REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1898.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Digital Divide; Empowerment; Assistive Technology; Artificial Intelligence
Online: 29 November 2023 (15:24:09 CET)
Digital literacy is the ability to use digital technologies to find, evaluate, create, and communicate information. People with disabilities benefit from having these skills because they allow them to access various opportunities in the digital world. To ensure that they can fully participate in the digital realm, digital literacy efforts should prioritize inclusive design principles. People with disabilities often rely on assistive technologies such as screen readers, alternative input devices, voice recognition software, or specialized hardware to navigate digital platforms. Digital literacy programs should not only focus on consuming content but also on creating and sharing it through documents, multimedia, and online platforms. Peer support and collaboration are important for enhancing their learning experience. Additionally, digital literacy programs address cybersecurity or online safety considerations specific to such people and provide them training and support for using assistive technologies effectively while educating them about potential risks, privacy settings, and safe online practices. This narrative review highights the meaning and levels of digital literacy, digital divide, history, before expanding on the quantative metrics in the available research on the theme of people with disabilities. Retrieved data from freely accessible internet search engines revealed 196 publications, including books, chapters in books, original research articles, proceedings of seminars, and reviews, which were classified into harvest plots to be analyzed by their format, timelines, topics, or themes, respectively. While results indicate an upward curve in the quantity of publications, especially in the post-millennium era, the topics addressed are unevenly distributed, leaving scope for the future to focus empirical and evidence based research on themes related to measurement as well as training on digital literacies for both teachers and students with disabilities. By promoting digital literacy in people with disabilities, we can bridge the digital divide and empower them to participate fully in today's increasingly digital society.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1664.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: MCI; eye tracking; cognitive therapy
Online: 27 November 2023 (11:37:50 CET)
Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) may progress to severe forms of dementia, so therapy is needed to maintain cognitive abilities. The neural circuitry for oculomotor control is closely linked to that which controls cognitive behavior. In this study, we tested whether training the oculomotor system with gaze-controlled video games could improve cognitive behavior in MCI patients. Patients played a simple game for a month while a control group played the same game using a mouse. Cognitive improvement was assessed using the MoCA screening test and CANTAB. We also measured eye pupil and vergence responses in an oddball paradigm. The results showed an increased score on the MoCA test specifically for the visuospatial domain and on the Rapid Visual Information Processing test of the CANTAB battery. Pupil responses also increased to target stimuli. Patients in the control group did not show significant improvements. This pilot study provides evidence for the potential cognitive benefits of gaze-controlled gaming in MCI patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1572.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Mental Health; Digital Health; Interaction; User Experience; Participatory Design; Telehealth
Online: 26 November 2023 (05:35:02 CET)
User experience-related challenges play a significant part in user-technology interactions. However, design processes have not always kept up with the evolving needs of users in terms of technology interactions. This paper aims to present the design, structure and evaluation of an integrated mental health intervention platform (AMGR-I), emphasizing the importance of user-centred design and engagement in addressing the evolving needs of users in technology interactions, specifically focusing on individuals with mental health disorders. The AMGR-I pilot platform integrates community, e-learning, and care sub-platforms to provide a holistic approach to mental health intervention. The study utilizes participatory design research with targeted users to gather insights into user preferences and expectations. By involving the targeted audience in the design process, the platform’s user-centered design can be improved effectively. The platform recognizes the changing view of users, who now seek products that deliver pleasure, enjoyment, engagement, and embodiment. This research contributes to the field by highlighting the importance of user-centered design in the development of a comprehensive platform for mental health support.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1932.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: coping strategies; neuropsychology; interventions; stress pathways; clinical settings
Online: 30 October 2023 (12:54:28 CET)
