ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1852.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis; Pirfenidone; disease progression
Online: 27 September 2023 (08:20:51 CEST)
Background: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive fibrotic lung disease with a poor prognosis. Pirfenidone is approved and widely used for the treatment of IPF and reduces lung function decline. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of different doses of pirfenidone for the prevention of disease progression in patients with IPF. Methods: This was a prospective, observational, single-center cohort study conducted in Haeundae Paik Hospital, Republic of Korea, from April 2021 to March 2023. IPF patients were assigned to three groups according to the dose of pirfenidone (600mg, 1,200mg, 1,800mg). The primary endpoint was the efficacy of pirfenidone according to dose for the prevention of disease progression over 12 months. The secondary endpoint was the role of Krebs von den Lungen-6 (KL-6) in predicting disease progression. Results: A total of 44 patients were enrolled, of whom 39 completed the study, with 13 patients assigned to each of the three groups. The median age was 71.7 years, and 79.5% of patients were men. The baseline characteristics were similar across groups, except the 600mg group was older (75.9 vs. 69.2 vs. 68.2 years, p = 0.016). Fourteen patients (35.9%) suffered disease progression. The rate of disease progression did not differ according to the dose of pirfenidone (38.5 vs. 38.5 vs. 30.8%, p = 1.000). In multivariable logistic regression analysis, KL-6 was not a statistically significant predictor of disease progression. Conclusions: In our study, regardless of dose, consistent pirfenidone use for 12 months resulted in similar efficacy for the prevention of disease progression in patients with IPF. Large-scale, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials are needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1415.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: COVID-19; COPD; smoking; mortality; respiratory failure
Online: 21 September 2023 (07:09:02 CEST)
Background: The global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) resulted to many deaths from fulminant respiratory failure. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. There has been great concern regarding the impact of COPD on COVID-19 illness. Methods: Data from the Philippine CORONA Study were analyzed to determine the association of COPD and COVID-19 in terms of mortality, disease severity, respiratory failure, mechanical ventilation, and lengths of stay in the intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital. The influence of smoking on COVID-19 disease severity and mortality were also reviewed. Results: A total of 10,881 patients were included in the study and 156 (1.4%) patients had been diagnosed with COPD. Majority of COVID-19 patients with COPD had other existing comorbidities: hypertension, diabetes mellitus, chronic cardiac disease, and chronic kidney disease. COPD patients more commonly present with severe or critical COVID-19. COPD patients with COVID-19 were at higher risk to experience in-hospital mortality, respiratory failure, and to be admitted in the ICU. Smokers were more likely to present with higher COVID-19 severity and experience in-hospital mortality. Conclusion: Our study supports that the growing evidence that COPD among COVID-19 patients is a risk for higher mortality, more severe form of COVID-19, higher ICU admission, and higher respiratory failure needing ventilatory support. Smoking increases risk for developing severe COVID-19 and mortality.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0091.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension; epoprostenol; prostaglandin I₂; giant goiter; airway stenosis
Online: 5 September 2023 (10:28:08 CEST)
It has been reported that prostaglandin I2, such as epoprostenol, develops Grave's disease. A 34-year-old woman was diagnosed with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension and started receiving continuous intravenous epoprostenol. Three years after starting epoprostenol, she started complaining of neck swelling and was diagnosed with Grave’s disease. Thyroid function was controlled by thiamazole and levothyroxine. Nevertheless, her thyroid gland enlargement worsened as epoprostenol dose was titrated. After 23 years of treatment with epoprostenol, she suddenly experienced respiratory failure with a giant goiter leading to airway stenosis and passed away. The autopsy confirmed a giant goiter associated with hyperthyroidism and airway stenosis. We experienced a case of idiopathic pulmonary hypertension with a giant goiter and airway stenosis after long-term intravenous epoprostenol therapy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0235.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: Rheumatoid arthritis; interstitial lung disease; pathogenesis
Online: 5 September 2023 (05:28:49 CEST)
Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is one of the most serious extra-articular complications of rheu-matoid arthritis (RA), which increases the mortality of RA. Because the pathogenesis of RA-ILD remains poorly understood, appropriate therapeutic strategies and biomarkers have not yet been identified. Thus, the goal of this review was to summarize and analyze the reported data on the etiology and pathogenesis of RA-ILD. The incidence of RA-ILD increases with age, and is also generally higher in men than in women and in patients with specific genetic variations and eth-nicity. Lifestyle factors associated with an increased risk of RA-ILD include smoking and exposure to pollutants. The presence of an anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody, high RA disease activity, and rheumatoid factor positivity also increase the risk of RA-ILD. We also explored the roles of biological processes (e.g., fibroblast–myofibroblast transition, epithelial–mesenchymal transition, and immunological processes), signaling pathways (e.g., JAK/STAT and PI3K/Akt), and the his-topathology of RA involved in RA-ILD pathogenesis based on published preclinical and clinical models of RA-ILD in animal and human studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1509.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: asthma; bronchiectasis; severe asthma
Online: 22 August 2023 (08:02:00 CEST)
Introduction: Asthma and bronchiectasis are often partners in a complex but uneven relationship with asthma receiving more attentions. The aim of this study is to describe how bronchiectasis are investigated in some Severe Asthma (SA) Centers scattered throughout the Italian territory. Materials and Methods: We enrolled 92 patients with SA and bronchiectasis from 8 Italian SA Centers and recorded diagnostic approaches to investigate SA and bronchiectasis at the time of enrollment (T0), at the 6-month (T1), and at the 12- month (T2) follow-up visits. Results: A statistically significant heterogeneous diagnostic approach emerged across the centers under study In fact, while, as expected, all involved centers made an in-depth investigation of SA, only few of them made a complete investigation of bronchiectasis in order to provide specific treatment. Discussion: This real-life multicenter study confirmed that patients with coexistent SA and bronchiectasis are mainly investigated for pheno-endotyping asthma but rarely for complete assessment of bronchiectasis. We believe that the diagnostic flowchart of SA patients with suspicion or confirmed bronchiectasis needs to be clarified and implemented as the association of these conditions strongly influences final outcomes and management of these patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1382.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: Silica nanoparticles; COX-2; PGE2; Alveolar epithelial cells; ROS; FoxO1
Online: 22 August 2023 (07:37:29 CEST)
The risk of lung exposure to silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) and related lung inflammatory injury is increasing with the wide application of SiNPs in a variety of industries. A growing body of research has revealed that cyclooxygenase (COX)-2/ prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) up-regulated by SiNPs toxicity has a role during pulmonary inflammation. The detailed mechanisms underlying SiNPs-induced COX-2 expression and PGE2 synthesis remain unknown. The present study aims to dissect the molecular components involved in COX-2/PGE2 up-regulated by SiNPs in human pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells (HPAEpiCs) which are one of the major targets while SiNPs are inhaled. In the present study, we demonstrated that SiNPs induced COX-2 expression and PGE2 release, which were inhibited by pretreatment with a reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger (edaravone) or the inhibitors of proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (Pyk2, PF-431396), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, AG1478), phosphatidylinositol 3‑kinase (PI3K, LY294002), protein kinase B (Akt, Akt inhibitor VIII), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) (p38 MAPK inhibitor VIII), c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK)1/2 (SP600125), Forkhead Box O1 (FoxO1, AS1842856), and activator protein 1 (AP-1, Tanshinone IIA). In addition, we also found that SiNPs induced ROS-dependent Pyk2, EGFR, Akt, p38 MAPK, and JNK1/2 activation in these cells. These signaling pathways induced by SiNPs could further cause c-Jun and FoxO1 activation and translocation from the cytosol to the nucleus. AP-1 and FoxO1 activation could increase COX-2 and PGE2 levels induced by SiNPs. Finally, the COX-2/PGE2 axis might promote the inflammatory responses in HPAEpiCs. In conclusion, we suggested that SiNPs induced COX-2 expression accompanied by PGE2 synthesis mediated via ROS/Pyk2/EGFR/PI3K/Akt/p38 MAPK- and JNK1/2-dependent FoxO1 and AP-1 activation in HPAEpiCs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1176.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: endobronchial squamous cell carcinoma; autofluorescence bronchoscopy
Online: 16 August 2023 (10:14:23 CEST)
Background – Endobronchial squamous cell carcinoma is one of the most common types of tumors with such a location. Patients often present in advanced stages of the disease, which leads to a targeted therapeutic attitude of pneumonectomy, most of the time. Practicing a lung parenchyma-preserving surgery led us to do this review. Material and Methods - We used three search platforms SCIENCE, MEDLINE and PubMed, in order to identify studies presenting case reports, studies and reviews on endobronchial squamous cell carcinoma. We identified clinical and paraclinical features of endobronchial squamous cell carcinoma. All selected articles were in English and contained clinical criteria of endobronchial squamous cell carcinoma, autofluorescence bronchoscopy in endobronchial squamous cell carcinoma, imaging features of endobronchial squamous cell carcinoma, blood tumor markers specific for lung squamous cell carcinoma, histopathological features of endobronchial squamous cell carcinoma. Results - 73 articles were analyzed, from which 47 articles were selected as bibliographic references. We have presented the criteria found for endobronchial squamous cell carcinoma in order to highlight the main characteristics and high reliability technologies for the detection of this type of cancer. Conclusions – The current literature review highlights the clinical and paraclinical characteristics of endobronchial squamous cell carcinoma. It aims to open new horizons for research and early detection, frequent practice of lung parenchymal preservation surgery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1070.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: endobronchial tumor; bronchoscopy; tumor board; sleeve resection criteria
Online: 15 August 2023 (04:34:42 CEST)
Context: Endobronchial tumors are relatively rare. Pathological types are varied, both benign and malignant. Establishing the diagnosis and sleeve resection criteria for such tumors remains a challenge for pulmonologists, bronchoscopists, radiologists, thoracic surgeons, and pathologists. The management of the preoperative assessment of these patients and the establishment of the indication for sleeve resection, represent a big problem. Lung parenchymal sparing surgery remains a challenge, especially in neoplastic patients. Material and methods: We carried out a monocentric retrospective study, during the period 2009-2017, on a number of 57 patients. In our center they benefited from clinical examination, radiography, tomography, respiratory function evaluations, autofluorescence bronchoscopy, cardiological evaluation and detection of blood tumor markers. All the patients benefited from the analysis of the tumorboard of our institute and the establishment of the surgical indication for scleev resection. Results: Sparing of the lung parenchyma was achieved in case of the 57 patients included in the study. The complex evaluations of laboratory parameters, functional tests, CT examination, bronchoscopy, cardiology, were analyzed by the tumor board, so that the indication for surgical intervention was sleeve resection with preservation of the lung parenchyma. Conclusions: We selected patients for sleeve resection, those who presented endobronchial tumors of 2 cm in diameter, with cartilages and bronchial mucosa intact at least 1 cm or 2 cartilages from the formation, on CT and bronchoscopic examination. Cardiological examination and functional tests showed values that do not contradict surgical intervention.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0906.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: Bedaquiline; Oral bioavailability; Solubility; Quality by design (QbD); Pseudo-ternary; Self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS); Multi-drug resistance tuberculosis (MDR-TB)
Online: 11 August 2023 (07:09:51 CEST)
Background: The ever-growing emergence of antibiotic resistance associated with tuberculosis (TB) has become a global challenge. In 2012, USFDA has given expedited approval to bedaquiline (BDQ), as a new treatment for drug-resistant TB in adults when no other viable options are available. BDQ is a diarylquinoline derivative and exhibits targeted action on mycobacterium tuberculosis but due to poor solubility desired therapeutic action is not achieved. Objective: To develop a QbD-based self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system of Bedaquiline using various oils, surfactants, and co-surfactants. Methods: The quality target product profile (QTPP) and critical quality attributes (CQAs) were identified with a patient-centric approach which facilitated the selection of critical material attributes (CMAs) during pre-formulation studies and initial risk assessment. Caprylic acid as a lipid, propylene glycol as a surfactant and Transcutol-P as a co-surfactant were selected as CMAs for the formulation of Bedaquiline fumarate SNEDDS. Pseudo-ternary phase diagrams were constructed to determine the optimal ratio of oil and Smix. To optimize the formulation, a Box-Benkhen design (BBD) was used. The optimized formulation (BDQ-F-SNEDSS) was further evaluated for parameters such as droplet size, polydispersity index (PDI), percentage transmittance, dilution studies, stability studies, and cell toxicity through the A549 cell. Results: Optimized BDQ-F-SNEDDS showed well-formed droplets of 98.88±2.1 nm with a zeta potential of 21.16 mV. In vitro, studies showed enhanced drug release with a high degree of stability at 25 ± 2 ºC & 60 ± 5 % and 40 ± 2 ºC & 75± 5 %. Furthermore, BDQ-F-SNEDDS showed promising cell viability in A549 cells indicating BDQ-F-SNEDDS as a safer formulation for oral delivery. Conclusion: Finally, it was concluded that the utilization of a QbD approach in the development of BDQ-F-loaded SNEDDS offers a promising strategy to improve the biopharmaceutical properties of the drug, resulting in potential cost and time savings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0573.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: primary ciliary dyskinesia; nitric oxide; nitric oxide synthetase; cystic fibrose; L-arginine
Online: 8 August 2023 (14:01:01 CEST)
Low nasal nitric oxide (nNO) is a typical feature in Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia (PCD). nNO is part of the PCD diagnostic algorithm due to its discriminative power against other lung diseases such cystic fibrosis (CF). However, the underlying pathomechanisms are elusive. To better understand NO dysregulation in PCD, the L-arginine/NO (Arg/NO) pathway in patients with PCD (pwPCD) and CF (pwCF) and in healthy control (HC) subjects was investigated. In a prospective, controlled study, we measured in 24 pwPCD, 25 age-matched pwCF, and 14 HC the concentrations of the NO precursors Arg and homoarginine (hArg), the arginase metabolite ornithine (Orn), the NO inhibitor asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), and the major NO metabolites (nitrate, nitrite) in sputum, plasma and urine by validated methods. In comparison to HC, the sputum contents (in µmol/mg) of L-Arg (PCD 18.43 vs. CF 329.46 vs. HC 9.86, p < 0.001) and of ADMA (PCD 0.055 vs. CF 0.015 vs. HC 0.010, p < 0.001) were higher. In contrast, the sputum contents (in µmol/mg) of nitrate and nitrite were lower in PCD compared to HC (nitrite 4.54 vs. 9.26, p = 0.023; nitrate 12.86 vs. 40.33, p = 0.008), but higher in CF (nitrite 16.28, p <0.001; nitrate 56.83, p = 0.002). The metabolite concentrations in urine and plasma were similar in all groups. The results of our study indicate that PCD, unlike CF, is associated with impaired NO synthesis in the lung, presumably due to mechano-chemical uncoupling.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0669.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: case report; COVID-19; mRNA; pulmonary hypertension; vaccine
Online: 8 August 2023 (11:53:56 CEST)
Background: To our knowledge, the sudden onset of symptomatic pulmonary hypertension after COVID-19 vaccination has not been described. Both cases presented here resulted in functional limitations and likely permanent organ damage. Case Summary: We report two cases of acute onset pulmonary hypertension in previously healthy adult males within three weeks of receiving the second dose of the Pfizer (BNT162b2) mRNA COVID-19 vaccine from different lots. Both patients experienced the sudden onset of severe fatigue and dyspnea on exertion with negative COVID-19 PCR testing. The diagnosis was made by serial transthoracic echocardiography in the first case and by both transthoracic echocardiography and right heart catheterization in the second. Discussion: Pulmonary hypertension is a serious disease characterized by damage to lung vasculature and restricted blood flow through narrowed arteries from the right to left heart. The onset of symptoms is typically insidious, progressive and incurable, leading to right heart failure and premature death. The World Health Organization (WHO) classifies pulmonary hypertension into 5 categories and recently re-defined as a resting mean pulmonary artery pressure greater than 20 mmHg. Sudden onset pulmonary hypertension would only be expected in the settings of surgical pneumonectomy or massive pulmonary emboli with compromise of at least 50% of the lung vasculature.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0074.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: HFNC; COPD; NIV; respiratory failure; respiratory support; critical care; LTOT
