ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1711.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Space And Planetary Science Keywords: Water pollution; artificial neural networks; CFD; Euler equation; PINN
Online: 26 September 2023 (14:06:06 CEST)
Water resource pollution, particularly in river channels, presents a grave environmental challenge that necessitates a comprehensive and systematic approach encompassing assessment, forecasting, and effective management. This article provides a comprehensive exploration of the methodology and modeling tools employed to scrutinize the process of river channel pollution due to silting, rooted in the fundamental principles of hydrodynamics and pollutant transport dynamics. The study's methodology seamlessly integrates numerical simulations with state-of-the-art neural network techniques, with a specific focus on the Physics-informed neural networks (PINN) method. This innovative approach represents a groundbreaking fusion of artificial neural networks (ANN) and physical equations, offering a more efficient and precise means of modeling a wide array of complex processes and phenomena. The proposed mathematical model, grounded in the Euler equation, has been meticulously implemented using the Ansys Fluent software package, ensuring accuracy and reliability in the computations. In a pivotal phase of the research, a thorough comparative analysis was conducted between the results derived from the PINN method and those obtained through conventional numerical approaches using the Ansys Fluent software package. The outcomes of this analysis revealed the superior performance of the PINN method, characterized by the generation of smoother pressure fluctuation profiles and significantly reduced computation time, underscoring its potential as a transformative modeling tool. The calculated data originating from this study assumes paramount significance in the ongoing battle against river sedimentation. Beyond this immediate application, these findings also serve as a valuable resource for creating predictive materials pertaining to river channel silting, thereby empowering decision-makers and environmental stakeholders with essential information. The utilization of modeling techniques to address pollution concerns in river channels holds the potential to revolutionize risk management and safeguard the integrity of our vital water resources. However, it is imperative to underscore that the effectiveness of such models hinges on ongoing monitoring and frequent data updates, ensuring that they remain aligned with real-world conditions. This research not only contributes to the enhanced understanding and proactive management of river channel pollution due to silting but also underscores the pivotal role of advanced modeling methodologies in the preservation of our invaluable water resources for present and future generations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1747.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Space And Planetary Science Keywords: machine learning; Dst index; LSTM; EMD-LSTM; prediction
Online: 26 September 2023 (11:29:55 CEST)
The Dst index is the geomagnetic storm index used to measure the energy level of geomagnetic storms, and the prediction of this index is of great significance for the geomagnetic storm study and the solar activity. In contrast to traditional numerical modelling techniques, machine learning, which has emerged in decades ago based on rapidly developing computer hardware and software and artificial intelligence methods, has been unprecedentedly developed in geophysics, especially solar-terrestrial space physics. This study chooses two machine learning models, the LSTM (Long-Short Time Memory, LSTM) and EMD-LSTM model (Empirical Mode Decomposition, EMD), to model and predict the Dst index. By building the Dst index data series from 2018-2023, two models were built to fit and predict the data. Firstly, we evaluated the influences of the learning rate and the amount of training data on the prediction accuracy of the LSTM model, and finally, 10-3 was thought as the optimal learning rate; secondly, the two models were used to predict the Dst index in the solar active and quiet periods, respectively, and the RMSE (Root Mean Square Error) of the LSTM model in the active period is 7.34 nT, the CC (correlation coefficient) is 0.96, those of the quiet period are 2.64nT and 0.97; the RMSE and r of EMD-LSTM model are 8.87nT and 0.93 in active time and 3.29nT and 0.95 in the quiet time. Finally, the prediction accuracy of the LSTM model in short time period is slightly better than the EMD-LSTM model. However, there will be a problem of prediction lag, which the EMD-LSTM model can then solve, and can better predict the geomagnetic storm.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0061.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Space And Planetary Science Keywords: small crater detection; YOLO-Crater; Efficient-IoU (EIoU); VariFocal; Convolutional Block Attention Module (CBAM); DOM; DEM; Slope; stretching method
Online: 4 September 2023 (03:58:47 CEST)
