are essential to many livestock farmers. Little is known about factors that influence dogs’ risk of being lost from work. This paper explores risk factors for farm dogs being lost through death, euthanasia and retirement. All enrolled dogs were working and minimum 18 months old. Five data collection rounds were done over four years. Data about dogs were collected from owners and dogs were given physical examinations by veterinarians. Dogs that were lost from work were counted and owner-reported reasons for loss were recorded. Multivariable logistic regression modelling was used to investigate risk factors for loss. Of 589 dogs, 81 were lost from work. Of these, 59 dogs died or were euthanized and 22 were retired. Farm dogs tended to reach high ages, with 38% being 10 years or older when last examined. Acute injury or illness was the most commonly owner-reported reason for loss. Age group (P < 0.0001) and lameness (P = 0.04, OR = 1.8) significantly affected dogs’ risk being lost. These results expand our knowledge about factors that affect health, welfare and work in farm dogs. Further investigation into reasons for lameness may help improve health and welfare in working farm dogs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0068.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: air purification; animal production; porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome; livestock health,; livestock biosecurity; swine diseases; ultraviolet light
Online: 2 March 2021 (10:08:23 CET)
Proper treatment of infectious air could potentially mitigate the spread of airborne viruses such as porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). The objective of this research is to test the effectiveness of ultraviolet (UV) in inactivating aerosolized PRRSV, specifically, four UV lamps, UV-A (365 nm, both fluorescent and LED-based), "excimer" UV-C (222 nm), and germicidal UV-C (254 nm), were tested. The two UV-C lamps effectively irradiated fast-moving PRRSV aerosols with short treatment times (<2 s). One-stage and two-stage UV inactivation models estimated the UV doses needed for target percentage (%) reductions on PRRSV titer. UV-C (254 nm) dose needed for 3-log (99.9%) reduction was 0.521 and 0.0943 mJ/cm2, respectively, based on one-stage and two-stage models. An order of magnitude lower UV-C (222 nm) doses were needed for a 3-log reduction, i.e., 0.0882 and 0.048 mJ/cm2, based on one-stage and two-stage models, respectively. However, the cost of 222-nm excimer lamps is still economically prohibitive for scaling-up trials. The UV-A (365 nm) lamps could not reduce PRRSV titers for tested doses up to 4.11 mJ/cm2. Pilot-scale or farm-scale testing of UV-C on PRRSV aerosols simulating barn ventilation rates are recommended based on its effectiveness and reasonable costs comparable to HEPA filtration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0567.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: antimicrobial resistance; antimicrobial stewardship; barriers; perception; survey; veterinary practitioners
Online: 24 September 2020 (04:41:43 CEST)
Usage of antimicrobials in veterinary practices has always been under scrutiny due to the perceived risk of resulting in antimicrobial-resistant pathogens. This creates the necessity for understanding the role of the prescriber group. Hence, we conducted a cross-sectional survey among veterinary practitioners from August to November 2019 in the Chattogram district of Bangladesh, aiming to assess the practitioner’s perceptions regarding antimicrobial prescribing and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) issue. We collected responses from 100 veterinarians engaged in the treatment of the large animal, poultry, and pet animal through a self-administrated questionnaire. Proportions were calculated for categorical variables and the results are presented using visual aids. Our study revealed two key barriers - scarcity of enough information on antimicrobial used, and the lack of training in the proper prescription of antimicrobials. Participants recognized that prescribing too many varieties of antimicrobials and the use of an incomplete course of drugs as two very important causes for the development of antimicrobial resistance. In addition, prescription of inappropriate doses and incentives from pharmaceutical companies were dubbed as important causes. We also found that along with clinical features and types of organisms, the availability of drugs in the local market and the economic conditions of farmers have potential impacts on the antimicrobials prescribing decision of the veterinarians. However, all participants recognized the emerging threats of AMR. Results suggested that capacity building of veterinarians and the maintenance of strong coordination are crucial in ensuring the proper engagement of veterinarians as the front-line fighters for tackling the AMR issue.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0427.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: brassica-associated liver disease; BALD; progoitrin; 1-cyano-2-hydroxy-3-butene; 1-cyano-2-hydroxy-3,4-epithiobutane; nitrile; toxicity; rabbits
Online: 18 September 2020 (10:07:03 CEST)
Cattle occasionally develop brassica-associated liver disease (BALD) and photosensitisation when grazing turnip or swede (Brassica spp.) forage crops. The liver toxin in these brassica varieties has yet to be discovered. Progoitrin is the dominant glucosinolate in incriminated crops. Apart from goitrin, progoitrin hydrolysis yields the nitrile, 1-cyano-2-hydroxy-3-butene (CHB), and the epithionitrile, 1-cyano-2-hydroxy-3,4-epithiobutane (CHEB). The two compounds were custom-synthesised. In a small pilot trial, New Zealand White rabbits were given either CHB or CHEB by gavage. Single doses of 0.75 mmol/kg of CHB or 0.25 mmol/kg of CHEB were subtoxic and elicited subclinical effects. Higher doses were severely hepatotoxic causing periportal to massive hepatic necrosis associated with markedly elevated serum liver biomarkers often resulting in severe illness or death within 24 h. The possibility that one or both of these hepatotoxic nitriles causes BALD in cattle requires further investigation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0422.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: dog; ST131; ESBL; fecal colonization; Escherichia coli
Online: 18 September 2020 (07:15:23 CEST)
Background: Most drug-resistant Escherichia coli isolates in dogs come from diseased dogs. Prior to this study, the prevalence and risk factors of fecal carriage drug-resistant E. coli and epidemic clone sequence type (ST) 131 (including subtypes) isolates in dogs were unknown. Methods: Rectal swabs were used for E. coli isolation from 299 dogs in a veterinary teaching hospital in Taiwan. Antibiotic resistance and multiplex PCR analyses of E. coli for major STs were performed. Result: There were 43.1% cefazolin-resistant, 22.1% fluoroquinolone-resistant, and 9.4% extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing E. coli in our cohort. In the phylogenetic study, B2 was the predominant group (30.1%). The cefazolin-resistant group and ciprofloxacin-resistant group had greater antibiotic exposure in the last 14 days (P < 0.05). The age, sex, and dietary habits of the antibiotic-resistant and -susceptible groups were similar. In the seven isolates of ST131 in fecal colonization, the most predominant subtypes were FimH41 and FimH22. Conclusion: Recent antibiotic exposure was related to the fecal carriage of antibiotic-resistant E. coli isolates. Three major subtypes (FimH41, H22, and H30) of ST131 can thus be found in fecal carriage in dogs in Taiwan.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0309.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: Mycobacterium chelonae/abscessus; crocodile; mycobacteriosis; Non-tuberculous mycobacteria
Online: 14 September 2020 (00:12:29 CEST)
A 40 years old male Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) was diagnosed with pulmonary mycobacteriosis caused by a member of Mycobacterium chelonae/abscessus group. Post-mortem examination showed a severe systemic visceral granulomatous involvement, with lesions in lungs, heart, liver, spleen and kidneys. Histopathological examination of lung, spleen, heart and liver revealed multifocal to coalescing granulomas showing eterophils in central zone and outer rim of epithelioid histiocytes, multinucleated giant cells and lymphocytes. The Ziehl–Neelsen histological staining revealed rare vacuoles containing numerous alcohol-acid resistant bacteria. Mycobacterial infection was confirmed by culture and PCR targeting rRNA 16S gene. Sequence analysis of the DNA amplicon revealed a 100% homology with the M. chelonae/ abscessus group. Even if the classification of the memebrr of this group is still on updating, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of M. chelonae/abscessus member infection in a Nile crocodile species.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0107.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: Coxiella burnetii; dairy cattle; beef cattle; grazing; ELISA; IS1111
Online: 5 September 2020 (03:47:14 CEST)