The primary focus of this review is to explore the application and significance of coping strategies within the domains of clinical psychology and neuropsychology. These strategies consist of a variety of techniques, behaviors, and cognitive interventions, and their critical role in reinforcing resilience and facilitating adaptive responses to stressors has been highlighted. At the core of this exploration, the intricate neuropsychological relationship between brain stress pathways and the application of coping mechanisms has been analyzed. The neural aspects of stress, and how they can be influenced by adaptive strategies, are detailed, illustrating the profound impact these coping mechanisms have at a neurobiological level. Delving into the neuropsychological underpinnings, this review will shed light on how stress response pathways in the brain interact with, and can be modulated by, various coping strategies. These mechanisms are particularly salient when addressing the multifaceted challenges faced by individuals with neuropsychological or mental health issues. While these strategies span a broad spectrum, from introspection and cognitive reframing to behavioral activation and social support seeking, their integration and application remain diverse within clinical contexts. This review endeavors to elucidate the theoretical underpinnings of these strategies, their empirical support, and their practical implications within therapeutic interventions. Furthermore, the intricate interplay between individualized coping techniques and structured therapeutic methodologies will be examined, emphasizing the potential for a holistic treatment paradigm, thereby enhancing therapeutic outcomes and fostering individual resilience.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1062.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Internet Addiction Test; Reduced Version; Factorial Analysis; Youth
Online: 17 October 2023 (09:27:19 CEST)
This study adapted and assessed a shortened version of the IAT (Internet Addiction Test) scale completed by young people aged 12 years and older regarding their online behaviors and risk of online addiction. The psychometric qualities of the reduced version - Screening IAT - youth are presented in order to validate its use in the early detection of online addiction. The total sample is composed of 3021 participants being 55.9% female and 44.1% male, with a mean age of x ̅=15 years (σ=3.028), attending junior high school (56.2%), high school (37.8%) and college (5.9%). The procedure included a factorial analysis, in which the total sample was randomly divided into three samples. An exploratory factor analysis was performed with one part of the sample, and a confirmatory factor analysis was performed with the others parts, assessing internal consistency, construct reliability, and discriminant validity. The results indicate that this reduced version of the IAT for young people has good psychometric qualities and can be applied in research and clinical settings. With this version and the parent-teacher version there is a direct contribution to a tripartite assessment of internet addiction risk.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1378.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD / CRPD); Social Work Practice; Mental Health Social Work Practice; Mental Health and Capacity Law reform; Human Rights; Supported Decision-Making; Social Model of Disability
Online: 21 September 2023 (03:20:41 CEST)
The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (hereafter CRPD) has provided a radical imperative for the reform of mental health and capacity legislation around the world. The interpretation of the CRPD has been controversial, ranging from complete abolition of detention, forcible treatment and substitute decision making, to acceptance that elements of these measures need to be retained but based on non-discriminatory criteria, additional safe-guards and a comprehensive shift towards supported decision-making. While the potential ef-fects of the CRPD on mental health social work and social work generally are considerable given their shared commitment towards social justice, to date there has been no review of research evi-dence exploring their relationship. In addressing this knowledge gap, this study held a prelimi-nary discussion with practitioners and academics at the European Association of Social Work Mental Health Special Interest Group in Amsterdam 2022, followed by a scoping literature re-view on the question: What impact, if any, has the CRPD had on social work practice? The review produced four main findings: impact on legislation; positive impact on practice; limited impact on practice; and impact on social work education and research. In sum, while there were some positive indications of social work and mental health social work practice being influenced by the CRPD, these were scant. Barriers to change included tendencies among some social workers to practise substitute decision-making, in part related to resourcing and policy contexts, and under-standings of disability aligned to individualised/medical rather than social perspectives. The results indicate that legal reform on its own is insufficient to impact social work practice, and that realising the potential of the CRPD will necessitate good quality training, as well as improv-ing social workers’ knowledge of the human rights of people with mental impairment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0056.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: mindfulness; mindfulness awareness attention scale; construct validity; concurrent validity; reliability
Online: 1 September 2023 (10:08:45 CEST)
Mindfulness interventions have been implemented in many countries. This study aimed to examine the psychometric properties of English and Thai-version of the 15-item mindfulness attention awareness scale (MAAS) across five samples. A descriptive correlation research was conducted in the Philippines and Thailand, and five data sets were generated using self-reported and online questionnaires. Exploratory factor analyses were used to explore the factorial structure of the MAAS. Confirmatory factor analyses were performed to test measurement invariance across samples. Concurrent validity was tested by examining relationships between the MAAS and psychological well-being (PWB). A unidimensional structure of the MAAS was documented across the five samples. The MAAS demonstrated measurement invariance across samples for both English and Thai versions. Concurrent validity was displayed through significant correlations with PWB. This study produced evidence to support the construct validity, concurrent validity, and reliability of the English and Thai versions of MAAS. This study was not registered.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1876.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: acute myocardial infarction; anxiety; depression; stress; symptom self-management intervention; virtual reality device