Online: 2 August 2023 (02:13:02 CEST)
High-flow Nasal Cannula (HFNC) oxygen therapy is gaining traction globally as a treatment for respiratory failure. There are several physiological benefits and there may be a growing patient preference for HFNC. In this narrative review, we aim to outline the basic mechanisms of HFNC, who can use it and review the literature regarding its utility both in the critical care setting, as well as in the home setting for chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure with an emphasis on Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). The role of non-pharmacological interventions like non-invasive ventilation (NIV) and HFNC in the prevention of hospital readmissions following acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD) is an area of increasing importance because randomised controlled trials and systematic reviews have found measures like nurse-led predischarge bundles to be clinically ineffective and to have a high cost per quality adjusted life year. This review therefore considers the evidence of NIV vs HFNC in the context of AECOPD and the application of HFNC at home in the prevention of AECOPD. We also look at applications of HFNC in specific settings, such as in the peri-operative period, emergency department, acute (mainly Critical Care) setting including in immunocompromised patients and palliative care.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0065.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: folic acid; transsulfuration; oxidative stress; nitric oxide; biomarkers; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; homocysteine; asymmetric dimethylarginine; symmetric dimethylarginine; ornithine
Online: 1 August 2023 (09:04:09 CEST)
There is an increasing interest in biomarkers of nitric oxide dysregulation and oxidative stress to guide management and identify new therapeutic targets in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the association between circulating metabolites within the arginine (arginine, citrulline, ornithine, asymmetric, ADMA, and symmetric, SDMA dimethylarginine), transsulfuration (methionine, homocysteine, and cysteine) and folic acid (folic acid, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12) metabolic pathways and COPD. We searched electronic databases from inception to 30 June 2023 and assessed the risk of bias and the certainty of evidence. In 21 eligible studies, compared to healthy controls, patients with stable COPD had significantly lower methionine (standardized mean difference, SMD=-0.50, 95% CI -0.95 to -0.05, p=0.029) and folic acid (SMD=-0.37, 95% CI -0.65 to -0.09, p=0.009), and higher homocysteine (SMD=0.78, 95% CI 0.48 to 1.07, p˂0.001) and cysteine concentrations (SMD=0.34, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.66, p=0.038). Additionally, COPD was associated with significantly higher ADMA (SMD=1.27, 95% CI 0.08 to 2.46, p=0.037), SDMA (SMD=3.94, 95% CI 0.79 to 7.08, p=0.014), and ornithine concentrations (SMD=0.67, 95% CI 0.13 to 1.22, p=0.015). In subgroup analysis, the SMD of homocysteine was significantly associated with the biological matrix assessed and the forced expiratory volume in the first second to forced vital capacity ratio, but not with age, study location, or analytical method used. Our study suggests the presence of significant alterations in metabolites within the arginine, transsulfuration, and folic acid pathways which can be useful for assessing nitric oxide dysregulation and oxidative stress and identifying novel treatment targets in COPD. (PROSPERO registration number: CRD42023448036)
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1857.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: COVID-19; pneumonia; hospitalized patients; chest physiotherapy; positive expiratory pressure; threshold valve
Online: 27 July 2023 (07:24:20 CEST)
Background: COVID-19 pneumonia caused by SARS-Cov-2 virus induces alveolar collapse and hypoxia that may become severe. The aim of the study is to analyze the effects of chest physiotherapy using a threshold valve in patients with acute respiratory failure due to COVID-19 pneumonia. Methods; Retrospective observational study, in hospitalized patients from March to May 2020. Breathing exercises were performed with a threshold valve of 10 cmH2O. Fraction of inspired oxygen, oxygen saturation, heart rate, respiratory rate and dyspnea were collected before and after the first session and at the end of the 5th day of chest physiotherapy treatment. Results: The final sample included 125 patients. Significant differences (p<0.01) were found in the pre-post intervention SpO2/FiO2 ratio (250±88.4 vs 275.6±97.5, p<0.001), reaching 354.4±110.2 after 5 days of therapy (p<0.001 with respect to baseline). Mean baseline respiratory, heart rate and level of dyspnea measure by the Borg scale did not change during the technique performance. In patient maneuvers with FiO2>0.4, the SaO2/FiO2 ratio increase was higher than in patients with milder severity (46.85 ± 77.69, p<0.01). Conclusions: Chest physiotherapy with a 10 cmH2O threshold valve is a safe and tolerated intervention with short-term improvement in oxygenation in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1788.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: diesel exhaust particles; neutrophil; NF-κB; particulate matter; inflammatory respiratory disease; Siraitia grosvenorii
Online: 26 July 2023 (09:21:00 CEST)
Exposure to particulate matter (PM) causes considerable breathing-related health risks. We assessed the inhibitory effect of Siraitia grosvenorii extract (SGE) on airway inflammation in mice exposed to a fine dust mixture of PM10 (PM diameter < 10 mm) and diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) known as PM10D. SGE attenuated neutrophil infiltration and the number of immune B and T cells in lung tissue and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of PM10D-exposed mice. SGE reduced the secretion of cytokines and chemokines, including interleukin (IL)-1a, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)- a, IL-17, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand (CXCL)-1, and macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2 in BALF. Airway inflammation, accumulation of inflammatory cells, and collagen fibrosis in the lung after PM10D exposure were investigated by histopathological analysis, and SGE treatment ameliorated these symptoms. SGE decreased the mRNA expression of mucin 5AC (MUC5AC), CXCL-1, TNF-a, MIP-2, and transient receptor potential vanilloid and ankyrin 1 ion channels in the lung tissues of mice. Furthermore, SGE ameliorated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling activated by PM10D in mice. We conclude that SGE attenuated PM10D-induced neutrophilic airway inflammation via inhibiting MAPK/NF-κB activation. These results show that SGE may be a candidate for the treatment of inflammatory respiratory diseases.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1598.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: asthma; precision medicine; phenotypes; endotypes; pathogenetic mechanism
Online: 24 July 2023 (11:01:29 CEST)
Asthma is a prevalent disease that around 300 million worldwide, resulting in substantial morbidity, mortality, and economic burden on a global scale. New clinical and laboratory research has shed light on the immunology causing asthma. Asthma is now recognized as a heterogeneous disease. A personalized medicine is based on the classification of asthma by endotype by linking observable characteristics to immunological mechanisms. Identifying endotype mechanisms is essential for better characterizing patients and personalizing therapeutic approaches with novel biological agents that target specific immune pathways. This article provides a summary of the major immunological mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis and emergence of the disease's phenotypic features, as well as the individualized treatment for severe asthma subtypes
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1440.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: interstitial lung disease; idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis; hyaluronic acid; Longidaza
Online: 21 July 2023 (02:36:30 CEST)
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is one of the most common forms of interstitial lung disease characterized by progressive parenchymal fibrosis and respiratory failure. In a model of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis, the antifibrotic and anti-inflammatory activity of Longidaza (bovhyaluronidase azoxymer), which contains a conjugate of the hyaluronidase enzyme with a high molecular weight synthetic carrier azoxymer bromide, was investigated. Experiments were conducted in male C57BL/6 mice. Longidaza was administered at different doses by intranasal and intramuscular routes. Histology, hematology and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used in the study. The use of Longidaza reduced pulmonary fibrosis as evidenced by an improvement in histopathologic damage to the lungs, a decrease in the area of connective tissue and the levels of profibrotic factors (TGF-β1, hydroxyproline, collagen I) in lung tissue. In addition, Longidaza inhibited the inflammatory response in pulmonary fibrosis, decreased the levels of IL-6, TNF-α, hyaluronic acid in lung tissue and the recruitment of inflammatory cells into lung tissue. The highest therapeutic efficacy was observed with the use of Longidaza at doses of 120 and 1200 U/kg intramuscularly, which was superior to that of the reference drug pirfenidone axunio. The data presented in this study suggest that Longidaza is a new and promising drug for the treatment of IPF that warrants further investigation in patients with fibrotic interstitial lung disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1428.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: CT-guided localization; OSCT; TSCT; pulmonary lesions; minimal invasive VATS
Online: 21 July 2023 (02:31:11 CEST)
(1) Background: This retrospective study aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of one-stage computed tomography (OSCT)- to that of two-stage computed tomography (TSCT)-guided localization for the surgical removal of small lung nodules. (2) Methods: We collected data from patients with ipsilateral pulmonary nodules who underwent localization before surgical removal at Veteran General Hospital Kaohsiung between October 2017 and January 2022. The patients were divided into the OSCT and TSCT groups. (3) Results: We found that OSCT significantly reduced the localization time and risky time compared to TSCT, and the success rate of localization and incidence of pneumothorax were similar in both groups. However, the time spent under general anesthesia was longer in the OSCT group than in the TSCT group. (4) Conclusions: The OSCT-guided approach to localize pulmonary nodules in hybrid operation room is a safe and effective technique for the surgical removal of small lung nodules.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0534.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: Congenital Pulmonary Malformations; thoracic surgery; lobectomy; pulmonary sequestration; congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation
Online: 10 July 2023 (03:57:02 CEST)
Background: Congenital Pulmonary Malformations (CPMs) are rare benign lesions potentially causing infective complications and/or malignant transformation requiring surgery even when asymptomatic. CPMs are infrequent in adult but potentially detected at any age. There is not a consensus indicating the correct extent of resection in both adults and paediatrics. This retrospective multicentric study aims to identify the appropriate surgical resection to prevent the recurrence of related respiratory symptoms. Methods: Between 2010 and 2020, a total of 96 patients (adult and pediatric) underwent surgery for CPMs in 4 centers. A 2:1 propensity score matching (considering sex and lesion side) was performed, identifying 2 groups: 50 patients underwent lobectomy (group A) and 25 sub-lobar resections (group B). Clinical and histopathological characteristics, early and late complications and symptom’s recurrence were retrospectively analyzed and compared between the two groups by univariate and multivariate analyses. Results: Patients who underwent lobectomy had a statistically significant lower rate of recurrence (4% vs 24% of group B, p = 0.014) and a lower rate of intraoperative complications (p = 0.014). Logistic regression identified sub-lobar resection (p=0.040), intra- and post-operative complications (p=0.105 and 0.022) and associated developed neoplasm (p=0.062) as possible risk factors for symptoms recurrence after surgery. Conclusions: Pulmonary lobectomy seems to be the most effective surgical treatment for CPMs, guaranteeing stable remission of symptoms and a lower rate of intra- and postoperative complications. To our knowledge this is one of the largest studies comparing lobectomy and sub-lobar resections in patients affected by CPMs, considering the low incidence worldwide.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0396.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: OSAS; Mandibular advancement device; MAD; CBCT; Upper airway
Online: 6 July 2023 (09:07:27 CEST)
MAD is the gold standard therapy for mild/moderate OSA and is a second-choice treatment in patients with severe OSA not responding to CPAP. The aim of this study was to analyze the upper airway characteristics of OSA patients and the morphological changes in the upper airway, inducted by four different types of mandibular advancement devices, using CBCT 3D imaging. Twenty-two patients were recruited after OSA diagnosis with polysomnography. Four different customized and titratable MAD were used and an initial CBCT scan was obtained for each patient. After 6 months to the end of the MAD titration phase, all the subjects showed an AHI of < 5 or a decrease of 50% in AHI with MAD when compared with initial AHI and a second CBCT scan with MAD in situ was performed. An important improvement of the airway was observed (+33.76%) and a significant difference in the enlargement ratio between the posterior soft palate (+32.41%) and the posterior tongue (+36.96%) region was also found. The greatest increase in airway volume was achieved in patients treated with the MAD Forward and TAP (respectively +42.77% and + 41.63%). MAD therapy is effective to treat mild/severe OSA with increased upper airway volume. The design of the MAD can influence the effectiveness of the treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2168.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: Acute respiratory distress syndrome; PEEP; Mechanical ventilation; Oleic acid
Online: 30 June 2023 (07:11:12 CEST)
Abstract: To compare the use of variable mechanical ventilation with conventional mechanical ventilation in porcine model of ARDS. Methods: Animals were divided into two groups (n = 6), conventional ventilation and variable ventilation with bi-oscillatory PEEP. For induction of ARDS, intravenous oleic acid was used until a P/F ratio of 200 to 300 mmHg. The animals were ventilated with pressure control, FiO2 1.0, inspiration-expiration ratio = 1:2, tidal volume 6 ml/kg with the initial respiratory rate adjusted to maintain an end tidal CO2 tension of 35 to 45 mmHg. Variable ventilation was characterized by the oscillation of PEEP from 5 to 10 cmH2O every 4 respiratory cycles, in convencional ventilation group PEEP was set from 5 cmH2O. Ventilatory, hemodynamic parameters, oxidative stress, antioxidant enzymes, Interleukin 8 (IL8) and 17-a (IL17a) and histological analyzes were evaluated; Results: The use of BiPEEP demonstrated improvement in lung compliance and PaO2 in relation to control. The levels of oxidative stress and antioxidant enzymes showed no significant difference. There was no difference in IL17a between groups. In IL8 there was a significant increase in the lung base of control in relation to BiPEEP, and a reduction in the apex of BiPEEP in relation to control. The control group showed changes in lung morphology characterized by cellular infiltrates, a thickening of the alveolar septae and atelectasis, which were attenuated in BiPEEP group; (4) Conclusions: The use of variable ventilation with bi-oscillatory level of PEEP demonstrates a potential ventilatory strategy in an experimental model of ARDS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1687.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: hyperoxia; pulmonary function; expired nitric oxide; spirometry; oxygen toxicity; diving; hyperbaric
Online: 23 June 2023 (13:05:19 CEST)
Individual susceptibility to pulmonary oxygen toxicity (PO2tox) is highly variable and currently lacks a reliable biomarker for predicting pulmonary hyperoxic stress. As nitric oxide (NO) is involved in many respiratory system processes and functions, we aimed to determine if expired nitric oxide (FENO) levels can provide an indication of PO2tox susceptibility in humans. Eight U.S. Navy trained divers volunteered as subjects. The hyperoxic exposures consisted of six- and eight-hour hyperbaric chamber dives conducted on consecutive days in which subjects breathed 100% oxygen at 202.65 kPa. Subjects’ individual variability in pulmonary function and FENO was measured twice daily over five days and compared with their post-dive values to assess susceptibility to PO2tox. Only subjects who showed no decrements in pulmonary function following the six-hour exposure conducted the eight-hour dive. FENO decreased by 55% immediately following the six-hour oxygen exposure (n=8, p<0.0001) and by 63% following the eight-hour exposure (n=4, p<0.0001). Four subjects showed significant decreases in pulmonary function immediately following the six-hour exposure. These subjects had the lowest baseline FENO and the lowest post-dive FENO and had clinical symptoms of PO2tox. Individuals with low FENO were the first to develop PO2tox symptoms and deficits in pulmonary function from the hyperoxic exposures. These data suggest that endogenous levels of NO in the lung may protect against the development of PO2tox.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1455.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: Acute respiratory illness; critical care; recombinant tissue plasminogen activator; nebulization, fibrinolytics, COVID-19 pandemic, inhaled medication, targeted therapy
Online: 20 June 2023 (14:59:12 CEST)