Craters are the most prominent geomorphological features on the surface of celestial bodies, which is playing a crucial role in studying the formation and evolution of celestial bodies, as well as in landing and planning for surface exploration. Currently, the main automatic crater detection models and datasets focus on the detection of large and medium craters. In this paper, we created 23 small lunar crater datasets for model training based on the Chang’E-2 (CE-2) DOM, DEM, Slope, and integrated data with 7 kinds of visualization stretching methods. And then, we proposed the YOLO-Crater model for Lunar and Martian small crater detection by replacing EioU and VariFocal loss to solve the crater samples imbalance problem and introducing a CBAM attention mechanism to mitigate interference from the complex extraterrestrial environment. The results show that the accuracy (P = 87.86%, R = 66.04%, and F1 = 75.41%) of the Lunar YOLO-Crater model based on the DOM-MMS (Maximum-Minimum Stretching) dataset is the highest and better than that of YOLOX model. And the Martian YOLO-Crater, trained by the Martian dataset from the 2022 GeoAI Martian Challenge, achieves good performance with P = 88.37%, R = 69.25%, and F1 = 77.65%. It indicates that the YOLO-Crater model has a strong transferability and generalization capability, which can be applied to detect small craters on the Moon and other celestial bodies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0221.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Space And Planetary Science Keywords: nuclear/atomic detonations; impact craters; shocked quartz; shock fractures; planar deformation features; planar fractures; tectonic deformation lamellae; electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD); transmission electron microscopy (TEM); cathodoluminescence (CL)
Online: 3 August 2023 (09:48:12 CEST)
Many studies of hypervelocity impact craters have described the characteristics of quartz grains shock-metamorphosed at high pressures of > 10 GPa. In contrast, few studies have investigated shock metamorphism at lower shock pressures. In this study, we test the hypothesis that low-pressure shock metamorphism occurs in near-surface nuclear airbursts and that this process shares essential characteristics with crater-forming impact events. To investigate low-grade shock microstructures, we compared quartz grains from Meteor Crater, a 1.2-km-wide impact crater, to those from near-surface nuclear airbursts at the Alamogordo Bombing Range, New Mexico in 1945 and Kazakhstan in 1949/1953. This investigation utilized a comprehensive analytical suite of high-resolution techniques, including transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). Meteor Crater and the nuclear test sites all exhibit quartz grains with closely-spaced, sub-micron-wide fractures that appear to have formed at low shock pressures. Significantly, these micro-fractures are closely associated with Dauphiné twins and are filled with amorphous silica (glass), widely considered a classic indicator of shock metamorphism. Thus, this study confirms that glass-filled shock fractures in quartz form during near-surface nuclear airbursts, as well as crater-forming impact events, and by extension, it suggests that they may form in any near-surface cosmic airbursts in which the shockwave is coupled to Earth’s surface. The robust characterization of such events is crucial because of their potential catastrophic effects on the Earth’s environmental and biotic systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2030.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Space And Planetary Science Keywords: Precision agriculture; agroecology; remote sensing; crop irrigation; soil moisture; vegetation indexes; Sentinel-1,2; neural network; dielectric permittivity
Online: 28 June 2023 (16:10:09 CEST)
In this article, a method for the moisture mapping of the soil surface of agrophytocenosis was proposed using neural network based on synchronized radar and multispectral optoelectronic data of Sentinel-1,2. To verify the developed method, data from two experimental plots were used. These plots were located two on irrigated soybean crops. The first of them was located on the right bank (1st plot) and the second one on the left bank (2nd plot) of the down part of Volga River. Two experimental soil moisture geo-datasets were done by measurements and geo-referencing points using gravimetric method (1st plot) and with proximal sensing method (2nd plot) using Soil Moisture Sensor ML3-KIT (THETAKIT, Delta). The soil moisture retrieval algorithm was based on the use of a neural network to predict reflection coefficient of an electromagnetic wave from the soil surface, followed by inversion into soil moisture using a dielectric model that takes into account the soil texture. The input parameter of the neural network was the ratio of the microwave radar vegetation index (calculated on the basis of Sentinel-1 data) to the index (calculated on the basis of data of multispectral optoelectronic channels 8 and 11 of Sentinel-2). Such way calculated index reveals showed a significantly greater dependence on soil moisture than on vegetation height that was been used in previous studies. The retrieved values of soil moisture were compared with the soil moisture measured in-situ. The proposed method with a determination coefficient of 0.44-0.65 and a standard deviation of 2.4%-4.2% for the 1st plot as well as with and of the same metrics for the 2nd allows predicting the soil moisture of both a test plots covered by soybean plants, relative to soil moisture measured in-situ. The conducted research created the scientific basis for a new technology for remote sensing the moisture content of the soil surface of agrophytocenosis as an element of the precision farming system and agroecology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1667.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Space And Planetary Science Keywords: GNSS time series; time length; missing data; noise analysis; velocity estimation