This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of Coxiella burnetii infection according to cattle breeds and growth types. A total of 491 cattle [cattle breed: 216 dairy cattle and 275 beef cattle; according to growth type: indoor housing (n = 294) and grazing (n = 197)] were tested for the presence of C. burnetii DNA and antibodies against C. burnetii using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Overall, 10.8% and 8.8% of the cattle were positive by PCR and for C. burnetii antibodies, respectively. The prevalence of C. burnetii was significantly higher in beef cattle than in dairy cattle using PCR (13.6% vs 7.4%; P = 0.032) and ELISA (14.6% vs 1.4%; P = 0.000), respectively. The overall infection rate of C. burnetii was significantly high in grazing cattle (PCR: 24.9%, ELSIA: 21.3%; P = 0.000) compared with housing cattle (PCR: 1.4%, ELISA: 0.3%). The results indicate that beef cattle have a significantly higher risk of contracting C. burnetii infection compared with dairy cattle (21.5% vs. 7.9%, χ2 = 5.82, P = 0.000, odds ratio = 3.197, 95% CI: 1.80-5.67). In addition, the infection of C. burnetii was significantly associated with grazing (P = 0.000). Moreover, a risk of contracting C. burnetii infection in grazing cattle was increased by 32.57-fold (95% CI: 12.84-82.60, P = 0.000) compared with indoor housed cattle. The phylogenetic analysis based on the IS111 gene revealed that our isolates were grouped together with humans, ticks, goats, and cattle isolates found in several countries. C. burnetii isolates circulating in the Republic of Korea exhibit genetic variations. Consequently, our results suggest that cattle are potential reservoirs for C. burnetii infection and most importantly, grazing acts as a high risk factor for the occurrence and transmission of this infection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0634.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: bovine TB; risk factors; disease control; animal health policy; veterinary epidemiology; evidence-based policy
Online: 28 August 2020 (11:25:31 CEST)
Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) outbreaks, caused by Mycobacterium bovis infection, are a costly animal health challenge. Understanding factors associated with the duration of outbreaks, known as breakdowns, could lead to better disease management policy development. We undertook a retrospective observational study (2012-2018) and employed Finite Mixture Models (FMM) to model the outcome parameter, and to investigate how factors were associated with duration for differing subpopulations identified. In addition to traditional risk factors (e.g. herd size, bTB history), we also explored farm geographic area, parcels/farm fragmentation, metrics of intensity via nitrogen loading, and whether herds were designated controlled beef finishing units (CBFU) as potential risk factors for increased duration. The final model fitted log-normal distributions, with two latent classes (k) which partitioned the population into a subpopulation around the central tendency of the distribution, and a second around the tails of the distribution. The latter subpopulation included longer breakdowns of policy interest. Increasing duration was positively associated with recent (<3 yrs) TB history and the number of reactors disclosed, (log) herd size, beef herd-type relative to other herd types, number of land parcels, area, and being designated a controlled finishing unit (“feedlot”), and having high annual inward cattle movements within the “tails” subpopulation. Breakdown length was negatively associated with year of commencement of breakdown (i.e. a decreasing trend) and non-significantly with the organic nitrogen produced on the farm (N kg/hectare), a measure of stocking density. The latter finding may be due to confounding effects with herd size and area. Most variables contributed only moderately to explaining variation in breakdown duration, that is, they had moderate size effects on duration. Herd-size and CBFU had greater effect sizes on the outcome. The findings contribute to evidence-based policy formation in Ireland.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0617.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: refinement; pain; nociceptive threshold; horse; cat; dog; sheep; camel
Online: 27 August 2020 (12:20:22 CEST)
Nociceptive threshold (NT) testing is widely used for the study of pain and its alleviation. The end point is a normal behavioural response which may be affected by restraint or unfamiliar surroundings leading to erroneous data. Remotely controlled thermal and mechanical NT testing systems were developed to allow free movement during testing and were evaluated in cats, dogs, sheep, horses and camels. Thermal threshold (TT) testing incorporated a heater and temperature sensor held against the animal’s shaved skin. Mechanical threshold (MT) testing incorporated a pneumatic actuator attached to a limb containing a 1 - 2mm radiused pin pushed against the skin. Both stimuli were driven from battery powered control units attached on the animal’s back, controlled remotely via infra-red radiation from a hand held component. Threshold reading was held automatically and displayed digitally on the unit. The system was failsafe with a safety cutout at a preset temperature or force as appropriate. The animals accepted the equipment and behaved normally in their home environment enabling recording of reproducible TT (38.5 – 49.8°C) and MT (2.7 – 10.1N); precise values depended on species, the individual and the stimulus characteristics. Remote controlled NT threshold testing appears to be a viable refinement for pain research.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: Determinants; Impact; Mammary gland; Mastitis; Pathogens
Online: 21 August 2020 (11:07:07 CEST)
Abstract Mastitis is a common disease of dairy animals. The source of mastitis infection may be regarded as contagious or environmental. A wide range of pathogens including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and the toxins of these pathogens can cause the disease. Mastitis is generally associated with poor hygienic and husbandry practices. The primary reservoir of infection is the mammary gland. The infectious agent enters through the milk canal, interacts with the mammary tissue/cells and multiplies. Most contagious mastitis causing pathogens are spread during milking. Most other species are opportunistic invaders from the cow's environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0130.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: academic performance; COVID-19; veterinary; online learning
Online: 21 August 2020 (02:25:37 CEST)
Many universities and colleges worldwide suspended classroom teaching due to the novel coronavirus pandemic and switched to online teaching. The current cross-sectional study was carried out to analyze the impact of lockdown due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on the academic performance of veterinary medical students and researchers. Veterinary medical students and researchers were invited to answer an online google form questionnaire. A total of 1398 participants were from 92 different countries answered the questionnaire with response rate of 94.52%. The data showed that COVID-19 pandemic lockdown affected the academic performance of most participants (96.7%) with varying degrees. The mean evaluation scores for the online education in general was 5.06 ± 2.43 while that for the practical parts was 3.62± 2.56. Although online education provides an opportunity for self-study. The main challenge online education faces in veterinary medical science is how to give practical lessons. Since most of the subjects are practical; therefore, it is not easy to learn it online. Students think that it is difficult to fulfill the veterinary competencies only with online education system. Online education can be improved by making it more interactive, showing medical procedures in real situations, giving concise information, and providing 3D virtual tools to mimic the real situation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0397.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: group A rotavirus gastroenteritis; emerging zoonotic viral diseases; leopardus tigrinus and leopardus pardalis; endangered neotropical rain forest felids; rehabilitation of injured or orphaned native wild cats
Online: 19 August 2020 (08:06:31 CEST)
Rotaviruses are highly infectious and typically transmitted by fecal-oral route via in the tropics and leading the cause of diarrheal deaths in children of developing countries, besides causing significant economic impacts like neonatal disease agents of domestic animals. This present report aims to present the clinical and diagnostic findings of two confirmed cases of rotavirus (RV) infection in orphaned Leopardus tigrinus (Schreber, 1775) and Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758), the first register of the infection by group A rotavirus in these species. Both felids were rescued in the Pará State Amazon Brazil by the IBAMA (the Brazilian Institute of Environment and Renewable Natural Resources), and treated by veterinarians into intensive care ward in a public Environmental Park of Belém city. After the adaptation period to the quarantine, these animals showed non-specific symptoms of acute fulminant gastroenteritis. Rotavirus group A antigen was identified in blood and faecal samples of L. tigrinus analyzed by immunochromatography (ICG) and immunoassay methods (ELISA) at the Virology Laboratory of the Institute Evandro Chagas. The animals died within few days during the clinical exacerbation unresponsive to current treatment, its necropsies and histopathological analysis were performed in the Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology of the Federal Rural University of Amazonia (UFRA). Despite the compatible pathologic findings of rotavirus infection in both animals, the atypical hemorrhagic character was a curious finding, considering the presumed etiology.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0090.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: Piglet; castration; pain; behaviour; peri-operative; vocalisation; nociception; neonate; anaesthesia; analgesia.