Nebulized thrombolysis offers locally targeted therapy with potentially lower bleeding risk than systemic administration for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) respiratory failure. In a proof-of-concept safety study, adult patients with COVID-19-induced respiratory failure and a <300mmHg PaO2/FiO2 (P/F) ratio, requiring invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) or non-invasive respiratory support (NIRS) received nebulized rt-PA in two cohorts (C1 and C2), alongside standard of care during the first two UK COVID-19 waves. Matched historical controls (MHC; n=18) were used in C1. Safety co-primary endpoints were treatment-related bleeds and fibrinogen reduction to <1.0–1.5 g/L. A dose escalation strategy for improved efficacy with the least safety concerns was determined in C1 for use in C2; patients were stratified by ventilation type to receive 40–60 mg rt-PA per day for ≤14 days. Nine patients in C1 (IMV, 6/9; NIRS, 3/9) and 26 in C2 (IMV, 12/26; NIRS, 14/26) received nebulized rt-PA for a mean (SD) of 6.7 (4.6) and 9.1(4.6) days, respectively. Four bleeding events (one severe and three mild) in three patients were considered treatment-related. No significant fibrinogen reductions were reported. Greater improvement in mean P/F ratio from baseline to end of study was observed in C1 compared with MHC [C1; 154 to 299 vs MHC; 154 to 212). In C2, there was no difference in the baseline P/F ratio of NIRS and IMV patients. However, a larger improvement in P/F ratio was observed in NIRS patients [NIRS; 126 to 240 vs IMV; 120 to 188) and they required fewer treatment days (NIRS; 7.86 vs IMV; 10.5). Nebulized rt-PA appears to be well-tolerated, showing a trend of improved oxygenation and faster recovery in patients with acute COVID-19-induced respiratory failure requiring respiratory support; this effect was more pronounced in the NIRS group. Further investigation is required to study the potential of this novel treatment approach.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1409.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: Neuromodulation; Spinal cord stimulation; Respiration; Rehabilitation; COVID-19
Online: 20 June 2023 (08:30:47 CEST)
Background: A growing number of studies have reported Coronavirus disease (COVID-19)-related to both respiratory and central nervous system dysfunctions. This study evaluates the neuromodulatory effects of spinal cord transcutaneous stimulation (scTS) on the respiratory functional state in healthy controls and patients with post-COVID-19 respiratory deficits as a step toward the development of a rehabilitation strategy for these patients.; Methods: In this before-after, interventional, case-controlled clinical study, ten individuals with post-acute COVID-19 respiratory deficits and eight healthy controls received a single twenty-minute-long session of modulated monophasic scTS delivered over the T5 and T10 spinal cord segments. Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), Peak Forced Inspiratory Flow (PIF), Peak Expiratory Flow (PEF), Time-To-Peak of Inspiratory Flow (tPIF), and Time-To-Peak of Expiratory Flow (tPEF) were assessed before and after the intervention; Results: In COVID-19 group, the scTS intervention led to significantly increased PIF (p= .040) and PEF (p= .049) in association with significantly decreased tPIF (p= .035) and tPEF (p= .013). In the Control Group, the exposure to scTS also resulted in significantly increased PIF (p= .010) and significantly decreased tPIF (p= .031). Unlike the results in COVID-19 group, there was significantly decreased PEF (p= .028) in association with significantly increased tPEF (p= .036). There were no changes for FVC after scTS in both groups (p= .67 and p= .503); Conclusions: In post-COVID-19 patients scTS facilitates excitation of both inspiratory and expiratory spinal neural networks leading to an immediate improvement of respiratory functional performance. This neuromodulation approach could be utilized in rehabilitation programs for patients with COVID-19 respiratory deficits.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1133.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: severe asthma; phenotype; endotype; personalized medicine; targeted therapy; treatment
Online: 15 June 2023 (11:35:43 CEST)
Despite recent advances in optimizing reliever, controller and maintenance therapy in asthma, a large subgroup of asthmatic patients continues to suffer from severe asthma, affecting their psychosociological status, their quality of life and even their life expectancy. Identifying and recognizing the specific phenotypic and endotypic characteristics in asthma has provided the medical community to drive the development of targeted therapies that are proved to benefit patients in terms of symptom control, exacerbation rate, quality of life and lung function. Adopting a more tailored and targeted approach is proving to be the key factor in reforming severe asthma treatment, minimizing the patients’ burden, as well as the socioeconomical impact worldwide. In this review, we are going to describe the different phenotypes and endotypes of asthma, the currently approved targeted therapies in severe asthma as imprinted in Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) 2023, as well as other potential pharmacological agents and strategies investigated or currently under investigation for the treatment of severe asthma.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1006.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: COPD; Dyspnea; Health Status; Respiratory Symptoms; Surveys and Questionnaires
Online: 14 June 2023 (07:47:07 CEST)
The hypothesis that health status is the highest-ranking concept, followed by respiratory symptoms and dyspnea as the lowest-ranking concepts in subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was tested in a real clinical setting with 157 subjects with stable COPD. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients for scores of health status using the COPD assessment test (CAT), respiratory symptoms using the COPD Evaluating Respiratory Symptoms (E-RS) and dyspnea using the Dyspnoea-12 (D-12) between any two were 0.6 to 0.7. Upon categorizing the patients as "abnormal" or "normal" according to the threshold, it was found that 30 patients (19.1%) had dyspnea, respiratory symptoms, and impaired the health status. Dyspnea was considered an important part of respiratory symptoms though seven patients had dyspnea but no respiratory symptoms. There were 10 patients who had respiratory symptoms without dyspnea but without health status problems. Furthermore, there were six patients who had both dyspnea and respiratory symptoms but whose health status was classified as fine. Thus, the hypothesis was correct in approximately 85% of cases.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0153.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: epithelial; smooth muscle; interaction; pulmonary disease; airway; asthma; COPD; bronchial re-modeling
Online: 13 June 2023 (10:49:12 CEST)
Chronic pulmonary diseases such as asthma, COPD, and Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis are significant causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Currently, there is no radical treatment for many chronic pulmonary diseases, and the treatment options focus on relieving the symptoms and improving lung function. Therefore, efficient therapeutic agents are highly needed. Bronchial epithelial cells and airway smooth muscle cells and their crosstalk play a significant role in the pathogenesis of these diseases. Thus, targeting the interactions of these two cell types could open the door to a new generation of effective therapeutic options. However, the studies on how these two cell types interact and how their crosstalk adds up to respiratory diseases are not well established. With the rise of modern research tools and technology, such as lab-on-chip, organoids, co-culture techniques, and advanced immunofluorescence imaging, a substantial degree of evidence about these cell interactions emerged. Hence, this contribution aims to summarize the growing evidence of bronchial epithelial cells and airway smooth muscle cells crosstalk under normal and pathophysiological conditions. The review first deliberates the effects of both healthy and stressed epithelial cells on airway smooth muscle cells, taking into account three themes; contraction, migration, and proliferation. Then, it discusses the impact of airway smooth muscle cells on the epithelium in inflammatory settings. Later, it examines the role of airway smooth muscle cells in the early development of bronchial epithelial cells and their recovery after injury.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1684.v3
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: Arm elevation; Grocery Shelving Test; Functional assessment; Reference values; Upper limb activities
Online: 8 June 2023 (08:52:16 CEST)
Background: Arm elevation plays an important role in simple and complex daily tasks. Muscles that stabilize the shoulder girdle also function as respiratory accessory muscles. Dual demand on these muscles, particularly in patients with chronic respiratory conditions, leads to dyspnea and fatigue of the upper limb, making simple daily activities difficult. Various tests, including Grocery Shelving Task (GST), are designed to assess functional performance during upper limb activities. The aim of the study is to derive reference values for GST among the population of the United Arab Emirates Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted with 220 healthy individuals of both genders between the ages of 20 and 69. Duration required to complete GST was recorded. The correlation between duration and age, height, body mass and body mass index (BMI) were also assessed. Results: Reference values for duration (in seconds) in females for age groups 20-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59 and 60-69 are 43.5±5.5, 43.1±8.08, 48.1±6.7, 44.9±7.1, 46.7±6.5 respectively. Values for males of age groups 20-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59 and 60-69 are 45.7±6.7, 44.8±8.9, 42.5±10.01, 53.4±4.2, and 53.9±5.4 respectively. Conclusion: Reference values for GST duration were obtained. Weak correlations were found between duration and age, height, body mass, BMI of the participants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0537.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: resistin like molecule; pulmonary hypertension; type 2 inflammation; adaptive immune response; retnla; retnlb; retnlg; mouse strains; experimental pulmonary hypertension; urban PM; urban fine dust; immune response in pulmonary hypertension
Online: 7 June 2023 (10:40:37 CEST)
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) has a high mortality, and few treatment options. Adaptive immune mediators of PH in mice challenged with antigen/particulate matter (antigen/PM) has been the focus of our prior work. We identified key roles of type 2 and type 17 responses in C57BL/6 mice. Here, we focused on type 2 response related cytokines, specifically Resistin-like-molecule (RELM)α, a critical mediator of hypoxia-induced PH. Because of strain differences in the immune responses to type 2 stimuli, we compared C57BL/6J and BALB/c mice. A model of intraperitoneal antigen sensitization with subsequent, intranasal challenges with antigen/PM (ovalbumin and urban ambient PM2.5) or saline was used in C57BL/6 and BALB/c wild type or RELMα-/- mice. Vascular remodeling was assessed by histology, right ventricular (RV) pressure, RV weights and cytokines were quantified. Upon challenge with antigen/PM2.5, both C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice developed pulmonary vascular remodeling; these changes were more prominent in the C57BL/6 strain. Compared to wild type mice, RELMα-/- had significantly reduced pulmonary vascular remodeling in BALB/c, but not in C57BL/6 mice. RV weights, RV IL-33 and RV ST2-IL-33-receptor were significantly increased in BALB/c wild type mice, but not in BALB/c-RELMα-/- or in C57BL/6-wild type or C57BL/6-RELMα-/- mice. RV systolic pressures (RVSP) were higher in BALB/c compared to C57BL/6J mice, and RELMα-/- were not different from their respective wild type controls. In BALB/c mice, RELMα was a key contributor to antigen/PM2.5 induced pulmonary vascular remodeling, RV thickening and RV cytokine responses, highlighting the significance of the genetic background. The RELMα-/- animals demonstrated significantly decreased expression of RELMβ and RELM which makes these mice comparable to a situation where human RELMα levels would be significantly modified, as humans only have one RELM molecule.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2023.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease; inhaled corticosteroid; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; fluticasone; budesonide
Online: 30 May 2023 (02:34:11 CEST)
Studies have shown increased nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease (NTM) incidence with inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) use in patients with chronic respiratory diseases; however, this association in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remains insufficiently studied. Using a nationwide population-based database of the Korean National Health Insurance Service, newly diagnosed COPD patients (20052018) treated with inhaled bronchodilators were selected. An NTM case was defined by the presence of the first diagnostic code following inhaled bronchodilator use. Results indicated that ICS users did not have an increased risk of NTM disease compared to non-ICS users (hazard ratio [HR], 1.121; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9501.323; p = 0.1755). The highest quartile of the cumulative ICS dose was associated with the development of NTM (1.200, 0.9501.323, p = 0.0497). Medium (1.229, 1.0081.499, p = 0.0410) and high daily doses of ICS (1.637, 1.2412.160, p = 0.0005) were associated with an increased risk of NTM disease. There was no difference in the risk of NTM according to ICS type. ICS use may not increase the risk of developing NTM disease in patients with COPD. However, physicians should weigh the potential benefits and risks of ICS, especially when using high doses and prolonged durations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1916.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: High flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy; acute respiratory failure; geriatrics; acute non-intensive hospital setting
Online: 26 May 2023 (10:22:17 CEST)
Background. There are scant data about the effectiveness of high flow nasal cannula (HFNC) oxygen therapy in patients hospitalized with severe acute respiratory failure (ARF) in non-intensive medical wards, particularly regarding the effect on arterial oxygenation compared to conventional oxygen therapy (COT) and non-invasive ventilation (NIV) or continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Methods. In a retrospective observational study, oxygenation parameters were measured before and immediately after HFNC initiation in 37 consecutive patients hospitalized in a geriatric ward in 2017. Results. HFNC was used as escalation therapy for untreatable hypoxia after failure of NIV/CPAP (n=18) or COT (n=19). Twenty-two patients died, 2 were transferred to the intensive care unit, while 13 were discharged alive. A “do not intubate” status was identified in 17 of the 22 deceased patients. Partial pressure of oxygen (pO2, p< 0.0001), oxygen saturation (SO2, p< 0.0001), pO2/fraction of inspired oxygen ratio (p=0.004) and peripheral SO2 measured by pulse oximetry (p< 0.0001) significantly increased soon after HFNC application. Oxygenation improvements were greater after escalation from NIV/CPAP and in patients discharged alive. Conclusion. HFNC significantly improved oxygenation in severe ARF after failure of COT or NIV/CPAP and may be particularly suitable for older patients hospitalized in non-intensive medical wards.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1889.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: Endobronchial ultrasound; Transbronchial needle aspiration; bronchoscopy
Online: 26 May 2023 (08:16:28 CEST)
Endobronchial Ultrasound has been widely used in the lymph node staging of lung tumors and the diagnosis of mediastinal diseases. In the last decades this procedure has evolved in several technical aspects, with new tools available to optimize the tissue sampling and to increase the diagnostic yield, like elastography, different types of needles and, most recently, miniforceps and cryobiopsy. Then, also the indications for EBUS have extended beyond the thoracic boundaries to sample lesions of the liver, left adrenal gland and retroperitoneal lymph nodes via the gastroesophageal tract. In this review we will analyze the actual indication of EBUS, even the more unusual, to underline the multiple use of EBUS in clinical practise.
INTERESTING IMAGES | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1842.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: hemopneumothorax; altitude barotrauma; emphysematous lesions; desquamative interstitial pneumonia
Online: 26 May 2023 (05:14:06 CEST)
We present the case of a 35-year-old patient without pathological history who developed hemopneumothorax due to altitude barotrauma during a commercial airline flight. The computed tomography of the chest identified the presence of emphysema "blebs" and bubbles, and the histopathological examination of the lung fragment obtained during the diagnostic and therapeutic thoracoscopy identified elements suggestive for the diagnosis of respiratory bronchiolitis associated with desquamative interstitial pneumonia (DIP).
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1855.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: sarcoidosis; advanced pulmonary fibrosis; signaling; molecular pathway
Online: 26 May 2023 (04:55:01 CEST)
Sarcoidosis is a multisystemic disease of unknown etiology characterized by the formation of granulomas in various organs, especially lung and mediastinal hilar lymph nodes. The clinical course and manifestations are unpredictable: spontaneous remission can occur in approximately two thirds of patients; up to 20% of patients have chronic course of the lung disease (called Ad-vanced Pulmonary Sarcoidosis) resulting in progressive loss of lung function, sometimes life-threatening that can lead to respiratory failure and death. The immunopathology mechanism leading from granuloma formation to the fibrosis in APS still remains elusive. Recent studies have provided new insights into the genetics factors and immune components involved in the clinical manifestation of the disease. In this review we aim to summarize the clinical-prognostic charac-teristics and molecular pathways which are believed to be associated with the development of APS
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1200.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: Histones; COPD; HDAC; H3.3; Inflammation; Hyperacetylations; Cytotoxicity; Alveolar damage; Cytokines.
Online: 17 May 2023 (05:46:03 CEST)
Excessive extracellular histones can damage cells despite their importance in DNA structure and gene regulation. We previously showed the harmful effect of histone 3.3 (H3.3) and its acetylated form (AcH3.3) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but further research is needed to understand the in vivo underlying mechanisms. To investigate this, we administered a single dose of recombinant histones via intra-tracheal instillation in C57BL/6 mice and analyzed the outcomes after 48 hours. Both rH3.3 and rAcH3.3 effectively reached the bronchial and alveolar space. Lung histology revealed severe immune cell infiltration, rupture, damage, and thickening of many alveolar walls. Micro-CT scans showed macroscopic structure changes with a decreased tissue volume to total volume ratio. The administration of rH3.3 and rAcH3.3 induced lung apoptotic activity, as indicated by increased levels of cleavage caspase 3 and 9. Moreover, elevated plasma levels of pro-inflammatory cell mediators, including TNF-alpha, IL-6, MCP-3, and CXCL-1, were observed. The pathological changes and pro-inflammatory cytokine response were more pronounced in animals treated with rAcH3.3, which also exhibited leukocytosis and lymphocytosis. These findings emphasize the crucial role of extracellular H3.3 acetylation in inducing cytotoxicity and a robust, acute inflammatory response similar to what occurs in the lungs of COPD patients.