Online: 23 June 2023 (11:42:43 CEST)
Noise model selection criteria has a significant impact on identifying the stochastic noise proper-ties of any GNSS daily coordinate time series. The low-frequency random walk noise existing in these time series could lead to overestimation of the tectonic rate, so it is of great significance to accurately detect the random walk component. This study focuses on noise model estimation cri-terion (BIC_tp) derived from the AIC and the BIC by introducing 2π factors. It is more sensitive to abnormal steps (random jumps). Using observation data from 72 GNSS stations from 1992 to 2022 and simulated data, four combined noise models are used to explore the impacts of time se-ries lengths (ranging from2 to 24 years) and data loss (between 2% and 30%) on noise models and velocity estimation. The results show that as the time length increased, the selected optimal noise model, and the estimated uncertainty of the tectonic trend with different data gap, gradually con-verge. When the time length is short (less than 8 years), it could lead to the FNRWWN, FNWN, and PLWN models being mistakenly estimated as GGMWN models, thereby affecting the accura-cy of determining the station velocity parameters. When the time length is 12 years, the RW noise component is more probably detected, As the time length increases, the impact of RW on velocity uncertainty is weakened. Finally, we conclude that for a time series with a minimum time length of 12 years, both the selection of the optimal stochastic noise model and the estimation of the ve-locity parameters are reliable.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1728.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Space And Planetary Science Keywords: nuclear/atomic detonations; impact craters; shocked quartz; shock fractures; planar deformation features; planar fractures; tectonic deformation lamellae; electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD); transmission electron microscopy (TEM); cathodoluminescence (CL)
Online: 25 May 2023 (03:47:36 CEST)
Many studies of hypervelocity impact craters have described the characteristics of quartz grains shock-metamorphosed at high pressures of >10 GPa, but in contrast, few studies have investigated shock metamorphism at lower shock pressures. In this study, we test the hypothesis that low-pressure shock metamorphism occurs in near-surface nuclear airbursts and that this process shares important characteristics with impact-cratering events. To investigate low-grade shock microstructures, we compared quartz grains from Meteor Crater, a 1.2-km-wide impact crater, to those from near-surface nuclear airbursts at the Alamogordo Bombing Range, New Mexico in 1945 and Kazakhstan in 1949/1953. This investigation utilized a comprehensive analytical suite of high-resolution techniques, including transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). Meteor Crater and the nuclear test sites all exhibit metamorphosed quartz grains with closely-spaced, sub-micron-wide fractures that appear to have formed at low shock pressures. Importantly, these micro-fractures are closely associated with Dauphiné twins and are filled with amorphous silica (glass), widely considered to be a classic indicator of shock metamorphism. Thus, this study confirms that glass-filled shock fractures in quartz form during near-surface nuclear airbursts, as well as crater-forming impact events, and by extension, it suggests they also may form in near-surface cosmic airbursts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0171.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Space And Planetary Science Keywords: TEC; geomagnetic storms; middle latitudes; GNSS
Online: 4 May 2023 (03:34:38 CEST)
An ionospheric response at middle latitudes to geomagnetic storms is not yet very well understood. Total electron content (TEC) variations associated with eight strong geomagnetic storms between 2015 and 2022 obtained from GNSS receivers in the western area of the North Atlantic (Portuguese continental and insular territory) are studied in an attempt to fill this gap. It was found that for most of the studied geomagnetic storms TEC variations are synchronous for the longitudinal ranges from 27ºW and 9ºW. In the southern part of the studied region (around 32ºN) the amplitude of TEC variations is, in general, significantly higher than in the northern part (around 39ºN). Some of the studied geomagnetic storms were associated with TEC variations that we interpret as effects of post-sunset equatorial plasma bubbles that travelled well north from their habitual region. Also, while most of the studied storms were accompanied by reports on different kind of malfunction of GNSS systems (GPS; GALILEO and other), there is no clear pattern in their appearance in dependence on the geomagnetic/ionospheric storms’ strength, commencement time, and its characteristics, in general.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0374.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Space And Planetary Science Keywords: Carbonaceous chondrite; sample return; amino acid; ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography; Orbitrap-mass spectrometry; organic matter; astrobiology; origin of life