Online: 11 August 2020 (10:10:24 CEST)
Analgesic products for piglet castration are critically needed. This requires extensive animal experimentation such as to meet regulatory-required proof of efficacy. At present, there are no validated methods of assessing pain in neonatal piglets. This poses challenges for investigators to optimize trial design and to meet ethical obligations to minimize the number of animals needed. Pain in neonatal piglets may be subtle, transient and / or variably expressed and, in the absence of validated methods, investigators must rely on using a range of biochemical, physiological and behavioural variables, many of which appear to have very low (or unknown) sensitivity or specificity for documenting pain, or pain-relieving effects. A previous systematic review of this subject was hampered by the high degree of variability in the literature base both in terms of methods used to assess pain and pain mitigation, as well as in outcomes reported. In this setting we provide a narrative review, to assist in determining the optimal methods currently available to detect piglet pain during castration and methods to mitigate castration-induced pain. In overview, the optimal outcome variables identified are nociceptive motor and vocal response scores during castration, and quantitative sensory-threshold response testing and pain-associated behaviour scores following castration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0134.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: Proportionate prevalence; spatial distribution; antibiotics; supportive therapy; Jhenaidah
Online: 5 August 2020 (15:37:06 CEST)
A descriptive epidemiological study has been conducted using hospital database of Teaching Veterinary Hospital (TVH) at Jhenaidah Government Veterinary College (JGVC) from July 2018 to June 2019. The study aimed to estimate the proportionate prevalence of different livestock and poultry diseases along with their spatiotemporal distribution and drug prescribing pattern. A total of 960 clinical cases were recorded during the study period. Ectoparasitic cases were proportionately higher in cattle (25.2%), whereas Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) cases were more frequent in goat (53.4%). The proportionate prevalence of other cases in cattle was Fascioliasis (14.3%), Myiasis (11.2%) and Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) (7.2%). The proportionate prevalence of other cases in goats were vitamin and mineral deficiency (12.3%), bloat (5.2%), abscess (4.7%), and dog bite (1.2%). Again, the proportionate prevalence of poultry diseases was Infectious Bursal Disease (41.2%), salmonellosis (33.4%), fowl cholera (13.7%) and pox (7.8%). Most of the cattle cases were highly prevalent during the summer season except fascioliasis. In goat, PPR was predominated in the rainy season whereas myiasis was in the winter. Around 92% of disease cases were spatially located within the 2.5 km radius of the TVH of JGVC where only 0.9% of disease cases came from >10km away from TVH of JGVC. Simple linear regression identified a significant relation (p=0.01) with the distance and number of diseased animals came to the hospital. Antimicrobials belonging to b-Lactam group were most frequently prescribed for both poultry (48.6%), cattle (32.5%) followed by goat (9.2%), however sulfar drugs (34.8%) were commonly prescribed for goat cases. This type of study is very novel in Jhenaidah region of Bangladesh that might contribute to the researchers for further investigation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0356.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: experimental sensor; dairy cows; abomasal displacement
Online: 16 July 2020 (13:17:00 CEST)
The aim of the current study was to determine the effectiveness of two surgical techniques regarding the cow respiratory rates, heart rates, and rumination time using two sensors: an experimental device that was created by the Institute of Biomedical Engineering of Kaunas University of Technology (Lithuania) and the “SCR” (SCR Engineers Ltd., Netanya, Israel) system. The cows were divided into two groups: PA1—cows treated by percutaneous abomasopexy (n = 10), and RSO2—cows treated by right side omentopexy (n = 8). For the control group (KH), according to the principle of analogues (number of lactations, breed, and days in milk), we selected clinically healthy cows (n = 9). After the surgical treatment for the abomasal displacement, the experimental device was applied for the recording of the heart and breathing rates; 12 hour tracking of the rumination time (RT) was implemented using the system ''SCR''; and the body temperature was measured. After 12 hours, the blood was taken for biochemical and morphological tests. The experimental device recorded 12 hours of the respiratory rate (RR) and heart beat rate (HBR) information. We determined the concentrations of the blood serum beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), calcium (Ca), phosphorus (Phos), magnesium (Mg), and iron (Fe), as well as the activities of aspartarte aminotransferase (AST) and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT). According to searches for relationships between the traditional blood biochemical and morphological parameters, and the parameters measured by the experimental device, the more efficient abomasal displacement surgical method was the right side omentopexy. With the sensors, we found, after right side omentopexy, a 5.19 beats/min lower (1.10-times) average value of the respiratory rate, 1.13-times higher level of the heart rate, a 0.15 oC higher temperature, and a 3.29-times lower rumination time compared to the clinical healthy cows. Further research with larger numbers of animals and longer experimental periods are needed prior to practical applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0293.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: precision dairy farming; milk progesterone; production; reproduction; automatic milking system
Online: 14 July 2020 (05:48:53 CEST)
The aim of the instant study was to evaluate relative inline progesterone dynamic changes according to parity and status of reproduction and to estimate the relationship with productivity in dairy cows by inline milk analysis system (IMAS) Herd Navigator. According to a progesterone assay, cows were divided into three periods: postpartum, after insemination, and pregnancy. In the first stage of the postpartum period (0-29 days), the progesterone level in milk was monitored every 6 days. The second stage of the postpartum period (30-65 days) lasted until cows were inseminated. In the third period (0-45 days) after cows were inseminated, progesterone scores were distributed according to whether or not cows became pregnant. The stability of progesterone dynamics was monitored in the last study period (45-90 days). For milk progesterone detection, the fully automated real-time progesterone analyzer Herd Navigator (Lattec I/S. Hillerød. Denmark) was used in combination with a DeLaval milking robot (DeLaval Inc., Tumba, Sweden). The highest progesterone concentration in multiparous cows ranged from 1.08% (11-17 days postpartum) to 34.89% higher than that in cows of the first parity. The lowest progesterone concentrations in the milk of all cows were estimated during the first 5 postpartum days and between 18 and 23 days after calving. Peak milk progesterone concentrations were evaluated in the first stage of the experiment on days 24-29 after calving. In the 30-65-day period after calving, the level of milk progesterone was 2.02-2.08 times higher than that in the 24-29-day postpartum period. After insemination, the level of progesterone in milk increased by 10.77-22.54% compared with the level from cows on days 30-65 after calving. A higher (12.88%) concentration of progesterone in milk was evaluated in multiparous cows compared with that from cows of the first parity. In pregnant cows, milk progesterone within 0-45 days after insemination was 23.88% (in multiparous cows) and 32.54% (in primiparous cows) higher than that in non-pregnant cows. On days 31–35 after insemination, pregnant cows had higher milk progesterone levels, which can predict pregnancy success. According to our study results, we can suggest that an inline progesterone concentration determined by inline milk analysis system Herd Navigator and changes in its dynamics correlate with different reproductive statuses and milk yield of cows. Pregnant cows 11–15 days after insemination have higher milk progesterone levels, what positively, associated with a successful pregnancy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0156.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: canine vector-borne diseases; mosquito-borne diseases; dirofilariosis; ehrlichiosis; leishmaniosis; dogs; multi-modal prophylaxis; Corsica
Online: 8 July 2020 (12:03:53 CEST)