Online: 29 August 2023 (03:42:07 CEST)
Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. This study aimed to test the efficacy of a newly-developed symptom self-management program on health outcomes among inpatients post-AMI. A pilot randomised, controlled trial was utilised. A convenience sample of 90 was recruited from a tertiary hospital in Singapore. Adult inpatients with post-AMI were randomly assigned to the three groups: IManage-HSet, IManage-FF or control group. Sample size was computed using power analysis. Data were collected through self-reported questionnaires and physiological instruments. Data analyses included univariate statistics, analysis of variance and repeated measure analysis of variance. Ninety participants were recruited with 30 in each group. Participants in the IManage-HSet and IManage-FF group had significantly greater relaxation (ηp2 = 0.11), lower objective stress (ηp2 =0.14), and greater knowledge (ηp2 = 0.62) than those of the control group. The two intervention groups had lower subjective stress (ηp2 = 0.04), depression (ηp2 = 0.01), and anxiety (ηp2 = 0.03) than the control but such differences did not achieve statistical significance. Furthermore, most participants reported that they were satisfied with the programs and they provided positive comments on the contents, educational materials and relaxation practice. This pilot study supports the potential benefits and feasibility of the IManage-VR and IManage-FF interventions on stress, perceived relaxation, knowledge and patient satisfaction. Contents of the symptom management interventions could be added into current cardiac rehabilitation programs. Future RCTs with multi-centered sites and larger sample size are required to further test the intervention. This study was prospectively registered with the International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial on the 5th August 2014 with registration number ISRCTN61027816.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1896.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: trafficked youth and trauma; ACEs; early maternal age; teen pregnancy; exploitation and trauma; self-harm; psychological trauma
Online: 18 August 2023 (07:25:07 CEST)
The impact of early maternal age on several outcomes (e.g. mental health issues, delinquency, aggression, impulsivity, victimization and interpersonal difficulties) has been studied since the late 1980s. Research has demonstrated links between exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and trauma related outcomes such as substance abuse, interpersonal and self-directed violence, and sexual risk-taking, to name a few. The current study analyzed the incidence of ACE exposure and mental health outcomes (e.g. suicidal behaviors or self-harm, psychiatric hospitalizations, and substance use) as related to early maternal age in youth known to have experienced trafficking or sexual abuse. General demographics and incidence of various experiences and clinical presentations (e.g. ACE exposure, age of mother at birth of youth and age at first birth), and history of self-harm, substance use and psychiatric hospitalization were examined in a sample of 225 youth referred for services subsequent to experiences of sex trafficking or exploitation. Relationships between ACE exposure and maternal age related to mental health outcomes was also examined. Trafficked and exploited youth reported rates of ACE exposure and poor mental health outcomes at far greater rates than the general population. Significant findings were related to early maternal age and engaging in self-harm or suicidal behaviors. Previously anticipated mediational analyses were not conducted due to the sample size and lack of correlations. Findings highlight the significant ACE exposure and high needs of exploited, trafficked and abused youth and related mental health outcomes, emphasizing the need for early and comprehensive preventive and therapeutic interventions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0611.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Taiwanese indigenous people; cultural health stations; life review; cultural element; mental health
Online: 9 August 2023 (07:07:20 CEST)
In order to cope with the challenges of physical and psychological aging in the indigenous people in Taiwan, most of the tribes in Taiwan set up cultural health stations for indigenous elderly. These community care facilities have practiced many health promotion activities, such as the reminiscence, life review, and arts activity. However, there was little exploration into the benefit of indigenous people’s practice the life review activity in Taiwan—the gap this study aimed to fill. This study adopts life review therapy through a set of innovative life review activity designs in indigenous older adults, including activity planning, and indigenous cultural elements. A qualitative study design using semi-structured interviews was used to obtain data from a purposive sample. Ten participants who assessed to the cultural health stations services and participated in the life review activities of the indigenous older adults in southern Taiwan were interviewed individually. The data were analyzed using Graneheim and Lundman’s qualitative content analysis. The theme—“experiences and benefits of participating”—and two categories with six subcategories emerged. The results demonstrated that the participation of the indigenous elderly in life review activities with cultural elements had obvious benefits for their mental health. Life review therapy can be incorporated as a supplementary LTC treatment for the indigenous people, thereby, promoting the positive emotions of the indigenous elderly.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1914.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Artificial Intelligence; parents; health; child psychology
Online: 28 July 2023 (12:54:31 CEST)
