ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0005.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma; 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography; computer tomography; magnetic resonance imaging; tumor stage
Online: 3 October 2022 (12:08:53 CEST)
18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and computed tomography (18F-FDG PET-CT) is increasingly used in the diagnosis, prognosis, staging, and treatment monitoring of many tumor types. However, only a small number of studies have reported the use of 18F-FDG PET-CT in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC). This study aimed to examine the accuracy of tumor staging in ICC by using 18F-FDG PET-CT. Between January 2009 and December 2020, patients with suspected ICC were retrospectively enrolled in the study and underwent imaging. The sensitivity and specificity of 18F-FDG PET-CT, CT, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in detecting tumors, satellite focus, vascular invasion, and lymph node metastases were analyzed. The efficacy of 18F-FDG PET-CT for tumor staging was evaluated. Of the 110 patients who were enrolled in the study, 52 underwent surgical treatment and 45 were histologically diagnosed with ICC. When compared with CT or MRI, 18F-FDG PET-CT had similar sensitivity and specificity values for diagnosing satellite focus and vascular and bile duct invasion; however, PET-CT showed higher accuracy in diagnosing regional lymph node metastases. The accuracy of tumor staging by 18F-FDG PET-CT was higher than that by CT/MRI. Thus, 18FDG PET-CT may support tumor staging in ICC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0346.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: gastrointestinal cramps; gastrointestinal pain; irritable bowel syndrome; hyoscine butyl bromide; peppermint oil; over-the-counter treatment; pharmacy-based patient survey
Online: 22 September 2022 (14:15:32 CEST)
Functional gastro-intestinal disorders (FGID) including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are frequently handled by self-management with over the counter (OTC) products such as hyoscine butylbromide (HBB), alone or in combination with paracetamol, and natural products such as peppermint oil. To obtain real-world information, we have performed an anonymous pharmacy-based patient survey among 1686 users of HBB, HBB + paracetamol and peppermint oil. Based on the distinct but overlapping indications for the three OTC products, multiple logistic regression was applied to compare them in users reporting gastrointestinal cramps and pain, bloating, flatulence, or IBS as cardinal symptom. All three treatments reduced symptoms and associated impairments of work/daily chores, leisure activities, and sleep by approximately 50%. Based on the four cardinal symptoms and the four dependent continuous variables of interest (change of intensity of symptoms and of the three impairment domains) a total of 16 logistic regression models were applied. HBB, HBB + paracetamol, and peppermint oil had similar reported overall effectiveness in those models. Gender, age, baseline symptom severity and impairment in one of three domains had small and inconsistent effects on perceived treatment success. We provide evidence that HBB, HBB + paracetamol, and peppermint oil have comparable effectiveness in their approved indications under real-world conditions in an OTC setting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0316.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: stoma closure; incisional hernia; mesh prophylaxis; cost-utility analysis
Online: 21 September 2022 (07:07:06 CEST)
Background: Stoma closure is a widely performed surgical procedure, with 6295 undertaken in England in 2018 alone. This procedure is associated with significant complications; incisional hernias are the most severe, occurring in 30% of patients. Complications place considerable financial burden on the NHS; hernia costs are estimated at GBP 114 million annually. As recent evidence (ROCSS, 2020) found that prophylactic meshes significantly reduce rates of incisional hernias following stoma closure surgery, an evaluation of this intervention vs. standard procedure is essential. Methods: A cost-utility analysis (CUA) was conducted using data from the ROCSS prospective multi-centre trial, which followed 790 patients, randomly assigned to mesh closure (n=394) and standard closure (n=396). Quality of life was assessed using mean EQ-5D-5L scores from the trial, and costs in GBP using UK-based sources over a 2-year time horizon. Results: The CUA yielded an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of GBP 128,356.25 per QALY. Additionally, two univariate sensitivity analyses were performed to test the robustness of the model. Conclusion: The results demonstrate an increased benefit with mesh prophylaxis, but at an increased cost. Although the intervention is cost-ineffective and greater than the ICER threshold of GBP 30,000/QALY (NICE), further investigation into mesh prophylaxis for at risk population groups is needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0254.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: alcohol use disorder; gut-dysfunction; gut-thyroid axis; pro-inflammatory cytokines; thyroid-associated hormones
Online: 19 September 2022 (03:09:51 CEST)
(1) Background: Heavy and chronic alcohol intake causes altered gut-permeability and dysfunction; and exhibits a unique pro-inflammatory state. Thyroid-associated hormones and proteins may be dysregulated by alcohol administration; however, the impact of altered gut-derived changes on thyroid function is unclear. This study investigated the role of gut-dysfunction and pro-inflammatory activity on thyroid function in patients with alcohol use disorder (AUD). (2) Methods: Male and female AUD patients (n=44) were grouped as Gr.1 with normal thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels (n=28, 0.8≤TSH≤3 mIU/L); and Gr.2 with clinically elevated TSH levels (n=16, TSH> 3 mIU/l). Demographics, drinking measures, comprehensive metabolic panel, and candidate thyroid markers (TSH, circulating triiodothyronine [T3] and free thyroxine [fT4]) were tested. Plasma-derived gut-dysfunction associated markers (lipopolysaccharide [LPS], LPS-binding protein [LBP], and LPS-induced pathogen-associated protein [CD14]), and cytokine profile (IL1-β, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1, PAI-1) were analyzed and compared with the thyroid, demographic, and drinking markers. (3) Results: Both groups presented with a borderline overweight category of BMI. Gr.2 presented with numerically higher level of chronic and heavy drinking patterns vs Gr.1. fT4 levels were elevated while T3 was within normal limits in both the groups. Gut-dysfunction markers LBP and CD14 were numerically elevated in Gr.2 vs Gr.1 suggesting subtle ongoing changes; however, the difference was not statistically significant. All pro-inflammatory cytokines were significantly elevated in Gr.2 among IL1-, MCP-1, and PAI-1. Gr.2 showed a strong and statistically significant effect of gut-immune-pituitary response (r=0.896, p=0.002) on TSH levels in a multivariate regression model with LBP, CD14, and PAI-1 levels as upstream variables; this assessment was not significant in Gr.1. In addition, AUROC analysis demonstrated that many of the cytokines strongly predicted TSH in Gr.2, including IL-6 (area=0.774, p<0.001) and TNF- (area=0.708, p=0.017) among others. This was not observed in Gr.1. Gr.2 demonstrated elevated fT4 as well as TSH, which suggests that there was subclinical thyroiditis with underlying CNS dysfunction and lack of a negative feedback loop. (4) Conclusions: These findings reveal the toxic effects of heavy and chronic drinking that play a pathological role in thyroid gland dysregulation employing the gut-brain axis. These results also strongly emphasize potential directions to strongly consider thyroid dysregulation in the overall medical management of AUD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0242.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: pancreatic cancer (PC); abdominal ultrasonography (US); surveillance; prognosis; medical checkup; 5-year survival; cancer screening
Online: 16 September 2022 (08:08:33 CEST)
Recent advancements in surgical and anti-cancer therapies have provided significant hope of long survival in patients with pancreatic cancer (PC). To realize this hope, routine medical checkups of asymptomatic people should be performed to identify operable PCs. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of medical checkups using abdominal ultrasonography (US). We retrospectively analyzed 374 patients with PC at our institute between 2010 and 2021. We divided these patients into several groups according to the diagnostic approach and compared their background and prognosis. These groups comprised PCs diagnosed through (a) symptoms, 242 cases; (b) US during medical checkup for asymptomatic individuals, 17; and other means. Of the 375 patients, 192 were men (51.3%), and the median age was 74 years (34–105). Tumors were located in the pancreatic tail in 67 patients (17.9%). Excision ratio and 5-year survival rate were significantly better in group (b) than in (a) (58.8% vs. 23.1%, P<0.01 and 42.2% vs. 9.4%, P<0.001, respectively). The prognosis of patients diagnosed using US during medical checkup was better than that of patients identified through symptomatic presentation of PC. US for asymptomatic individuals with PC might be useful for promoting better prognosis of PCs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0344.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: celiac disease; osteoporosis; osteopenia; bone mass density; malabsorption; calcium; vitamin D
Online: 25 July 2022 (02:42:10 CEST)
Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune disorder triggered by gluten ingestion in genetically predisposed individuals. In addition to the typical gastrointestinal symptoms such as diarrhea, bloating, or chronic abdominal pain, CD may also present a wide spectrum of manifestations, including low bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporosis. This review aims to describe the role of CD in the development of skeletal alterations, underlying important clinical aspects and therapeutic implications. The etiopathology of bone lesions in CD is multifactorial and their management is challenging. Here, we provide gastroenterologists and orthopedics with an up-to-date overview on the link between CD and osteoporosis to improve the management of the CD condition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0327.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: Cholecystokinin; obesity; bariatric surgery
Online: 21 July 2022 (10:57:04 CEST)
To describe the metabolic effect of cholecystokinin and its relationship with post-bariatric sugery patients. Methodology: This is a qualitative analysis in the form of integrative literature review, the theme chosen clearly and explicitly: "What is the metabolic profile of cholecystokinin and its effect on post-bariatric sugery patients?". After formulating the guiding question, the following keywords in Portuguese, English and Spanish were chosen: "bariatric surgery", "bariatric surgery", "cirugía bariátrica"; "cholecystokinin", "cholecystokinin", "cholecystokinin"; "fome", "hunger", "hambre"; "satiety response", "satiety response", "respuesta de saciedad", "Roux-en-Y anastomosis", "anastomosis Roux-en-Y", and "anastomosis en-Y de Roux", through the combination of the controlled descriptors, Medical Subjetc Heading (MeSH) and the Health Science Descriptors (DeCS) resources, as well as the Boolean operators "AND" and "OR". In the databases Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS), Virtual Health Library (VHL), PubMed, Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO) and Google Scholar, a search for clinical trials conducted in humans from 2012 to 2022 was performed. Results: 2,038 articles were identified. The final sample of this review consisted of eleven scientific articles; of these, four were found in the VHL database, two in PubMed, and five in Google Scholar. Thus, concepts about the digestion process and the hormones involved, bariatric surgery techniques and their hormonal effects, were observed in each of the selected articles. Conclusions: Cholecystokinin, a gastrointestinal hormone, is one of the major endocrine satiety signals. It is observed that with gastroplasty, the levels of the hormone CCK are elevated; thus, besides increasing satiety, cholecystokinin aids in weight loss. Therefore, bariatric surgery is highly effective in improving the patient's quality of life
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0150.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis; Vitamin D; VDR; CYP27B1; CYP2R1; CYP24A1; GC; DHCR7; Genetic variation; Polymorphism; Systematic review
Online: 11 July 2022 (04:57:43 CEST)
Background: Studies have demonstrated the link between vitamin D-related genetic variations and non-skeletal outcomes. We aimed to identify all available data on the association of vitamin D-related genetic variations with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Methods: Potentially eligible studies were identified from Embase and Medline databases from inception to June 2022 using search strategy that comprised terms for “Vitamin D” and “NAFLD”. Eligible study must report the association between vitamin D-related genetic variations and presence, severity or response to treatment of NAFLD. Data were extracted from each eligible study. Results: A total of 3,495 articles were identified. After systematic review, twelve studies were in-cluded. A total of 26 genetic variations were identified. Presence of NAFLD was associated with variations of GC (rs222054, rs222020, rs10011000, rs7041), VDR (rs2228570, rs11168287, rs10783219, rs4752), CYP24A1 (rs3787557, rs6068816, rs2296241, rs2248359) and CYP27B1 (rs4646536). Severity of NAFLD was associated with variations of GC (rs4588), VDR (rs2228570, rs4334089), CYP2R1 (rs10741657), DHCR7 (rs1544410, rs3829251, rs12785878) and CYP24A1 (rs3787557, rs6068816, rs6097809, rs6127119, rs2248359, rs3787554, rs4809960, rs6022999). Response to calcitriol treatment was associated with variation of VDR (rs10735810). Conclusions: Multiple vitamin D-related genetic variations were associated with NAFLD, indi-cating the role of vitamin D in the pathogenesis of NAFLD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0410.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: COVID-19 variants; COVID-19 vaccine; IBD; ulcerative colitis; Crohn’s disease; anti-TNF
Online: 29 June 2022 (15:02:36 CEST)
Management of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) often relies on biological and immunomodulatory agents for remission through immunosuppression, raising concerns regarding the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine's effectiveness. The emergent variants have hindered the vaccine neutralization capacity, and whether the third vaccine dose has the capacity to neutralize SARS-CoV-2 variants in this population remains unknown. This study aims to evaluate the humoral response of SARS-CoV-2 variants in patients with IBD 60 days after the third vaccine dose [BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) or mRNA-1273 (Moderna)].56 su bjects with IBD and 12 healthy subjects were recruited. 90% of patients with IBD (49/56) were receiving biologics and/or immunomodulatory therapy. 24 subjects with IBD did not develop effective neutralizing capability against the Omicron variant. 70% (17/24) of those subjects were receiving anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor therapy [10= adalimumab, 7= infliximab], two of them had a history of COVID-19 infection, and one subject did not develop immune neutralization against three other variants: Gamma, Epsilon, and Kappa. All subjects in the control group developed detectable antibodies and effective neutralization against all seven SARS-CoV-2 variants. Our study shows that patients with IBD might not be protected against SARS-CoV-2 variants, and larger studies are needed to evaluate optimal immunity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0069.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: hepatocellular carcinoma; conventional transarterial chemoembolization; emulsion; lipiodol; glass membrane emulsification device
Online: 6 June 2022 (05:53:21 CEST)
Background: Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) is the standard treatment for BCLC-B hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). A novel glass membrane emulsification device (GMD) produces a high percentage of water/oil emulsions with homogeneous and stable droplets. There are few reports on the efficacy of GMD-conventional-TACE (GMD-c-TACE)；therefore, we aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of GMD-c-TACE. Methods: Seventy-one patients with HCC with tumor diameter <5 cm who underwent c-TACE with and without GMD were included in this study to investigate local recurrence and hepatic functional reserve. Results: The local recurrence rates of TACE without GMD were 3.0% at 6 months, 16.7% at 12 months, and 35.0% at 18 months, around where it plateaued. Hence, the local recurrence rates in the GMD-c-TACE group were 7.7% at 14 months and 23.1% at 20 months, respectively. Thus, GMD-c-TACE had a significantly lower local recurrence. Multivariate analysis showed that GMD-c-TACE could suppress local recurrence and maintain hepatic reserve. Conclusions: GMD-c-TACE allows dense lipiodol accumulation in the tumor and attainment of good local control. Additionally, the inhibition of the release of anticancer drugs may maintain hepatic reserve. GMD-c-TACE is useful in preventing local recurrence and is expected to become the standard treatment form of c-TACE in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0023.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: pSrc; Glutathione; Na/K-ATPase; metabolic prints; metabolomics; NAFLD; NASH; high-fat diet; fibrosis; inflammation
Online: 25 May 2022 (08:37:22 CEST)
BACKGROUND. Two sequelae of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), ESLD and HCC, have become the leading causes for liver transplantation in the Western. The present study aims to approach the cellular metabolic disturbances involved in NASH progression that are associated with microbiota community changes. METHODS. Metabolic effects and microbiota community changes were explored in the murine with NASH progression by blocking the Na/K-ATPase/Src/reactive oxygen amplification loop using the synthetic targeting peptide pNaKtide. DNA from the terminal ileum microbiota habitat was obtained and amplified by PCR to develop DNA bacterial phylogenic sequence analysis of wild type and treated animals at 12, 24 and 48 weeks. Induced changes by pSrc normalization at 24 weeks were correlated with liver morphological changes, intestinal CD4+/CD8+ ratio, and liver macrophage CD14+ expression. Differences among groups were evaluated by ANOVA/t-test and Principal Component Analysis (PCA). RESULTS. Microbiota communities varied significantly at all time points (12, 24 and 48 weeks), with an increase of Verrucomicrobia and a decrease of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes in the HFD group. Microbiota community changes regressed to their wild-type state at 24 weeks on treated animals, and those changes were associated with a decrease in liver inflammation and senescence, lower ileum CD4+/CD8+ T cells and higher liver CD14+ cells (p<0.05). Concomitantly, the metabolic disturbances in our diet-induced NASH model were normalized by NKA/Src signaling blockage and exercise with a paucity of apoptotic activity, mitigation of cell senescence, and regression of liver fibrosis (p<0.01). CONCLUSIONS. pSrc inhibition at caveolar α1-Na/K-ATPase rescinded NASH-related metabolic disturbances establishing resident physiological microbiota communities with concomitant paucity on apoptotic activity and regression of liver fibrosis; effects that were associated with both gut and liver T-lymphocyte responses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0320.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: crohn's disease; inflmmatory bowel disease; quality of life; ulcerative colitis
Online: 24 May 2022 (04:33:57 CEST)