With a mild Mediterranean-type climate, Corsica is endemic for canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs) such as dirofilariosis (a mosquitoes borne-diseases: MBDs), leishmaniosis and ehrlichiosis. The aim of this present study was to evaluate a monthly multi-modal prophylactic strategy (MMP) against CVBDs occurring in Corsica. The study was conducted as a comparative field trial in which eighty dogs allocated into two groups were included: (i) Group 1 consisted of 25 dogs under the MMP [per-os administration of 1.5 tablet of milbemycine oxime-praziquantel and a topical line-on application of a 3.6 mL solution of dinotefuran-permethrin-pyriproxyfen] and (ii) Group 2 under various real-life prophylactic treatment (RLP) based on the use of ectoparasiticide products [different formulations: deltamethrin, fluralaner, fipronil] and/or macrocyclic lactones based-products [milbemycin oxime/praziquantel, milbemycin oxime, moxidectin] during the period ranging from June to October 2017. All animals were followed for one year and had blood drawn at day 0, followed by follow-up at 6 and 12 months. Samples were screened for filariosis using molecular tools as well as for leishmaniosis and ehrlichiosis using indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA). At the end of the study, no new cases of CVBDs were recorded within Group 1. In Group 2, the cumulative incidence of CVBDs was 20.0% (n= 11; p= 0.015) including dirofilarioses due to Dirofilaria immitis and/or D. repens, with 16.4% (n= 9; p=0.027). Ehrlichiosis was 5.5% (n= 3; p=0.241). No new cases of leishmaniosis were detected in Group 2. The data illustrated that, unlike the RLP treatment which failed to protect at least 20% of dogs, the MMP based on the concurrent administration of milbemycine oxime-praziquantel and dinotefuran-permethrin-pyriproxyfen is efficient to protect dogs against CVBDs in a high-risk area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0121.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: antibiotic usage; antibiotic resistance; poultry; KAP; Kwara; Nigeria
Online: 9 June 2020 (09:45:51 CEST)
There are overwhelming empirical evidences highlighting the contribution of indiscriminate antibiotic usage (ABU) in food animals to the overall burden of antibiotic resistance (ABR) in humans, thus making antibiotic use the main selective pressure driving antibiotic resistance. Social and behavioral perspective on antibiotic use and resistance in poultry is limited. Our study therefore aimed at obtaining information on antibiotic usage, awareness of ABR, and the attitude and perceptions towards prudent antibiotic usage and ABR. A cross-sectional survey using a structured questionnaire was conducted in 125 poultry farms in Kwara state in December 2019. Most farmers (69.6%, n=87/125) were aware of ABR and had satisfactory knowledge about ABR with a mean knowledge score of 3.16±1.47. The age, gender, level of education of farmers, and their flock size were significantly associated with a satisfactory knowledge of ABR (p<0.05). Tertiary education was significantly associated with ABR awareness (OR: 4.7; 95% CI: 0.0690, 0.654; p=0.007) and the ABR knowledge level (OR: 7.8269; 95% CI: 3.2693, 18.7381; p < 0.01). Higher flock size was significantly associated with a satisfactory knowledge of ABR (OR: 9.4551; 95%CI: 3.7928, 23.5707; p<0.01). Most of the poultry farmers (68%) had positive attitudes towards prudent antibiotic use with a mean score of 2.75±0.89. On the contrary, only 32.8% of poultry farmers had a good perception of ABR with a mean perception score of 4.95±1.12. The ABR knowledge level was significantly associated with the perceptions of farmers (p<0.05) but not their attitudes toward ABU and ABR (P=0.083). There was evidence of unprescribed use of antibiotics in poultry and a failure to observe antibiotic withdrawal periods. These constitute a risk of exposure to unacceptable levels of drug residues from poultry products and an increased risk of ABR. Improving education and communication on antibiotic stewardship programs are crucial to prevent the looming antibiotic apocalypse.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0420.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: Biodentine, MTA, new bone formation; Osteonectin, furcation perforation
Online: 26 May 2020 (05:34:25 CEST)
This study compared the Biodentine (BD) and MTA in repair of furcation perforation (FP) in a dog model in terms of inflammatory cell count and new hard tissue formation through histological and immunohistochemical evaluations. Ninety six teeth in six adult mongrel dogs were divided according to the time of repair into two groups (48 teeth/3 dogs each); immediate and delayed repair of the induced FP. Each group was divided into three subgroups (16 teeth each) according to the evaluation periods; 1, 2, and 3 months. Each subgroup was further subdivided into four subdivisions according to the material used; MTA (6 teeth), Biodentine (6 teeth), negative control (2 teeth) and positive control (2 teeth). In experimental and positive control samples, the teeth were instrumented and obturated then, a FP was performed. The perforations were sealed according to the groups and subdivisions. Histopathology and immunohistochemical analysis using Osteonectin antibodies were performed for assessment of the inflammatory cell count and new hard tissue formation. In all groups and subgroups, there were no significant differences between MTA and BD in the inflammatory cell count and new hard tissue formation (P>0.05). Biodentine can alternate the MTA as a FP repair material.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0192.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: animal; COVID-19; intermediate host; SARS-COV-2
Online: 16 May 2020 (18:06:34 CEST)
A novel coronavirus has been reported as the causative pathogen of the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak Wuhan city, China in December 2019. Due to the rapid spreading of COVID-19 worldwide, it has been announced as a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO). Hospitalized patients in Wuhan are associated with the Huanan seafood wholesale market where live animals, such as poultry, bats, snakes, frogs, rabbits, marmots, and hedgehogs are sold in that market which suggests a possible zoonotic infection. Therefore, it is essential to identify the potential animal reservoir, and the possibility of infection for other animal species. This short review aims to provide an overview on the relation between severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus‐2 (SARS‐CoV‐2) infection and animals.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: Coxiella burnetii; Rickettsia; Q fever; rickettsiosis; tick-borne pathogens
Online: 31 March 2020 (09:54:07 CEST)
Rickettsia and Coxiella burnetii are zoonotic tick-borne pathogens that can cause febrile illnesses with or without other symptoms in humans but may cause subclinical infections in animals. There are only a few reports on the occurrence of these pathogens in cattle and water buffaloes in Southeast Asia, including the Philippines. In this study, molecular detection of Rickettsia spp. and C. burnetii in the blood and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus ticks of cattle and water buffaloes from five provinces in Luzon Island of the Philippines was done. A total of 620 blood samples of cattle and water buffaloes and 206 tick samples were collected and subjected to DNA extraction. After successful amplification of control genes, nested PCR was performed to detect gltA of Rickettsia and com1 of C. burnetii. No samples were positive for Rickettsia while 10 (cattle – 7, water buffaloes - 3) or 1.6% of blood and 5 or 1.8% of tick samples were C. burnetii-positive. Sequence analysis of the positive amplicons showed 99-100% similarity to reported C. burnetii isolates. This molecular evidence on the occurrence of C. burnetii in Philippine ruminants and cattle ticks and its zoonotic nature should prompt further investigation and surveillance to facilitate its effective control.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0280.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: spinal disc herniation, dog, NADPH diaphorase, the aging-related NADPH diaphorase body, megaloneurite, homogeneous formazan globule, intermedial collateral pathway
Online: 19 February 2020 (11:47:26 CET)
Neuronal lesion or injury is a traditional approach to investigate neural circuit. Is any new neural pathway or new neurodegeneration related central nerve system injury? Spinal disc herniation can cause the spinal cord injury. However, the histological examination is still lack. It happened that a case of spinal disc herniation of a 10-year old dog was examined with NADPH diaphorase (N-d) histology. We did not find the N-d neurodegenerative aberrant in the tissue of the mid-rostral lumber segment besides the metamorphoses by the compression of the disc herniation. However, the severe neuropathological changes majorly occurred in the lumbosacral spinal cord. We found more diverse neurodegenerative alterations: the aging-related N-d body (ANB), megaloneurite and N-d homogeneous formazan globule in the lumbosacral spinal cord. We also found that a new circuit pathway (intermedial collateral pathway) showed by a megaloneurite between the lateral collateral pathway and the medial collateral pathway. The enormous notch caused by spinal disc herniation located at the mid-rostral lumber segments. The aging-related neurodegeneration occurred the specific lumbosacral segments. The homogeneous formazan globule was round or oval homogeneous N-d positivity which distributed in the gray matter and dorsal column. In the medulla oblongata, ANBs were revealed in the gracile nucleus, nucleus reticularis lateralis (ventrolateral spinal trigeminal nucleus) and middle of the spinal trigeminal nucleus.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0096.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: ph sensors; reticulorumen; blood gas; automatic milking system; real-time monitoring; precision livestock farming