Artificial Intelligence (AI) has become a hopeful tool for helping parents with different parts of raising children by giving them personalized tips, evidence-based methods, and timely solutions. This paper talks about the difficulties and possibilities of using AI to help parents. It also talks about the possible benefits and its impact on child psychology. There are a lot of ways that AI can help parents, from giving personalized advice that fits the needs of each family to intervening quickly when it spots early signs of developmental problems or parenting stress. AI makes it easier for parents to find tools, workshops, and interactive modules that are based on research. This gives parents the knowledge and trust they need to make choices about their child's growth that are based on facts. Also, AI-powered support can connect parents with similar problems, creating a sense of community and making it less embarrassing to ask for help with parenting or mental health. But there are a few problems that need to be carefully dealt with before AI can be used to help parents in a responsible and effective way. Data privacy and security are very important to protect families' safety and well-being. Important things to think about are the ethical use of data, transparency, and educated permission. Also, the accuracy and dependability of AI programs are very important when it comes to giving good advise and suggestions. To make sure everyone gets fair and equal help, efforts must be made to find and get rid of flaws. Also, AI shouldn't replace human sense and experience; it should add to them. When parents rely too much on AI, they might forget how important human contact and mental support are. To accommodate different parenting styles and views, it is important to be sensitive to culture and circumstances. In conclusion, AI-powered parenting support has a lot of promise to help parents be better parents and help children grow and learn. AI can be a useful tool for helping parents if it can solve problems related to data privacy, ethics, reducing bias, and working together with humans. Finding a balance between technology progress and human connection is important if AI is to be used to its fullest potential to give parents more power and help children grow in the best way possible.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1498.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: mental health; public schooling; self-directed learning; standardized learning; positive psychosocial outcomes; John Dewey; COVID-19; online learning; Google Scholar
Online: 21 June 2023 (09:33:09 CEST)
Negative mental health in students currently is classified as a global crisis with the highest and lowest student achievers recognized at greatest risk. Public schooling, in reproducing accepted psychosocial beliefs through standardized learning, developed separately from necessitating student mental health, in contrast to self-directed learning. Differing from standardized learning, the objective of self-directed learning in public schools is the creation of relevant support structures for student mental health, promoting positive psychosocial outcomes. The designed separation of public schooling from both mental health and self-directed learning was first acknowledged—and lamented—by John Dewey, over 100 years ago, in anticipating today’s mental health crisis. Yet, in responding effectively to the limitations of COVID-19, self-directed learning became an acknowledged learning method in public schools, potentially able to be accommodated by them regularly in support of mental health through the use of online technology. This study investigates the COVID-19 results of self-directed online learning in public schools through a Google Scholar search of peer reviewed research regarding self-directed learning, online learning, and mental health during COVID-19, recommending support for self-initiated self-directed online learning so that self-directed learning can continue, post COVID-19, improving student mental health in public schools, leading to positive psychosocial outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0920.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: depressive symptoms; older adults; geriatric depression scale; depression screening
Online: 13 June 2023 (10:07:25 CEST)
Although the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) is a well-established instrument for the assessment of depressive symptoms in older adults, this has not been validated specifically for Portuguese cognitively impaired persons. The objective of this study was to analyze the psychometric properties of two Portuguese versions of the GDS (GDS-27 and GDS-15) in a Portuguese mild-to-moderate cognitively impaired sample. Clinicians assessed for major depressive disorder and cognitive functioning in 117 participants with mild to moderate cognitive decline (76.9% female, Mage = 83.66 years). The internal consistency of GDS-27 and GDS-15 were 0.874 and 0.812, respectively. There was a significant correlation between GDS-27 and GDS-15 with Beck Depression Inventory-II GDS-27: rho = 0.738, p < 0.001; GDS-15: rho = 0.760, p < 0.001), suggesting good validity. A cutoff point of 15/16 in GDS-27 and 8/9 in GDS-15 resulted in identification of persons with depression (GDS-27: sensitivity 100%, specificity 63%; GDS-15: sensitivity 90%, specificity 62%). Overall, the GDS-27 and GDS-15 are reliable and valid instruments for the assessment of depression in Portuguese-speaking cognitively impaired persons.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0845.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: shame; stigma; cancer of the head and neck; psychometric
Online: 12 June 2023 (13:47:59 CEST)