INTERESTING IMAGES | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1169.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: 18F-FDG; PET/CT; SMARCA 4; NSCLC; Dynamic imaging；Efficacy evaluation
Online: 17 May 2023 (02:37:11 CEST)
SMARCA4-deficient non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a more recently recognized subset of NSCLC. We describe the 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT findings in a rare case of SMARCA4-deficient NSCLC and response to therapy. A 45-year-old male patient with a history of heavy smoking (10 years) underwent an 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT dynamic (chest) + static (whole-body) scan for diagnosis and pre-treatment staging. 18F-FDG PET/CT showed an FDG-avid mass in the upper lobe of the left lung (SUVmax of 22.4) and FDG-avid lymph nodes (LN) in the left pulmonary hilar region (SUVmax of 5.7). In addition, there are multiple metastases throughout the body, including distant LNs, adrenal glands, bone, and brain. Pathological findings confirmed SMARCA-4 deficient NSCLC. After 4 cycles of chemotherapy and immune checkpoint inhibitors（ICI）, the patient underwent again an 18F-FDG PET/CT scan (including dynamic scan) for efficacy evaluation. We report cases that deepen the understanding of the 18F-FDG PET/CT presentation of SMARCA4-deficient NSCLC as well as dynamic imaging features and parametric characteristics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1120.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: Wireless ultrasound scanners; Thoracic Ultrasound; Pleural effusion; Subpleural consolidations; Pleural lesions; Advances in thoracic ultrasound
Online: 16 May 2023 (07:37:14 CEST)
Abstract: Background. The newer wireless portable scanners seem to permit a quicker bedside ultrasound (US) assessment, shortening the transfer times of the portable US unit and without the hindering of connection cables. However, no substantial evidence is currently available regarding of the clinical effectiveness of such new generation devices. Objective. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the efficacy of a wireless US system with respect to a high-end US unit in a cohort of consecutive respiratory patients. Materials and Methods. This prospective observational study included a total of 72 respiratory patients admitted in the department of Internal Medicine. The US examination were independently performed by two experienced blinded examiners with a high-end Esaote MyLab-Twice scanner and a wireless double-head linear and convex probe OTE-L/C501CD. The findings resulting from the high-end US assessment and the wireless US examination were then compared each other. All the patients had a confirmation chest CT scan. Results. The high-end US machine identified 64 positive cases for pleuro-pulmonary alterations, in comparison to which the wireless US unit resulted in 13 false negative results. The respective overall sensitivity and specificity for the portable wireless US unit were of 79.69% and 100.00%, respectively. The resolution of the portable wireless US device was judged as good in 22 (31%) cases, affected by minor diagnostic limitations in 26 (36%) cases and affected by major diagnostic limitations in 24 (33%). The main diagnostic strength of the wireless probe was in the detection of pleural effusion (sensitivity 100%). The diagnostic sensitivity of the wireless probe in assessing abnormalities of the pleural line (67%), pulmonary subpleural consolidations (65%), pleural lesions (33%) and pericardial effusion (0%) was reduced. Conclusions. The newer wireless US probes may have clinical roles for the detection and management of pleural effusion when used by experienced examiners. However, sensitivity in detecting other pleuro-pulmonary pathologies is not comparable to high-end ultrasound machines.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0865.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: OSAS; CPAP; diabetes mellitus; hypertension; ischemic heart disease; stroke; renal failure
Online: 11 May 2023 (13:47:41 CEST)
Repeated desaturation of oxyhemoglobin, micro-arousals, which are typical in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), have negative effects on the health of patients, leading to a wide range of complications such as cardiovascular (arterial hypertension, pulmonary hypertension, chronic heart failure, arrhythmias, myocardial infarction) cerebrovascular (strokes), metabolic (insulin resistance, obesity, diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome), gastrointestinal (non-alcoholic liver disease), urinary (chronic renal failure), neuropsychiatric complications and a wide range of malignancies. This in turn has a multilateral effect on familial, occupational and social life, as well as increasing the risk of road traffic accidents or accidents at workplace. Awareness, timely screening and prevention of complications play an important role in the diagnosis and treatment of comorbid conditions. This review focuses on comorbidities in OSAS and the effect of CPAP therapy on their prognosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0774.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: EPB41L3; Lung; Fibrosis; Epithelium; Mesenchyme; Fibroblast; Myofibroblast; Transition
Online: 11 May 2023 (03:44:24 CEST)
Novel genetic and epigenetic factors involved in the development and prognosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) have been identified. We previously observed that EPB41L3 increased in the lung fibroblasts of IPF patients. Thus, we investigated the role of EPB41L3 in IPF by comparing EPB41L3 mRNA and protein expression of lung fibroblast between patients with IPF and controls. We also investigated the regulation of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in an epithelial cell line (A549), and the fibroblast-to-myofibroblast transition (FMT) in a fibroblast cell line (MRC5), by overexpressing and silencing EPB41L3. EPB41L3 mRNA and protein levels, as measured by RT-PCR, real-time PCR, and western blot, were significantly higher in fibroblasts derived from 14 IPF patients than in those from 10 controls. The mRNA and protein expression of EPB41L3 was upregulated during transforming growth factor-β-induced EMT and FMT. Overexpression of EPB41L3 in A549 cells using lenti-EPB41L3 transfection suppressed the mRNA and protein expression of N-cadherin and COL1A1. Treatment with EPB41L3 siRNA upregulated mRNA and protein expression of N-cadherin. Overexpression of EPB41L3 in MRC5 cells using lenti-EPB41L3 transfection suppressed mRNA and protein expression of fibronectin and α-SMA. Finally, treatment with EPB41L3 siRNA upregulated mRNA and protein expression of FN1, COL1A1, and VIM. Overall, these data strongly support an inhibitory effect of EPB41L3 on the process of fibrosis and suggest therapeutic potential of EPB41L3 as an anti-fibrotic mediator.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0732.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: chronic bacterial broncitis; airways disease; biofilms; microbiome; COPD; bronchiectasis
Online: 10 May 2023 (10:13:54 CEST)
This manuscript is aimed at encouraging those interested in biofilms and their effects on microbial communities to view the study of chronic airways disease as one of the most challenging and potentially rewarding areas to focus on. To do this it is necessary to review how we have reached 2023 having made so little progress. It is more than two hundred years ago since the term bronchitis was proposed to describe diseases affecting the airways rather than the respiratory zone of the lungs. The main histological features were described in Laennec’s text of 1819. By the mid C20th it was recognised that the two great drivers of chronic respiratory symptoms were inhaled toxins and chronic bacterial infections. The widespread availability of antibiotics in subsequent years had a dramatic impact on mortality from pneumonia, greatly reduced the prevalence of chronic symptoms after acute lower respiratory tract infections, transformed the lives of many with bronchiectasis and appeared to play a major role in the dramatic fall in prevalence of bronchiectasis. Unfortunately, during the following 70 years the importance of dealing with a chronic bacterial bronchitis was largely forgotten. While two artificial diseases ‘COPD’ and ‘bronchiectasis’ have been the subject of numerous guidelines, chronic bacterial bronchitis has been out in the cold. Antibiotics have in theory been reserved for those with established damage in the form of bronchiolitis and impaired lung function as defined by an arbitrary FEV1/FVC ratio and even then there is a disconnect with a minimum of 2 weeks being prescribed for exacerbations of bronchiectasis and the use of long term inhaled and oral macrolides frequently being advocated while a 5 day course is reserved for an exacerbation in a patient with COPD. The loss of focus on the role of antibiotics has a number of causes – a desire to ration antibiotic as part of ‘antibiotic stewardship’, the potential cost of treatment, the failure to ‘cure’ patients with chronic bronchitis and the difficulty in dealing with a disease whose morbidity at any given time can range from a mild cough and production of phlegm in the morning with no obvious impact on daily function to troublesome cough, sputum production and significant ill health. This was compounded by the vagaries of culture based diagnosis and the observation that more than one potential pathogen was often present. As a result chronic bacterial bronchitis was relegated to the ‘too hard to deal with’ box and many of the lessons of the past were forgotten. Revisiting the field from the perspective of current understanding of bacterial behaviour in biofilms and how these alter the resident microbiota of the airways should ensure that a chronic bacterial bronchitis returns to centre stage in order to minimise respiratory morbidity and mortality. This review charts the history of our understanding and mis-understanding of the role of chronic bacterial bronchitis in airways disease and the pernicious effect of language in helping to ensure that this common and important condition became the elephant in the room. Focusing on the nature of chronic bacterial bronchitis is essential if we are to find ways of identifying it accurately and treat it effectively – new approaches will be extremely slow unless we recognise its importance and the challenges it poses.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0675.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: Central sleep apnea; adaptive servo ventilation; oxygen therapy; sleep positional therapy
Online: 10 May 2023 (03:28:11 CEST)
Abstract: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is well known to often improve with non-supine positioning as opposed to su¬pine positioning. Emerging research supports a role for sleep position management in patients with central sleep apnea (CSA) as well. We report a case of de novo Complex Sleep apnea Syndrome (CompSAS) in a 78-year-old female, who presented after a car accident due to unclear syncope. Diagnostic polysomnography (PSG) showed a moderate OSA. A CompSAS developed under Automatic positive airway pressure (APAP), while download data of 4 years showed a good adherence. No significant benefit was reported under Adaptive Servo Ventilation (ASV) and BiPAP-ST, while a reduction of CSA in non-supine position was noticed. Oxygen and sleep positional therapy (SPT) were considered resulting in a significant improvement of CSA and sleep quality. Further research on the prevalence of positional CSA is needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0640.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: catheter; highfrequency jet ventilation; artificial lung ventilation; physical principles
Online: 9 May 2023 (10:34:37 CEST)
The aim of this publication is to analyze the topic of high-frequency jet ventilation (HFJV), namely the catheter HFJV (C-HFJV) from a mathematical-physical as well as a clinical point of view. There are known issues with applying anesthesia and artificial lung ventilation (ALV) during surgical procedures in the upper airways, e.g. during bronchoscopy or tracheostomy. The principles, advantages, and disadvantages of HFJV are discussed in context with basic physical principles to clarify the proper use of this method. The basic technical principles of catheter construction, as well as its functional properties from a biophysical point of view, are introduced. Also, the placement of the catheter in the airways, the set-up of the HFJV ventilator, and the indications as well as the risks and contraindications of the use of C-HFJV are analyzed. This leads to the explanation of potentially optimal techniques for C-HFJV applications. In this article, we present the positive effects of C-HFJV even with complications such as bacterial or viral pneumonia, including COVID-19. In conclusion, we offer recommendations for clinical practice obtained from a literature review as well as from our own rich clinical experience.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0581.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: multiomics; lung, respiratory; models; integration; outcomes
Online: 9 May 2023 (07:38:25 CEST)
Diseases of the lung account for more than 5 million deaths worldwide and are a burden to healthcare. Improving clinical outcomes including mortality and quality of life involves a holistic understanding the etiopathogenesis, which can be provided by multi-omics integration of lung data. An enhanced understanding of large comprehensive datasets provides opportunities to mine those datasets for features that contribute to prevention and amelioration of disease. In this review, we evaluate lung disease models including animal models, organoids and single cell lines as mechanisms to study multiomics in lung health and disease. We provide examples of lung diseases where multi-omics investigations have provided a deeper insight into pathogenesis that has resulted in improved preventive and therapeutic interventions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0533.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: Respiratory syncytial virus; Nrf2; collagen; micro-CT; airway remodeling
Online: 8 May 2023 (11:21:24 CEST)
Severe respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections in early life have been linked to the development of chronic airway disease. RSV is a potent inducer of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which contributes to inflammation and enhanced clinical disease. NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is an evolutionary conserved redox-responsive protein that helps to protect cells and whole organisms from oxidative stress and injury. The role of Nrf2 in the context of viral-mediated chronic lung injury is not known. Herein, we show that RSV experimental infection of adult Nrf2 deficient BALB/c mice (Nrf2-/-; Nrf2 KO) is characterized by enhanced disease, increased inflammatory cell recruitment to the bronchoalveolar compartment, and a more robust upregulation of innate and inflammatory genes and proteins, compared to wild type Nrf2+/+ competent mice (WT). These events that occur at very early time points, lead to increased peak RSV replication in Nrf2 KO compared to WT mice (day 5). To evaluate longitudinal changes of the lung architecture, mice were scanned weekly by high-resolution micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) imaging up to 28 days after initial viral inoculation. Based on micro-CT qualitative 2D imaging and quantitative reconstructed histogram-based analysis of lung volume and density, we found that RSV infected Nrf2 KO mice developed significantly greater and prolonged fibrosis compared to WT mice. Results of this study underscore the critical role of Nrf2-mediated protection from oxidative injury not only in acute pathogenesis of RSV infection, but also in its long-term consequences of chronic airway injury.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0181.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: Covid-19; idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis; interstitial lung disease; pulmonary fibrosis
Online: 4 May 2023 (04:09:04 CEST)
This review brings together the current knowledge regarding the risk factors, and the clinical, radiologic and histological features of both post-COVID-19 interstitial pul-monary fibrosis (PCPF) and Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) with a particular fo-cus on describing the similarities and the disparities between the fibrotic changes in these two diseases. It is important to highlight the common points of PCPF and IPF to observe if they are some targetable changes to improve patient outcomes. The litera-ture review was performed using numerous databases to identify relevant articles published in English through October 2022. This review would help clinicians, pathologists and researchers to make an accurate diagnosis, which can be useful in identifying the group of patients who can be selected for antifibrotic therapies, and future therapeutic perspectives.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0091.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: Asthma; Erbil; Health education; Knowledge; Attitudes; Practice
Online: 3 May 2023 (04:10:18 CEST)
Asthma causes chronic coughing, wheezing, dyspnea, and chest pressure. This study assessed asthmatic patients' knowledge, attitudes and awareness of bronchial asthma and proper education on its meaning, risk factors, symptoms, diagnosis, management, and prevention practice. We performed a cross-sectional interventional asthma KAP survey in Erbil, Iraq. We adapted a validated study questionnaire from KAP studies in other nations to the Erbil situation and culture. In Erbil, Kurdistan, Iraq, two major hospitals' asthma clinics were studied. We chose 250 asthmatic ICU patients from October 2018 to July 2019. Health education was comprehensive. The health education program used a Kurdish PowerPoint with a printout. 25 groups got two-weeks of one-hour health education pre-intervention. Each group was questioned before, 2 and 12 weeks after health education. All data were analyzed by SPSS v26. The mean age of the respondent was 37.52±15.16 with 48.7 % respondent having a positive family history of asthma. After 2weeks of health education intervention, respondent have a higher knowledge score, positive attitudes compared to pre-education and after 12 weeks of education with a significant difference (P < 0.001) with improvised prevention practice. Health education programs led to considerable improvements in asthmatic patients' knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding their condition. After receiving health education for a period of two weeks, the majority of the participants answered correctly regarding asthma, its causes, and the elements that trigger asthma attacks.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1130.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: biomarkers; coronary artery calcifications; emphysema; low-dose CT; lung cancer; lung nodules; mortality; radiations; screening; smoking
Online: 28 April 2023 (07:17:21 CEST)
The ITALUNG trial started in 2004 and compared lung cancer (LC) and other-causes mortality in 55-69 years-aged smokers and ex-smokers who were randomized to four annual chest low-dose CT (LDCT) or usual care. ITALUNG showed a lower LC and cardiovascular mortality in the screened subjects after 13 years of follow-up, especially in women, and produced many ancillary studies. They included recruitment results of a population-based mimicking approach, development of software for computer aided diagnosis (CAD) and lung nodules volumetry, LDCT assessment of pulmonary emphysema and coronary artery calcifications (CAC) and their relevance to long-term mortality, results of a smoking-cessation intervention, assessment of the radiations dose associated with screening LDCT, and the results of biomarkers assays. Moreover ITALUNG data indicated that screen-detected LCs are mostly already present at baseline LDCT, can present as Lung Cancer associated with Cystic Airspaces, and can be multiple. However, several issues of LC screening are still unaddressed. They include the annual vs biennial pace of LDCT, choice between opportunistic or population-based recruitment and between uni or multi-center screening, implementation of CAD-assisted reading, containment of false positive and negative LDCT results, incorporation of emphysema and CAC quantification in models of personalized LC and mortality risk, validation of ultra-LDCT acquisitions, optimization of the smoking-cessation intervention and prospective validation of the biomarkers.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1075.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: Asthma; Vitamin D; Airway Remodeling; inflammation; Smooth muscle cell.