Background: Crohn’s and Ulcerative Colitis Questionnaire-32 (CUCQ-32) is a validated questionnaire to measure the quality of life (QoL) in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, it does not have stoma specific questions and can be lengthy. This study aimed to validate a subset of the CUCQ-32 that would be suitable for patients with a stoma. Methods: Baseline data were collected from a cohort of patients with acute ulcerative colitis who were participating in the CONSTRUCT multi-centre clinical trial. A subset of the CUCQ-32 questions was selected by stepwise regression. Further validation was examined using data from the UK IBD biological therapies audit. Construct validity was carried out using the EuroQol 5 dimensions (EQ5D) questionnaire, Simple Clinical Colitis Activity Index (SCCAI) and the Harvey-Bradshaw Index (HBI). Literature review and an expert focus group identified supplementary questions to cover patients with a stoma. Test-retest analysis was done during the patients’ second follow up visits. Results: Using the data from 124 patients, a short version questionnaire (CUCQ-12) was developed. Further validation using data from 484 patients with IBD as part of the UK IBD biological therapies audit. Using the data from 61 patients with a stoma, we identified 5 stoma specific questions for the CUCQ-12+. The CUCQ-12+ demonstrated excellent internal consistency (Cronbach’s α= 0.86); established effective reproducibility (intra-class correlation coefficient= 0.74); correlated well with the EQ5D (r= - 0.48), HBI (r= 0.45) and SCCAI (r= 0.43); and represented good responsiveness statistics (>0.5). Conclusions: CUCQ-12+ is a valid and reliable QoL measure that can be used for all patients with IBD in clinical practice including patients with a stoma.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0252.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: chemokine; nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; nonalcoholic steatohepatitis; inflammation; immune cells
Online: 19 May 2022 (07:51:15 CEST)
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in the world. Sustained hepatic inflammation is a key driver of the transition from simple fatty liver to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), the more aggressive form of NAFLD. Hepatic inflammation is orchestrated by chemokines, a family of chemoattractant cytokines, which are produced by hepatocytes, Kupffer cells (liver resident macrophages), hepatic stellate cells, endothelial cells, and vascular smooth muscle cells. Over the last three decades, accumulating evidence from both clinical and experimental investigations demonstrated that chemokines and their receptors are increased in the livers of NAFLD patients and that CC chemokine ligand (CCL) 2 and CCL5, in particular, play a pivotal role in inducing insulin resistance, steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis in the liver disease. Cenicriviroc (CVC), a dual antagonist of these chemokine’s receptor, CCR2 and CCR5, has been tested in clinical trials in patients with NASH-associated liver fibrosis. Additionally, recent studies revealed that other chemokines, such as CCL3, CCL25, CX3C chemokine ligand 1 (CX3CL1), CXC chemokine ligand 1 (CXCL1), and CXCL16 can also contribute to the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Here, we review recent updates on the roles of chemokines in the development of NAFLD and their blockade as potential therapeutic approaches.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0013.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: Organoids; IBD; Inflammation; Target therapy; microbiota; immune system
Online: 4 April 2022 (10:35:01 CEST)
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic and relapsing disease caused by a dysregulated immune response to host intestinal microbiota that occurs in genetically predisposed individuals. IBD encompasses two major clinical entities: ulcerative colitis (UC), which is limited to the colonic mucosa, and Crohn disease (CD), which might affect any segment of the gastrointestinal tract. Despite the prevalence of IBD is increasing worldwide, therapy remains suboptimal, largely because the variability of causative mechanisms, raising the need to develop individualized therapeutic approaches targeted to each individual patient. In this context, patients-derived intestinal organoids represent an effective tool for advancing our understanding on IBD’ s pathogenesis. Organoid 3D culture systems offer a unique model for dissecting epithelial mechanisms involved IBDs and test individualized therapy, although the lack of a functional immune system and a microbiota, two driving components of the IBD pathogenesis, represent a major barrier for their exploitation in clinical medicine. In this review we have examined how to improve the translational utility of intestinal organoids in IBD and how co-coltures of 3D or 2D organoids and immune cells and/or intestinal microbiota might help to overcome these limitations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0009.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: olfactory receptors; glucose metabolism; type 2 diabetes mellitus; lipid metabolism; NAFLD; metabolic syndrome
Online: 2 April 2022 (09:00:47 CEST)
Olfactory Receptors (ORs) are a large family of G protein coupled receptors predominantly expressed by the main olfactory epithelium at nasal level and are responsible for the generation of smelling sense. Microarray and deep sequencing analyses, however, have demonstrated that ORs are ectopically expressed in various human tissues including testis, kidneys, adipose tissue and liver and their biological functions become to be unrevealed. Molecular and pharmacological approaches have shown that some of these ORs modulate glucose and lipid metabolism at multiple interfaces, suggesting that ORs might be part of the large family of nutrient sensors. i.e. molecular/ cellular machines that respond to a specific nutrient component. By using nutrients- derived agonists it has been shown that ORs effectively modulates glucose and lipid metabolism raising interest on their possible therapeutic application in the treatment of metabolic disorders including dyslipidemia, obesity and metabolic syndrome.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0154.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: Colorectal cancer; Cancer stem cell; Neural progenitor cell; Wnt/β-catenin; K-Ras
Online: 10 March 2022 (14:26:20 CET)
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a tumor cell subpopulation that drives tumor progression and metastasis, leading to poor overall survival of patients. In colorectal cancer (CRC), hyper-activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling by mutation of both Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) and K-Ras increases the size of the CSC population. We previously showed that the CPD0857 inactivates Wnt/β-catenin signaling by promoting ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal degradation of β-catenin and Ras proteins, thereby decreasing proliferation and increasing apoptosis of CRC lines. CPD0857 also decreased growth and invasiveness of CRC cells harboring mutant K-Ras resistant to EGFR mAb therapy. Here, we show that CPD0857 treatment decreases proliferation and increases neuronal differentiation of neural progenitor cells (NPCs). CDP0857 effectively reduced expression of CSC markers and suppressed self-renewal capacity. CPD0857 treatment also inhibited proliferation and expression of CSC markers in D-K-Ras MT cells carrying K-Ras, APC and PI3K mutations, indicating inhibition of PI3K/AKT signaling. Moreover, CPD0857-treated xenograft mice showed regression of tumor growth and decreased numbers of CSCs in tumors. We conclude that CPD0857 could serve as the basis of a drug development strategy targeting CSCs activated through Wnt/β-catenin-Ras MAPK-PI3K/AKT signaling in CRCs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0222.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: hepatocellular carcinoma; lenvatinib; molecular targeted agents; complete response; CT value
Online: 18 February 2022 (04:05:18 CET)
Purpose: To assess the utility of measurement of the computed tomography (CT) attenuation value (CTav) in predicting tumor necrosis in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients who achieve a complete response (CR), defined using modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (mRECIST), after lenvatinib treatment. Method: We compared CTav in arterial phase CT images with postoperative histopathology in four patients who underwent HCC resection after lenvatinib treatment, to determine CTav thresholds indicative of histological necrosis (N-CTav). Next, we confirmed the accuracy of the determined N-CTav in 15 cases with histopathologically proven necrosis in surgical specimens. Furthermore, the percentage of the tumor with N-CTav, i.e. the N-CTav occupancy rate, assessed using Image J software in 30 tumors in 12 patients with CR out of 571 HCC patients treated with lenvatinib, and its correlation with local recurrence following CR were examined. Results: Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis revealed an optimal cut-off value of CTav of 30.2 HU, with 90.0% specificity and 65.0% sensitivity in discriminating between pathologically identified necrosis and degeneration, with a CTav of less than 30.2 HU indicating necrosis after lenvatinib treatment (N30-CTav). Furthermore, the optimal cut-off value of 30.6% for the N30-CTav occupancy rate by ROC analysis was a significant indicator of local recurrence following CR with 76.9% specificity and sensitivity (area under the ROC curve; 0.939), with the CR group with high N30-CTav occupancy (>30.6%) after lenvatinib treatment showing significantly lower local recurrence (8.3% at 1 year) compared with the low (<30.6%) N30-CTav group (P<0.001, 61.5% at 1 year). Conclusion: The cut-off value of 30.2 HU for CTav (N30-CTav) might be appropriate for identifying post-lenvatinib necrosis in HCC, and an N30-CTav occupancy rate of >30.6% might be a predictor of maintenance of CR. Use of these indicators have the potential to impact systemic chemotherapy for HCC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0226.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: Hepatitis C virus (HCV); liver; samples; structure; electrochemiluminescence (ECL); ELISA method (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay); antigen-antibodies
Online: 17 January 2022 (12:37:22 CET)
Objective: The study aimed to manage and to analyse the results of the laboratory tests, available nowadays, used from routine clinical practice, for screening of hepatitis C. Methods: comparison of ELISA method results (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay) and chemiluminescence methods results. Beside previously mentioned, the study show the structural comparison of normal liver and pathologic liver with hepatic cirrhosis, using permanent samples colored after the technique protocol. Statistical analysis of this study results, was performed using the laboratory informatic system. Results: The results of the study are substantial and intricate. For this purpose, the results of preliminary EСL screening method of patients at risk for HCV who took part in the study, are presented in tables and figures. Results of this study are various and are correlate from different perspectives. Also good to mention that the correlations of results were used in order to identify a possible relationships between indicators of ELISA method and ECL index. More than, correlations antibodies detected in ECL and ELISA are point out. Conclusion: EСL and ELISA method results, are relevant for screening and for diagnostic confirmation in HCV risk patients. Unfotunately in the present study, were impossible to conclude about false-negative results. Good to know our opinion that RT-PCR technique, it is considered proper for the diagnosis of HCV.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0462.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: Celiac disease; diagnostic process; gluten free diet; delayed diagnosis
Online: 29 December 2021 (11:22:00 CET)
The diagnosis of celiac disease (CD) may be delayed due to non-specific clinical symptoms. The aim of the study was to evaluate the clinical manifestation and diagnostic process of CD in Polish children and adults. Methods: The members of the Polish Coeliac Society (n=2 500) were asked to complete a questionnaire on socio-demographic factors, clinical and diagnostic aspects of CD. The analysis was based on 796 responses from patients with confirmed CD diagnosis, and included 224 (28.1%) children and 572 (71.9%) adults. Results: The mean duration of symptoms prior to CD diagnosis in children was significantly shorter than in adults (p < 0.001), and amounted to 3.1 and 9 years respectively. The most frequent symptoms before CD diagnosis were abdominal pain and bloating in children (70.4%), and chronic fatigue in adults (74.5%). Although almost all CD patients claimed to strictly avoid gluten after CD diagnosis, symptoms were still present in the majority of these respondents. No comorbid diseases were reported by 29.8% of children and by 11.7% of adults (p < 0.001). Conclusions: The results indicate that CD diagnosis is delayed in Poland, espe-cially in adults, and clinicians should be aware of the diversity in CD presentation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0332.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: faecal micromial transplantation; critically ill patiets; standard operating procedure; diarrhoea
Online: 21 December 2021 (12:50:13 CET)
Patients in intensive care unit often lose a considerable fraction of their gut microbiome due to exposure of broad-spectrum antibiotics and other reasons. Dysbiosis often results in prolonged diarrhea and increase occurrence of multi-drug resistant pathogens in the colon with clinical consequences not yet well understood. Restoring the microbioma by faecal microbial transplantation (FMT) is a plausible therapeutic possibility, so far only documented in case reports and case series using very heterogeneous methodologies. Before FMT in critically ill can be tested in randomised controlled trials, there is a burning need to describe a standardized operating procedure (SOP) of the whole process, respecting the specifics of critically ill population, such as the risk of disrubted intestinal barrier and time critical nature of the procedure. We describe the SOP that has been developed for experimental use in critically ill patients by a multidisciplinary team of intensivists, gastroenterologist and microbiologist based on feedback from regulatory authority (State Institue of Drug Control of the Czech Republic). The hallmarks of these SOPs are multi-donor freshly frozen transplantate quaranteeded for 3 months consisting of 7 aliqutes from 7 unrelated healthy donors, and administered by rectal tube. In this paper we discuss the rationale for this SOP and the process of its development in details and release the full proposed SOP is in the form of online appendix.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0008.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: aggressive treatment; Liver transplant; nonaggressive treatment; Primary Hepatic Angiosarcoma; tumor resection
Online: 1 December 2021 (10:57:24 CET)
Background and Aims: Of all primary liver tumors, primary hepatic angiosarcoma (PHA) is a rare and aggressive malignant vascular tumor. The standard therapeutic care for hepatic angiosarcoma remains unclear. This study compared the survival outcomes of aggressive treatment (resection and liver transplant) and nonaggressive treatment (chemotherapy, transarterial chemoembolization [TACE], and conservative treatments) for patients with PHA and analyzed the prognostic factors influencing survival. Materials and Methods: Data of patients diagnosed as having PHA at our facility were retrospectively reviewed. The primary outcome was survival time. The secondary outcome was calculated baseline characteristics. Results: We included a total of 19 patients, who were divided into 2 treatment groups: aggressive (8 patients had undergone resection or transplants) and nonaggressive (11 patients had undergone TACE, chemotherapy, or conservative treatment). The mean survival time was 233.1 ± 189.7 days in the aggressive treatment group and 146.5 ± 115.8 days in the nonaggressive treatment group. A Kaplan-Meier plot revealed no significant difference in survival time between the 2 treatment groups (P = .3256). Conclusions: The survival time of patients receiving aggressive treatment was longer than that of those receiving nonaggressive treatment. The long term survival time in some selective cases of aggressive treatment will be achieved. Thought a difference was not significant between the groups. Because the number of patients was limited, more cases are required to confirm these findings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0407.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: HpSA; H. pylori; diagnostic values; sensitivity; specificity; accuracy; PPV; NPV
Online: 22 November 2021 (14:26:56 CET)
Helicobacter pylori is the most common human gastric infection. H. pylori stool antigen lateral flow immunochromatography assay (HpSA-LFIA) is considered one of the most cost-effective and rapid non-invasive assays (active tests). The evaluation of this test is crucial for accuracy and utility assurance. This study aimed to evaluate the polyclonal antibody-based HpSA-LFIA in comparison to a monoclonal antibody-based ELISA kit. Methodology: Stool samples were collected from 200 gastric patients for HpSA-LFIA and semi-quantitative HpSA-ELISA. Statistical analysis of the diagnostic values was performed using MedCalc software. Chi-square tests were used to determine the effects of gender and age. Results: The obtained results found that HpSA-LFIA achieved promising sensitivity (93.75%) and NPV (98.00%). However, it had poor specificity, PPV, and accuracy, respectively, 59.76%, 31.25%, and 65.31%. LR+ & LR- were 2.33% & 0.1%, respectively. Gender had no significance on the di-agnostic parameters of HpSA-LFIA. Age groups had irrelevant sensitivity; however, specificity was significantly higher in patients over 45 years. Conclusion: It was concluded that HpSA-LFIA was not accurate enough to be the sole test for di-agnosis and needs other confirmatory tests in case of positive conditions
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0384.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: Alcohol abuse; cell signaling; FDA-approved drugs; oxidative stress; therapy
Online: 22 November 2021 (11:41:50 CET)
Pancreatitis and alcoholic pancreatitis are serious health concerns, and there is an urgent need for effective treatment strategies. Alcohol is a known etiological factor for pancreatitis, including acute pancreatitis (AP) and chronic pancreatitis (CP). Excessive alcohol consumption induces many pathological stress responses; of particular note is endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and adaptive unfolded protein response (UPR). ER stress results from the accumulation of unfolded/misfolded protein in the ER and is implicated in the pathogenesis of alcoholic pancreatitis. Here we summarize the possible mechanisms by which ER stress contributes to alcoholic pancreatitis. We also discuss potential approaches targeting ER stress and UPR for developing novel therapeutic strategies for the disease.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0450.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: Fibrosis; Integrin; TGFβ; Therapeutic target; Drug; Inhibitor; Monoclonal antibody; α8β1; α11β1; Hepatic stellate cell
Online: 29 October 2021 (10:16:13 CEST)