Online: 10 January 2020 (10:08:05 CET)
We hypothesized possibility that inline registered reticulorumen pH can be as biomarker of cows reproduction and health status. Aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship of reticulorumen pH with biomarkers from automatic milking system (AMS) and some blood parameters and determinate reticulorumen pH as biomarker of cows reproduction and health status. According to cows reproductive status the cows were classified as belonging to the following four groups: 15-30 d. postpartum; 1-34 d. after insemination; 35 d. after insemination (non-pregnant); 35 d. after insemination (pregnant). According reticulorumen pH assay experimental animals were divided into four classes: 1) pH<6.22 (5.3% of cows), 2) pH - 6.22-6.42 (42.1% of cows), 3) pH - 6.42-6.62 (21.1% of cows), 4) pH >6.62 (10.5% of cows). Rumination time, body weight, milk yield, milk fat – protein ratio, milk lactose, milk somatic cell count (SCC), milk electrical conductivity of all quarters of udder were registered with the help of Lely Astronaut® A3 milking robots. The pH, temperature of the contents of cow reticulorumens and cow activity were measured using specific smaX-tec boluses. Blood gas parameters were analyzed using a blood gas analyzer (EPOC, Canada). We found that pregnant cows has higher reticulorumen pH during insemination time, comparing with non-pregnant. Cows with lower reticulorumen pH has lowest milk fat – protein ratio, and lactose concentration, and highest SCC. Cows with lowest reticulorumen pH has lowest blood pH. With increase reticulorumen pH, increases blood potasium and hematocrit, decreases CO2, saturation and sodium.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: l. monocytogenes; humans; animals; food; antimicrobial and virulence genes; bioinformatic analysis; prfA phylogenetic analysis
Online: 17 November 2019 (09:48:54 CET)
Serious outbreaks of foodborne disease have been caused by Listeria monocytogenes found in retail delicatessens and the severity of disease is significant, with high hospitalization and mortality rates. Little is understood about the formidable public health threat of L. monocytogenesin all four niches, humans, animals, food and environment in Egypt. This study analyzed the presence of L. monocytogenes collected from the four environmental niches and bioinformatic analysis was implemented to analyze and compare the data. PCR was used to detect virulence genes encoded by pathogenicity island (LIPI-1). prfA amino acid substation that causes constitutive expression of virulence was common in 77.7% of isolates. BLAST analysis did not match other isolates in the NCBI database suggesting this may be a characteristic of the region associated with these isolates. A second group included the NH1 isolate originating in China, and BLAST analysis showed this prfA allele was shared with isolates from other global locations such as Europe and North America. Identification of possible links and transmission pathways between the four niches, helps to decrease the risk of disease in humans, to take more specific control measures in the context of disease prevention, to limit economic losses associated with food recalls and highlightens the need to treatment options.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0344.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: horses; spermatozoa; ROS; oxidative stress; redox regulation; equine
Online: 30 September 2019 (08:06:46 CEST)
Redox regulation and oxidative stress have become areas of major interest in spermatology. Alteration of redox homeostasis is recognized as a significant cause of male factor infertility and is behind the damage that spermatozoa experience after freezing and thawing or conservation in a liquid state. While for a long time, oxidative stress was just considered an overproduction of ROS, nowadays it is considered as a consequence of redox deregulation. Many essential aspects of spermatozoa functionality are redox regulated, with reversible oxidation of thiols in cysteine residues of key proteins acting as an “on-off” switch controlling spermatic function. However, if deregulation occurs, these residues may experience irreversible oxidation and oxidative stress leading to spermatic malfunction and ultimately death. Stallion spermatozoa are “professional producers” of ROS due to their intense mitochondrial activity, and thus sophisticated systems to control redox homeostasis are also characteristic of this species. As a result, combined with the fact that embryos can easily be collected in this species, horses are a good model for the study of redox biology in the spermatozoa and its impact on the embryo.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0323.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: clade 126.96.36.199c h5n1 virus; immunity evasion; ha trimer stability; thermostability; mammalian pathogenicity
Online: 29 September 2019 (05:21:52 CEST)
Since 2007, highly pathogenic clade 2.3.2 H5N1 avian influenza A [A(H5N1)] viruses have evolved to clade 188.8.131.52a, b and c, and currently only 184.108.40.206c A(H5N1) viruses circulate in wild birds and poultry. During antigenic evolution, clade 220.127.116.11a and c A(H5N1) viruses acquired both S144N and V223I mutations around the receptor binding site of hemagglutinin (HA), with S144N generating an N-glycosylation sequon. We introduced single or combined reverse mutations, N144S and/or I223V, into the HA gene of clade 18.104.22.168c A(H5N1) virus and generated PR8-derived, 2 + 6 recombinant A(H5N1) viruses. When we compared replication efficiency in embryonated chicken eggs, mammalian cells and mice, the recombinant virus containing both N144S and I223V mutations showed increased replication efficiency in avian and mammalian hosts and pathogenicity in mice. The N144S mutation significantly decreased avian receptor affinity and egg white inhibition, but not all mutations increased mammalian receptor affinity. Interestingly, the combined reverse mutations dramatically increased the thermostability of HA. Therefore, the adaptive mutations possibly acquired to evade avian immunity may decrease viral thermostability as well as mammalian pathogenicity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0308.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: horse; equine; Polo; GPS; horse welfare
Online: 29 August 2019 (08:37:57 CEST)
Polo is an equestrian team sport, consisting of Open and Women’s only handicapping systems. As cumulative player handicap increases in Open Polo, distance covered, average speeds and high intensity work performed per chukka also increase. These activities may differ in terms of distribution of, and their affect upon, match outcome in Women’s Polo, and thus have implications for equine preparation and management. This study aimed to quantify spatiotemporal differences between Open and Women’s Polo when matched for handicap and assess their affect upon chukka and match outcome using a prospective cohort design. Distance, speed and high intensity activity data were collected via player worn global positioning system (GPS) units during 16-goal Open and Women’s Polo tournaments. Notational analysis quantified chukka duration and chukka and game outcomes. Between group differences were assessed by independent samples t-tests, and two factor mixed effects ANOVA for within group analyses. Between group differences were analysed using an independent samples t-test with alpha defined a priori as p<0.05. Open and Women’s Polo differed by a small to large extent (ES: 0.54 – 1.81) for all spatiotemporal metrics. In Open Polo, players covered moderately more distance (429.0m; 238.9m to 619.0m), with small to large increases in high intensity activities performed in games won. Whereas in Women’s Polo, moderately higher maximum speeds were attained in games won (17.13 km/h; 11.86 km/h to 22.40 km/h) and a small increase in accelerations performed (5.1; 0.2 to 10.0). Open and Women’s Polo, when matched for handicap, present with small to large spatiotemporal differences that are likely of practical significance, and influence game outcome differently between codes. These differences do not necessarily mean that Polo ponies need to be trained differently for each code.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0322.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: ceftiofur sodium; pharmacokinetics; NLME; beagle dogs
Online: 28 July 2019 (17:09:01 CEST)