Online: 27 April 2023 (10:37:35 CEST)
Asthma is a common chronic respiratory disease that affects millions of people worldwide, and its prevalence continues to increase. Vitamin D has been proposed as a potential environmental factor in asthma pathogenesis, due to its immunomodulatory effects. This systematic review aimed to evaluate the effect of vitamin D supplementation on airway remodeling in asthma. We conducted a comprehensive search of electronic databases and identified experimental studies and randomized controlled trials that investigated the impact of vitamin D supplementation on airway remodeling in asthma. The studies included in this review suggest that vitamin D inhibits airway smooth muscle cell contraction and remodeling, reduces inflammation, and regulates collagen synthesis in the airways, and modulates the action of bronchial fibroblasts. However, one study suggests that TGF-β1 can impair vitamin D-induced and constitutive airway epithelial host defense mechanisms. Overall, vitamin D appears to influence many of the pathways central to asthma progression, indicating a promising potential in asthma management and prevenation of asthma progression.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1030.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: COVID-19 infection; coagulopathy; endothelial dysfunction; platelet activation; citokine storm; anticoagulant therapy
Online: 27 April 2023 (04:14:52 CEST)
Since the first description of COVID-19 infection, among clinical manifestations of the disease including fever, dispnea, cough, fatigue, it was observed a high incidence of thromboembolic events potentially evolving towars ARDS and COVID-associated-coagulopathy (CAC).The hypercoagulation state is based on an interaction between thrombosis and inflammation. The so-called CAC represents a key aspect in the genesis of organ damage from SARS-CoV-2. The prothrombotic status in COVID-19 disease can be explained by the increase of coagulation levels of D-dimer, lymphocytes, fibrinogen, IL-6 and prothrombin time. Several mechanisms have been hypothesized to explain this hypercoagulable process such as inflammatory cytokine storm, platelet activation, endothelial dysfunction and stasis for a long time. The purpose of this narrative review is to provide an overview of the current knowledge on the pathogenic mechanisms of coagulopathy that may characterize COVID-19 infection and inform on new areas of research. New vascular therapeutic strategies are also reviewed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1027.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: Pigtail catheter; pleural drainage; simple pleural effusion
Online: 27 April 2023 (04:06:55 CEST)
Background and Objectives: The novel double-pigtail catheter (DPC) has an additional pigtail coiling at the mid-shaft with centripetal multiple side holes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the advantages and efficacy of DPC in overcoming the complications of conventional single-pigtail catheters (SPC) used to drain pleural effusion. Materials and Methods: Between July 2018 and December 2019, 382 pleural effusion drainage procedures were reviewed retrospectively (DPC, n = 156; SPC without multiple side holes, n = 110; SPC with multiple side holes [SPC+M], n = 116). All patients showed shifting pleural effusion in the decubitus view of chest radiography. All catheters were 10.2 Fr in diameter. One interventional radiologist performed all procedures and used the same anchoring technique. Complications (dysfunctional retraction, complete dislodgement, blockage, and atraumatic pneumothorax) were compared among the catheters using chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests. Clinical success was defined as improvement in pleural effusion within 3 days without additional procedures. A survival analysis was performed for calculating the indwelling time. Results: The dysfunctional retraction rate of DPC was significantly lower than that of the other catheters (p < .001). Complete dislodgement did not occur in any of the DPC cases. The clinical success rate of DPC (90.1%) was the highest. The estimated indwelling times were nine (95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.3–10.7), eight (95% CI: 6.6–9.4), and seven (95% CI: 6.3–7.7) days for SPC, SPC+M, and DPC, respectively, with DPC showing a significant difference (p < .05). Conclusions: DPC had a lower dysfunctional retraction rate compared to conventional drainage catheters. Furthermore, DPC were efficient for pleural effusion drainage with a shorter indwelling time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0971.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: 2019-nCoV; COVID-19; RT-PCR; SARS-CoV-2; Community-acquired pneumonia; Chest CT; microwave radiometry; temperature measurement
Online: 26 April 2023 (08:02:32 CEST)
Background. Chest CT is widely regarded as a dependable imaging technique for detecting pneumonia in COVID-19 patients, but there is growing interest in microwave radiometry (MWR) of the lungs as a possible substitute for diagnosing lung involvement. Aim. The aim of the study is to examine the utility of the MWR approach as a screening tool for diagnosing pneumonia with complications in patients with COVID-19. Methods. Our study involved two groups of participants. The control group consisted of 50 individuals (24 male and 26 female) between the ages of 20 to 70 years who underwent clinical evaluations and had no known medical conditions. The main group included 142 participants (67 men and 75 women) between the ages of 20 to 87 years who were diagnosed with COVID-19 complicated by pneumonia and were admitted to the emergency department between June 2020 to June 2021. Skin and lung temperatures were measured at 14 points, including 2 additional reference points, using a previously established method. Lung temperature data were obtained with the MWR2020 (RTM-01-RES) (MMWR LTD, Edinburgh, UK), a CE Class I device. All participants underwent clinical evaluations, laboratory tests, chest CT scans, MWR of the lungs, and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing for SARS-CoV-2. Results. The MWR exhibits a high predictive capacity as demonstrated by its sensitivity of 98.6% and specificity of 84.0%. Conclusions. MWR of the lungs can be a valuable substitute for chest CT in diagnosing pneumonia in patients with COVID-19, especially in situations where chest CT is unavailable or impractical.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0906.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: sarcoidosis; bronchoalveolar lavage; chest computed tomography; biological markers
Online: 25 April 2023 (09:27:52 CEST)
The search for biological markers, which allow a relatively accurate assessment of the individual course of pulmonary sarcoidosis at the time of diagnosis remains one of the research priorities in this field of pulmonary medicine. The aim of our study was to investigate possible prognostic factors for pulmonary sarcoidosis with a special focus on cellular immune inflammation markers. 2 years follow-up of the study population after initial prospective and simultaneous analysis of lymphocyte activation markers expression in the blood, as well as bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and lung biopsy tissue of patients with newly diagnosed pulmonary sarcoidosis, was done. We found that some blood and BAL fluid immunological markers and lung computed tomography (CT) patterns have been associated with a different course of sarcoidosis. We revealed five markers that had a significant negative association with the course of sarcoidosis (worsening pulmonary function tests and/or the chest CT changes) – blood CD4+CD31+ and CD4+CD44+ T lymphocytes, BALF CD8+CD31+ and CD8+CD103+ T lymphocytes and a number of lung nodules on chest CT at the time of the diagnosis. Cut-off values, sensitivity, specificity, and odds ratio for predictors of sarcoidosis progression were calculated. These markers may be reasonable predictors of sarcoidosis progression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0511.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: sleep fragmentation; obstructive sleep apnea; explicit memory; inflammation; blood brain barrier; cognition; microglia
Online: 18 April 2023 (10:18:23 CEST)
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a chronic condition characterized by intermittent hypoxia (IH) and sleep fragmentation (SF). In murine models, chronic SF can impair endothelial function and induce cognitive declines. These deficits are likely mediated, at least in part, by alterations in Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB) integrity. Male C57Bl/6J mice were randomly assigned to SF or sleep control (SC) conditions for 4 or 9 weeks, and in a subset 2 or 6 weeks of normal sleep recovery. Presence of inflammation and microglia activation were evaluated. Explicit memory function was assessed with the novel object recognition (NOR) test, while BBB permeability was determined by systemic dextran-4kDA-FITC injection and Claudin 5 expression. SF exposures resulted in decreased NOR performance and in increased inflammatory markers and microglial activation as well as enhanced BBB permeability. Explicit memory and BBB permeability were significantly associated. BBB permeability remained elevated after 2 weeks of sleep recovery (p<0.01) and returned to baseline values only after 6 weeks. Chronic SF exposures mimicking the fragmentation of sleep that characterizes patient with OSA elicits evidence of inflammation in brain regions and explicit memory impairments in mice. Similarly, SF is also associated with increased BBB permeability, the magnitude of which is closely associated with cognitive functional losses. Despite normalization of sleep patterns, BBB functional recovery is a protracted process that merits further investigation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0186.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: ARDS; Prone position; COVID-19; Mechanical ventilation
Online: 11 April 2023 (03:57:11 CEST)
Ventilation in prone position (PP) for 12 to 16 hours per day improves survival in ARDS. However, the optimal duration of the intervention is unknown. We performed a prospective observational study to compare the efficacy and safety of a prolonged PP protocol with conventional prone ventilation in COVID-19-associated ARDS. Prone position was undertaken if P/F <150 with FiO2>0.6 and PEEP>10cmH2O. Oxygenation parameters and respiratory mechanics were recorded before the first PP cycle, at the end of PP cycle and 4 hours after supination. We included 63 consecutive intubated patients with mean age 63.5 years. Of them, 37 (58.7%) underwent prolonged prone position (PPP group) and 26 (41.3%) standard prone position (SPP group). Median cycle duration for SPP group was 20 hrs and for PPP group 46 hrs (p<0.001). No significant differences in oxygenation, respiratory mechanics, number of PP cycles and rate of complications were observed between groups. The 28-day survival was 78.4% in the PPP group versus 65.4% in the SPP group (p=0.253). Extending the duration of PP was as safe and efficacious as conventional PP, but did not confer any survival benefit in a cohort of patients with severe ARDS due to COVID-19.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0162.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: Hybrid computer tomography; pulmonary ground glass nodule localization; video-assisted thoracic surgery; pulmonary recruitment
Online: 10 April 2023 (09:30:44 CEST)
The standard treatment for early-stage lung cancer is complete tumor excision by limited resection of the lung. Pre-operative localization is used before video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) to improve the accuracy of pulmonary nodule excision. However, lung atelectasis and hypoxia resulting from controlling apnea during the localization procedure may affect the localization accuracy. Pre-procedural pulmonary recruitment may improve respiratory mechanics and oxygenation during localization. In this study, we investigated the potential benefits of pre-localization pulmonary recruitment prior to pulmonary ground-glass nodule localization in a hybrid operating room. We hypothesized that pre-localization pulmonary recruitment would increase localization accuracy, improve oxygenation, and prevent the need for re-inflation during the localization procedure. We retrospectively enrolled patients with multiple pulmonary nodule localizations before surgical intervention in our hybrid operating room. We compared localization accuracies between patients who had undergone pre-procedure pulmonary recruitment and patients who had not. Saturation, re-inflation rate, apnea time, procedure-related pneumothorax, and procedure time were also recorded as secondary outcomes. Patients who had undergone pre-procedure recruitment had better saturation, shorter procedure time, and higher localization accuracy. The pre-procedure pulmonary recruitment maneuver was effective in increasing regional lung ventilation, leading to improved oxygenation and localization accuracy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0019.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: Covid-19; Deep Learning; Computerized Tomography; Artificial Intelligence; Machine Learning; X-ray
Online: 3 April 2023 (08:40:11 CEST)
(1) Background: In the year of 2020 Covid-19 was declared epidemic by WHO. From that time millions of people were affected and died by this disease. The main detection process for this epidemic is RT-PCR test or reverse polymerase transcription chain reaction test. One of the reason of spreading of this disease so much is lack of efficiency in RT-PCR test. Sampling error and low viral load were two main reasons for what the testing process faced such problems. Lung infection is a very common symptom for covid-19 patients, so, CT scan and chest X-ray imaging technique can be applied to detect patient at a very early stage of infection. Which will be very effective and also can be a better option to RT-PCR test; (2) Methods: We searched data in Scopus for articles published between 2020 and 2023. The initial set of articles was 189, from which 21 articles will eventually be selected by exclusion criteria; (3) Results: A total of thirteen (61.90%) articles were found working on detecting Covid-19 by extracting the X-ray and CT scan data individually. Three (14.28%) of those articles focused on a hybrid model of CT scan and X-ray Image Data. Another four articles made a comparison between Covid-19, pneumonia and a normal person to identify a Covid-19 patient. Where others have worked on unsupervised learning methods or SVM to detect Covid-19.; (4) Conclusions: We have conducted a systematic review of the studies that have been published up to this time, with the purpose to present a summary of the evidence about the detection of COVID-19. In this article, we have summarized and critically reviewed literatures which worked on development or application or both of different AI or ML technique from chest CT and X-ray images to find a solution to detect covid-19.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0524.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; Long COVID; Cytopathy; cytokine storm; sequelae; PASC; coronavirus; angiotensin-converting enzyme 2; cell dysfunction
Online: 30 March 2023 (05:09:50 CEST)
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome CoronaVirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection triggers various events from molecular to tissue level, which in turn is given by the intrinsic characteristics of each patient. Given the molecular diversity characteristic of each cellular phenotype, the possible cytopathic, tissue and clinical effects are difficult to predict, which determines the heterogeneity of COVID-19 symptoms. The purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of the cytopathic effects of SARS-CoV-2 on various cell types, focusing on the development of COVID-19, which in turn may lead, in some patients, to a persistence of symptoms after recovery from the disease, a condition known as long COVID. We describe the molecular mechanisms underlying virus-host interactions, including alterations in protein expression, intracellular signaling pathways, and immune responses. In particular, the article highlights the potential impact of these cytopathies on cellular function and clinical outcomes, such as immune dysregulation, neuropsychiatric disorders, and organ damage. The article concludes by discussing future directions for research and implications for the management and treatment of COVID-19 and Long-COVID.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0515.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: coronavirus; statistical analysis; extrapolation; parameter estimation; pandemic spreading
Online: 30 March 2023 (02:30:40 CEST)
Monitored infection and vaccination rates during past past Corona waves are used to infer a posteriori two key parameter of the SIRV-epidemic model, namely the real time variation of the (i) ratio of recovery to infection rate and (ii) ratio of vaccination to infection rate. We demonstrate that using the classical SIR model the ratio between recovery and infection rates tends to overestimate the true ratio, that is of relevance in predicting the dynamics of an epidemics in the presence of vaccinations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0472.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; pulmonary fibrosis; coronavirus; nanoparticles; nanomedicine; pandemic; acute respiratory syndrome
Online: 28 March 2023 (03:59:29 CEST)
There have been significant collaborative efforts over the past three years to develop therapies against COVID-19. During this journey, there has also been a lot of focus on understanding at-risk groups of patients who either have pre-existing conditions or have developed concomitant health conditions due to the impact of COVID-19 on immune system. There was a high incidence of COVID-19 induced pulmonary fibrosis (PF) observed in patients. PF can cause significant morbidity, long-term disability, and lead to death in the long run. Additionally, being a progressive disease, PF can also impact the patient for a long time after COVID infection and affect the overall quality of life. Although current therapies are being used as the mainstay for treating PF, there is no therapy specifically for COVID-induced PF. As observed in the treatment of other diseases, nanomedicine can show a significant promise in overcoming the limitations of current anti-PF therapies. In this review, we summarize the efforts reported by various groups to develop nanomedicine therapeutics to treat COVID-induced PF.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0441.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: IgG4 antibodies; mRNA vaccines; immuno-tolerance; auto-immunity; SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19.
Online: 27 March 2023 (03:56:26 CEST)
Due to the health crisis caused by SARS-CoV-2, the creation of a new vaccine platform based on mRNA was implemented. Globally, around 13.32 billion COVID-19 vaccine doses of diverse platforms have been given, and up to this date, 69.7% of the total population received at least one injection of a COVID-19 vaccine. Although these vaccines prevent hospitalization and severe forms of the disease, increasing evidence has shown they do not produce sterilizing immunity, allowing people to suffer frequent re-infections. Recent research has also raised concerns that mRNA vaccines could induce immune tolerance, which, added to that caused by the virus itself, could complicate the clinical course of a COVID-19 infection. Furthermore, recent investigations have found high IgG4 levels in people who were administered two or more injections of mRNA vaccines. It has been suggested that an increase in IgG4 levels could have a protecting role by preventing immune over-activation, similar to that occurring during successful allergen-specific immunotherapy by inhibiting IgE-induced effects. Altogether, evidence suggests that the reported increase in the IgG4 levels detected after repeated vaccination with the mRNA vaccines is not a protective mechanism; rather, it may be a part of the immune tolerance mechanism to the spike protein that could promote unopposed SARS-CoV2 infection and replication by suppressing natural antiviral responses. IgG4-induced suppression of the immune system due to repeated vaccination can also cause autoimmune diseases, promotes cancer growth, and autoimmune myocarditis in susceptible individuals.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0508.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: nasal function; validation; software; nasal resistance; rhinomanometry; acoustic rhinometry; peak nasal inspiratory flow meter; practice patterns; objective measurement outcomes; parameters
Online: 28 February 2023 (06:32:27 CET)
Abstract: Background: The diagnosis of nasal airway disorders relies on questionnaires, subjective data, and objective data. Interpretation of objective data obtained from measurement technology is not well understood by providers and researchers who use the equipment to test nasal airway function, justifying the need to cre-ate a new clinical tool. The Davidson Airway Function & Nasal Evaluation (DAFNE) Scoring System is a web-based scoring system that allows healthcare providers (MDs, PAs, PTs, APRNs, DMDs, DDSs, SLPs, and DCs) and researchers who treat nasal obstruction and breathing disorders to make more accurate diagnostic decisions, select the appropriate treatment for individualized patient care, monitor treatment progression and outcomes, and show how to approach a collaborative care model with other healthcare professionals. The current technologies, such as 4-phase rhinomanometry, use a simple approach that relies on a measurement tracing intersecting a color-coded y-axis on a four-quadrant graph with diagnostic numeric data output de-scribing nasal airflow and resistance. This is a good source of biofeedback demonstrating abnormal nasal breathing patterns but lacks interpretation guidelines to describe the severity of disease. The more sophisti-cated proprietary DAFNE approach uses multiple parameters which include airflow restriction, speed, vol-ume, and patient characteristics to identify patients’ disease progression much more accurately. Additionally, it explains how to segregate patients into appropriate treatment options which minimizes risks and compli-cations associated with sleep and breathing disorders while improving patient outcomes. Methods: Electronic searches of PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE Cochrane Library, and Scopus of publications between 1988-2022 were necessary to identify studies which determined the ranges of nasal function measurement parameters among three airway measurement technologies used in writing the DAFNE Score algorithm. The performance of DAFNE was evaluated compared to the research data and patient demographics used in previous studies. Results: By using primary outcome measurements from the literature, we were able to create a reliable, re-peatable, and validated tool to facilitate patient identification, treatment stratification, and collaboration for sleep and nasal breathing dysfunction. Subsequently, we found DAFNE could be used to identify the appro-priateness of a sleep study. Conclusions: DAFNE Scoring System has demonstrated the ability to detect high risk patients in the pediatric and adult populations susceptible of sleep apnea and breathing dysfunction needing a sleep study and treatment to improve nasal airway function and sleep. DAFNE Scoring System should be used as an adjunct tool in routine clinical practice and research to further understand the technol-ogy data output, identify patients at risk, stratify treatment options, progress, and stabilization after treatment, and how to collaborate with other healthcare providers to improve patient outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0342.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: Latent Tuberculoses; Latent Tuberculosis Infections; Koch's Disease; Interferon-gamma Release Assay; Tuberculin Tests; Rapid Diagnostic Test
Online: 20 February 2023 (13:37:31 CET)
Introduction: Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most prevalent respiratory diseases in the world. In 2020 there were at least 9.9 million new infections, with 1.5 million deaths. Approximately 10% of people infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (LTBI) develop the disease during the first 2 to 5 years after infection. Currently in South America, the diagnosis of LTBI continues to be per-formed through the Mantoux tuberculin skin test (TST). Objective: The objective of our study was to compare the sensitivity of a new immunofluorescence IGRA test against a widely available IGRA kit on the market. Material and method: Close contact to infectious patients with TB, or HIV patients or immunocompromised for another cause were recruited. Two interferon gamma release assay (IGRA) diagnostic kits were used and compared with TST. Results: 76 patients were recruited. 93.42% were Chilean nationality, 98.68% of the patients did not have immunosuppres-sion. The sensitivity of the new technique was 88.89% and specificity 92.50% in the study popula-tion compared to the IGRA previously used. In the subgroup older than 36 years, the sensitivity was 95.65% and the specificity 89.47%. Conclusion: IGRA techniques are a new resource in clini-cal laboratories to be able to make an accurate diagnosis in LTBI in the region of the Americas. In our population, the greatest benefit of this new IGRA would be observed in people over 36 years of age, where the sensitivity of the technique was like that of the currently available test.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0541.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: Ionotropin; Kaleotropin; Galotropin; Pre-eclampsia; Spiral Steroids; Necrotizing Enterocolitis; Cardiotonic glycosides; lactone; digoxin-like materials; DLM
Online: 28 December 2022 (12:24:39 CET)
Spiral steroids (SS) are a newly discovered type of steroid. Originally, they were described as cardiotonic glycosides because they cross-reacted with digoxin-specific antibodies (Digoxin-Like-Materials-DLM). SS differ from the classical steroids in several ways: [a] they are steroid phosphodiester conjugates and displace digoxin from digoxin-specific antibodies, [b] in contrast to all other steroids, cholesterol is not a precursor, [c] SS have more than 21 carbon atoms; the extra atoms form a 5th ring which includes a lactone, [d] SS bind to NaK-ATPase in membranes rather than receptors in the nucleus. SS have been identified by HPLC- mass spectroscopy in extracts from mammals, birds, and oysters but were not detected in plant extracts. Overall, SS seem to be key components in regulating potassium electrolytes during pregnancy and its related diseases – specifically pre-eclampsia and necrotizing enterocolitis.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0525.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections; Child; Bronchiolitis; Survival.