Huge effort has been devoted to developing drugs targeting integrins over 30 years, because of the primary roles of integrins in the cell-matrix milieu. Five αv-containing integrins, in the 24 family members, have been a central target of fibrosis. Currently, a small molecule against αvβ1 is undergoing a clinical trial for NASH-associated fibrosis as a rare reagent aiming at fibrogenesis. Latent TGFβ activation, a distinct talent of αv-integrins, has been intriguing as therapeutic target. None of the αv-integrin inhibitors, however, has been in the clinical market. αv-integrins commonly recognize an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) sequence, and thus the pharmacophore of inhibitors for the 5-integrins is based on the same RGD structure. The RGD preference of the integrins, at the same time, dilutes ligand specificity, as the 5-integrins share ligands containing RGD sequence such as fibronectin. With the inherent little specificity in both drugs and targets, “disease specificity” has become less important for the inhibitors than blocking as many αv-integrins. In fact, an almighty inhibitor for αv-integrins, pan-αv, was in a clinical trial. On the contrary, approved integrin inhibitors are all specific to target integrins, which are expressed in cell-type specific manner: αIIbβ3 on platelets, α4β1, α4β7 and αLβ2 on leukocytes. Herein, “disease specific” integrins would serve as attractive targets. α8β1 and α11β1 are selectively expressed in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and distinctively induced upon culture activation. The exceptional specificity to activated HSCs reflects rather “pathology specific” nature of these new integrins. The monoclonal antibodies against α8β1 and α11β1 in preclinical examinations may illuminate the road to the first medical reagents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0289.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: HMGA2; Colorectal cancer; Sema3A; VEGFA
Online: 20 October 2021 (11:25:53 CEST)
Background: HMGA2 encodes a small non histone chromatin-associated protein that has no intrinsic transcriptional activity, but can modulate transcription by altering the chromatin architecture. HMGA2 was found overexpressed in a variety of epithelial and mesenchymal tumors and promoted invasion and metastasis in most malignant epithelial tumors. A recent study showed that P53 inhibited CRC progression by targeting HMGA2. However, the mechanism by which HMGA2 affect angiogenesis in CRC has not been clarified. Methods: The expression of HMGA2 was analyzed by IHC, WB and bio infomatic analysis. Cbioportal and mexpress online tools were applied to explore the CNV and methylation of HMGA2 in CRC patients. Single cell data from GEO was used to examine the specific cell type that contribute to the high HMGA2 expression in CRC. Lentivirus was used to knock down HMGA2 in CRC cells and HUVECs was used to study angiogenesis. Results: In the current study, we first detected the expression pattern of HMGA2 in CRC patients and evaluated its clinical values and CNV amplification could possibly contribute to the up regulation of HMGA2 in CRC patients. By analyzing CRC single cell data we found that HMGA2 was specifically up regulated in the colorectal epithelial cells. Furthermore, knocking down of HMGA2 suppresses angiogenesis via dual regulation of VEGF-A and SEMA3A in CRC through inactivating VEGRR2 pathway in HUVECs. Conclusions: HMGA2 might be a promising prognostic marker and target for treating advanced CRC patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0124.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: nonalcoholic liver disease; triglyceride and glucose index; metabolic syndrome; liver biopsy; obesity
Online: 8 October 2021 (13:34:38 CEST)
Background: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is regarded as a component of metabolic syndrome, which has insulin resistance (IR) as the primary physiopathological event. The aim of study was to establish the association between IR, assessed using triglyceride and glucose index (TyG), and histopathological features of NAFLD lesions. Methods: The study included patients with metabolic syndrome. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG), fasting lipid profiles and liver enzymes were measured. IR was assessed by TyG index. Liver biopsy was performed for assessment steatosis and fibrosis. Results: TyG index had a mean value of 8.93 ± 1.45, with a higher value in the patients with overweight (p=0.002) and obesity (p=0.004) than in the patients with normal weight. TyG index mean value of 8.78 ± 0.65 in subjects without NASH, 8.91 ± 0.57 in patients with borderline NASH and 9.13 ± 0.55 in patients with definite NASH. Significant difference was found between subjects without NASH and the ones with definite NASH (p=0.004). The analysis of the area under the ROC curve proved that TyG index is a predictor for NASH (p=0.043). Conclusion: TyG index is a facile tool used to identify individuals at risk for NAFLD, but not for the progression of liver lesions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0502.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: Hepatocellular carcinoma; cirrhosis; neoangiogenesis factors
Online: 29 September 2021 (16:04:06 CEST)
Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a global health problem associated with chronic liver disease. The pathogenesis of chronic liver disease varies according to the underlying etiological factor, although in most cases it develops from a liver cirrhosis. The worsening progression of liver disease is accompanied by pathological angiogenesis, which is a prerequisite that favors the development of HCC. The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical utility of circulating angiogenic markers VEGF, Ang-1, Ang-2, the Angiopoietin receptor (Tie1/2), HGF and PECAM-1 to screen early onset patients and to follow the evolution of HCC. Materials and Methods: We enrolled 62 patients; 33 out of 62 subjects were diagnosed for HCC and 29/62 for liver cirrhosis of different etiology without signs of neoplasia. Patients underwent venous blood sampling before and after treatments for VEGF, Ang-1, Ang-2, Tie1, Tie2, HGF and PECAM-1 measurement. Results: Ang-1 and Ang-2 are detectable not only in patients already suffering from HCC but also in cirrhotic patients without signs of cancer. Patients with HCC show higher HGF concentrations than patients with cirrhosis. A significant reduction in serum levels of Ang-2, Ang-2/Ang-1 and Ca 19-9 after DAAs therapy was observed. Moreover, VEGF levels were increased after treatment of HCC. Conclusion: The preliminary study here presented confirms that the mechanism of tumor angiogenesis is very complex and involves a very large number of factors. The integration of different methodologies and multi-marker algorithms is likely to emerge for the early diagnosis of HCC and the monitoring of the risk of relapse.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: CRISPR/Cas9; celiac disease; wheat; sgRNA; gluten; low-immunogenic wheat
Online: 29 September 2021 (15:39:12 CEST)
Wheat gluten contains epitopes that trigger celiac disease (CD). A life-long strict gluten-free diet is the only treatment accepted for CD. However, very low-gluten wheat may provide an alternative treatment to CD. Conventional plant breeding methods are not sufficient to produce celiac-safe wheat. RNA interference technology, to some extent, succeeded in the development of safer wheat varieties. However, these varieties had multiple challenges in their implementation. Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats-associated nuclease 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) is a versatile gene-editing tool that has the ability to edit the immunogenic gluten genes. So far, only a few studies have applied CRISPR/Cas9 to modify the wheat genome. In this article, we reviewed published literature that applied CRISPR/Cas9 in wheat genome editing to investigate the current status of the CRISPR/Cas9 system to produce a low-immunogenic wheat variety. We found that in recent years, the CRISPR/Cas9 system has been continuously improved to edit the complex hexaploid wheat genome. Although some reduced immunogenic wheat varieties have been reported, CRISPR/Cas9 has still not been fully explored in editing the wheat genome. We conclude that further studies are required to apply the CRISPR/Cas9 gene-editing system efficiently for the development of celiac-safe wheat variety and to establish it as a “tool to celiac safe wheat.”
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0349.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: RNA-Seq; bioinformatics; web application; gene expression; alternative splicing; visualization; molecular epidemiology
Online: 20 September 2021 (16:56:32 CEST)
Gene expression data is key for the functional annotation of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Expression and splicing quantitative trait loci (e/sQTLs) in normal colon tissue, such as those from the University of Barcelona and University of Virginia RNA sequencing project (BarcUVa-Seq) and the Genotype-Tissue Expression project (GTEx), are required to gain biological insight of colon-related diseases risk loci. Moreover, transcriptome-wide association studies (TWAS) rely on reference gene expression imputation panels in the tissue of interest to nominate susceptibility genes. Also, it is of high interest to study the relationships between genes in a network framework. For facilitating these analyses, we have updated and expanded the scope of the Colon Transcriptome Explorer (CoTrEx) to the version 2.0. This web-based resource provides exhaustive visualization and analysis of transcriptome-wide gene expression profiles of normal colon tissue from BarcUVa-Seq and GTEx. In addition to the integration of new datasets, CoTrEx 2.0 provides additional e/sQTLs sets, as well as gene expression prediction models and regulatory and co-expression networks. It is freely available at https://barcuvaseq.org/cotrex/. Overall, it is of high interest for researchers aiming to investigate the genetic susceptibility to colon-related complex traits and diseases.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: ulcerative colitis; inflammatory bowel disease; pediatrics; FMT; probiotics; synbiotics; antibiotics; prebiotics; fecal microbiota transplant; colitis-associated cancer; colorectal cancer; CAC; CRC; dysbiosis
Online: 20 September 2021 (14:20:39 CEST)
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic autoimmune disorder affecting the colonic mucosa. UC is a subtype of inflammatory bowel disease along with Crohn’s disease and presents with varying extraintestinal manifestations. No single etiology for UC has been found, but a combination of genetic and environmental factors is suspected. Research has focused on the role of intestinal dysbiosis in the pathogenesis of UC, including the effects of dysbiosis on the integrity of the colonic mucosal barrier, priming and regulation of the host immune system, chronic inflammation, and progression to tumorigenesis. Characterization of key microbial taxa and their implications in the pathogenesis of UC and colitis-associated cancer (CAC) may present opportunities for modulating intestinal inflammation through microbial-targeted therapies. In this review, we will discuss the microbiota-immune crosstalk in UC and CAC, as well as the evolution of microbiota-based therapies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0228.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: gut microbiota; critically ill; faecal microbial transplantation; multiorgan
Online: 14 September 2021 (09:52:56 CEST)
The human gut microbiota consists of bacteria, archaea, fungi, and viruses. It is a dynamic ecosystem shaped by several factors, which play an essential role in both healthy and diseased states of humans. A disturbance of the gut microbiota, also termed “dysbiosis,” is associated with increased host susceptibility to a range of diseases. Because of splanchnic ischaemia, exposure to antibiotics, and/or underlying the disease critically ill patients loose 90% of the commensal organisms in their gut within hours after the insult. This is followed by a rapid overgrowth of potentially pathogenic and pro-inflammatory bacteria altering metabolic, immune, and even neurocognitive functions and turning the gut into the driver of systemic inflammation and multiorgan failure. Indeed, restoring healthy microbiota by means of faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in the critically ill is an attractive and plausible concept in intensive care. Yet, available data from controlled studies are limited to probiotics and FMT for severe C. difficile infection or severe inflammatory bowel disease. Case series and observational trials generate hypothesis that FMT might be feasible and safe in immunocompromised patients, refractory sepsis, or severe antibiotic-associated diarrhea in ICU. There is a burning need to test these hypotheses in randomized controlled trials powered for determination of patient-centered outcomes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0332.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: Gastrointestinal; systemic sclerosis; scleroderma
Online: 16 August 2021 (12:02:37 CEST)
Introduction: The gastrointestinal tract (GI) is the second most affected organ system in systemic sclerosis or systemic/localized scleroderma (SSc) and is an important topic for research. Approximately 90% of patients with scleroderma exhibit pathology of the GI tract. The systemic scleroderma has the potential to impact any part of the gastrointestinal tract, between the oral cavity and anorectum. The pathological complications of scleroderma adversely impact the health-related quality of life of the affected patients and increase the treatment burden of patients and medical professionals. Study Aim: We summarized the epidemiology, commonly reported clinical manifestations, complications, and available therapies for treating the GI pathology in systemic scleroderma patients. Methodology: We performed a literature review using the keywords "systemic sclerosis," "scleroderma," "GI manifestations in scleroderma," and "GI complications of scleroderma" across databases, including Google Scholar, Medline, Embase, and PubMed. We also analyzed a range of case reports concerning scleroderma manifestations and treatment modalities. Results: Our research revealed the annual incidence of SSc attributing to19.3 cases per million adults in the United States. We found the highest incidence of systemic scleroderma in patients within the age range of 44-55 years. Our results affirmed 5:1 incidence of systemic scleroderma that confirmed the higher impact of this disease condition in females than male populations. We found that the gastrointestinal manifestations of systemic scleroderma predominantly elevate the morbidity and mortality incidence among the affected patients. Esophageal and intestinal manifestations impact 90% and 40-70% of patients with systemic scleroderma. The small bowel hypomotility and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) in systemic scleroderma cases trigger the episodes of malabsorption and malnutrition that eventually add to 50% of the mortality rate. Systemic sclerosis is associated with the high incidence of fecal incontinence that triggers depression and its deleterious mental health manifestations in many clinical scenarios. Conclusion: The gastrointestinal complications in systemic sclerosis potentially deteriorate the daily living activities of the affected patients. The systematic management of the gastrointestinal complications of systemic scleroderma warrants multidisciplinary approaches. Prospective studies should focus on developing targeted therapies for improving the recovery patterns and prognostic outcomes in systemic scleroderma cases.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0176.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: chronic hepatitis B; covalently closed circular DNA; viral integration; transcription factor; nuclear receptor; transcriptional inhibitor; RNA interference
Online: 7 June 2021 (12:43:06 CEST)
Approximately 240 million people are chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV), despite four decades of an effective HBV vaccine. During chronic infection, HBV forms two distinct templates responsible for viral gene transcription: (1) episomal covalently closed circular (ccc)DNA and (2) host-genome integrated viral templates. Multiple ubiquitous and liver-specific transcription factors are recruited onto these templates and modulate viral gene transcription. This review details the latest developments in antivirals that inhibit HBV gene transcription, and their impact on the stability of viral transcripts. Notably, nuclear receptor agonists exhibit potent inhibition of viral gene transcription from cccDNA, small molecule inhibitors repress HBV X protein-mediated transcription from cccDNA and small interfering RNAs and single-stranded oligonucleotides result in transcript degradation from both cccDNA and integrant templates. These antivirals mediate their effects by reducing viral transcripts abundance, eventually leading to loss of surface antigen expression, and can potentially be added to the arsenal of drugs with demonstrable anti-HBV activity. Thus, these candidates deserve special attention for future repurposing or further development as anti-HBV therapeutics.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery; Weight loss; Food intake; Oral glucose tolerance; Leptin; Leptin receptors; Zucker Fatty fa/fa rats
Online: 12 February 2021 (13:11:41 CET)
Leptin is the archetypal adipokine that promotes a negative whole-body energy balance largely through its action on brain leptin receptors. As such, the sustained weight loss and food intake suppression induced by Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery have been attributed to enhancement of leptin receptor signalling. We formally revisited this idea in Zucker Fatty fa/fa rats, an established genetic model of leptin receptor deficiency, and carefully compared their body weight, food intake and oral glucose tolerance after RYGB with that of sham-operated fa/fa (obese) and sham-operated fa/+ (lean) rats. We found that RYGB rats sustainably lost body weight, which converged with that of lean rats and was 25.5 % lower than that of obese rats by the end of the 4 week study period. Correspondingly, daily food intake of RYGB rats was similar to that of lean rats from the second postoperative week, while it was always at least 33.9 % lower than that of obese rats. Further, oral glucose tolerance of RYGB rats was normalized at the forth postoperative week. These findings assert that leptin is not an essential mediator of the sustained weight loss and food intake suppression as well as the improved glycemic control induced by RYGB, and instead point to additional circulating and/or neural factors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0244.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: DPP9; SNPs; Hepatocellular carcinoma; Survival; TCGA; DPP4 gene family
Online: 13 January 2021 (12:13:37 CET)
Dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP) 9, DPP8, DPP4 and fibroblast activation protein (FAP) are the four enzymatically active members of the S9b protease family. Associations of DPP9 with human liver cancer, exonic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in DPP9 and loss of function (LoF) variants have not been explored. Human genomic databases including The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) were interrogated to identify DPP9 LoF variants and associated cancers. Survival and gene signature analyses were performed on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) data. We found that DPP9 and DPP8 are intolerant to LoF variants. DPP9 LoF variants were most often associated with uterine carcinoma. Two DPP9 intronic SNPs that have been associated with lung fibrosis and COVID-19 were not associated with liver fibrosis or cancer. All four DPP4-like genes were overexpressed in liver tumours and their joint high expression was associated with poor survival in HCC. Increased DPP9 expression was associated with obesity in HCC patients.. High expression of genes that positively correlated with overexpression of DPP4, DPP8, and DPP9 were associated with very poor survival in HCC. Enriched pathways analysis of these positively correlated genes featured Toll-like receptor and SUMOylation pathways. This comprehensive data mining suggests that DPP9 is essential for human survival and the DPP4 protease family is important in cancer pathogenesis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0822.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: Sarcopenia; Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease; Obesity, Insulin Resistance; Prevalence; Metabolic Diseases
Online: 31 December 2020 (15:34:29 CET)