Ceftiofur (CEF) sodium is a third-generation broad-spectrum cephalosporin commonly used in an extra-label manner in dogs for the treatment of respiratory and urinary system infections. To contribute to the literature supporting CEF use in companion animals, we have developed a compartmental, nonlinear mixed-effects (NLME) model of CEF pharmacokinetics in dogs (PK). We then used the mathematical model to predict (via Monte Carlo simulation) the duration of time for which plasma concentrations of CEF and its pharmacologically active metabolites remained above minimum inhibitory concentrations (respiratory tractEscherichia coli spp). Twelve healthy beagle dogs were administered either 2.2 mg/kg ceftiofur-sodium (CEF-Na) intravenously (I.V) or 2.2 mg/kg CEF-Na subcutaneously (S.C). Plasma samples were collected over a period of 72 hours post-administration. To produce a measurement of total CEF, both CEF and CEF metabolites were derivatized into desfuroylceftiofur acetamide (DCA) before analysis by UPLC-MS/MS. No adverse effects were reported after I.V or S.C dosing. The NLME PK models were parameterized using the stochastic approximation expectation maximization algorithm as implemented in Monolix 2018R2. A two-compartment mamillary model with first-order elimination and first-order S.C absorption best described the available kinetic data. Final parameter estimates indicate that CEF has a low systemic clearance (0.25 L/h/kg) associated with a low global extraction ratio E = 0.02) and a moderate volume of distribution (2.97 L/kg) in dogs. The absolute bioavailability after S.C administration was high (93.7%). Gender was determined to be a significant covariate in explaining the variability of S.C absorption. Our simulations predicted that a dose of 2.2 mg/kg CEF-Na S.C would produce median plasma concentrations of CEF of at least 0.5 µg/mL (MIC50) for approximately 30 hours.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0262.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: endocannabinoid system; anandamide; 2-AG; cannabis; cannabinoid receptor 1; cannabinoid receptor 2; PPARSa, b; Ht1a; TRPV1; GPR55; cannabidiol; CBD; THC; CBG; CBC; tetrahydrocannabinol
Online: 26 June 2019 (07:28:52 CEST)
The endocannabinoid system has been found to be pervasive in mammalian species. It has also been described in invertebrate species primitive as the Hydra. Insects apparently are devoid of this otherwise ubiquitous system that provides homeostatic balance to the nervous and immune systems, as well as many other organ systems. The endocannabinoid system (ECS) has been defined to consist of three parts: 1. Endogenous ligands, 2. G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), and 3. Enzymes to degrade and recycle the ligands. Two endogenous molecules have been identified as ligands in the ECS to date. These are the endocannabinoids: Anandamide (arachidonoyl ethanolamide) and 2-AG (2-arachidonoyl glycerol). Two G-coupled protein receptors have been described as part of this system, with other putative GPC being considered. Coincidentally, the phytochemicals produced in large quantities by the Cannabis sativa L plant, and in lesser amounts by other plants, can interact with this system as ligands. These plant-based cannabinoids are termed, phytocannabinoids. The precise determination of the distribution of cannabinoid receptors in animal species is an ongoing project, with the canine cannabinoid receptor distribution currently receiving the most interest in non-human animals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0062.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: BCG; Eudragit, oral vaccine; tuberculosis; in vitro viability
Online: 5 April 2019 (11:59:53 CEST)
Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine is the only licensed vaccine against tuberculosis (TB) in humans and animals. It is most commonly administered parenterally but oral delivery is highly advantageous for immunisation of cattle and wildlife hosts of TB in particular. Since BCG is susceptible to inactivation in the gut, vaccine formulations were prepared from suspensions of Eudragit L100 copolymer powder and BCG in PBS, containing Tween 80, with and without the addition of mannitol or trehalose. Samples were frozen at -20oC, freeze-dried and the lyophilised powders were compressed to produce BCG-Eudragit matrices. Production of the dried powders resulted in a reduction in BCG viability. Substantial losses in viability occurred at the initial formulation stage and at the stage of powder compaction. Data indicated that the Eudragit matrix protected BCG against simulated gastric fluid (SGF). The matrices remained intact in SGF and dissolved completely in SIF within three hours. The inclusion of mannitol or trehalose in the matrix provided additional protection to BCG during freeze-drying. Control needs to be exercised over BCG aggregation, freeze-drying and powder compaction conditions to minimise physical damage of the bacterial cell wall and maximise the viability of oral BCG vaccines prepared by dry powder compaction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0082.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: RAAS; Canine Congestive Heart Failure; Therapeutics
Online: 6 March 2019 (13:33:08 CET)
Congestive heart failure (CHF) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality with an increasing prevalence in human and canine populations. Similar to humans, overactivation of the renin-angiotensin aldosterone system is involved in the pathophysiology of CHF in dogs. Current therapeutic strategies for the management of canine CHF include the use of RAAS inhibitors, diuretics and inodilators. The present review summarizes data from our own research on the modulation of the renin-angiotensin cascade in dogs in dogs, together with new findings (including novel therapeutic targets) from the veterinary and the human literature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0317.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever; nucleocapsid; Bovine herpesvirus type 4; IFNAR-/- mice; lethal dose
Online: 31 January 2019 (05:26:35 CET)
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is the causative agent of a tick-borne infection with significant mortality rate of up to 40% in the endemic areas, with evidence for geographical expansion. Lacking effective therapeutics and control measures, the development of protective CCHFV vaccine remains a crucial public health task. This manuscript describes, for the first time, a Bovine herpesvirus type 4 (BoHV-4) based viral vector (BoHV4-∆TK-CCHFV-N) and its immunogenicity and protection potential in BALB/c and IFNAR-/- mice models in comparison with Adenovirus type 5 (Ad5-N) and pCDNA3.1 myc/His A (pCD-N1), two widely used vaccine platforms. All constructs expressing viral nucleocapsid (N) protein successfully elicited cytokine and total/specific antibody responses in BALB/c mice. BoHV4-∆TK-CCHFV-N and Ad5-N constructs further produced 100% protection in IFNAR-/- mice during CCHFV Ank-2 strain lethal challenge. Despite elevated specific antibody responses in both animal models, the produced antibodies were unable to neutralize the virus in vitro. A comparison of delivery platforms was not possible, due to similar protection rates in IFNAR-/- mice. In conclusion, vector-based CCHFV N protein expression proved to constitute an effective approach for the vaccine development pipeline and BoHV-4 emerged as a strong alternative to previously-used virus vectors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0157.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: Cetacean Morbillivirus; Canine Distemper Virus; Rinderpest Virus; viral phylogeny; viral evolution; Host-pathogen interactions; cetaceans; aquatic mammals
Online: 16 January 2019 (08:38:32 CET)
Cetacean Morbillivirus, the most relevant pathogen impacting the health and conservation of cetaceans worldwide, has shown in recent years an increased tendency to cross “interspecies barriers”, thereby giving rise to disease and mortality outbreaks in free-ranging dolphins and whales. The present article deals with the evolutionary “trajectories” of this viral pathogen, likely originating from Rinderpest Virus, along with its “journey” from land to sea (and viceversa), mimicking that of cetaceans' terrestrial ancestors.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0144.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: portal system; portal vein; portosystemic shunt; portal hypertension; computed tomography
Online: 15 January 2019 (08:46:21 CET)
This article offers an overview of congenital and acquired vascular anomalies involving the portal venous system in dogs and cats, as determined by multidetector-row computed tomography angiography. Congenital absence of the portal vein, portal vein hypoplasia, portal vein thrombosis and portal collaterals are described. Portal collaterals are further discussed as high- and low-flow connections, and categorized in hepatic arterioportal malformation, arteriovenous fistula, end-to-side and side-to-side congenital portosystemic shunts, acquired portosystemic shunts, cavoportal and porto-portal collaterals. Knowledge of different portal system anomalies helps understand the underlying physiopathological mechanism and is essential for surgical and interventional approaches.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0111.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: Zoonoses, food-borne, disease control, public health, domestic livestock, pigs, One health
Online: 11 January 2019 (10:59:03 CET)