Online: 28 December 2022 (02:37:39 CET)
Background: The respiratory syncytial virus infection (RSV) spread has been unusually high during 2022 and increasing trends have been documented We aimed to assess the survival experience of children hospitalized due bronchiolitis by laboratory-confirmed RSV. Methods: A nationwide and retrospective cohort was conducted in Mexico and data from 436 children aged 5 years and younger, with symptoms onset from August 2021 to November 2022, were analyzed. Survivor functions and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed by using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: The survival rates were high, particularly within the first three weeks of admission. The 3-day survival was 99.8% (CI 95% 98.4-99.9%) and went to 98.9% (CI 95% 96.5-99.7%), 97.5% (CI 95% 91.9-99.3%), 86.7% (95% CI 48.2-97.2%), and 69.4% (95% CI 24.2-91.0%) on days 7, 14, 21 and 28 of hospital stay, respectively. We documented 5 fatal outcomes, and the mortality rate was 2.1 per 1,000 person-days. Conclusions: We analyzed a large set of pediatric patients with bronchiolitis by RSV and the presented results contribute to achieving a better understanding of the in-hospital evolution of this disease.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0469.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; Reinfection
Online: 26 December 2022 (03:53:55 CET)
Background: Repeated SARS-CoV-2 infections are plausible and related published data are scarce. We aimed to identify factors associated with the risk of recurrent (three episodes) laboratory-confirmed symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted and 1,700 healthcare workers were enrolled. We used risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) to evaluate factors associated with symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections. Results: We identified 14 participants with recurrent illness episodes. Therefore, the incidence rate was 8.5 per 10,000 person-months. In multiple model, vaccinated adults (vs. unvaccinated, RR = 1.05 [1.03 - 1.06]) and those with a severe first illness episode (vs mild disease, RR = 1.05 [1.01 - 1.10]) were at increased risk for repeated symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 reinfections. Increasing age showed a protective effect (per each additional year of age: RR = 0.98 [0.97 - 0.99]). Conclusions: Our results suggest that recurrent SARS-CoV-2 infections are rare events in adults and they seem to be determined, partially, by vaccination status and age.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0296.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: atherosclerosis; COVID-19; inflammation; cardiovascular system; cytokines; endothelium; lipoproteins; renin-angiotensin system; atheroma; autoimmunity; vasa vasorum.
Online: 16 December 2022 (06:32:21 CET)
The article describes how atherosclerosis and coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) may affect each other. The features of this comorbid pathogenesis at various levels (vascular, cellular and molecular) are considered. A bidirectional influence of these conditions is described: the presence of cardiovascular diseases affects different individual susceptibility to viral infection. In turn, SARS-CoV-2 can have a negative effect on the endothelium and cardiomyocytes, causing blood clotting, secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and thus exacerbating the development of atherosclerosis. In addition to the established entry into cells via ACE2 принимая во внимание его влияние на, other mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 entry are currently under investigation, for example, through CD147. Pathogenesis of comorbidity can be determined by the influence of the virus on various links which are meaningful for atherogenesis: generation of oxidized forms of LDL, launch of a cytokine storm, damage to the endothelial glycocalyx, and mitochondrial injury. The transformation of a stable plaque into an unstable one plays an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis complications and can be triggered by COVID-19. The impact of SARS-CoV-2 on large vessels such as aorta is more complex than previously thought considering its impact on vasa vasorum. Current information on the mutual influence of the medicines used in the treatment of atherosclerosis and acute COVID-19 is briefly summarized
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0061.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: Covid-19; Neutrophil-Lymphocyte ratio (NLR); severe covid pneumonia
Online: 5 December 2022 (06:26:50 CET)
With covid infection having a periodic occurrence and each wave affecting millions of people, there is an urgent need for healthcare providers to develop readily available biological markers to predict the severity and mortality of COVID-19 infection at an early stage of the disease to predict the most optimal management. The Neutrophil – lymphocyte Ratio (NLR) and Platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), are novel inflammatory markers suggested to predict the severity of illness in COVID -19 patients. We evaluated a retrospective cohort of 224 patients with covid 19 illnesses from August 2020 to October 2020. We categorized the patients into 'mild' and 'moderate to severe as per the severity of their illnesses. The optimal cut-off values of the continuous NLR, PLR, and Age were calculated by applying the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios were calculated from ROC analysis. The results showed that Age, Hb, and NLR are significant predictors of the severity of illness. So we quantified the predictive contribution of those variables by its Z- score and showed that NLR is the strongest predictor followed by Age.ROC curve analysis revealed NLR to be an excellent predictor of disease severity (sensitivity 88.30% and specificity 82.60%) at a cut-off of > 4.24. A cut-off of 165.63 was obtained for PLR, which showed good predictive value for the severity of illness. A NLR > 6 was used as a predictor for mortality due to covid illness with good sensitivity and specificity. Conclusion: NLR and PLR can be used as prognostic markers to identify the severity of covid illness and the probability of mortality in the future in low-resource settings. Given its low cost, easily available, accessible, and reproducible data, it can be used as a useful marker to assist the physician in early referral and treatment of covid 19 infected patients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0032.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: ACE2; Ang II; angiotensin(1-7); AT1R; Cathepsin; cell entry; COVID-19; Endocytosis; ERK1/2; Furin; IL-1β; IL-6; MAPK; MasR; NF-κB; PLC; PKC; RAS; RBD; SARS-CoV2; S protein; TMPRSS2; TNF-α
Online: 2 December 2022 (02:19:48 CET)
Since the spread of the deadly virus SARS-CoV2 in late 2019, researchers have restlessly been seeking for unraveling how the virus factually enters the host cells. Some proteins on each side of the interaction between the virus and the host cells are involved as the major contributors to this process: 1- the nano-machine Spike protein on behalf of the virus, 2- angiotensin converting enzyme II, the mono-carboxypeptidase and the key component of renin angiotensin system on behalf of the host cell, 3- some host proteases and proteins exploited by SARS-CoV2, In this review, the complex process of SARS-CoV2 entrance into the host cells with the contribution of the involved host proteins as well as the sequential conformational changes in the Spike protein tending to increase the probability of complexification of the latter with angiotensin converting enzyme II, the receptor of the virus on the host cells, are discussed. Besides, the release of the catalytic ectodomain of angiotensin converting enzyme II as its soluble form in the extracellular space and its positive or negative impact on the infectivity of the virus are considered.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0448.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT); neutrophil elastase (NE); NETosis, PAD4, ARDS, COPD; neutrophils; COVID-19; TMPRSS2.
Online: 24 November 2022 (02:50:25 CET)
Excessive neutrophil influx and activation in lungs during infections, such as manifest during the ongoing SARS CoV-2 pandemic, have brought neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) and the con-comitant release of granule contents that damage surrounding tissues into sharp focus. Neutro-phil proteases, which are known to participate in NET release, also enable the binding of the viral spike protein to cellular receptors and assist in the spread of infection. Blood and tissue fluids normally also contain liver-derived protease inhibitors that balance the activity of proteases. In-terestingly, neutrophils themselves also express the protease inhibitor alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT), the product of the SERPINA-1 gene, and store it in neutrophil cytoplasmic granules. The absence of AAT or mutations in the SERPINA-1 gene promote lung remodeling and fibrosis in diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and increase the risk of allergic responses. Recent observations point to the fact that re-duced activity of AAT presents a major susceptibility factor for severe COVID-19. Here, we focus attention on the mechanism of neutrophil elastase (NE) in NET release and its inhibition by AAT as an additional factor that may determine the severity of COVID-19
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0417.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: cytokines; pulmonary; COVID-19; CORADS; moderate; severe
Online: 22 November 2022 (09:56:04 CET)
Aim: In individuals with COVID-19, the study assessed the relationship between cytokine expression and pulmonary dysfunction. These correlations may help to suggest strategies for prevention and therapies of coronavirus disease outbreak. Patients and methods: 50 healthy participants and 100 COVID-19 patients participated in this study. COVID-19 participants were subdivided into moderate and severe groups based on the severity of their symptoms. In both patients and controls, measurements of white blood cells (WBCs), lymphocytes, C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin (IL)-1, IL-4, IL-6, IL-18, and IL-35 were estimated. All the patients performed chest CT and CO-RADS score was assessed. Results: All patients had increased WBCs count and CRP, IL-1, IL-4, IL-6, IL-18, and IL-35 levels than healthy controls. While WBCs, CRP, and cytokines like IL-1β and IL-6 showed significantly higher levels in the severe group as compared to moderate patients, IL-4, IL-35, and IL-18 showed comparable levels in both disease groups. Furthermore, CO-RADS score was positively connected with WBCs, CRP, and cytokine levels (IL-35, IL-18, IL-6, IL-4 and IL-1β) in both groups, and lymphocyte levels in all patient groups considerably decreased as compared to the controls. CO-RADS score, also demonstrated a positive correlation with lymphocytes in the moderate COVID-19 patients, whereas in the severe patients, it demonstrated a negative correlation with lymphocytes. Conclusion: Severe COVID-19 patients, compared to individuals with moderate illness and healthy controls, patients had lower lymphocyte counts and increased CRP with greater WBCs counts. In contrast to moderate COVID-19 patients, severe COVID-19 patients had higher levels of IL-1β and IL-6, but IL-4, IL-18, and IL-35 between both illness categories at close levels. CO-RADS 5 was the most frequent category in both moderate and severe cases. Patients with a typical CO-RADS involvement had a higher CRP and white blood cell count with a lower lymphocyte count than the others. Cytokine levels were considered a surrogate markers of severe lung affection in COVID 19 patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0285.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: Coronavirus disease 2019; interobserver agreement; interrater reliability; lung ultrasound; point-of-care ultrasound; reliability; severe acute respiratory syndrome; ultrasound
Online: 15 November 2022 (09:57:17 CET)
Lung ultrasound (LUS) allows the detection of a series of manifestations of COVID-19 such as B lines and consolidations. The objective of this work was to study the inter-rater reliability (IRR) when detecting signs associated with COVID-19 in the LUS, as well as the impact of performing the test in the longitudinal or transverse orientation. 33 physicians with advanced experience in LUS, independently evaluated ultrasound videos previously acquired with the ULTRACOV system of 20 patients with confirmed COVID-19. In each patient, 24 videos of 3 seconds were acquired (using 12 positions with the probe in longitudinal and transverse orientations). Physicians had no information about the patients or other previous evaluations. The score assigned to each acquisition followed the convention applied in previous studies. A substantial IRR was found in the cases of normal LUS (κ = 0.74), only a fair IRR for the presence of individual B lines (κ = 0.36) and for confluent B lines occupying <50% (κ = 0.26), and a moderate IRR in consolidations and B-lines >50% (κ = 0.50). No statistically significant differences between the longitudinal and transverse scans were found. The IRR in LUS of COVID-19 patients may benefit from more standardization of the clinical protocols.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0236.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: Acute exacerbation chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD); platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR); neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR); monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio (MLR); baso-phil-to-lymphocyte ratio (BLR); eosinophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (ELR); in-hospital mortality; nom-ogram; decision curve analysis (DCA); clinical impact curve (CIC)
Online: 14 November 2022 (04:42:59 CET)
The study comprehensively evaluated the prognostic roles of PLR, NLR, MLR, BLR, and ELR in patients with acute exacerbation chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD). 619 patients with AECOPD and 300 healthy volunteers were retrospectively included into the study. The clinical characteristics containing laboratory findings of the AECOPD patients and the blood cell counts (CBCs) of the healthy volunteers were collected. Compared with the healthy volunteers, PLR, NLR, and MLR were elevated in COPD patients in stable condition, and were further ele-vated during exacerbation. ELR showed the opposite trend. PLR, NLR, and MLR were all posi-tively correlated with hospital LOS as well as CRP. In contrast, ELR was negatively correlated with hospital LOS as well as CRP. Elevated PLR, NLR, and MLR were all associated with more serious airflow limitation in AECOPD. Elevated PLR, NLR, and MLR were all associated with increased in-hospital mortality while Elevated ELR was associated with decreased in-hospital mortality in AECOPD. A nomogram was construct to predict in-hospital mortality in AECOPD. The nomo-gram had a C-index of 0.850 (95% CI: 0.799 – 0.901) with good predictive value and clinical ap-plicability. In summary, PLR, NLR, MLR, and ELR served as predictors for clinical outcomes in patients with AECOPD.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0184.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: pneumoparotid; systematic review; pneumoparotitis; parotid gland; etiology; intraoral pressure; Stensen’s duct
Online: 10 November 2022 (02:56:35 CET)
Pneumoparotid describes the presence of retrogradely insufflated air within the Stensen's duct and/or parotid gland. It is a rare condition with variable causative factors. This study aimed to clarify the clinical characteristics of pneumoparotid; reports in all languages were evaluated fol-lowing the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement 2020. A literature search was conducted using electronic medical databases (PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, EBSCO, Ovid, Google Scholar, SciElo, LILIACS, and others) from 1890 to June 30, 2022. One hundred and seventy patients (mean age; 28.4 years) from 126 studies were reviewed. Common symptoms included swelling (84.7%) and pain (35.9%). Characteristic findings were crepitus in the parotid region (40%) and frothy saliva from the orifice (39.4%). Common etiologies included abnormal habits such as blowing out the cheeks (23.5%), idiopathic (20%), self-induced (15.9%), playing wind instruments such as trumpets or flutes (8.8%), and diseases inducing coughing or sneezing (8.2%). Treatments included antibiotic therapy (30%), behavioral therapy to avoid continuing causative habits (25.9%), psychiatric therapy (8.2%), and surgical procedures (8.2%). Treatment should be individualized based on the etiology. However, the etiology was not identified in 20% of patients. Further detailed data from larger samples are necessary to better understand and improve the recognition of this entity.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0033.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: Clustering; COVID-19; Long COVID; disease severity
Online: 2 November 2022 (01:02:16 CET)
The increasing number of people living with Long COVID requires the development of more personalized care, as for now limited treatment options and rehabilitation programs adapted to the variety of Long COVID presentations are available. Our objective was to design an easy-to-use Long COVID classification to help stratifying people with Long COVID. Individual characteristics and a detailed set of 62 self-reported persisting symptoms together with quality of life indexes 12 months after initial COVID-19 infection were collected in a cohort of SARS-CoV-2 infected people in Luxembourg. A hierarchical ascendant classification (HAC) was used to identify clusters of people. We identified 3 patterns of Long COVID symptoms with a gradient in disease severity. Cluster-Mild encompassed almost 50% of the study population and was composed of participants with less severe initial infection, fewer comorbidities, and fewer persisting symptoms (mean=2.9). Cluster-Moderate was characterized by a mean of 11 persisting symptoms and a poor sleep and respiratory quality of life. Cluster-Severe was characterized by a higher proportion of women and smokers as in the other clusters, with a higher number of Long COVID symptoms, in particular of vascular, urinary, and skin symptoms. Our study evidenced that Long COVID can be stratified in 3 sub-categories in terms of severity. If replicated in other populations, this simple classification will help clinicians to personalize the care of people with Long COVID.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0292.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: Omicron; Covid-19; SARS-CoV-2; Variants of concern
Online: 20 October 2022 (02:16:05 CEST)
Since the beginning of the coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) pandemic, there have been multiple peaks of the SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus virus 2) infection, mainly due to the emergence of new variants, each with a new set of mutations in the viral genome, which have led to changes in the pathogenicity, transmissibility, and morbidity. The Omicron variant is the most recent variant of concern (VOC) to emerge and was recognized by the World Health Organization (WHO) on November 26, 2021. The Omicron lineage is phylogenetically distinct from earlier variants, including the previously dominant Delta SARS-CoV-2 variant. Previous research has reported the most common clinical manifestations of the Omicron variant to be fever, runny nose, sore throat, severe headache, and fatigue. The reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test, rapid antigen assays, and chest computed tomography (CT) scans can help diagnose those with the Omicron variant. Furthermore, many agents are expected to have therapeutic benefits for those infected with the Omicron variant, including TriSb92, molnupiravir, nirmatrelvir, and their combination, corticosteroids, and interleukin-6 (IL-6) receptor blockers. Despite being milder than previous variants, the Omicron variant threatens many lives, particularly among the unvaccinated, due to its higher transmissibility, pathogenicity, and infectivity. This review summarizes the essential features of the Omicron variant, including its history, genome, transmissibility, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, management, and the effectiveness of existing vaccines against this VOC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0057.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: COVID-19; BNT162b2; vaccination; S-RBD; SARS-CoV-2; seroconversion
Online: 6 October 2022 (08:42:11 CEST)
The humoral response of the COVID-19 vaccine varies from person to person. It largely depends on prior SARS-CoV-2 infection, obtaining an adequate immune response, and leaving a trace of changing antibody concentration over time. We retrospectively analyzed three clinical cases from selected patients and employees of the oncology hospital. All mild COVID-19 convalescents received the BNT162b2-Comirnaty mRNA vaccine three times. The levels of SARS-CoV-2 IgM- and IgG-specific antibodies, as well as S-RBD antibodies, were analyzed for approximately two years. The concentration of antibodies was assessed in the laboratory using the chemiluminescent immunoassay CLIA, MAGLUMI. Results: (1) Active autoimmune disease stabilized the level of IgG-specific antibodies after systemic mRNA vaccination for at least six months. (2) Post-vaccination IgG and S-RBD levels decreased when vaccination was performed within three months of onset. (3) The booster dose (third dose) administered only increased the S-RBD antibody levels. Declining IgG-specific antibodies were observed. (4) The S-RBD IgG levels were not correlated with the SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels in the vaccinated convalescents. (5) Subsequent reinfection with SARS-CoV-2 after vaccination three times released a more significant specific antibody response. Based on the collected data, we suggest that monitoring S-RBD antibodies is sensitive but not equivalent to a specific humoral response for SARS-CoV-2 IgG. We suggested that administering at least three doses of the mRNA vaccine should serve as the basis for immunization. The three-month interval may be the best alternative to an immunization schedule for non-immunocompromised people.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0383.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: Obstructive Sleep Apnea; COVID-19; Hospitalization; Infection; Epidemiology