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) continues to rise and has become the most common cause of chronic liver disease among all ages and ethnicities. Metabolic disorders such as obesity and insulin resistance are closely associated with sarcopenia and NAFLD. Sarcopenic obesity is a clinical disorder characterized by the simultaneous loss of skeletal muscle and gain of adipose tissue. It is associated with worse outcomes in individuals with NAFLD. It is projected that NAFLD and sarcopenia will rise as the prevalence of obesity continues to increase at an unparallel rate. Recently, sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity have gained considerable interest, but we still lack a well-defined definition and a management approach. Therefore, it is imperative to continue shining the light on this topic and better understand the underlying mechanism as well as treatment options. In this review article, we aimed to address the pathophysiology, impact, and outcomes of sarcopenic obesity on NAFLD.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0276.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: Vitamin D; VDR; inflammation; microbiome; metabolites; nuclear receptor; probiotics; tight junctions
Online: 24 December 2020 (09:55:13 CET)
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal0 tract (GIT), including Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), which differ in the location and lesion extensions. Both diseases are associated with microbiota dysbiosis, with a reduced population of butyrate-producing species, abnormal inflammatory response, and micronutrient deficiency (e. g. vitamin D hypovitaminosis). Vitamin D (VitD) is involved in immune cell differentiation, gut microbiota modulation, gene transcription, and barrier integrity. Vitamin D receptor (VDR) regulates the biological actions of the active VitD (1α, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3), and is involved in the genetic, environmental, immune, and microbial aspects of IBD. VitD deficiency is correlated with disease activity and its administration targeting a concentration of 30 ng/mL may have the potential to reduce disease activity. Moreover, VDR regulates functions of T cells and Paneth cells and modulates release of antimicrobial peptides in gut microbiota-host interactions. Meanwhile, beneficial microbial metabolites, e.g. butyrate, upregulate the VDR signaling. In this review, we summarize the clinical progress and mechanism studies on VitD /VDR related to gut microbiota modulation in IBD. We also discuss epigenetics in IBD and the probiotic regulation of VDR. Furthermore, we discuss the existing challenges and future directions. There is a lack of well-designed clinical trials exploring the appropriate dose and the influence of gender, age, ethnicity, genetics, microbiome, and metabolic disorders in IBD subtypes. To move forward, we need well-designed therapeutic studies to examine whether enhanced vitamin D will restore functions of VDR and microbiome in inhibiting chronic inflammation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0356.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: SSI; MORBIDITY; MORTALITY; GASTROINTESTINAL; HPB; HOSPITAL STAY
Online: 16 September 2020 (08:38:38 CEST)
Aims: Primary AIM of the study was to evaluate effect of prolonged hospital stay on Surgical site infections We also evaluated effect of prolonged hospital stay on overall morbidity in Gastrointestinal and Hepatobiliary Surgery as secondary outcome. Methods: We retrospectively analysed all the patients who underwent gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary surgery between April 2017 to March 2020. On our analysis we found mean hospital stay in patient who did not develop SSI and/or morbidity was 4 days (Total hospital stay) vs 6 days who developed morbidity (hospital stay before diagnosis of SSI or diagnosis or morbid event). Based on this to avoid selection bias, we did 1:1 propensity score analysis between patients who had 4 or less than hospital stay vs patients who had 5 or more hospital stay before diagnosis of surgical site infection and/or morbid event. We took all the preoperative and intraoperative factors like Age, sex, malignant disease, ASA score, CDC grade of surgery, open or laparoscopic surgery, HPB surgeries, colorectal surgeries, Upper Gastrointestinal surgeries and small intestinal surgeries as covariates. We used nearest neighbor matching protocol with a calipher of 0.2. Cases were not reusable after matching. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 23. Results: We included 348 patients operated between April 2017 and March 2020 in our analysis. After 1:1 propensity score matching 58 patients included in study arm (prevent hospital stay more than 4 days) and 56 patients in control arm. Both groups were comparable with regard to Age, Sex, Surgery for malignant disease, ASA score, CDC grade of surgery, HPB surgeries, Small intestinal surgeries, Colorectal surgeries, upper gastrointestinal surgeries, intraoperative blood product requirement, intraoperative hypotension or any other event, operative time. Prolonged hospital stay (> 4 days) was significantly associated with surgical site infections (p<0.0001), morbidity (p=0.001). Open surgeries were associated with prolonged hospital stay. (p=0.032). Conclusion: Prolonged Hospital stay is associated with increase surgical site infection and morbidity in Gastrointestinal and Hepatobiliary Surgery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0241.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: prebiotic; oligosaccharides; gut microbiota; fatty liver; metabolism; mitochondria
Online: 11 September 2020 (04:17:52 CEST)
Understanding the importance of gut microbiota (GM) in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has raised the hope for therapeutic microbes. We have shown that high hepatic fat associated with low abundance of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii in humans and further, administration of F. prausnitzii prevented NAFLD in mice. Here, we aimed to target F. prausnitzii by prebiotic xylo-oligosaccharides (XOS) to treat NAFLD. First, the effect of XOS on F. prausnitzii growth was assessed in vitro. Then, XOS was supplemented or not with high (HFD) or low (LFD) fat-diet for 12-weeks in Wistar rats (n=10/group). XOS increased F. prausnitzii growth having only minor impact on the GM composition. When supplemented with HFD, XOS prevented hepatic steatosis. The underlying mechanisms involved enhanced hepatic β-oxidation and mitochondrial respiration. 1H-NMR analysis of caecal metabolites showed that compared to HFD, LFD group had healthier caecal short-chain fatty acid profile and the combination of HFD and XOS was associated with reduced caecal isovalerate and tyrosine, metabolites previously linked to NAFLD. Caecal branched-chain fatty acids associated positively and butyrate negatively with hepatic triglycerides. In conclusion, our study identifies F. prausnitzii as a possible target to treat NAFLD with XOS. The underlying preventive mechanisms involved improved hepatic oxidative metabolism.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0084.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: programmed cell death; inflammation; intestinal disease; cancer; inhibitors
Online: 4 September 2020 (07:21:17 CEST)
Necroptosis is a caspases-independent form of programmed cell death exhibiting intermediate features between necrosis and apoptosis. Albeit some physiological roles during embryonic development, tissue homeostasis and innate immune response are documented, necroptosis is mainly considered a pro-inflammatory cell death. Key actors of necroptosis are the receptor-interacting-protein-kinases, RIPK1 and RIPK3, and their target, the mixed-lineage-kinase-domain-like protein, MLKL. The intestinal epithelium has one of the highest rates of cellular turnover in a process that is tightly regulated. Altered necroptosis at the intestinal epithelium leads to uncontrolled microbial translocation and deleterious inflammation. Indeed, necroptosis has been associated to chronic inflammatory diseases and cancer. Drugs that inhibit necroptosis could, therefore, be used therapeutically for the treatment of these diseases, and researches to develop such inhibitors are already underway. In this Review, we outline pathways for necroptosis and its role in chronic inflammation and cancer. We also discuss current and developing therapies that target necroptosis machinery.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0116.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: probiotics; cancer; safety; clinical trials
Online: 5 August 2020 (09:27:01 CEST)
In recent years, the consumption of over-the-counter probiotics used to promote health has grown rapidly worldwide and become an industry. In medicine, various studies have proven that probiotics can help improve the immune system and intestinal health. They are usually safe, but in some rare cases, they may cause concerning adverse reactions. Although the use of probiotics has been widely popularized in the public, the results of many probiotics clinical trials are contradictory. Especially for the cancer patients, the feasibility of probiotics management to provide benefits by targeting cancer and lessening anti-cancer side effects requires further investigations. And this review summarizes the interactions between probiotics and the host and current pros and cons of applying probiotics in the cancer patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0653.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: Intestinal microflora; Microbiota; Pain; Transient Receptor Potential; TRP channels; TRPA1; TRPV1
Online: 26 July 2020 (18:02:33 CEST)
Transient receptor potential (TRP) channel family proteins are sensors for pain, which sense variety of thermal and noxious chemicals. Sensory neurons innervating the gut abundantly express TRPA1 and TRPV1 channels and are in close proximity of gut microbes. Emerging evidence indicates a bi-directional gut-brain cross-talk in several entero-neuronal pathologies; however, the direct evidence of TRP channels interacting with gut microbial populations is lacking. Herein, we examine whether and how the knockout (KO) of TRPA1 and TRPV1 channels individually or combined TRPA1/V1 double-knockout (dKO) impacts the gut microbiome in mice. We detect distinct microbiome clusters among the three KO mouse models versus wild-type (WT) mice. All three TRP-KO models have reduced microbial diversity, harbor higher abundance of Bacteroidetes, and reduced proportion of Firmicutes. Specifically distinct arrays in the KO models are determined mainly by S24-7, Bacteroidaceae, Clostridiales, Prevotellaceae, Helicobacteriaceae, Rikenellaceae, and Ruminococcaceae. A1KO mice have lower Prevotella, Desulfovibrio, Bacteroides, Helicobacter and higher Rikenellaceae and Tenericutes; V1KO mice demonstrate higher Ruminococcaceae, Lachnospiraceae, Ruminococcus, Desulfovibrio and Mucispirillum; while A1V1dKO mice exhibit higher Bacteroidetes, Bacteroides and S24-7 and lower Firmicutes, Ruminococcaceae, Oscillospira, Lactobacillus and Sutterella abundance. Also, the abundance of taxa involved in biosynthesis of lipids and primary and secondary bile acids is higher while that of fatty acid biosynthesis-associated taxa is lower in all KO groups. To our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating distinct gut microbiome signatures in TRPA1, V1 and dKO models and should facilitate prospective studies exploring novel diagnostic/ therapeutic modalities regarding the pathophysiology of TRP channel proteins.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0543.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; lean nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; visceral fat; non-obese; fatty liver; insulin resistance
Online: 23 July 2020 (09:38:15 CEST)
Asians are known to more likely than Westerners develop fatty liver and lifestyle-related diseases despite their weight. However, the relationship between fat accumulation and lifestyle-related diseases in non-obese Asians is unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze visceral fat and hepatic fat in participants with a normal body mass index (BMI) and examine their characteristics during a medical checkup. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 663 of 1,142 patients who underwent abdominal ultrasonography and who had an alcohol intake (converted to ethanol) of <30 g/day for males and <20 g/day for females and a BMI of <25 kg/m2 during a health checkup. Participants were classified into four groups: group A, visceral fat accumulation (VFA) (−) and fatty liver (FL) (−) (n = 549); group B, VFA (+) and FL(−) (n = 32); group C, VFA (−) and FL (+) (n = 58); and group D, VFA (+) and FL (+) (n = 24). The frequencies of lifestyle-related disease complications, liver function tests, and liver fibrosis were evaluated among the four groups. Compared with group A (control), groups B, C, and D had higher number of males; BMI; abdominal circumference, ALT, AST, γ-GTP, triglyceride, uric acid, fasting blood sugar levels; and incidence of hyperlipidemia. Groups C and D had higher ALT, HbA1c, cholinesterase, and triglyceride levels; FIB4 index; and number of patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) than groups A and B; however, there was no difference between groups A and B. FL is a risk factor of DM and liver fibrosis in non-obese Japanese individuals; however, VFA only is not a risk factor of DM and liver fibrosis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0534.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: Crohn's disease; renal disease; amyloidosis
Online: 23 July 2020 (07:50:19 CEST)
Crohn's disease (CD) results from an aberrant immune response against the commensal microbiota in genetically susceptible hosts. However, the nature of the immune defects, the microflora involved and the genetic susceptibility remain incompletely defined and controversial. Extraintestinal manifestations occur in up to 25-35% of patients and generally precede the onset of gastrointestinal symptoms, which are often of a colonic nature and are influenced by disease activity. Renal manifestations can be considered dependent on the same immune mechanism that determines inflammatory bowel disease in CD. This review seeks to describe the current state of association between CD and kidney disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0204.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: Presepsin; Sepsis; Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score; alkaline phosphatase (ALP); Bile
Online: 16 June 2020 (09:43:45 CEST)
Presepsin is a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker of sepsis; however, elevated presepsin levels have also been documented without sepsis. This study aims to retrospectively analyze the laboratory parameters and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score affecting presepsin levels in 567 patients. Some patients with elevated presepsin levels exhibited renal dysfunction or elevation of biliary enzymes despite a low SOFA score. The univariate regression analysis revealed a close correlation between presepsin levels and SOFA score, serum creatinine (CRE), blood urea nitrogen, and biliary enzymes. In addition, a multivariate regression analysis revealed that SOFA score, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and CRE independently affected presepsin levels significantly. The analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) revealed that presepsin levels were significantly higher in patients with hepatobiliary disease. Besides, we found that patients who presented with the dilatation of intra- or extrahepatic bile ducts and the elevation of ALP or total bilirubin exhibited remarkable high presepsin levels in the bile. Furthermore, the presepsin production in the liver’s Kupffer cells was established by immunostaining in patients who received surgical liver resection. Overall, this study elucidates that biliary enzymes’ elevation affects presepsin levels, presepsin exists in high concentrations in the bile, and is positive in Kupffer cells.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0135.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: enteric nervous system; ENS; gastrointestinal tract; GI; glucagon-like peptide 2; GLP-2
Online: 11 June 2020 (11:58:03 CEST)
The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is innervated by the enteric nervous system (ENS), an extensive neuronal network that traverses along its walls. Due to local reflex circuits, the ENS is capable of functioning with and without input from the central nervous system. The functions of the ENS range from the propulsion of food to nutrient handling, blood flow regulation and immunological defense. Records of it first being studied emerged in the early 19th century when the submucosal and myenteric plexuses were discovered. This was followed by extensive research and further delineation of its development, anatomy, and function during the next two centuries. The morbidity and mortality associated with the underdevelopment, infection or inflammation of the ENS highlights its importance and the need for us to completely understand its normal function. This review will provide a general overview of the ENS to date and connect specific GI disorders such as short bowel syndrome with neuronal pathophysiology. Exciting opportunities in which the ENS could be used as a therapeutic target for common GI diseases will also be highlighted, as the further unlocking of such mechanisms could open the door to more therapy-related advances, and ultimately change our approach to GI disorders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0490.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: magnetic resonance imaging; multidetector computed tomography; liver; neoplasm metastasis; gadoxetic acid
Online: 31 May 2020 (18:32:40 CEST)
To investigate the impact of radiologic experience on the diagnostic accuracy of computed tomography CT vs. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) reporting for liver metastases of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (LM of PDAC). Intra-individual CT and MRI examinations of 112 patients with clinically proven LM of PDAC were included. Four radiologists with varying years of experience (A > 20, B > 5, C > 1 and D < 1) assessed liver segments affected by LM of PDAC, as well as associated metastases occurring in each patient. Their sensitivity and specificity in evaluating the segments were compared. Cohen's Kappa (κ) for diagnosed liver segments and Intra-class Correlation Coefficients (ICC) for the number of metastatic lesions in each patient were calculated. The radiologists’ sensitivity and specificity for the CT vs. MRI were, respectively: Reader A -94.4, 90.3% vs. 96.6, 94.8%; B - 86.7, 79.7% vs. 83.9, 82.0%; C - 78.0, 76.7% vs. 83.3, 78.9% and D - 71.8, 79.2% vs. 64.0, 69.5%. Reviewers A and B achieved greater agreement in assessing results from the MRI (κ = 0.72, p < 0.001; ICC = 0.73, p < 0.001) vs. the CT (κ = 0.58, p < 0.001; ICC = 0.61, p < 0.001), in contrast to readers C and D (MRI: κ = 0.34, p < 0.001; ICC = 0.42, p < 0.001, and CT: κ = 0.48, p < 0.001; ICC = 0.59, p < 0.001). Our results indicate that accurate diagnosis of LM of PDAC depends more on radiologic experience in MRI over CT scans.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0317.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: laproscopic cholecystectomy; acute cholecystitis; gall stone; sepsis; surgical site infection
Online: 20 May 2020 (04:16:36 CEST)
Aim: Aim of our study to evaluate various factors responsible for surgical site infection after gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary surgeries. Material and Methods: Patient who underwent gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary surgery in our department were evaluated retrospectively. Various factors associated with surgical site infection were evaluated using univariate and multivariate analysis. Surgical site infection was defined as any culture positive discharge from the wound within 30 days of surgery.Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 23. Results: We evaluated total 331 patients operated between April 2018 to March 2020. 14 patients were lost to follow up after discharge and before completing post operative day 30. 18 patients expired before 30 days without developing SSI and were excluded from the study as per exclusion criteria. 299 patient included in the study. Total 20 patients developed surgical site infection. It showed SSI rate in our study population was 6.68%. On univariate analysis prolonged hospital stay, more blood product used, higher cdc grade of surgery, higher ASA grade, more operative time, open surgeries,colorectal and HPB surgeries were associated with surgical site infections. On multivariate analysis only prolonged hospital stay independently predicted Surgical Site Infectins. (p=0.014,0dds ratio 1.223, 95% confidence interal 1.042-1.435). Conclusion: Prolonged hospital stay independently predicts surgical site infections after gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary surgery.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0037.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: FFAR2; FFAR3; microbiota; gut; immune; SCFA