Non-typhoid salmonellosis is a common and problematic foodborne zoonotic disease in which pork and pork products can be an important potential source of infection. In order to prevent this disease important efforts to monitor the situation in the main source, livestock, are conducted in most developed countries. In the European Union EFSA and ECDC compile information at the member state level, even though important differences in production systems and surveillance systems exist. Here, Salmonella surveillance systems in one of the main sources of foodborne salmonellosis, swine, and humans in Spain were reviewed to identify potential gaps and discuss potential ways of integration under a One Health approach. Despite the extensive information generated through the surveillance activities source attribution can be only routinely performed through ad-hoc outbreak investigations, and national reports on human outbreaks do not provide sufficiently detailed information to gain a better understanding of the epidemiology of the pathogen. Human and animal monitoring of Salmonella would benefit from a better exchange of information and collaboration. Analysis of spatio-temporal trends in livestock and humans could help to identify likely sources of infection and to target surveillance efforts in areas with higher prevalence or where specific strains are found.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0504.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: Customer satisfaction, customer loyalty, attitudinal loyalty, behavioral loyalty, relationship between satisfaction and loyalty, communication, trust, commitment, perceived value, value co-creation, veterinarian, veterinary medicine, pet-owner
Online: 26 September 2018 (09:27:13 CEST)
Loyalty is one of the greatest intangible assets that any organization can possess and improving client loyalty is a primary marketing goal that can have a significant financial impact on any business. This quantitative study examined the mediating role of communication on the relationship between satisfaction and loyalty (attitudinal and behavioral) in veterinary clinics, along with the moderating roles of trust, commitment, perceived value, and relational characteristics. Responses collected from 351 pet-owners through social media were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The results show that attitudinal loyalty (AL) has a strong positive relationship with communication at multiple points in a veterinary clinic whereas the relationship with behavioral loyalty was not as clear. Additional findings suggest that AL, which is influenced by trust in the veterinarian, communication from staff members and commitment, has a strong positive relationship with behavioral intentions, increases the number of products and services that a pet-owner consumes at his or her primary veterinary clinic, and attenuates the role of cost in receiving veterinary care. These findings can help veterinary clinic owners and managers in developing and implementing relationship strategies that improve pet-owner loyalty. The article that follows is a synopsis of the author’s dissertation.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0117.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: Siberian sturgeon; CNS signs; Acipenser iridovirus European; viral nervous necrosis; Acipenser herpesvirus; gas bubble disease; Polymerase chain reaction
Online: 6 September 2018 (14:16:37 CEST)
Background: Infectious disease is a major challenge in aquaculture and poses a constraint for development of farming of new species. In 2017, Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii) juveniles were imported from Italy to a Swedish farm. Due to stressful conditions, 30% died during transport and in the first days after arrival. Ten days after arrival, mortalities started to occur again. Within two months, only 5% of the juveniles were still alive. Methods: Diseased fish were transported live to the National Veterinary Institute (SVA) for necropsy and further analysis. Pathological and histopathological investigation was conducted. Virology was performed on gills and internal organs by cell culture isolation and specific PCR protocols. Results: The juveniles displayed neurological signs such as lethargy, inability to maintain upright position and erratic swimming. Body condition was low. Gills were pale. One fish had petechial hemorrhage on the abdomen and the snout. The ventricles were air-filled with, but swim bladders were deflated. One specimen had intestinal hemorrhage. Viral cell cultures were negative, but PCR of gills and internal organs detected the presence of Acipenser Iridovirus European (AcIV-E). Conclusions: AcIV-E was associated with disease and high mortality in the sturgeon juveniles. Stress probably aggravated the course of the infection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0529.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: orcine epidemic diarrhea virus; coronavirus; spike protein; virulence; gnotobiotic piglets; reverse genetics
Online: 30 August 2018 (14:35:03 CEST)
Base on the sequence of S genes, which encode spike proteins, we previously identified three different types (North American, S INDEL and S large-DEL types) of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) that have re-emerged in Japan since 2013. Base on experimental infections with the North American and S large-DEL types, we also hypothesized that PEDV virulence may be linked to the S1 subunit of the S protein. To test this hypothesis, we have now assayed in gnotobiotic piglets various recombinant PEDVs generated by reverse genetics. Piglets inoculated with CV777 maintained in National Institute of Animal Health, along with piglets infected with a recombinant form of the same virus, developed subclinical to mild diarrhea. In contrast, severe watery diarrhea, dehydration, weight loss, astasia, and high mortality were observed in piglets inoculated with recombinant strains in which the S gene was partially or fully replaced with corresponding sequences from the highly virulent Japanese PEDV isolate OKN-1/JPN/2013. Indeed, symptoms resembled those in piglets inoculated with the OKN-1/JPN/2013, and were especially pronounced in younger piglets. Collectively, the data demonstrate that the S1 subunit of the S protein is an important determinant of PEDV virulence, and advance development of new vaccine candidate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0187.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: Porcine rotavirus H; Porcine rotavirus C; Full genome; Classification; Genotype; Non-structural protein 3; Gene rearrangement
Online: 9 August 2018 (11:38:44 CEST)
Rotavirus species H (RVH) has been detected in pigs, humans and bats. Moreover, porcine RVHs have been recently identified in several swine-producing countries. Despite their zoonotic impact, genome information of RVHs is still limited. This study aimed to establish a tentative complete genome-based genotyping system for RVHs, by appending genomic sequences from 12 porcine RVHs identified in Japan between 2013 and 2015 to those from human and other porcine RVHs reported in previous studies. Phylogenetic analysis of 11 RNA segments indicated that porcine RVHs could be classified into multiple genotypes. Consequently, the genotype classification for RVHs revealed the existence of genotypes 10G, 6P, 6I, 3R, 4C, 7M, 6A, 2N, 4T, 6E, 3H for the genes VP7, VP4, VP6, VP1, VP2, VP3, NSP1, NSP2, NSP3, NSP4 and NSP5, respectively. Surprisingly, two distinctive types in NSP1 and NSP3 genes were identified from among the twelve porcine RVHs. Our data suggest a potentially novel gene rearrangement event between porcine RVH and rotavirus species C in the NSP3 gene. These findings would provide a new insight in understanding for evolution of RV.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0342.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: apoptosis; breast cancer; E. coli O157:H7; necrosis; Shiga-like toxin
Online: 26 April 2018 (10:41:36 CEST)
Apoptosis and cell cycle arrest induction are targeted in the strategy of cancer therapy. Furthermore, bacterial toxin such as shiga-like toxin producing Escherichia coli has been suggested to be used as novel therapeutic agent against tumor malignancies either as independent anti-neoplastic agents or in combination treatment with chemo or radiotherapy. The aim of study was to investigate the potency of shiga-like toxin originated from local strains of E. coli O157:H7 as a new cancer therapy. As many as 10 culture cells T47D cell line were subjected by crude extract Shiga like toxin originated from five local isolates of E. coli O157:H7 i.e. KL-48(2), SM-25(1), SM-7(1), DS-21(4), and one isolate ATCC 43894 as a control with IC50 doses, respectively. The treatment was observed for 24 h, with two replications. An FITC-Annexin V and PI assay was used to observe apoptosis and necrosis effect, and simultaneously with cell cycle analysis using propidium iodide (PI) staining. Results of study showed T47D cell treated with Shiga-like toxin from local strain KL-48 (2) show the lowest viable cell, followed by SM 7(1), ATCC 43894, SM-25(1), DS-21(4) and contrary with control with each percentages as 15.20, 16.36, 22.17, 22.64, 33.86, and 94.36%, respectively. The results were also confirmed by the induction of the cell cycle arrest in phase G0-G1 as inactive phase, i.e. 66.41, 63.37, 61.52, 55.36 and 47.28% for T47D cell treated with toxin of KL-48(2), ATCC 43894, SM 25(1), SM 7(1), and DS 21(4), respectively. These results show tendency deleterious effect of Shiga-like toxin from local isolates on T47D cell, so that concluded they have potency as a good anticancer drug in Gb3-expressing breast cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0063.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: spider venom; wound repair; loxoscelism.