Online: 26 September 2022 (08:02:12 CEST)
Background: Medical comorbidities increase the risk of severe COVID-19 infection. In some studies, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been identified as a comorbid condition that is associated with an increased prevalence of COVID-19 infection and hospitalization, but few have investigated this association in a general population. Research Question: In a general population, is OSA associated with increased odds of COVID-19 infection and hospitalization and are these altered with COVID-19 vaccination? Study Design: Cross-sectional survey of a diverse sample of 15,057 U.S. adults Results: COVID-19 infection and hospitalization rates were 38.9% and 2.9% respectively. OSA or OSA symptoms were reported in 19.4%. In logistic regression models adjusted for demographic, socio-economic and comorbid medical conditions, OSA was positively associated with COVID-19 infection (aOR: 1.58, 95%CI: 1.39-1.79) and COVID-19 hospitalization (aOR: 1.55, 95% CI: 1.17-2.05). In fully adjusted models, boosted vaccination status was protective against both infection and hospitalization. Boosted vaccination status attenuated the association between OSA and COVID-19 related hospitalization, but not infection. Participants with untreated or symptomatic OSA were at greater risk for COVID-19 infection; those with untreated, but not symptomatic OSA were more likely to be hospitalized. Interpretation: In a general population sample, OSA is associated with a greater likelihood of having had a COVID-19 infection and a COVID-19 hospitalization with the greatest impact observed among persons experiencing OSA symptoms or who were untreated for their OSA. Boosted vaccination status attenuated the association between OSA and COVID-19 related hospitalization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0328.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; outpatient cohort; seroprevalence; mild infections; asymptomatic cases; COVID-19 contacts; PCR-positivity and symptoms; first year of the pandemic; Hungary
Online: 22 September 2022 (02:08:09 CEST)
We aimed to estimate the proportion of the population infected with SARS-CoV-2 in the first year of the pandemic. The study population consisted of outpatient adults with mild or no COVID-19 symptoms, and was divided into subpopulations with different levels of exposures. Of the subpopulation without known previous COVID-19 contacts 4143, of the subpopulation with known COVID-19 contacts 594 persons were investigated. IgG- and IgA-seroprevalence and RT-PCR positivity were determined in context with COVID-19 symptoms. We hope to have contributed to the understanding of the significance of the asymptomatic and mild infections in the long persistence of the pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0297.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: Mabs; VoC; COVID-19; real-life
Online: 20 September 2022 (07:15:52 CEST)
Abstract Despite the lightning-fast advances in the management of SARS-CoV after 2 years of pandemic, COVID-19 continues to pose a challenge for fragile patients, who could benefit from early administration of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to reduce the risk of severe disease progression. We conducted a prospective study to evaluate effectiveness of mAbs against SARS-CoV-2 among patients at risk for severe disease progression, namely elderly and those with comorbidities, before the omicron variant surge. Patients were treated with either casirivimab/imdevimab, sotrovimab, and bamlanivimab/etesevimab. The rates and risk factos for clinical worsening, hospitalization, ICU admission and death (unfavourable outcomes) were evaluated. A stratified analysis according to the presence of SARS-CoV-2 IgG was also performed. Among 185 included patients, we showed low rates of unfavorable outcomes (9.2%), which were more frequent in patients with chronic kidney disease (aOR: 10.44, 95CI: 1.73-63.03; p<0.05) and basal D-dimer serum concentrations >600 ng/ml (aOR 21.74, 95CI: 1.18-397.70; p<0.05). Patients with negative SARS-CoV-2 serology at baseline showed higher C-reactive protein values compared with patients with positive serology (p <0.05) and showed a trend toward a higher admission rate to SICU and ICU compared with patients with positive serology. Our results thus showed, in a real-life setting, the efficacy of mAbs against SARS-CoV-2 before Omicron surge when the available mabs become not effective.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0134.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: nasal function; validation; software; nasal resistance; rhinomanometry; acoustic rhinometry; peak nasal inspiratory flow meter; practice patterns; objective measurement outcomes; parameters
Online: 9 September 2022 (09:41:14 CEST)
Background: The Davidson Airway Function & Nasal Evaluation (DAFNE) Scoring System was developed as an intuitive and research-based scoring system that could be validated through beta testing and easily introduced to healthcare providers of several subspecialties who treat nasal obstruction and breathing disorders (MDs, PAs, PTs, APRNs, DDSs, and DCs). This scoring system was shown to increase the knowledge of airway function, nasal measurement parameters, and identification of proper treatment options for sleep and breathing disorders. The basis for the DAFNE score was developed from a systematic review of nasal measurement data. Methods: Electronic searches of PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE Cochrane Library, and Scopus of publications between 1988-2022 were used to identify studies validating nasal function measurement parameters to create the algorithm for the DAFNE Score™. The systematic review was accomplished using the 2020 ‘Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews’ (PRISMA) guidelines. Results: Twenty studies met the inclusion criteria for systematic review. Primary outcomes measurements demonstrated reliability, repeatability and validity of the DAFNE measurement technologies, data and output. Conclusions: The data analysis and systematic review uncovered a need and framework to develop and validate a web-based software algorithm for global access to improve the understanding of data interpretation of nasal measurements from three nasal measurement technologies. DAFNE Scoring should be used as an adjunct tool in routine clinical practice and research to further understand the technology data output and how to collaborate with other healthcare providers to improve patient outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0499.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: HAPE; risk factors; echocardiography; pulmonary pressure; workload
Online: 30 August 2022 (03:18:35 CEST)
Background: At altitudes beyond 2500 m the risk of developing high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) grows with the increases in pulmonary arterial pressure. HAPE is characterized by severe pulmonary hypertension, though the incidence and relevance of individual risk factors are not yet predictable. However, the systolic pulmonary pressure (SPAP) and peak in tricuspid regurgitation velocity (TVR) are crucial factors when diagnosing pulmonary hypertension by echocardiography. Methods: The SPAP and TVR of 27 trekkers aged 20-65 years en route in the Solu Khumbu region of Nepal was assessed. Echocardiograph measurements were performed at Lukla (2,860 m), Gorak Shep (5170 m), and the summit of Kala Patthar (5,675 m). The altitude profile and the participant’s characteristics were also compiled for correlation with the measured data. Results: The results showed a highly significant increase of SPAP and TVR after ascending Kala Patthar. The study revealed a lower increase of SPAP and TVR in the group of older participants, although the initial respective measurements in Gorak Shep were significantly higher for this group. A similar finding occurred in those using Diamox® as prophylaxis. There was an inverse relationship between TVR and SPAP, the peripheral capillary oxygen saturation and heart rate. Conclusions: The echocardiograph results indicate that older people are a risk group for developing a HAPE. The prophylactic use of acetazolamid led to higher initial SPAP values in Gorak Shep, and a lower increase of SPAP as well as TRV after ascending Kala Patthar. Arterial oxygen saturation measurements can provide an indicator for the self-assessment for the risk of developing HAPE and provide a rule of thumb for the altitude profile but does not replace a HAPE diagnosis. The collected data variables concerning backpack weight, sex, workload (actual ascent speed), and pre-existing diseases were not statistically significant factors related to SPAP and TVR (p=<0.05).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0376.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; long-COVID; sequalae; symptoms; Latin America; high altitude
Online: 22 August 2022 (06:04:53 CEST)
Background: Some patients who have recovered from COVID-19 have experienced a range of persistent symptoms or the appearance of new ones after a SARS-CoV-2 infection. These symptoms can last from weeks to months, impacting everyday functioning to a significant number of patients. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis based on an online, self-reporting questionnaire was conducted in Ecuador from April to July 2022. Participants were invited by social media, radio, and TV to voluntarily participate in our study. A total of 2103 surveys were included in this study. We compared socio-demographic variables and long-term persisting symptoms at low (< 2,500 m) and high altitude (>2,500 m).Results: Overall, 1100 (52.3%) responders claimed to have long-term symptoms after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Most of these symptoms were reported by women (64.0%), the most affected group was young adults (68.5%), and the majority of long-haulers were mestizos (91.6%). We found that high altitude residents were more likely to report persisting symptoms (71.7%) versus those living at lower altitudes (29.3%). The most common symptoms were fatigue or tiredness (8.4%), hair loss (5.1%) and difficulty concentrating (5.0%). The highest proportion of persisting symptoms was observed among those who received an incomplete vaccine scheme.Conclusions: This is the first study describing post-COVID symptoms' persistence in low and high-altitude residents. Our findings demonstrate that women, especially those aging between 20-40, are more likely to describe sequalae associated with post-COVID. We also found that living at a high altitude was associated with earlier onset and longer symptom duration. Finally, we found a greater risk to report long lasting symptoms among women, those with previous comorbidities and those who had a severer acute SARS-CoV-2 infection.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0278.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: central stress response system; sympathetic activity; HPA axis; SAR-CoV-2; catecholamine; corti-costeriods; clonidine; dexamethasone
Online: 16 August 2022 (05:07:18 CEST)
We are in amidst of COVID-19 pandemic. Since Dec 2019, severe acute respiratory corona virus (SAR-CoV-2) has infected more than half a billion people killing nearly 7 million people worldwide. Now the BA.5 variant of SARS-CoV-2 is causing mayhem and driving the global surge. Epidemiologist are aware of the fact that this virus is capable of escaping immunity and likely to infect the same person multiple times despite adequate vaccination status. Elderly people of age more than 60 years and those with underlying health conditions are considered as high-risk who are likely to suffer complications and death. While it is tempting to frame complications and mortality from COVID-19 as a simple matter of too much of a virulent virus in too weak of a host, much more is at play here. Framing the pathophysiology of COVID-19 in the context of the Chrousos and Gold model of the central stress response system can shed insight into its complex pathogenesis. Understanding the mechanisms by which pharmacologic modulation of the central stress response system via administration of clonidine and/or dexamethasone may offer an explanation as to why a viral pathogen can be well tolerated and cleared by one host while inflaming and killing another.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0099.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: Interstitial lung disease; Diffuse interstitial lung disease; Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis; High-resolution computed tomography; Complex Networks; Computer aided diagnosis
Online: 4 August 2022 (04:14:44 CEST)
Diffuse interstitial lung diseases (DILD) are a heterogeneous group of over 200 entities, some with dramatical evolution and poor prognostic. Because of their overlapping clinical, physiopathological and imagistic nature, successful management requires early detection and proper progression evaluation. This paper tests a complex networks (CN) algorithm for imagistic aided diagnosis fitness for the possibility of achieving relevant and novel DILD management data. 65 DILD and 31 normal high resolution computer tomography (HRCT) scans were selected and analyzed with the CN model. The algorithm is showcased in two case reports and then statistical analysis on the entire lot shows that a CN algorithm quantifies progression evaluation with a very fine accuracy, surpassing functional parameters’ variations. The CN algorithm can also be successfully used for early detection, mainly on the ground glass opacity Hounsfield Units band of the scan.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0014.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: Odds ratio; vaccine efficacy; SARS-CoV-2; Angola
Online: 2 August 2022 (12:25:20 CEST)
Introduction: Studies conducted in real-life scenarios on vaccine protection against COVID-19 constitute an important global priority, but one that is currently mostly neglected in low- and middle-income countries such as Angola. Here, we analyze for the first-time vaccine protection against COVID-19 in a real-life scenario after 6 months of implementing a multi-vaccination plan in Angola, providing estimation of odds ratios in vaccinated individuals and vaccine efficacy against infection by SARS-CoV-2 in a period that coincided with the identification of the Omicron variant in the country. Methods: We used a negative test case-control design to assess the effectiveness of vaccination against confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. A total of 4.232 vaccinated and unvaccinated individuals with the result of a rapid antigen diagnostic test against SARS-CoV-2 performed from December 27 to 28, 2021 were included in the study. Data were extracted from the Digital Vaccination Record Platform (Rediv) of the Ministry of Health of Angola. All ethical procedures related to the authorization necessary to carry out the study were followed. Statistical analyzes were performed using version 22.214.171.124 of CDC's Epi Info. Frequency distributions and measures of central tendency were used to characterize the study universe. The general and sex-adjusted and age-adjusted odds ratios, were evaluated by comparing the chances of vaccination between cases and controls, and their associated 95% CI, which were calculated using the Mantel-Haenszel stratification method. The risk classification of Axel Kroeger, Piscoya and Alarcon was used to interpret the odds ratio. The Breslow-Day statistic was used to assess the homogeneity of the odds ratios. Vaccine efficacy was calculated using the odds ratio applying the accepted statistical vaccine efficacy formula:(1 − odds ratio) × 100. For all estimates, a P value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The population consisted of 63.63% male and 36.37% female. The mean age was 36 years with a standard deviation of 13. 83. Regarding vaccination status, 83.27% of individuals were vaccinated and 16.73% were unvaccinated, with 21.81% positive and 78.19% negative for SARS -CoV-2. The odds of SARS-CoV-2 infection were 0.85 (95% CI 0.70 – 1.03) times lower in vaccinated compared to unvaccinated individuals, with P=0.09. The overall vaccine efficacy (VE) was 15% (95% CI -3 – 30). Conclusion: There was no statistically significant decrease in the chances of SARS-CoV-2 infection in vaccinated versus unvaccinated individuals. However, the overall vaccine efficacy was 15%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0351.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: Tuberculosis; Health-related quality of life; COVID-19; Guinea
Online: 25 July 2022 (05:37:10 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant impact on all facets of life and has exacerbated many challenges faced by people living with tuberculosis (TB). This study aimed to assess the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of TB patients in Guinea during the COVID-19 pandemic. A mixed-methods study was conducted using two validated psychometric tools to assess HRQoL and qualitative interviews among TB patients enrolled in treatment at three centers in Conakry, Guinea. Multinomial logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with the deterioration of HRQoL. We included 439 participants in the study, among whom 44% and 31% experienced pain and anxiety, respectively. We found that an increase in the number of household members and the distance from participants’ residence to the health centre were significantly associated with lower HRQoL. Qualitative interviews highlighted nutritional and financial concerns which were exacerbated during COVID-19 pandemic and beliefs that the Guinean Government’s assistance plan was insufficient. This study supports the implementation of specific relief plans for TB patients which includes nutritional and psychological support, especially those whose movements are limited by travel restrictions, impeding access to TB care, reducing work opportunities and exacerbating financial needs and stress.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0331.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: COVID-19; diagnose; primary care; respiratory disease
Online: 22 July 2022 (03:12:31 CEST)
Objective: Several authors have analyzed the impact of the pandemic on the incidence rates of different conditions. Our aim was to analyze the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on primary care new diagnoses of respiratory diseases. Methods: This was an observational retrospective study performed to describe the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on primary care new diagnosis of respiratory diseases other than lung cancer. Incidence rate ratio between pre-pandemic and pandemic period was calculated. Results: We found an decrease in the incidence of respiratory conditions (IRR 0.65) during the pandemic period. When we compared the different groups of diseases according to ICD-10, we found a significant decrease in the number of new cases during the pandemic period, except in the case of pulmonary tuberculosis, abscesses or necrosis of the lungs and other respiratory complications. Instead, we found increases in new diagnoses of flu and pneumonia (IRR 2.17) and respiratory interstitial diseases (IRR 1.41). Conclusion: There has been a decrease in new diagnosis of most respiratory diseases during the COVID-19 pandemic. The real clinical impact of this situation is still unknown. Large-scale real-life studies will make it possible to evaluate the long-term true impact of COVID-19 pandemic on the respiratory diseases management.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0051.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; Omicron; variant of concern
Online: 4 July 2022 (10:28:04 CEST)
For the first time in history, we have witnessed the origin and development of a pandemic. To handle the accelerated accumulation of viral mutations and to comprehend the virus' evolutionary adaptation in humans, an unparalleled program of genetic sequencing and monitoring of SARS-CoV-2 variants has been undertaken. Several scientists have theorized that, with the Omicron surge producing a more contagious but less severe disease, the end of COVID-19 is near. However, by analyzing the behavior shown by this virus for 2 years, we have noted that pandemic viruses do not always show a decreased virulence. Instead, it appears there is an evolutionary equilibrium between transmissibility and virulence. We have termed this concept “intermittent virulence”. The present work analyzes the temporal and epidemiological behavior of SARS-CoV-2 and suggests that there is a high possibility that new virulent variants will arise in the near future, although it is improbable that SARS-CoV-2´s virulence will be the same as was seen during the pandemic phase.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0633.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: viral transmission; causation; evidence hierarchy; SARS-CoV-2; respiratory pathogens
Online: 30 June 2022 (03:33:13 CEST)