Online: 3 May 2020 (08:32:51 CEST)
Abstract: Role of gut microbiome in human health is becoming apparent. The major functional impact of gut microbiome is transmitted through the microbial metabolites that are produced in the gut and interact with host cells either in the local gut environment or get absorbed in the circulation to impact distant cells/organs. Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are the major microbial metabolites that are produced in the gut through fermentation of non-digestible fibers. SCFAs are known to function through various mechanism, however, their signaling through free-fatty acid receptor 2 and 3 (FFAR2/3; type of G-coupled protein receptors) is new therapeutic approach. FFAR2/3 are widely expression in diverse cell types in human and mice, and functions as sensors of SCFAs to change several physiological and cellular functions. FFAR2/3 modulates neurological signaling, energy metabolism, intestinal cellular homeostasis, immune response and hormone synthesis. FFAR2/3 functions through Gi and/or Gq signaling, that is mediated through specific structural features of SCFAs-FFAR2/3 bindings and modulating specific signaling pathway. In this review, we discussed the wide-spread expression and structural homologies between human and mice FFAR2/3, and their role in different human health conditions. This information can unlock opportunities to weigh the potential of FFAR2/3 as drug target to prevent human diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0388.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: celiac disease; gut microbiota; mendelian randomization
Online: 26 March 2020 (14:08:31 CET)
Celiac disease (CeD) is a complex immune-mediated inflammatory condition triggered by ingestion of gluten in genetically predisposed individuals. Literature suggests that alterations in gut microbiota composition and function precede the onset of CeD. Considering that microbiota is partly determined by host genetics, we speculate that the genetic makeup of CeD patients could elicit disease development through alterations in the intestinal microbiota. To evaluate potential causal relationships between gut microbiota and CeD, we performed a Two-Sample Mendelian Randomization analysis (2SMR). Exposure data were obtained from the raw results of a previous Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS) of gut microbiota, and outcome data from summary statistics of CeD GWAS and Immunochip studies. We have identified a number of putative associations between gut microbiota SNPs associated with CeD. Regarding bacterial composition, most of the associated SNPs are related to Firmicutes phylum, whose relative abundance has been previously reported to be altered in CeD patients. In terms of functional units, we have linked a number of SNPs to several bacterial metabolic pathways that seem to be related to CeD. Overall, this study represents the first 2SMR approach to elucidate the relationship between microbiome and CeD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0037.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: Extrac cellular matrix; Relaxin; liver fibrosis; MMPs
Online: 3 March 2020 (11:16:49 CET)
BACKGROUND Relaxin (RLX), a hormone-like molecule with pleiotropic effects, has been found to reduce matrix deposition and mediate collagen degradation in animal models of chronic liver injuries and might be considered as an adjuvant therapeutic agent for progressive liver diseases. AIMS In the present study, we evaluated whether RLX affects the development of liver fibrosis in an experimental mouse model of NASH in C57BL6 male mice fed with a methionine-choline deficient diet (MCD). Methods Mice were treated per os as we intended to assess the enteric absorption and bioavailability of orally administered RLX (RLX purified from pig ovaries, IBSA SA, Lugano, Switzerland). Mice were fed the MCD diet for 6 weeks. After the initial 3 weeks, one group received drinking water supplemented with RLX (25 mcg/ml) whereas the other continued to receive regular water. A third group of mice fed a regular diet served as control. After 3 additional weeks mice were anesthetized and sacrificed. Results A significant, reduced expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and of relevant markers of active fibrogenesis and extracellular matrix deposition, Col1A1 and α-SMA, was observed in mice treated with RLX vs controls. RLX also induced a significant decrease of TIMP1 and an increase of both MMP 2 and 9 when evaluated by zymographic analysis in liver extracts. Conclusions Although preliminary pharmacokinetics experiments showed barely detectable amounts of RLX in the blood of mice treated per os, these data support the absorption of orally administered RLX and confirm its potential therapeutic use in the management of liver fibrosis.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: Micro Hand S surgical robot system; robot-assisted complete mesocolic excision; colon cancer; safety; feasibility
Online: 28 February 2020 (16:10:11 CET)
Background: The Micro Hand S robot is the first domestically produced surgical robot that has entered clinical use in China, and this is the first report of its application in colon cancer.Objective: This study aimed to validate the safety and efficacy of the domestically produced Chinese minimally invasive Micro Hand S surgical robot system in complex surgery, such as robotic complete mesocolic excision (R-CME).Methods: From March 2018 to December 2018, 30 patients with right hemicolon cancer underwent R-CME with the Micro Hand S robot system. The operative findings, morbidities, oncological findings and unique characteristics were summarizedwere analyzed.Result: 12 patients with right hemicolon cancer and 18 patients with sigmoid colon cancer underwent RCME with the Micro Hand S robot system. During the study period, the median operative duration was 209 (range, 180-255) min, and the median estimated blood loss volume was 35 (range, 25-75) ml. The median number of lymph nodes harvested was 42 (21-77), and the median postoperative hospital stay was 5 (range, 4-7) days. According to the Clavien-Dindo classification, there were no severe complications except for 7 cases of grade I complications and 5 cases of grade II complications. The conversion rate for all operations was 0%. There were no cases of 30-day readmission or 30-day mortality. Conclusion: Clinical application of domestically produced Chinese minimally invasive surgical robot system “Micro Hand S ” in selected colon cancer patients is technically feasible and safe.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: cirrhosis; TGFβ1; CCl4; resolution; hepatic stellate cells; osteoprotegerin; RANKL; TRAIL
Online: 14 February 2020 (03:28:28 CET)
Osteoprotegerin (OPG) serum levels are associated with liver fibrogenesis and have been proposed as a biomarker for diagnosis. However, the source and role of OPG in liver fibrosis are unknown, as is the question whether OPG expression responds to treatment. Therefore, we aimed to elucidate the regulation of OPG production and its biological activity in human and mouse livers. OPG levels were significantly higher in lysates of human cirrhotic and mouse fibrotic livers compared to healthy livers. Hepatic OPG expression localized in cirrhotic collagenous bands in and around myofibroblasts. Single cell sequencing of murine liver cells showed hepatic stellate cells (HSC) to be the main producers of OPG in healthy livers. Using mouse precision-cut liver slices, we found OPG production induced by transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1) stimulation. Moreover, OPG itself stimulated expression of genes associated with fibrogenesis in liver slices through TGFβ1, suggesting profibrotic activity of OPG. Resolution of fibrosis in mice was associated with significantly lower OPG levels in livers as compared to their fibrotic counterparts.OPG stimulates fibrogenesis through TGFβ1 and is closely associated with the degree of fibrogenesis. It may therefore be a novel drug target for liver fibrosis or be used as a biomarker for treatment success of novel antifibrotics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0076.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography; periampullary diverticulum; difficult cannulation; biliary cannulation; cannulation techniques; adverse events
Online: 17 January 2020 (04:12:23 CET)
Aim: This study aimed to investigate the association between periampullary diverticulum (PAD) and difficult biliary cannulation, as well as to evaluate the impact of different types of PAD on the cannulation success rate and adverse events. Methods: A total of 636 patients who underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) during the study period were prospectively studied and divided into two groups based on the presence or absence of PAD. In group A, 126 patients had PAD compared with 510 patients in group B without PAD. The primary outcome measurements were ERCP procedures time, selective cannulation techniques, and cannulation difficulty in addition to cannulation success rate and ERCP-related adverse events. The difficult cannulation was analyzed using logistic regression considering age, co-morbidities, the presence of PAD types, and indications as independent factors. Results: The average cohort age was 65.30±16.67 years, and 52.7% were male. Significant higher rates of choledocholithiasis, cholangitis, and biliary pancreatitis were reported in the group of PAD (p<0.05). Successful selective cannulation was achieved in 97.6% in group A and 95.3% in group B (p>0.05). The cannulation time was significantly longer in the presence of PAD (5.1 min, vs. 4.09 min, p<0.05). There was no significant difference in the rate of overall adverse events and post ERCP pancreatic PEP. Conclusion: The presence of PAD did not affect the duration or success of the ERCP procedure. Furthermore, it was associated with longer cannulation time and increase in the cannulation difficulty, especially with PAD type 1.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0025.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: duodenal ulcer; pathogenesis; gastric acid; helicobacter pylori; psychosomatic disease; psychological stress
Online: 3 January 2020 (09:00:37 CET)
Background: The pathogenesis of duodenal ulcer has never been explained although the first description of this disease in medical literature appeared in 1817. Marshall et al. concluded that Helicobacter pylori was the most important etiological factor for duodenal ulcer in 1988, but the etiology based on this bacterium is controversial and how the bacterial infection leads to ulceration is presently unknown. Objectives: This study aims to identify the cause of duodenal ulcer, address the controversial issues surrounding Helicobacter pylori, elucidate the roles of gastric acid, and describe the pathological process of duodenal ulceration. Methods: First, a comprehensive systematic review on peptic ulcers (including gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer) was conducted and the results were summarized. Second, a recently published causal relationship was employed to identify the etiology of peptic ulcers. Third, novel concepts and methods were applied to analyze the existing data on duodenal ulcer. Results: The etiology of duodenal ulcer and the roles of Helicobacter pylori and gastric acid in this disease were identified. The controversies surrounding Helicobacter pylori were addressed, and many characteristics and phenomena/observations of duodenal ulcer were elucidated. The pathological process of duodenal ulceration was described. Conclusion: Existing data accumulated over the past 300 years was sufficient, when analyzed using novel concepts, to understand the pathogenesis of duodenal ulcer. Duodenal ulcer is not an infectious disease caused by the infection of Helicobacter pylori, but a psychosomatic disease triggered by psychological stress. Helicobacter pylori plays a secondary role in only the late phase of duodenal ulceration.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: diarrhea; wood creosote; Seirogan; retrospective study; capsule
Online: 6 November 2019 (11:49:10 CET)
Seirogan, a wood creosote, is a nonprescription drug used to treat diarrhea. However, reports of its clinical use are rare. Here, we report on the efficacy of wood creosote (3 capsules daily) for the alleviation of diarrheal symptoms in 148 patients from 10 clinics in Japan. The wood creosote capsules were classified as remarkably effective (44 patients), effective (71 patients), and partially effective (13 patients) based on the degree of alleviation of diarrheal symptoms that were induced by a variety of causes. The antidiarrheal efficacy of the capsules did not differ between males and females, and young patients (21–30 years) showed greater improvement in diarrheal symptoms than did old patients (> 61 years). Although this report is based on the re-evaluation of old data that had been preserved by our company, the effectiveness and range of symptoms that were treatable with wood creosote has likely remained unchanged. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first public report on the clinical effectiveness of wood creosote capsules for the treatment of a wide range of diarrheal symptoms.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0282.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: liver fibrosis; NASH; innate immune cells.
Online: 24 October 2019 (15:48:02 CEST)
Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which is characterized by liver steatosis, inflammation and fibrosis, is the most severe variation of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This disease is a consequence of several metabolic alterations such as type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia that trigger different pathways of cell dysfunction and systemic inflammation which ultimately affect the liver. Furthermore, those mechanisms activate a complex cascade of immune response after repeated cell aggression. In the liver cytokines and interleukins interact with network of innate immune cells, including Kupffer cells (KCs), dendritic cells (DCs), lymphocytes and hepatic stellate cells (HSC). These cells translate those signals into immune responses and pathologic hepatic changes during the development of NASH. In this scenario the development of fibrosis is the most important change since it is an adaptive mechanism that in the short time has the objective of repair the damaged tissue but after prolonged injury it progresses to parenchymal scarring, cellular dysfunction and finally to organ failure. Finally, since NASH is an important cause of liver cirrhosis; this review addresses the cellular pathways of fibrosis in the setting of NASH explained by the interaction between immune and hepatic cells.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0136.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: apoptosis; cardiotrophin-1; colon; inflammation
Online: 12 October 2019 (03:38:00 CEST)
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a relatively frequent, chronic disease that impacts significantly the patient’s quality of life. Although many therapeutic options are available, additional approaches are needed because many patients either do not respond to current therapies or show significant side effects. Cardiotrophin-1 (CT-1) is a cytokine with potent cytoprotective, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic properties. The purpose of this study was to assess if the administration of CT-1 could reduce colon damage in mice with experimental UC. UC was induced with 5% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in the drinking water. Some mice received i.v. dose of CT-1 (200 µg/kg) 2 hours before and 2 and 4 days after DSS administration. Animals were followed during 7 days after DSS. The severity of UC was measured by standard scores. Colon damage was assessed by histology and immunohistochemistry. Inflammatory mediators were measured by Western blot and PCR. CT-1 administration to DSS-treated mice ameliorated both the clinical course (disease activity index), histological damage, inflammation (colon expression of TNF-α, IL-17, IL-10, INF-γ, and iNOS), and apoptosis. Our results suggest that CT-1 administration before UC induction improves the clinical course, tissue damage and inflammation degree in DSS-induced UC in mice.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: quality of life; celiac disease; parents; caregivers
Online: 20 September 2019 (19:04:08 CEST)
Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune disorder triggered by the ingestion of gluten and affects approximately 1% of the global population. Currently, the only treatment available is lifelong strict adherence to a gluten-free diet (GFD). Chronic diseases such as CD affect patients and their family members’ quality of life (QoL); particularly parents and caregivers who play an essential role in the child’s care and treatment. A higher level of psychological distress has been found in the parents of children with chronic ailments due to limited control over the child’s daily activities and the child’s illness. In this context, the validation of a specific questionnaire of QoL is a valuable tool to evaluate the difficulties faced by parents or caregivers of children with this chronic illness. A specific questionnaire for this population can elucidate the reasons for stress in their daily lives as well as the physical, mental, emotional, and social impact caused by CD. Therefore, this study aimed to develop and validate a specific questionnaire to evaluate the QoL of parents and caregivers of children and adolescents with CD. The study was developed in six steps: (i) development of the CD parent/caregiver QoL questionnaire (CDPC-QoL); (ii) subjective evaluation; (iii) validation of the questionnaire by the Delphi method; (iv) evaluation of the internal consistency and reproducibility of the CDPC-QoL; (v) application of the questionnaire to Brazilian CD parents or caregivers; and (vi) statistical analysis. Overall results showed that a higher family income resulted in a higher score of the worries domain. In addition, having another illness besides CD decreased the QoL (except in the worries domain). The other variables studied did not present a statistically significant impact on the QoL, which was shown to be low in all aspects. Knowledge of the QoL is important to help implement effective strategies to improve celiac patients’ quality of life and reduce their physical, emotional, and social burden.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0214.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography; elderly; adverse event; difficult cannulation
Online: 18 September 2019 (17:54:04 CEST)
Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is a routinely used therapeutic procedure for the biliary and pancreatic diseases. Population aging may increase the typical indications of ERCP and come with more complexity and difficulties, especially in cannulation. This study aimed to evaluate the incidence, causes, and management of difficult biliary cannulation during ERCP in super-aged patients and the role of difficult cannulation as a risk factor for adverse events. A total of 614 patients, underwent ERCP, were prospectively studied as a cohort and divided into two groups based on their age. There were 146 patients aged 80 years or older in group A and 468 patients aged less than 80 years in group B. The primary outcome measures were the difficulty grade of papilla cannulation, clinical outcomes, and ERCP-related complications in the two groups. The adverse events were analyzed using logistic regression for patient age, co-morbidities, indications, and cannulation difficulty grade variables. There was no difference in the incidence of difficult cannulation between the two groups (32.9% vs. 34.4%, p=0.765) though, as expected, super-aged Group A had a higher prevalence of periampullary diverticulum (29.5% vs. 16.7%, p=0.001). The technical cannulation success rate was (96.6% vs. 96.8%, p= 0.54). All used cannulation techniques in the elderly group were efficient and safe. Logistic regression showed that age ≥80 was not associated with increased adverse events; however, difficult cannulation (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=3.478; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.877, 6.442; p<0.001) and CCI ≥2 (AOR=1.824; 95% CI=0.993, 3.349; p=0.045) were more likely to have adverse events. Age ≤65 (AOR=3.460; 95% CI=1.511, 7.922; p=0.003), female gender (AOR=2.362; 95% CI=1.089, 5.124; p=0.030), difficult cannulation (AOR=4.527; 95% CI=2.078, 9.860; p<0.001), and patients with cholangitis (AOR=3.261; 95% CI=1.204, 8.832; p=0.020) were strongly associated with increasing Post-ERCP Pancreatitis (PEP). Advanced age has not proved to be a risk factor of difficult cannulation, and secondary cannulation techniques can be safely and efficaciously utilized for this group. CCI ≥2 and difficult cannulation are associated with increased overall adverse events rate while age ≥80 factor is not.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0258.v1
Online: 25 August 2019 (17:01:23 CEST)
With the continuous progress in modern medicine, the early detection rate of gastric cancer has increased, and the mortality rate has decreased. However, gastric cancer remains the third leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide, with a high recurrence rate. Metastasis is the leading cause of death and recurrence of gastric cancer, which greatly hinders treatment success. Cancer development is a complex process involving multiple sequential steps. In the metastatic cascade, local invasion may be considered an initial, crucial step in the development of a malignant tumor, which leads to distant metastasis. Epithelial-mesenchymal transformation (EMT) is one of the most important developmental processes that occur during tumor invasion. EMT confers certain basic abilities to cancer cells, such as migration, invasion and anti-apoptotic ability, thus initiating and increasing metastasis. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that promote EMT and gastric cancer cell metastasis. A number of recent studies have found that circular RNAs（circRNAs）are associated with gastric cancer EMT, regulating the EMT process and promoting the occurrence and development of tumors. Because of their unique continuous circular structure, circRNAs have relatively high stability in plasma and cells, making them more suitable as diagnostic biomarkers in malignant tumors. Therefore, understanding the mechanism of circRNAs in EMT in gastric cancer is an important research direction to actively prevent tumor metastasis and improve the therapeutic effect on advanced malignant tumors.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0282.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: HBV reactivation; lymphoma; hematology; immunosuppressive therapy; prophylaxis; hepatitis B virus; occult/active/inactive carrier
Online: 25 July 2019 (07:46:43 CEST)
It is well known that the event of hepatitis B virus reactivation can occur among patients undergoing treatment for hematological malignancies. In this paper we will present the available data regarding the risk of hepatitis B virus reactivation in this special population of immunosuppressed patients and explore the relevance of an accurate prevention and management of this condition. A computerized literature search was performed using appropriate terms arrangement, including English-written literature only or additional relevant articles. The evaluation of hepatitis B reactivation risk is a multidimensional process, which includes conducting an accurate clinical and physical history, considering the virological categories, the knowledge of the medication chosen to treat these hematological malignancies and the induced grade of immunosuppression. Adopting adequate preventive strategies and surveillance according to the current international recommendations is crucial to prevent HBVr and its dire clinical consequences (hepatitis, liver failure, interruption of lifesaving anti-neoplastic treatments). Universal HBV screening of patients scheduled to undergo treatment for hematological malignancies should be the chosen policy, and clinicians should be aware of the inherent risk of viral reactivation among the different virological categories and the classes of immunosuppressive drugs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0075.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: hepatocellular carcinoma; objective response; modified RECIST; sorafenib; hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy
Online: 4 July 2019 (10:56:53 CEST)
Background In SILIUS (NCT01214343), combination of sorafenib and hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy did not significantly improve overall survival in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) compared with sorafenib alone. In this study, we explored the relationship between objective response by mRECIST and overall survival (OS) in the sorafenib group, in the combination group and in all patients in the SILIUS trial. Methods Association between objective response and OS in patients treated with sorafenib (n=103), combination (n=102) and all patients (n=205) were analyzed. The median OS of responders was compared with that of non-responders. Landmark analyses were performed according to objective response at several fixed time points, as sensitivity analyses, and the effect on OS was evaluated by Cox regression analysis with objective response as a time-dependent covariate, with other prognostic factors was performed. Results In the sorafenib group, OS of responders (n = 18) was significantly better than that of non-responders (n = 78) (p < 0.0001), where median OS was 27.2 (95% CI, 16.0–not reached) months for responders and 8.9 (95% CI, 6.5–12.6) months for non-responders. HRs from landmark analyses at 4, 6, and 8 months were 0.45 (p=0.0330), 0.37 (p=0.0053), and 0.36 (p=0.0083), respectively. Objective response was an independent predictor of OS based on unstratified Cox regression analyses. In the all patients and the combination group, similar results were obtained. Conclusion In the SILIUS trial, objective response was an independent prognostic factor for OS in patients with HCC.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: liver failure; microRNAs (miRNAs); placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells (PD-MSCs); phosphatase of regenerating liver-1 (PRL-1); regenerative medicine; stem cells homing; vascular remodeling
Online: 1 July 2019 (17:00:18 CEST)
Placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells (PD-MSCs) have been highlighted as therapeutic sources in several degenerative diseases. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs) were mediated one of the therapeutic mechanisms of PD-MSCs in regenerative medicine. To enhance the therapeutic effects of PD-MSCs, we established functionally enhanced PD-MSCs with phosphatase of regenerating liver-1 overexpression (PRL-1(+)). However, the profile and functions of miRNAs induced by PRL-1(+) PD-MSCs in a rat model with hepatic failure prepared by bile duct ligation (BDL) remained unclear. Hence, the objectives of the present study were to analyze the expression of miRNAs and investigate their therapeutic mechanisms for hepatic regeneration via PRL-1(+) in a rat model with BDL. We selected candidate miRNAs based on microarray analysis. Under hypoxic conditions, compared with invaded naïve PD-MSCs, invaded PRL-1(+) PD-MSCs showed improved integrin-dependent migration ability through RHO family-targeted miRNA expression (e.g., hsa-miR-30a-5p, 340-5p, and 146a-3p). Moreover, rno-miR-30a-5p and 340-5p regulated engraftment into injured rat liver by transplanted PRL-1(+) PD-MSCs through the integrin family. Additionally, an increase in PDGFRA by suppressing rno-miR-27a-3p improved vascular structure in rat liver tissues after PRL-1(+) PD-MSCs transplantation. Furthermore, decreased rno-miR-122-5p was significantly correlated with increased proliferation of hepatocytes in liver tissues by PRL-1(+) PD-MSCs by activating IL-6 signaling pathway through the repression of rno-miR-21-5p. Taken together, these findings improve the understanding of therapeutic mechanisms based on miRNA-mediated stem cell therapy in liver diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0285.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: hepatocellular carcinoma; lenvatinib; transcatheter arterial chemoembolisation; intermediate stage; up-to-seven criteria
Online: 27 June 2019 (08:13:58 CEST)
Background: Although transcatheter arterial chemoembolisation (TACE) is the standard of care for intermediate-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), this is a largely heterogeneous disease that includes a subgroup of patients who do not benefit from TACE. The treatment strategy for this subgroup of patients currently remains an unmet need in clinical practice. Here, we performed a proof-of-concept study that lenvatinib may be more favourable treatment option over TACE as an initial treatment in intermediate-stage HCC patients with large or multinodular tumours exceeding the up-to-seven criteria. Methods: This proof-of-concept study included 642 consecutive patients with HCC initially treated with lenvatinib or conventional TACE (cTACE) between January 2006 and December 2018. Of these patients, 176 who received lenvatinib or cTACE as an initial treatment and met the eligibility criteria [unresectable, beyond the up-to-seven criteria, no prior TACE/systemic therapy, no vascular invasion, no extrahepatic spread and Child-Pugh A liver function] were selected for the study. Propensity score matching was used to adjust for patient demographics. Results: After propensity-score matching, outcome of 30 patients prospectively treated with lenvatinib (14 in clinical trials, 1 in early access program and 15 in real world setting) and 60 patients treated with cTACE as the initial treatment was compared. The change of ALBI score from baseline to the end of treatment were -2.61 to -2.61 for 30 patients in lenvatinib group (p = 0.254) and -2.66 to -2.09 in cTACE group (p < 0.01), respectively. The lenvatinib group showed a significantly higher objective response rate (73.3% vs. 33.3%; p < 0.001) and significantly longer median progression-free survival than the cTACE group (16.0 vs. 3.0 months; p < 0.001). Overall survival was significantly longer in the lenvatinib group than in the cTACE group (37.9 vs. 21.3 months; hazard ratio: 0.48, p < 0.01). Conclusion: In patients with large or multinodular intermediate-stage HCC exceeding the up-to-seven criteria with Child-Pugh A liver function, who usually do not benefit from TACE, lenvatinib provides more favorable outcome than TACE.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0151.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: ostomy; remote monitoring; stoma bag; machine learning; thermistor; capacitive sensor
Online: 16 June 2019 (17:15:26 CEST)
Over 55% of stoma patients suffer complications such as dehydration. Outcomes may be improved through communicating stoma output data to the patient and their clinical teams. Past artificial neural networks to improve accuracy in fluid level sensing were designed to account for ‘slosh’ caused by variable acceleration in one or two axes of movement. This paper describes the development of a novel sensor platform for non-invasive monitoring of stoma output in real time through incorporating a volumetric array consisting of thermistors and capacitive sensors into an ostomy appliance. Stoma output which exits the body at core temperature passes into a stoma appliance in a pattern which is dictated by water content, existing effluent within the bag and distortion of the usual bag shape. By using thermistors, a thermal boundary demarcates the accumulated level of fecal material as the effluent settles. A capacitive array allows the measurement of volume of output. The sensing components communicates via near field communication (NFC) and transmits data to a smartphone application by Bluetooth low energy (BLE). Testing of the device on 11 existing ileostomy patients with 51.6 bag hours of data found a correlation between measured volume and predictive value, supporting its use in this population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0045.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: Cirrhosis; Bone marrow; Mesenchymal stem cells; Characteristics; Liver regeneration
Online: 5 June 2019 (15:43:03 CEST)
Liver cirrhosis leads to hepatic dysfunction and life-threatening conditions. Though clinical efficacy of autologous bone marrow-drived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSC) transplantation in alcoholic cirrhosis (AC) was demonstrated, the relevant mechanism has not been elucidated. We aimed to identify predictive factors and gene/pathways for responders after autologous BM-MSC transplantation. Fifty-five patients with biopsy-proven AC underwent autologous BM-MSC transplantation. The characteristics of responders who showed improvement in fibrosis score (≥ 1) after transplantation were compared with those of non-responders. BM-MSCs were analyzed with cDNA microarrays to identify genes and pathways that were differentially expressed in responder after transplantation. Thirty-three patients (66%) were responders. In the multivariate analysis, initial high Laennec score (p=0.007, odds ratio 3.73) and performance of BM-MSC transplantation (p=0.033, odds ratio 5.75) were predictive factors for responder. Three genes (olfactory receptor 2L8, microRNA4520-2, and chloride intracellular channel protein 3) were upregulated in responders and 11 metabolic pathways (inositol phosphate, ATP-binding cassette transporters, protein kinase signaling, extracellular matrix-receptor interaction, endocytosis, phagosome, hematopoietic cell lineage, adipocytokine, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor, fat digestion/absorption, and insulin resistance) were upregulated in non-responders (p<0.05). BM-MSC transplantation is warranted treatment for AC patients with high Laennec score. Cell-based therapy utilizing response-relating genes or pathway can be treatment candidate.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0239.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: oligonucleotide therapeutics; RNA interference; antisense; aptamer; decoy; pancreatic cancer
Online: 20 May 2019 (10:12:46 CEST)
Although there is a several array of diagnostic and therapeutic choices for pancreatic cancer in recent years, a crucial medical approach for the refractory disease is still needed. Oligonucleotide therapeutics, such as those based on antisense RNAs, RNA interference, aptamers and decoys, are promising agents against pancreatic cancer because they identify a specific nucleotide sequence or protein and interfere with gene expression as molecular-targeted agents. Within just the past quarter-century, the diversity and feasibility of these drugs as diagnostic or therapeutic tools have dramatically increased. Actually, there have been several clinical and preclinical studies of oligonucleotides for patients with pancreatic cancer so far. To support the discovery of effective diagnostic or therapeutic options by using oligonucleotide-based strategies in the absence of satisfactory therapies for long-term survival and the rising trend of diseases, we summarize the current clinical trials of oligonucleotide therapeutics for pancreatic cancer patients with underlying preclinical or scientific data and focus on the possibility of oligonucleotides to target pancreatic cancer in clinical implications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0019.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: Castor oil; Ascorbic acid; Bowel preparation; Polyethylene glycol
Online: 1 April 2019 (13:42:38 CEST)
Our aim was to evaluate efficacy and safety of 30mL CaO alone or plus Asc in bowel preparation before colonoscopy. Two hundred and forty six patients were allocated randomly to ingest 2L PEG with 30mL CaO, 1L PEG with 30mL CaO plus 5g Asc, or 3L PEG. We used Boston Bowel Preparation Scale (BBPS) to evaluate bowel preparation efficacy. We also determined other outcomes such as procedure time, polyp or adenoma detection rate and adverse events (AEs). Of 282 patients recruited, 36 were excluded. Groups were matched for baseline characteristics except weight (P = 0.020) and body mass index (BMI) (P = 0.003). Patient’s satisfaction were higher in 2L PEG-CaO (P = 0.016) and 1L PEG-CaO-Asc groups (P = 0·017). Patients’ compliance was 67.5%, 71.4% and 80.5% in 3L PEG, 2L PEG-CaO and 1L PEG-CaO-Asc groups (P = 0.014). Adequate bowel preparation rate was 75%, 78.57% and 53.66% in 3L PEG, 2L PEG-CaO and 1L PEG-CaO-Asc groups (P = 0.021). There were no differences in terms of remaining outcomes. Despite an increase in patients’ satisfaction and compliance, 1L PEG-CaO-Asc significantly decreased adequate bowel preparation rate. However, 2L PEG-CaO improved the patients' satisfaction and compliance and increased adequate bowel preparation rate.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0282.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: pancreatitis; epidemiology; diagnosis; complications; treatment; prognosis.
Online: 29 March 2019 (12:13:17 CET)
Acute pancreatitis (AP) is an inflammatory condition of the pancreas and is one of the most common ailments of the gastrointestinal system that results in significant morbidity and mortality. The main etiologic causes of AP are alcohol consumption, gallstones, hypertriglyceridemia, and biliary stones. The clinical signs and symptoms, and diagnostic criteria of AP are well established in the literature and multiple studies. Multiple scoring systems have been used to predict the severity, prognosis, and mortality associated with AP. The present review of the literature brings to light the significant and recent contributions in the etiology, risk factors, epidemiology, diagnosis, complications, prognosis and newest modalities in treatment that could be beneficial in the management of AP.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0267.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: hepatocellular carcinoma, gut microbiota, gut-liver axis, intestinal dysbiosis
Online: 28 March 2019 (13:43:07 CET)
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), one of the leading causes of death worldwide, has a causal nexus with liver injury, inflammation, and regeneration that accumulate over decades. Observations from recent studies have accounted for the involvement of the gut-liver axis in the pathophysiological mechanism responsible for HCC. The human intestine nurtures a diversified colony of microorganisms residing in the host ecosystem. The intestinal barrier is critical for conserving the normal physiology of the gut microbiome. Therefore, a rupture of this barrier or dysbiosis cause the intestinal microbiome to serve as the main source of portal-vein endotoxins such as lipopolysaccharide, in the progression of hepatic diseases. Indeed, increased bacterial translocation is a key sign of HCC. Considering the limited number of clinical studies on HCC with respect to the microbiome, we focus on the clinical as well as animal studies involving the gut microbiota with the current understandings of the mechanism by which the intestinal dysbiosis promotes hepatocarcinogenesis. Future research might offer mechanistic insights into the specific phyla targeting the leaky gut, as well as microbial dysbiosis, and their metabolites, as key pathways that drive HCC-promoting microbiome-mediated liver inflammation and fibrosis, thereby restoring the gut barrier function.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0128.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: Liver cirrhosis; epidemiology; etiology; risk factors; pathophysiology; diagnosis.