Online: 8 January 2018 (10:49:36 CET)
We studied the efficacy of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), either alone or associated with dapsone (DAP) in the treatment of dermonecrotic wounds caused by Loxosceles laeta spider venom. Twenty-five male adult rabbits were distributed into five groups, of which four groups received an intradermal injection of 20 μg of L. laeta venom and only one received ultrapure water (negative control). After 4 hours, each group that received venom, was treated with MSC, DAP, MSC + DAP and Phosphate-buffered saline – PBS (positive control). Photographic records were made for analysis of the wound area evolution by morphometry. Twelve days after treatment, the skin samples around the lesion were removed for subsequent histological analysis. Concerning the rate of wound contraction, we observed that DAP showed the best percentage of contraction at day 3. In the treatments using MSCs, a negative value of wound contraction was observed for the isolated MSCs, as well as a lower contraction value for the association of the MSC + DAP when compared to PBS group. Histopathological analysis showed diminished tissue lesion and less intense inflammation in MSCs and DAP groups. This could indicated potential use of stem cells in regenerative therapies after loxoscelic accidents.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0084.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: euthanasia; veterinary ethics; medical ethics; end-of-life; assisted suicide; palliative care; assisted dying
Online: 7 December 2017 (05:20:50 CET)
Not a lot is known about either death or the dying process. Politicians and many in the medical profession in the UK tend to shy away from interfering with it by not allowing euthanasia as an end of life option for the patient. This is the first paper in a series of two, comparing the situation in human medicine and veterinary medicine, in which euthanasia is well practiced for relieving suffering at the end of an animal’s life. This first part takes the form of a literature review including best practice around end of life care, its deficiencies and the need for assisted dying. Veterinary surgeons are well trained in the ethics of euthanasia and put it to good use in the best interest of their animal patients. In countries which have legalized physician assisted suicide for the terminally ill reporting indicates that it works well, without increases in involuntary euthanasia and most importantly without intimidation of the vulnerable. However, there is still an ever increasing tendency to overuse sedation and opioids at the end of life, which merits further investigation. With advances in medical science able to significantly prolong the dying process, patient autonomy demands a review of the law in the UK.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0094.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: euthanasia; veterinary ethics; medical ethics; end-of-life; assisted suicide; palliative care; assisted dying; moral stress
Online: 1 December 2017 (16:58:27 CET)
This is the second of a series of two papers comparing the end of life issues in human and veterinary medicine. We outline the main differences between human and animal patients such as patient communication, finance and ‘conflicts of interest’ between animal, owner and veterinarian. We discuss striking similarities between human and veterinary issues such as assessing quality of life and the primary role of the attending veterinarian or doctor being the welfare and care of the patient. This paper takes the form of an ethical argument in favour of allowing euthanasia in human medicine, by providing insights into end of life issues for humans from an independent veterinary perspective. Veterinary surgeons are well trained in the ethics of euthanasia and put it to good use in the best interest of their animal patients. Doctors in the UK are limited and unwilling to put forward a case for the option of euthanasia for those patients who face a slow and agonizing death. With advances in medical science being able to significantly prolong the dying process, autonomy for the patient demands a review of the law regarding patient choice in the UK.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0003.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: prion, cervids, PMCA, RT-QuIC, diagnosis
Online: 3 July 2017 (17:34:35 CEST)
Since chronic wasting disease (CWD) was first identified nearly 50 years ago in a captive mule deer herd in the Rocky Mountains of the United States, it has slowly spread across North America through the natural and anthropogenic movement of cervids and their carcasses. As the endemic areas have expanded, so has the need for rapid, sensitive, and cost effective diagnostic tests – especially those which take advantage of samples collected antemortem. Over the past two decades, strategies have evolved from the recognition of microscopic spongiform pathology and associated immunohistochemical staining of the misfolded prion protein to enzyme-linked immunoassays capable of detecting the abnormal prion conformer in postmortem samples. In a history that parallels the diagnosis of more conventional infectious agents, both qualitative and real-time amplification assays have recently been developed to detect minute quantities of misfolded prions in a range of biological and environmental samples. With these more sensitive and semi-quantitative approaches has come a greater understanding of the pathogenesis and epidemiology of this disease in the native host. Because the molecular pathogenesis of prion protein misfolding is broadly analogous to the misfolding of other pathogenic proteins, including Aβ and α-synuclein, efforts are currently underway to apply these in vitro amplification techniques towards the diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and other proteinopathies. Chronic wasting disease – once a rare disease of Colorado mule deer – now represents one of the few naturally occurring protein misfolding disorders which might allow continued development and implementation of novel diagnostic strategies in an animal model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0186.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: veterinary; allergic dermatitis; low level laser therapy
Online: 24 March 2017 (10:32:49 CET)
Background: The prevalence of atopic dermatitis in domestic animals is one of the problems of modern veterinary. Treating with standard techniques using chemotherapeutic agents not always leads to a positive result of therapy; moreover, many drugs produce adverse side effects. Methods: Low level laser therapy, in particular, intravenous laser blood illumination (ILBI) has a pronounced and long-lasting impact on the immune system of animals. The combined technique including ILBI-635 (635 nm, 2 mW, 5 min) and LUVBI® (365 nm, 2 mW, 3 min) every other day provides a positive change in clinical status of cats with allergic dermatitis after the 3rd-4th treatment session. Results: The increased level of erythrocytes and hemoglobin was identified in the course of treatment, and it indirectly indicates increased blood transport activity, which improves trophic provision and microcirculation. A double reduction of leukocytes and a significant decrease of neutrophil cells indicate the immunomodulatory effect of LILI (low-intensity laser illumination). The increase in the percentage of lymphocytes and the decrease of eosinophils and monocytes against the background of basophil concentrations deviations within physiological concentration result in the reduction of inflammatory mediators expression that induce itching. The reduction of total IgE concentration 32 times against control on the 7th day of treatment correlates with the decrease in the quantitative content of peripheral blood eosinophils, indicating the decrease in severity of an allergic process. Conclusion: LLLT is recommended against the background of standard drug therapy to achieve quick clinical outcome together with a long-lasting prolonged effect.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0067.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: vancomycin; broad view; veterinary use at a glance; rational use; alternatives
Online: 12 November 2016 (11:09:37 CET)
Vancomycin is one of the ‘last-line’ classes of antibiotics used in the treatment of life-threatening infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria. Even though vancomycin was discovered in 1950s it was widely used after 1980s for the treatment of infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococci as prevalence of such strains were increased. However, currently it is evident that vancomycin resistant Staphylococcusaureusandvancomycin-resistant Enterococci have been developed as a result of various reasons including use of avaparcin, which is an analog of vancomycin, as feed additive in livestock. In present day context, more attention should be paid on prevention of emergence of resistance for the antibiotics in order to keep antibiotics effective. In order to prevent emergence of resistance, proper guidance for the responsible use of antimicrobials is indispensable. Therefore, almost all stakeholders who use antibiotics should have in depth understanding on the antibiotic they use. As such, it is imperative to be aware of the important aspects of vancomycin. In the present review, efforts have been made to discussthe pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, indications, emergence of resistance, control of resistance, adverse effects and alternative therapy for vancomycin.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0066.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: antibody titre; vaccination; dog; canine distemper virus; Jos
Online: 20 September 2016 (10:14:26 CEST)
Determination of antibody titre of dogs vaccinated against canine distemper in Jos North and South local Government Areas of Plateau State was carried out by collection of sera of vaccinated dogs and administration of well-structured questionnaires to dog owners. The samples collected were analyzed using the immune-blot ELISA Kit to determining the antibody titre (immunoglobulin G). It indicated that dogs vaccinated against the disease mounted adequate protective immunity. The result revealed that 54 (90.0%) of the sampled dogs have protective immunity, with those given more than one dose having higher level of protective antibody. Statistically, the result showed that the antibody titre did not differ significantly in relation to immunity and sex, breed, age and location but significant difference was seen in relation to number of primary vaccination. The result also revealed that those dogs that received booster doses (secondary vaccination) had more protective antibody. The study was aimed at evaluating the antibody titre of dogs vaccinated against canine distemper in Jos, Plateau State.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0175.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: Synergistic effect; Flos Lonicerae; Trimethoprim
Online: 19 August 2016 (09:22:06 CEST)
Observe the synergistic effect and dose-effect relationship of Trimethoprim (TMP) on bactericidal activity with Flos Lonicerae in vitro. Microamount chessboard dilution method was conducted to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Trimethoprim, Flos Lonicerae, as well as the combination of Trimethoprim and Flos Lonicerae separately against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli in vitro and Salmonella. The pour plate count method was used to determine the combined bactericidal activity of Flos Lonicerae combined with Different concentrations TMP. The results showed that the MIC values of the combination of Flos Lonicerae with TMP was much less than the MIC values of the independent use of Flos Lonicerae or TMP, The FIC values of the combination of Flos Lonicerae with TMP were between 0.5 and 1, there was additive effect between them. The bactericidal rates were fitted with least square method, the 95% confidence intervals of the optimal blending quantity about the combination of Flos Lonicerae with TMP on the test organisms were 231μg·mL-1-249μg·mL-1, 237μg·mL-1-259μg·mL-1, and 235 -259μg·mL-1
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0090.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: intestinal organoids; dog; practical applications
Online: 9 August 2016 (11:38:04 CEST)
Recent technical advances in the stem cell field have enabled the in vitro generation of complex structures resembling whole organs termed organoids. Most of these approaches employ culture systems that allow stem cell-derived or tissue progenitor cells to self-organize into three-dimensional (3D)-structures. Since organoids can be grown from various species, organs and from patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells, they create significant prospects for modelling development and diseases, for toxicology and drug discovery studies, and in the field of regenerative medicine. Here, we report on intestinal stem cells, organoid culture, organoid disease modeling, transplantation, current and future uses of this exciting new insight model to veterinary medicine field.