Systematic reviews of 591 primary studies of the modes of transmission for SARS-CoV-2 show significant methodological shortcomings and heterogeneity in the design, conduct, testing and reporting of SARS-CoV-2 transmission. While this is partly understandable at the outset of a pandemic, evidence rules of proof for assessing the transmission of this virus are needed for pre-sent and future pandemics of viral respiratory pathogens. We review the history of causality as-sessment related to microbial etiologies with a focus on respiratory viruses and suggest a hierar-chy of evidence to integrate clinical, epidemiologic, molecular and laboratory perspectives on transmission. The hierarchy, if applied to future studies, should narrow the uncertainty over the twin concepts of causality and transmission of human respiratory viruses. We attempt to address the translational gap between the current research evidence and the assessment of causality in the transmission of respiratory viruses with a focus on SARS-CoV-2. Experimentation, consistency and independent replication of research alongside our proposed framework provide a chain of evidence that can reduce the uncertainty over the transmission of respiratory viruses and increase the level of confidence in specific modes of transmission, informing the measures that should be undertaken to prevent transmission.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0272.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; molnupiravir; nirmatrelvir; GC376; PF-07321332; variant; synergy; an-tiviral
Online: 20 June 2022 (10:57:26 CEST)
Introduction: The development of effective vaccines has partially mitigated the trend of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, however, the need for orally available antiviral drugs persists. This study aims to investigate the activity of molnupiravir in combination with nirmatrelvir or GC376 on SARS-CoV-2 to verify the synergistic effect. Methods: The SARS-CoV-2 strains 20A.EU, BA.1 and BA.2 were used to infect Vero E6 in presence of antiviral compounds alone or in combinations using 5 two-fold serial dilution of compound concentrations ≤EC90. After 48 and 72 h post-infection, viability was performed using MTT reduction assay. Supernatants were collected for plaque-assay titration. All experiments were conducted three times and in triplicate. The synergistic score was calculated using Synergy Finder version 2. Results: All compounds reached micromolar EC90. Molnupiravir and GC376 showed a synergistic activity at 48 h with an HSA score of 19.33 (p<0.0001) and an additive activity at 72 h with an HSA score of 8.61 (p<0.0001). Molnupiravir and nirmatrelvir showed a synergistic activity both at 48 h and 72 h with an HSA score of 14.2 (p=0.01) and 13.08 (p<0.0001), respectively. Conclusion: Molnupiravir associated with one of the two protease-inhibitors nirmatrelvir and GC376 showed good additive-synergic activity in vitro.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0235.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: biomarkers; COVID-19; paraoxonase-1; SARS-CoV-2
Online: 16 June 2022 (09:13:11 CEST)
The development of inexpensive, fast and reliable screening tests for COVID-19 is, as yet, an unmet need. The present study was aimed at evaluating the usefulness of serum arylesterase activity of paraoxonase-1 (PON1) measurement as a screening test in patients with different severity levels of COVID-19 infection. We included 615 COVID-19 positive patients who were classified as asymptomatic, mildly symptomatic, severely symptomatic, or fatally symptomatic. Results were compared with 50 healthy volunteers, 330 patients with cancer and 343 with morbid obesity. Results showed PON1 activity greatly decreased in COVID-19 compared to healthy vol-unteers; receiver operating characteristics plot showed a high diagnostic accuracy. The degree of COVID-19 severity did not influence PON1 levels. Our results indicated that PON1 determination was efficient for disease diagnosis but not for prognosis. Further, patients with obesity or cancer presented alterations similar to those of COVID-19 patients. As such, elevated levels of PON1 in-dicate the absence of COVID-19, but low levels may be present in various other chronic diseases. The assay is fast and inexpensive. We suggest that PON1 measurement could be used as an initial, high cut-off point screening method, while lower values should be confirmed with the more ex-pensive nucleic acid amplification test.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0149.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: critical care; artificial intelligence; predictive analytics; VAP; interpretable models
Online: 10 June 2022 (04:43:07 CEST)
(1) Background: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) causes high mortality among patients with respiratory disease and imposes major burdens on healthcare infrastructure. Models that use electronic health record data to predict the onset of VAP may spur earlier treatment and improve patient outcomes. We developed and studied the performance of interpretable machine learning (ML) models that predict the onset of VAP from electronic health records (EHRs); (2) Methods: We trained Logistic Regression (LR), full feature Explainable Boosting Machine (fEBM), and eXtreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost) ML models on data from the MIMIC- III (v1.3) database. Model performance was measured by area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs). We trained a minimal-feature EBM model (mEBM) with features derived from white blood cell (WBC) counts, duration of ventilation, and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS). Finally, model robustness was evaluated on randomly sparsified EHR datasets; (3) Results: The fEBM model outperformed the XGBoost and LR models at 24 hours post-intubation. The mEBM model maintained an AUC of 0.893. The fEBM model performance remained robust on sparsified datasets; (4) Conclusions: Our novel interpretable ML algorithm reliably predicts the onset of VAP in intubated patients. Integration of this EBM-based model into clinical practice may enable clinicians to better anticipate and prevent VAP.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0137.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: FAIR; epidemiology; models; pandemic forecast; SIR modelling; standards
Online: 9 June 2022 (07:55:55 CEST)
A major challenge for the dissemination, replication, and reuse of epidemiological forecasting studies during COVID-19 pandemics is the lack of clear guidelines and platforms to exchange models in a Findable, Accessible, Interoperable, and Reusable (FAIR) manner, facilitating reproducibility of research outcomes. During the beginning of pandemics, models were developed in diverse tools that were not interoperable, opaque without traceability and semantics, and scattered across various platforms - making them hard to locate, infer and reuse. In this work, we demonstrate that implementing the standards developed by the systems biology community to encode and share COVID-19 epidemiological models can serve as a roadmap to implement models as a tool in medical informatics, in general. As a proof-of-concept, we encoded and shared 24 epidemiological models using the standard format for model exchange in systems biology, annotated them with cross-references to data resources, packed up all associated files in COMBINE archives for easy sharing, and finally, disseminated the models through BioModels repository to significantly enhance their reproducibility and repurposing potential. We recommend the use of systems biology standards to encode and share models of epidemic and pandemic forecasts to improve their findability, accessibility, interoperability, reusability, and reproducibility.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0121.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: SARS-CoV-2 infection; COVID-19; modulating factors; Adverse Outcome Pathway; sex; age; co-morbidities; lifestyle; environment; pre-existing conditions
Online: 8 June 2022 (09:47:23 CEST)
Addressing factors modulating COVID-19 is crucial since abundant clinical evidence shows that outcomes are markedly heterogeneous between patients. This requires identifying the factors and understanding how they mechanistically influence COVID-19. Here, we describe how eleven selected factors influence COVID-19 by applying the Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) framework well-established in regulatory toxicology. This framework aims to model the sequence of events starting from an initial interaction of a stressor with the organism and the progress through key biological events leading to an adverse health outcome. Several linear AOPs depicting pathways from the binding of the virus to ACE2 up to clinical outcomes observed in COVID-19 patients have been developed and integrated into a network offering a unique overview of the mechanisms underlying the disease. As SARS-CoV-2 infectibility and ACE2 activity are the major starting points and inflammatory response is central in the development of COVID-19, we evaluated how eleven intrinsic and extrinsic factors modulate those processes impacting clinical outcomes. Applying this AOP-aligned approach enables the identification of current knowledge gaps orientating for further research and allows to propose biomarkers to identify of high-risk patients. This approach also facilitates expertise synergy from different disciplines to address public health issues.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0116.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: SARS-CoV2; inactivated vaccine; mRNA vaccine; COVID-19; homologous vaccination; heterolo-gous vaccination; protectivity
Online: 8 June 2022 (05:39:30 CEST)
This prospective cohort study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of COVID-19 vaccine schemes, ho-mologous versus heterologous vaccine strategies, and vaccine-induced anti-S-RBD-IgG antibody response in preventing COVID-19 among 942 healthcare workers one year after vaccination with the inactivated and/or mRNA vaccines. All participants received the first two primary doses of vaccines, 13.6% of them lacked the dose-3, 50.5% the dose-4, and 90.3% the dose-5. Antibody lev-els increased with the increase in number of vaccine doses and also in heterologous vaccine regi-mens. In both inactive and mRNA vaccines, infection rates were significantly higher in 2-dose-receivers, but lower in 4- or 5-dose receivers and increasing the total number of vaccine doses resulted in more protection against infection: the 3-dose regimen yielded 4.71 times more protection, the 4-dose 11.76 times and 5-dose 38.46 times more protection from COVID-19 infec-tion, compared to any 2-dose vaccination regimens. Antibody levels at the end of the first year of 4- or 5-dose-receivers were significantly higher than 2- or 3-dose-receivers. To conclude; increased number of total vaccine doses and anti-S-RBD antibody levels increased the protection from COVID-19 infection. Therefore, four or more doses are recommended in one year, for effective protection, especially in risk groups.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0054.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: family planning service and COVID-19; maternal; Neonatal and child health service and COVID-19; sexual behaviour and COVID-19; SARSCOVID-2 and family planning
Online: 6 June 2022 (03:39:05 CEST)
Introduction: Since its discovery in late 2019, the novel coronavirus (SARSCOVID-2) that causes COVID-19 has spread fast, prompting the World Health Organization (WHO) to designate the disease a worldwide pandemic on March 11, 2020.The epidemic has profoundly altered the preexisting global sexual and reproductive health landscape .The virus’s load has put ordinary services in jeopardy and harmed other health priorities. This encompasses both the provision and the supply of contraceptives, sexual health, new born and maternal health services. This Scoping review therefore mapped the availability evidence on the impact and effects of the COVID-19 disease outbreak on sexual and reproductive health. Methods: The methodological framework by Arksey and O’Malley guided this scoping review. A literature search was conducted from the following databases: Embase, PubMed, CINAHL, Scopus, WOS, and AJOL. The preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) flow diagram and the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses extension for scoping reviews (PRISMA-ScR) checklist were used to document the review process. The Strobe critical review checklist was used to determine the quality of the included studies. Results:19 studies were reviewed, out of which 4 were cross sectional studies, 1 was an observational study, 1 was a descriptive analytical study and the rest were qualitative studies .Majority of the studies showed evidence on the impact of COVID-19 and family planning service, maternal and child services, and three studies reported on COVID-19 and sexual behaviour. Five of the nineteen included studies reported on the impact of COVID-19 and family planning service. Conclusion: This scoping review has granted the assessment of the impact of novel SARS-CoV-2 on Sexual and reproductive health services with regards to sexual behaviour, family planning and maternal, neonatal and child health. From the 18 articles identified and reviewed, the overall responses stipulated a significant reduction in client’s utilization of services due to challenges experiences in service implementation such as stock outs. In addition, low demand for reproductive health services by clients due to restrictions imposed on the movements of people to curb the spread of the virus. It is therefore important that Governments and relevant stakeholders in Maternal and Sexual Reproductive Health prioritize development of policies and practices that protect women from the impacts of the pandemic. Furthermore, regular audits to detect trends in MSRH are necessary to inform on going mitigation efforts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0069.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: Volatile organic compound; VOC; headspace; breath; breath biomarker; volatile metabolite; breath diagnosis
Online: 6 May 2022 (09:27:04 CEST)
Volatile compounds, abundant in breath, can be used to accurately diagnose and monitor a range of medical conditions. This offers a non-invasive, low-cost approach with screening applications; however, uptake of this diagnostic approach has been limited by conflicting published outcomes. Most published reports rely on large scale screening of the public, at single time points and without reference to ambient air. Here, we present a novel approach to volatile sampling from cellular headspace and mouse breath that incorporates multi-time point analysis and ambient air subtraction revealing compound flux as an effective proxy of active metabolism. This approach to investigating breath volatiles offers a new avenue for disease biomarker discovery and diagnosis. Using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS), we focus on low molecular weight, metabolic substrate/by-product compounds and demonstrate that this non-invasive technique is sensitive (reproducible at ~1 µg cellular protein, or ~500,000 cells) and capable of precisely determining cell type, status and treatment. Isolated cellular models represent components of larger mammalian systems and we show that stress- and pathology-indicative compounds are detectable in mice, supporting further investigation using this methodology as a tool to identify volatile targets in human patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0313.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: Emergency department; COVID-19; lung radiography; computed tomography; diffusion magnetic resonance
Online: 30 April 2022 (08:21:41 CEST)
Background: As coronavirus (COVID-19) continues to pose a threat to the entire world, it is critical to developing strategies for containing its spread. The purpose of this study was to assess the demographic characteristics, brain tomography characteristics, and diffusion magnetic resonance findings of COVID-19 positive individuals. Material and Method: Between January 1 and December 31, 2021, 317 patients over the age of 18 were admitted to the emergency department with symptoms consistent with COVID-19. Three groups were formed based on clinical findings in patients, divided into light, medium, and severe, and four groups were formed based on radiological imaging findings. Results: The mean age of the 317 patients included in the study was 67.28±12.06 years, with a range of 28-91 years. The clinical classification of the patients was based on laboratory parameters and radiological imaging, not on their age or gender. Mild cases were classified as CO-RADS 0-4; moderate and severe cases were classified as CO-RADS 5-6 (p=0.001). While 60 (18.9%) of patients were followed outpatient, 144 (45.4%) were admitted to the hospital, 73 (23%) were admitted to the intensive care unit, and 40 (12.7%) died (p=0.001). Direct radiographs revealed bilateral involvement in 224 (70.7%) cases, peripheral involvement in 259 (81.7%) cases, and mid-lower lobe lung involvement in 194 (61.2%) cases (p=0.001). Brain tomography revealed infarction in 42 (13.2%) of the patients who were followed and hospitalized and hemorrhage in 22 (6.9%) of the patients. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed diffusion involvement in 68 (21.5%) of the cases (p=0.001). Conclusion: A standardized reporting system for COVID-19 data is required, and it must be simple to use, quick to understand, and focused on determining the risk of pneumonia. Additionally, the diagnostic role of radiological imaging, prognosis prediction, and severity scoring of lung involvement should be included.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0225.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-Cov-2; arbidol; treatment
Online: 26 April 2022 (04:07:48 CEST)
Background The spread of COVID-19 continues, the mutation of SARS-COV-2 is still difficult to control, and the need for antiviral drugs to treat COVID-19 remains urgent. The use of arbidol in the treatment of COVID-19 is limited and controversial. Methods To clarify the efficacy of arbidol on COVID-19, we collected 25 cases and 178 related studies. We analyzed the treatment information of arbidol based on the obtained cases, expanded the scope of the study, and collected current studies on the treatment of COVID-19 in various databases for in-depth analysis. Results History analysis showed that arbidol was effective (76% cure rate) compared with other drugs. However, compared with other antiviral drugs or standard therapy, the arbidol group had no significant advantage in reducing the time to negative virus transformation, length of hospital stays, or improvement in CT (MD=0.22, 95%CI -0.29-0.73; MD = 0.61, 95% CI 1.46 to 2.67; RR=1.15, 95%CI 0.88-1.50); Analysis of adverse events showed no significant difference between the arbidol group and the other groups (RR=0.82, 95%CI 0.25-2.71). Conclusion Our study showed that arbidol had no significant effect on COVID-19, but showed a slight advantage in CT improvement and adverse events. Our study objectively evaluated the efficacy of arbidol in the treatment of COVID-19 and provided some guidance for arbidol in the treatment of COVID-19.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0165.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2; seroprevalence; antibodies; nucleocapsid antigen; antigen receptor binding domain; seropositivity; St. Petersburg; volunteers; vaccination
Online: 18 April 2022 (10:42:54 CEST)
Since the detection of the first COVID-19 patient, 2 years have passed, during which more than 287,862,000 people fell ill globally, of which about 1.9% died. Implementation of SARS-CoV-2 control programs required efforts from almost all countries. An important direction in the fight against COVID-19 was the formation of herd immunity, the main tool for managing the pandemic. Study goal: to assess the seroprevalence of antibodies (Abs) to SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid (Nc) and receptor binding domain (RBD) in the St. Petersburg population during the COVID-19 pandemic. Materials and methods. A longitudinal cohort randomized monitoring study of Ab seroprevalence (SARS-CoV-2 Nc, RBD) was organized and conducted according to a unified methodology developed by Rospotrebnadzor with the participation of the St. Petersburg Pasteur Institute. For this purpose, a cohort of 1000 volunteers was formed who participated in all five stages of seromonitoring. The cohort was divided into 7 age groups: 1-17; 18-29; 30-39; 40-49; 50-59; 60-69; 70; and older (70+) years. Seropositivity levels (Nc, RBD) were assessed by quantitative and qualitative enzyme immunoassays. During the 2nd year of monitoring, some volunteers were vaccinated with the GamCOVIDVac (84%) or EpiVacCorona (11.6%) vaccines approved in Russia. Statistical processing was carried out using the Excel 2010 software package. Confidence intervals for shares and percentages (95% CI) were calculated using the method of A. Wald and J. Wolfowitz with adjustment (A. Agresti, B.A. Coull). The statistical significance of differences was calculated by z-test, using the appropriate online calculator (p<0.05), unless indicated. Results. There was a trend towards: an increase in Nc seropositivity in stages 1-3 of seromonitoring, with a decrease in stages 4-5 among children and adults. The share of RBD seropositive steadily increased during all 5 stages of seromonitoring. The most frequently found were low anti-RBD Abs levels (22.6-220 BAU/ml). High Ab levels were recorded statistically significantly less frequently. Asymptomatic forms were observed in 84-88% of SARS-CoV-2 seropositive volunteers. By the 5th stage of monitoring, this indicator significantly decreased to 69.8% (95% CI: 66.1-73.4). The monitoring revealed a statistically significant increase in anti-RBD Abs, alongside a statistically significant decrease in the proportion of Nc seropositive. This dynamic was especially characteristic of persons vaccinated with GamCOVIDVac. Conclusion. Prior to the use of specific vaccines, a seroprevalence of anti-Nc Abs was noted. After the introduction of the GamCOVIDVac vaccine in adults, a decrease in the level of anti-Nc Abs was noted due to an increase in the proportion of RBD seropositive persons.