Online: 11 March 2019 (09:44:18 CET)
Liver cirrhosis is a chronic disease that is characterized by the presence of fibrosis and regeneration of nodules in the liver whose consequences are the development of portal hypertension and liver failure. Cirrhosis arises from a wide variety of chronic diseases, which progresses slowly after years or decades. Liver cirrhosis is a public health problem. It is usually associated with viral hepatitis, consumption of alcohol, metabolic syndrome, autoimmune processes, storage diseases, toxic substances, and medications. Cirrhosis is the fourteenth most common cause of death in adults throughout the world, the fourth in Europe and the ninth in the United States. The prevalence of this disease is underestimated because it is symptomatic it is not diagnosed in initial stages, and it usually goes to the decompensated stage at a rate of 5 to 7% per year. We review here the epidemiology, pathophysiology, etiology, and diagnosis of liver cirrhosis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0220.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: Acute pancreatitis; Etiology; Biliary pancreatitis; Systematic review; Meta-analysis
Online: 25 February 2019 (08:58:59 CET)
Introduction: Cholelithiasis and consumption of alcohol are the most frequent causes of acute pancreatitis (AP), accounting for about 30 to 40% of the cases, respectively. The frequency of acute biliary pancreatitis is high in a certain population in Brazil. Objective: To estimate the global frequencies of acute biliary pancreatitis (ABP), acute alcoholic pancreatitis (AAP) and the cases considered as acute idiopathic pancreatitis (AIP) in studies published from October 2006 to December 31, 2018. Methods: A systematic review of observational studies was performed from October 2006 to December 31, 2018. A meta-analysis by the random effects model was used to calculate the frequencies of global ABP, AIP and AAP and subgroups. Results: Forty-six studies representing 2,341,007 AP cases were included in 36 countries. The overall estimate for acute biliary pancreatitis (ABP) was 41.6% (95% CI 39.2-44.1), followed by acute alcoholic pancreatitis (AAP) with 20.5% (95% CI) 16.6- 24.6) and acute idiopathic pancreatitis (AIP) in 18.3% (95% CI 15.1-27.7). Conclusion: ABP is the most prevalent etiology of AP, being two times more frequent than second-placed pancreatitis. Latin America has a frequency for ABP much higher than the rest of the world. The importance of the etiologic diagnosis is the treatment of the cause for prevention of recurrence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0100.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: obesity; diabetes; body weight; body composition; glucose tolerance; insulin tolerance; incretin; energy expenditure
Online: 12 February 2019 (10:37:42 CET)
Background/Goals: The gut hormone PYY secreted from intestinal L-cells has been implicated in the mechanisms of satiation via Y2-receptor (Y2R) signaling in the brain and periphery and is a major candidate for mediating the beneficial effects of bariatric surgery on appetite and body weight. Methods: Here we assessed the role of Y2R signaling in the response to low- and high-fat diets and its role in the effects of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery on body weight, body composition, food intake, energy expenditure and glucose handling, in global Y2R-deficient (Y2RKO) and wildtype mice made obese on high-fat diet. Results: Both male and female Y2RKO mice responded normally to low- and high-fat diet in terms of body weight, body composition, fasting levels of glucose and insulin, as well as glucose and insulin tolerance for up to 30 weeks of age. Contrary to expectations, obese Y2RKO mice also responded similarly to RYGB compared to WT mice for up to 20 weeks after surgery, with initial hypophagia, sustained body weight loss, and significant improvements in fasting insulin, glucose tolerance, HOMA-IR, and liver weight compared to sham-operated mice. Furthermore, non-surgical Y2RKO mice weight-matched to RYGB showed the same improvements in glycemic control as Y2RKO mice with RYGB that were similar to WT mice. Conclusions: PYY signaling through Y2R is not required for the normal appetite-suppressing and body weight-lowering effects of RYGB in this global knockout mouse model. Potential compensatory adaptations of PYY signaling through other receptor subtypes or other gut satiety hormones such as GLP-1 remain to be investigated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0070.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: Helicobacter pylori, aspirin, atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, microRNA, methylation
Online: 7 February 2019 (11:30:17 CET)
The risk of gastric cancer (GC) declines after Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication and long-term aspirin use. We evaluated the effects of H. pylori eradication (Cohort 1) and aspirin use (Cohort 2) on the methylation of microRNAs (miRNAs) such as miR-34c, miR-124a-3, miR-129-2, and miR-137 in the gastric mucosa with and without GC, i.e., atrophic mucosa (AM) and intestinal metaplasia (IM). DNA was isolated from AM and IM separately using laser caption microdissection. In Cohort 1, H. pylori eradication was associated with a significant reduction of miR-124a-3 methylation only in AM, but not in IM. miR-129-2 methylation in AM may be a surrogate marker of GC in H. pylori-infected patients. In Cohort 2, aspirin did not reverse miRNA methylation in either AM or IM irrespective of H. pylori infection. miR-129-2 methylation in AM was an independent predictive marker of GC in H. pylori-infected but not -eradicated patients. These results indicate that H. pylori eradication and aspirin use were less effective in improving methylation in IM compared with AM; thus, these interventions are recommended at an early stage prior to the development of IM to prevent GC development.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0133.v1
Online: 14 January 2019 (11:25:46 CET)
Early detection of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) requires further examination after selecting cases with risk factors for the condition, such as family history, hereditary pancreatic carcinoma syndrome, intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms, or chronic pancreatitis. The Japan Study Group on the Early Detection of Pancreatic Cancer has investigated and clarified the clinicopathological features for the early diagnosis of PDAC. Further approaches for the early diagnosis of PDAC are warranted.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0316.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: Stomach, giant, gastrointestinal stromal tumor; treatment
Online: 26 December 2018 (12:29:23 CET)
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors are the mostly seen mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal system and mostly seen at the stomach. We report a case of giant gastrointestinal stromal tumor of the stomach in a 71-year-old woman. The physical examination and radiological findings revealed that a giant mass occupied most of the abdominal cavity. The patient underwent an en-block resection of this giant mass with partial resection of the distal stomach and transverse colon and, reconstruction with gastro-jejunostomy and end-to end colo-colic anatomoses. The histopathologic diagnosis was revealed as gastrointestinal stromal tumor of the stomach. We suggest that complete surgical resection is the only effective radical treatment approach for giant gastrointestinal stromal tumors of the stomach.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0315.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: Duodenum, gastrointestinal stromal tumor; treatment
Online: 26 December 2018 (12:25:28 CET)
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors are the mostly seen mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal system. This rare tumor in duodenum is seen 5%. The diagnosis and treatment is hard because of its rarity and location. Case: A 63-year-old man with a solid mass at the third part of the duodenum, and local segmental resection of the tumor was performed. The histopathology was reported as gastrointestinal stromal tumor of the duodenum with negative surgical margins. Discussion: Gastrointestinal stromal tumors at the duodenum are seen rarely. They can be asymptomatic or may involve symptoms of upper GI bleeding and abdominal pain at presentation. Because of the misleading clinical presentation the differential diagnosis may be difficult. Tumors less than 2 cm can be followed by endoscopic ultrasound. Local segmental resection with 1cm clear margin is the treatment choice.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0244.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: robotic surgery, da Vinci Xi, rectal cancer, vaginal extraction
Online: 20 December 2018 (09:47:08 CET)
Introduction: Novel robotic surgery systems (da Vinci Xi) are superior to classical open and laparoscopic techniques with its clear and three-dimensional view. We aimed to present the first case low anterior resection of rectal cancer and vaginal specimen extraction with Da Vinci Xi.Case: A 75-year-old female patient with rectum adenocarcinoma was undergone robotic-assisted low anterior resection (LAR) of the rectum, vaginal removal of the specimen, colorectal anastomosis and loop ileostomy. The operation time was 190 minutes. There were no postoperative complications. Pathological tumor stage was stage pT1N0 with negative proximal, distal and radial resection margins. The patient was discharged on the third postoperative day.Conclusion: Robot-assisted LAR, total mesorectal excision, vaginal removal of the specimen, colorectal anastomosis, and loop ileostomy can be performed easily and safely with Da Vinci Xi at early stage rectal cancer. And the vaginal extraction of the specimen avoids us from a traditional abdominal incision.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0242.v1
Online: 20 December 2018 (09:14:40 CET)
Colonic lipomas are usually seen as small dimensions in the cecum and ascending colon of elderly women. Many of colon lipomas are asymptomatic and diagnosed incidentally during endoscopy or surgery. As diameter increases it can cause symptoms such as bleeding, obstruction or intussusceptions. 53 years old female patient was admitted to the emergency department with ongoing intermittent abdominal pain more significantly over the past year with nausea and vomiting. On routine physical examinations more pronounced abdominal tenderness and rebound was observed in the right lower quadrant. At blood count leucocytosis was measured as 15,300. Other biochemical parameters were normal. Air-fluid levels were detected on abdominal graphy, bowel dilatation and a mass of 7x5x4 cm in diameters in cecum, compatible with lipoma reported by ultrasound and computed tomography,The patientunderwent laparotomy the mass which cause the lumen almost completely obstructed was palpated in the cecum with proximal bowel dilatation. A right hemicolectomy and ileotransversostomy was performed. Histopathologic examination of the resected specimen was reported as lipoma consisting of grossly compatible with yellow microscopic fatty cells. On the fifth postoperative day the patient was discharged uneventfully without any complaints and complications. We report a case of giant cecal lipoma causing intussusseption who admitted to our clinic and discharged successfully.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0511.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: coeliac disease; Crohn’s disease; dysplasia; histotype; overall survival; tumor infiltrating lymphocyte.
Online: 20 November 2018 (16:43:14 CET)
Small bowel carcinomas (SBC) are uncommon neoplasms, whose predisposing conditions include hereditary syndromes and immune-mediated intestinal disorders, including coeliac disease (CD) and Crohn’s disease (CrD). Although both CD-associated SBC (CD-SBC) and CrD-associated SBC (CrD-SBC) arise from an inflammatory background, they differ substantially in tumour cell phenotype, frequency of microsatellite instability and nuclear β-catenin expression, as well as in prognosis. For these patients, high tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte density and glandular/medullary histotype represent independent positive prognostic factors. Dysplasia adjacent to SBC is rare and characterized by intestinal phenotype and nuclear β-catenin in CD, while it is frequent and typified by gastro-pancreatobiliary marker expression and preserved membranous β-catenin in CrD. Recent evidence suggests that Epstein-Barr virus-positive dysplasia and SBC, albeit exceptional, do exist and are associated with CrD. In this review we summarize the novel pathological and molecular insights of clinical and therapeutic interest to guide the care of CD-SBC and CrD-SBC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0488.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: Crohn’s disease; NOD2 gene; variation; WES.
Online: 20 November 2018 (08:44:01 CET)
The NOD2 gene, involved in innate immune responses to bacterial peptidoglycan, has been found to be strongly associated with Crohn’s Disease, with an Odd Ratio ranging from 3 to 36. Families with 3 or more CD affected patients were related to high frequency of NOD2 gene variations as R702W, G908R, 1007fs and were reported in EPIMAD Registry. However, some rare CD multiplex families were described without identification of common NOD2 linked-to-disease variations. In order to identify new genetic variation(s) with a major effect on Crohn’s disease (CD), whole exome sequencing was performed in available subjects comprising 4 patients on 2 generations affected with Crohn’s disease without R702W and G908R variation, and 3 unaffected related subjects. A new rare and not yet reported missense variation of the NOD2 gene, the N1010K, was detected and co-segregated across affected patients. In silico evaluation and modeling highlighted evidences for a deleterious effect of the N1010K variation regarding CD. Moreover cumulative characterization of N1010K and 1007fs as compound heterozygous state in two more severely CD family members strongly suggesting that the N1010K should be a new risk factor involved in Crohn’s disease genetic susceptibility.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0341.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: colorectal cancer; new technologies; palliative care for colorectal cancer patients; stenting
Online: 15 November 2018 (04:59:37 CET)
BACKGROUND: Endoscopic placement of Self Expandable Metal Stents to relieve malignant colorectal obstruction has become a common therapeutic advancement in clinical practice. MATERIAL: In a 16 year period 167 patients had endoscopic placement of a Self Expandable Metal Stent in a center where gastroenterologists and surgeons cooperate in a daily basis, discussing indications. RESULTS: There was no operative mortality and no major complication in placement of the stent. Technical and clinical success was respectively 95.1% and 92.9%. Consultation among specialists changed the preoperative indication in 60 patients, during the same time period. CONCLUSIONS: Self expandable metal stents placement represents an important tool to treat patients with obstructing colorectal cancer and complications after colorectal resection . A proper training is required, and this training in operative endoscopy is not always available and possible. In this scenario, a close collaboration among specialists in selecting the most appropriate operative procedure is essential and brings to better results.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0554.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: gut brain axis; microbiota; functional gastrointestinal disorders
Online: 24 October 2018 (07:41:58 CEST)
The central nervous system (CNS) and the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract communicate through the gut-brain axis (GBA). Such communication is bi-directional and involves neuronal, endocrine and immunological mechanisms. The scientific data are mounting that gut microbiota is a source of a number of neuroactive and immunocompetent substances, which shape the structure and function of brain regions involved in control of emotions, physical activity and cognition. Most of GI maladies are associated with altered transmission within the GBA and influenced both by genetic and environmental factors. Current treatment protocols widely advocated for the treatment of GI disorders may positively or adversely affect the composition of intestinal microbiota with diverse impact on therapeutic outcome. The alterations of gut microbiota have been associated with mood and depressive disorders. and mental health is frequently altered in the course of many GI and non-GI ailments. Deregulation of the GBA may constitute a grip point for the development of diagnostic tools and personalized microbiota-based therapy. For example next generation sequencing (NGS) offers detailed analysis of microbiome footprints in patients with mental and GI disorders. Psychobiotics are new class of beneficial bacteria, with documented efficacy in the treatment of gut-brain axis disorders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0521.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: alcohol-induced Golgi disorganization; Golgi recovery; giantin; hepatic proteins; ethanol withdrawal
Online: 23 October 2018 (06:10:04 CEST)
Background: In hepatocytes and alcohol-metabolizing cultured cells, Golgi undergoes ethanol (EtOH)-induced disorganization. Periniclear and organized Golgi is important in liver homeostasis, but how the Golgi remains intact is unknown. Work from our laboratories showed that EtOH-altered cellular function could be reversed after alcohol removal; we wanted to determine whether this recovery would apply to Golgi. Methods: We used alcohol-metabolizing HepG2 (VA-13) cells (cultured with or without EtOH for 72 h) and rat hepatocytes (control and EtOH-fed (Lieber-DeCarli diet). For recovery, EtOH was removed and replenished with control medium (48 hours for VA-13 cells) or control diet (10 days for rats). Results: EtOH-induced Golgi disassembly was associated with de-dimerization of the largest Golgi matrix protein giantin, along with impaired transport of selected hepatic proteins. After recovery from EtOH, Golgi regained their compact structure, and alterations in giantin and protein transport were restored. In VA-13 cells, when we knocked down giantin, Rab6a GTPase or non-muscle Myosin IIB, minimal changes were observed in control conditions, but post-EtOH recovery was impaired. Conclusions: These data provide a link between Golgi organization and plasma membrane protein expression and identify several proteins whose expression is important to maintain Golgi structure during the recovery phase after EtOH administration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0496.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: zinc, HCC, liver function, Zn concentration
Online: 22 October 2018 (12:38:25 CEST)
Background and Aim: Zinc plays a pivotal role in various zinc enzymes, resulting in the maintenance of liver function. Patients with chronic liver diseases (CLDs) usually have lower concentrations of zinc, which decrease further as liver fibrosis progresses. It remains unknown whether long-term zinc supplementation improves liver function and reduces the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development. Patients and Methods: Two hundred sixty-seven patients with CLDs who received a zinc preparation (Zn-group; 196 patients), or who did not receive zinc (no Zn-treatment group; 71 patients) were retrospectively analyzed in this study. The Zn-group was divided into 4 groups according to their serum Zn concentrations at 6 months after the start of Zn treatment. Results: Liver function significantly deteriorated in the no Zn-treatment group, while no notable change was observed in the Zn-group. The cumulative incidence rates of events and HCC at 3 years were lower in the Zn-group (9.5%, 7.6%) than in the no Zn-treatment group (24.9%, 19.2%) (p<0.001). According to the serum Zn concentrations, the cumulative incidence rates of events and HCC were significantly decreased in patients with Zn concentrations ≥ 70 µg/dl (p<0.001). Conclusion: Zinc supplementation appears to be effective at maintaining liver function and suppressing events and HCC development, especially among patients whose Zn concentration is greater than 70 µg/dl.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0450.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: hepatocellular carcinoma; natural killer cell
Online: 19 October 2018 (11:09:02 CEST)
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is currently the third leading cause of malignancy-related mortalities worldwide. Natural killer (NK) cells are involved in the critical role of first line immunological defense against cancer development. Defects in NK cell functions are recognized as important mechanisms for immune evasion of tumor cells. NK cell function appears to be attenuated in HCC, and many previous reports suggested that NK cells play a critical role in controlling HCC, suggesting that boosting the activity of dysfunctional NK cells can enhance tumor cell killing. However, the detailed mechanisms of NK cell dysfunction in tumor microenvironment of HCC remain largely unknown. A better understanding of the mechanisms of NK cell dysfunction in HCC will help in the NK cell-mediated eradication of cancer cells and prolong patient survival. In this review, we describe the various mechanisms underlying NK cell dysfunction in HCC. Further, we summarize current advances in the approaches to enhance endogenous NK cell function and in adoptive NK cell therapies, to cure this difficult-to-treat cancer.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0429.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: Copper; fructose; Kupffer cell (KC); iron; non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); metabolic syndrome; gut microbiota
Online: 18 October 2018 (16:57:06 CEST)
Compelling epidemiologic data support the critical role of dietary fructose in the epidemic of obesity, metabolic syndrome and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The metabolic effects of fructose on the development of metabolic syndrome and NAFLD are not completely understood. High fructose intake impairs copper status, and copper-fructose interactions have been well documented in rats. Altered copper-fructose metabolism leads to exacerbated experimental metabolic syndrome and NAFLD. A growing body of evidence has demonstrated that copper levels are low in NAFLD patients. Moreover, hepatic and serum copper levels are inversely correlated with the severity of NAFLD. Thus, high fructose consumption and low copper availability are considered two important risk factors in NAFLD. However, the causal effect of copper-fructose interactions as well as the effects of fructose intake on copper status remain to be evaluated in humans. The aim of this review is to summarize the role of copper-fructose interactions in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome and discuss the potential underlying mechanisms. This review will shed light on the role of copper homeostasis and high fructose intake and point to copper-fructose interactions as novel mechanisms in the fructose induced NAFLD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0423.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: Crohn’s disease, dietary intake, malnutrition, Mediterranean diet
Online: 18 October 2018 (12:03:28 CEST)
The purpose of this study was to (a) compare macro- and micronutrient intakes between male and female CD patients (b) compare micronutrient intakes of CD patients to a representative population of healthy individuals, and; (c) describe Mediterranean diet scores (P-MDS) of male and female CD patients in remission recruited from an IBD clinic in Calgary, AB. Consecutive patients with ileal and/or colonic CD in endoscopic remission were recruited for participation in this cross-sectional study. Sixty-seven patients were enrolled, with a mean age of 45, and a BMI ≥ 25. Compared with the healthy population, patients with CD had similar energy, protein, carbohydrate and total fat intake. However, PUFA, omega-6 and 3 and MUFA were lower in CD patients and dietary fibre intake was higher. Vitamins C, D, thiamin, niacin, magnesium, phosphorus, zinc and potassium were all significantly lower in all CD patients compared to a healthy population. Few patients with CD met P-MDS criteria for olive oil, vegetable, legumes, and fish intake or consuming Sofrito sauce (mean 4.5, SD=1.1 in males and 4.7, SD=1.8 in females). Patients with CD in remission have suboptimal dietary intakes and patterns and targeted dietary interventions may be beneficial in this population to improve intake.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0324.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: celiac disease; gluten-free diet; effectiveness; adherence; nutritionists; clinic; serology; duodenal biopsies; structured questionnaires; peptides derived from gluten in feces and urine.