Cancers of the head and ne¬ck and their treatment can cause disfigurement and loss of functioning, with a profound negative impact on the person’s self-image and psychosocial wellbeing. This can lead to experiences of shame and stigma, which are important targets for psychosocial interventions. Accurate measurement and identification of these problems enables clinicians to offer appropriate interventions and monitor patients’ progress. This study aimed to validate the Canadian version of the Shame and Stigma Scale (SSS) among French and English speaking head and neck cancer patients. Data from 258 patients from two major Canadian hospitals was analysed. The existing 4-factor structure of the SSS was supported, with the following subscales: Shame with Appearance, Sense of Stigma, Regret, and Social/Speech Concerns. The Canadian SSS showed adequate convergent and divergent validity and test-retest reliability. Rasch analysis suggested scale improvement by removing two misfitting item and two items with differential functioning between French and English speaking patients. The final 16-item scale version had adequate fit to the Rasch model. The SSS provides more accurate measures for people with high levels of shame and stigma, and thus has utility in identifying patients with more severe symptoms who may be in need of psychosocial interventions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1352.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: gratitude; prosocial behavior; social support; basic psychological needs; adolescence
Online: 18 May 2023 (14:58:48 CEST)
Prosocial behavior is vital for positive social development among adolescents, contributing to improved peer relationships, emotional well-being, and social competence. Gratitude, a positive emotion arising from recognizing and appreciating benefits received from others, has been identified as a potential contributor to adolescent prosocial behavior. This study aimed to investigate the mediating roles of social support and basic psychological needs in the relationship between gratitude and prosocial behavior among adolescents. A total of 390 middle school students participated in a longitudinal study, completing questionnaires assessing gratitude, social support, basic psychological needs, and prosocial behavior at two time points with a six-month interval. The results indicated that gratitude positively correlated with social support, basic psychological needs, and prosocial behavior. Structural equation modeling revealed that social support and basic psychological needs partially mediated the relationship between gratitude and adolescent prosocial behavior. Moreover, a chain-like mediation effect was observed, wherein social support influenced basic psychological needs, which in turn predicted prosocial behavior. These findings emphasize the importance of gratitude in fostering prosocial behavior among adolescents and highlight the mediating roles of social support and basic psychological needs in this relationship.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0841.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: prediction; Public Health Support; Psychological Well-being; Conspiracy Theories beliefs; precarity; ontological uncertainty; affective polarization
Online: 24 April 2023 (09:35:28 CEST)
Earliest critical context of the pandemic, preceding the first real epidemiological wave of contagion in Bulgaria, was examined in a socio-affective perspective. A retrospective and agnostic analytical approach was adopted. Our goal was to identify traits and trends that explain public health support (PHS) of Bulgarians during the first two months of the declared state of emergency. We investigated a set of variables with a unified method within an international scientific network, named International Collaboration on Social & Moral Psychology of COVID-19 (ICSMP) in April and May 2020. Conspiracy Theories beliefs were a significant predictor of lower PHS. Psychological Well-being was significantly associated with Physical Contact and Anti-Corona Policy Support. Physical Contact was significantly predicted by less Conspiracy Theories beliefs, higher Collective Narcissism, Open-mindedness, higher Trait Self-Control, Moral Identity, Risk Perception, and Psychological Well-Being. Physical Hygiene compliance was predicted by less Conspiracy Theories beliefs, Collective Narcissism, Morality-as-Cooperation, Moral Identity, and Psychological Well-Being. Results revealed two polar trends of support and non-support of public health policies. The contribution of this study is in providing evidence for affective polarization and phenomenology of (non)precarity during the outbreak of the pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0377.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Police Mental Health Act; Section 136; repeated detention; suicide and suicide prevention; trauma; personality disorder; lived experience
Online: 31 October 2019 (16:48:30 CET)
Most police Mental Health Act (Section 136) detentions in England and Wales relate to suicide prevention. Despite attempts to reduce detention rates, numbers have risen almost continually. Although Section 136 has been subject to much academic and public policy scrutiny, the topic of individuals being detained on multiple occasions remains under-researched and thus poorly understood. A mixed methods study combined six in-depth interviews with people who had experienced numerous suicidal crises and police intervention, with detailed police and mental health records. A national police survey provided wider context. Consultants with lived experience of complex mental health problems jointly analysed interviews. Repeated detention is a nationally recognised issue. In South East England it almost exclusively relates to suicide or self-harm and accounts for a third of all detentions. Females are detained with the highest frequencies. The qualitative accounts revealed complex histories of unresolved trauma that had catastrophically damaged interviewee’s relational foundations, rendering them disenfranchised from services and consigned to relying on police intervention in repeated suicidal crises. A model is proposed that offers a way to conceptualise the phenomenon of repeated detention, highlighting that long-term solutions to sustain change are imperative, as reactive-only responses can perpetuate crisis cycles.