Online: 15 October 2018 (16:27:32 CEST)
Celiac disease (CD) is a genetically conditioned autoimmune process that appears in susceptible people. It can affect people of any age, and slightly predominates in females. It has a fairly homogenous global distribution, with an average prevalence of 1-2%, the frequency having increased in recent decades. The only effective treatment is a strict and permanent gluten-free diet (GFD), although the level of compliance with it is poor, at about 50% of cases. To monitor the effectiveness of the GFD, several procedures involving various approaches are employed: a) periodic interviews by nutritionists; b) clinical follow-up; c) serological controls of specific antibodies; d) endoscopies with collection of duodenal biopsies; e) structured questionnaires; f) determination of gluten peptides derived from gluten in feces and/or urine. All of these procedures are useful when applied, alone or in combination, depending on the cases. Some patients will only need to consult to their doctors, while others will require a multidisciplinary approach to assess their compliance with the GFD. In children, normalization of duodenal mucosa was achieved in 95% of cases within 2 years, while it is more delayed in adults, whose mucosa take longer to heal completely.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0201.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: hepatitis c viruses; hepatitis e virus; dentists
Online: 10 October 2018 (05:21:20 CEST)
Health care workers (HCWs), specifically dentists, are at the front line for acquiring blood-borne virus infections. The highest proportion of occupational transmission is through percutaneous injuries via hollow-bore needles. Several studies around the world have reported that hepatitis viruses and human immunodeficiency virus are the main pathogens for most cases of occupationally acquired blood-borne infection. We aim to investigate the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis E virus (HEV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among Mexican dentists. Methods. We included 159 dentists who attended the annual meeting at the Medica Sur Clinic & Foundation held in Mexico City in May 2016. A survey was applied in order to obtain data of occupational exposure to blood-borne viruses (BBV). Serum samples were screened serologically using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Results. Two dentists (1.2%) were positive for antibodies against HCV antigen, one (0.6%) was positive for antibodies against HBV antigen and three (1.8%) were positive for the detection of IgG antibodies against HEV. Two cases (1.2%) were positive for antibodies against HIV. Conclusions. The infection by HEV was the most prevalent among dentists. However, the prevalence of BBV in dentists was similar to that in the general population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0590.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: acute appendicitis; complicated appendicitis; laparoscopic appendectomy; intraabdominal abscess
Online: 29 September 2018 (10:51:00 CEST)
Background: To investigate the preoperative clinical and radiological factors that predict the development of a postoperative intraabdominal abscess (IAA) in patients with acute appendicitis who were treated by laparoscopic appendectomy (LA). Methods: Two hundred sixteen patients with pathologically proven acute appendicitis underwent LA between January 2013 and March 2018 in our department. Of these, 147 patients were diagnosed with complicated appendicitis (CA) (CA group), while the other 69 patients were diagnosed with simple appendicitis (SA) (SA group). We compared the perioperative clinical and radiographic factors between the two groups and investigated the predictive factors of postoperative IAA. Results: Sixteen patients developed postoperative IAA in the CA group, while no patients did in the SA group. The univariate analysis revealed that time from onset to surgery more than 3 days (p = 0.011), the preoperative CT finding of periappendiceal fluid (p = 0.003), abscess (p < 0.001), and free air (p <0.001), operation time more than 120 minutes (p = 0.023) and placement of a drainage tube (p <0.001) were significantly associated with the development of IAA. Multivariate analysis revealed that the preoperative CT finding of free air was independently associated with the development of IAA (p = 0.007, odds ratio = 5.427). Conclusions: IAA was developed predominantly in the patients with CA. Preoperative CT findings of free air was found to be an independent predictor for the development of IAA. Surgeons should be meticulous in managing the postoperative course of patients with this finding.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0397.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: lactobacilli; bifidobacilli; arthritis; inflammatory bowel; microbiome; metabolomics; aryl hydrocarbon reductase; adenosine; histamine; short chain fatty acid
Online: 20 September 2018 (05:12:00 CEST)
Probiotics have been used to ameliorate gastrointestinal symptoms since ancient times. Over the past 40 years, probiotics have been shown to exert major effects on the immune system, both in vivo and in vitro. This interaction is clearly linked to gut microbes, their polysaccharide antigens, and key metabolites produced by these bacteria. At least four metabolic pathways have been implicated in mechanistic studies of probiotics, based on carefully studied animal models. Microbial-immune system crosstalk has been linked to short chain fatty acid production and signaling, tryptophan metabolism and the activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptors, nucleoside signaling in the gut, and activation of the intestinal histamine-2 receptor. Several randomized controlled trials have now shown that microbial modification by probiotics may improve gastrointestinal symptoms and multi-organ inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis, ulcerative colitis, and multiple sclerosis. Future work will need to carefully assess safety issues, selection of optimal strains and combinations, and attempts to prolong the duration of colonization of beneficial microbes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0268.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: Liver; NAFLD; NASH; Biomarkers; Reactive Species; Oxidative Stress; Lipid Peroxidation; Antioxidants.
Online: 14 September 2018 (14:11:31 CEST)
Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) is a term that covers a range of hepatic disorders involving fat deposits in the liver. NAFLD begins with simple steatosis and progresses into non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) characterised by inflammation, fibrosis, apoptosis, oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial dysfunction and release of adipokines and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Oxidative stress and antioxidants are known to play a vital role in the pathogenesis and severity of NAFLD/NASH. A number of oxidative stress and antioxidant markers are employed in the assessment of the pathological state and progression of the disease. In this article, we review several biomarkers of oxidative stress and antioxidants that have been measured at clinical and experimental levels. The levels/ activity in various models reviewed are also included. Also included is a comprehensive description of oxidative stress, sources and contribution to the pathogenesis of NAFLD/NASH
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0133.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: cell migration; hepatic stellate cell; TGF-β1; Rap1; RhoA; NF-κB
Online: 7 September 2018 (12:19:49 CEST)
Although the migration of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is important for hepatic fibrosis, the regulation of HSC migration is poorly understood. Interestingly, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 induces monocyte migration to sites of injury or inflammation in the early phase but inhibits cell migration in the late phase. In this study, we investigated the role of RhoA signaling in TGF-β1-induced HSC migration. We found that TGF-β1 increased the protein and mRNA levels of α-SMA and collagen type I in HSC-T6 cells. The level of RhoA-GTP in TGF-β1-stimulated cells was significantly higher than that in control cells. Moreover, cofilin phosphorylation and F-actin formation was more strongly detected in TGF-β1-stimulated cells than in control cells. Additionally, TGF-β1 induced the activation of NF-κB and the expression of extracellular matrix proteins and several cytokines in HSC-T6 cells. The active form of Rap1 (Rap1 V12) suppressed RhoA-GTP levels, whereas the dominant negative form of Rap1 (Rap1 N17) augmented RhoA-GTP levels. Therefore, we confirmed that Rap1 regulates RhoA activation in TGF-β1-stimulated HSC-T6 cells. These findings suggest that TGF-β1 regulates Rap1, resulting in RhoA suppression, NF-κB activation and F-actin formation during the migration of HSCs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0525.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: 4-Hydroxynonenal; lipid peroxidation; redox balance; oxidative stress; stomach; peptic ulcer; gastritis; Helicobacter pylori; gastric cancer; non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs-induced gastropathy
Online: 23 August 2018 (04:24:43 CEST)
Maintenance of integrity and function of the gastric mucosa (GM) requires a high regeneration rate of epithelial cells during the whole life span. The health of the gastric epithelium highly depends on redox homeostasis, antioxidant defense and activity of detoxifying systems within the cells as well as robustness of blood supply. Bioactive products of lipid peroxidation, in particular second messengers of free radicals, the bellwether of which is 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), are important mediators in physiological adaptive reactions and signaling but they are also thought to be implicated in the pathogenesis of numerous gastric diseases. Molecular mechanisms and consequences of increased production of HNE and its protein adducts in response to stressors during acute and chronic gastric injury are well studied. However, several important issues related to the role of HNE in gastric carcinogenesis, tumor growth and progression, the condition of GM after eradication of Helicobacter pylori, or the relevance of antioxidants for HNE-related redox homeostasis in GM still need more studies and new comprehensive approaches. In this regard, preclinical studies and clinical intervention trials are required, which should also include the use of state-of-the-art analytical techniques such as HNE determination by immunohistochemistry and ELISA as well as modern mass-spectroscopy methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0247.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: vitamin D receptor, cytokines, miR-346, primary sclerosing cholangitis, colorectal cancer
Online: 13 July 2018 (17:36:38 CEST)
Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a cholestatic liver disorder frequently associated with ulcerative colitis (UC). Patients with PSC and UC have higher risk of colorectal neoplasia than patients with UC without PSC. Oncogenic properties of micro RNA 346 (miR-346) have been recently reported. In this study we investigated expressions of miR-346 and its two target genes i.e. the receptor of vitamin D (VDR) and the tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), which are known to modulate carcinogenesis. Biopsies from ascending and sigmoid colon were obtained from patients with PSC with and without UC, patients with UC and healthy controls. MiR-346 expression was increased in ascending but not sigmoid colon of patients with PSC and UC when compared to other analyzed groups (p<0.001 for all). In patients with UC an exceptionally low colonic expression of miRNA-346 was accompanied by the increase in VDR expression, and the extensive upregulation of TNF-α gene which protein product is known to be cytotoxic to tumor cells at high concentration. In summary, a substantial upregulation of miRNA-346 in ascending colon of patients with PSC and UC may be responsible for the inhibition of VDR and TNF-α signaling -pathway which may result in an inadequate suppression of neoplasia.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0390.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD); colitis; PET; SPECT; microbiota; cytokine; chemokine; inflammation
Online: 25 June 2018 (12:57:48 CEST)
Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) is characterized by chronic remitting and relapsing inflammation of the lower gastrointestinal tract. The etiology underlying IBD remains unknown but is thought to involve a hypersensitive immune response to environmental antigen, including the microbiota. Diagnosis and monitoring of disease is heavily reliant on endoscopy, which is invasive and does not provide information regarding specific mediators. This review describes recent developments in imaging of IBD with a focus on PET and SPECT imaging of inflammatory mediators, and how this may be applied to the microbiota.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0129.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: BET inhibitors; HDAC inhibitors; pancreatic cancer; aberrant transcription; enhancers; transcription factors; distal regulatory elements; MYC; FOXA1; BRD4
Online: 8 May 2018 (10:47:27 CEST)
While the mortality rates of cancer are generally declining, pancreatic cancer persists to be an exception with a 5-year-survival rate of less than 7%. Late diagnosis and resistance to conventional therapies contribute to high mortality rates in spite of the remarkable recent advances in cancer management and research. Consequently, there is an urgent need to find new and unconventional therapeutic targets to improve prognosis and survival of pancreatic cancer patients. In this review, we discuss the transcriptional effects of the most widely used epigenetic inhibitors in pancreatic cancer focusing on Bromodomain and Extraterminal domain (BET) and Histone Deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, which are currently highly promising therapeutic options. We suggest that these inhibitors can be better utilized at lower doses which exploit their transcriptional modulatory effects on pancreatic cancer transcriptional programs directed by specific factors such as MYC and FOXA1, rather than simply based on their anti-proliferative effects. This approach can potentially help avoid the intolerable adverse events frequently elicited by the use of these treatments at higher doses. In particular, we underscore the crucial role of distal regulatory elements in mediating the specific effects of these epigenetic inhibitors and propose using them in a more selective and prudent manner.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0199.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: ultrasound; strain elastography; quantification; strain ratio; strain quantification; measurement variability; pancreas; EUS; Crohn’s disease; carcinoma
Online: 16 April 2018 (08:56:58 CEST)
1) Background: Ultrasound-based strain imaging is now available in several ultrasound (US) scanners. Strain ratio (SR) can be used to quantify strain recorded simultaneously in two different user-selected areas, ideally exposed to the same amount of stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate SR variability when assessed in an in-vitro setup with a tissue-mimicking phantom, on resected tissue samples and in live tissue scanning with endoscopic applications. 2) Material and methods: Retrospective analysis of SR for quantification of elastic contrasts in a tissue-mimicking phantom containing four homogenous inclusions, in 38 resected bowel wall lesions and in 48 focal pancreatic lesions examined in vivo. Median SR and the inter-quartile range (IQR) was calculated on all external and endoscopic US-applications. The IQR/median provides a measure of the SR variability focusing on the two percentiles of the data closest to the median value. 3) Results: The overall variability of SR was lowest in a tissue-mimicking phantom (mean QR/median SR: 0.07). In resected bowel wall lesions representing adenomas, adenocarcinomas or Crohn lesions, the variability increased (mean IQR/Median: 0.62). During an endoscopic examination of focal pancreatic lesions in vivo, the variability increased further (mean IQR/Median: 2.04). 4) Conclusion: SR variability increased when assessed on different targets with growing heterogeneity and biological variability as one moved from homogeneous media to live tissues and endoscopic application. This may indicate a limitation for the accuracy SR evaluation in clinical applications.