Online: 22 February 2023 (06:17:06 CET)
Unmetamorphosed carbonaceous chondrites provide important information concerning the formation and evolution of organic matter, such as amino acids. However, terrestrial contamination remains a valid concern when investigating the organic inventory of meteorites that have fallen to Earth. Accordingly, JAXA’s Hayabusa2 and NASA’s OSIRIS-REx have been launched with the task of returning uncontaminated C-type asteroid material to Earth. The successful Hayabusa2 mission has a very limited sample size (5.4 g). Therefore, many conventional compound specific techniques will struggle to detect amino acids above detection limit with available sample amounts (~several mg to 10’s of mg) being much smaller than those typically used. Here a novel method utilizing ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-Orbitrap-mass spectrometry is validated and applied to very small meteorite samples, thus providing an approach that can overcome the small sample size constraints of sample return missions. The method is highly sensitive, enabling the detection of amino acids in the carbonaceous chondrites Murchison (2.28 mg) and Orgueil (2.30 mg). Furthermore, quantitation was possible for many of the detected amino acids in Murchison and Orgueil. Using the data presented here, both the amino acid reservoirs of Murchison and Orgueil and the potential application of this method to sample return samples are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0510.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Space And Planetary Science Keywords: Winds; SCATSAT-1; NCMRWF (National Center for Medium Range Weather Forecasting), CCMP (Cross Calibrated Mul-ti-Platform) and Particle filter
Online: 28 January 2023 (03:03:19 CET)
Observations of ocean surface winds from Indian scatterometer SCATSAT-1 have been combined with background wind field from a numerical weather prediction (NWP) model available at National Centre for Medium Range Weather Prediction (NCMRWF) to generate a 6-hourly gridded hybrid wind product. A distinctive feature of the study is to produce a global gridded wind field from SCATSAT-1 scatterometer passes with spatio-temporal data gaps at regular synoptic hours relevant for forcing models and other NWP studies. This is done by making use of concepts from the modern particle filter technique, which does not represent the model probability density function (PDF) following the Gaussian technique. The 6 hourly hybrid wind is generated for the entire year of 2018 and is validated using the wind speed from daily gridded level-4 SCATSAT-1 winds (L4AW), Cross Calibrated Multi-Platform dataset (CCMP) and global buoy data from National Data Buoy Centre (NDBC). The results indicate potential of the technique to produce scatterometer winds at the desired temporal frequency with significantly less noise and along swath biases. The study shows the generated hybrid winds have very high quality with respect to the already existing daily product available from ISRO.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0358.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Space And Planetary Science Keywords: BDS-3; Time transfer; Precise point positioning; Single frequency; Group and Phase Ionospheric Correction (GRAPHIC)
Online: 24 October 2022 (10:01:41 CEST)
In this paper, four types of open service signals of BDS-3 satellite (B1I, B1C, B2a, and B3I) and B2I signals broadcasted by BDS-2 satellites were used in the time frequency transfer and positioning experiments with signal coexisting in BDS system, and the single frequency PPP (precise point positioning) method was used. Modified GRoup And PHase Ionospheric Correction (GRAPHIC) method was proposed and verified by the experiment. The results show that 18 selected stations can achieve decimeter-level positioning results with single frequency. Compared with the general observation method, the proposed modified GRAPHIC method improves the stability and precision of positioning and timing significantly, and the positioning accuracy of 5 frequency signals is increased 40.4%, 32.2%, 80.3%, 12.4%, and 10.3%, respectively. The frequency stability can reach the same accuracy as that of dual-frequency with BDS in the current state.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0349.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Space And Planetary Science Keywords: Time Frequency Transfer; Precise Point Positioning; Ambiguity Resolution (AR); Analysis Center (AC)
Online: 24 October 2022 (05:33:45 CEST)
These days, numerous organizations and Analysis Centers (AC) offer various Ambiguity Resolution (AR) products using various methodologies. To use it for time-frequency transfer, there is no associated study. This paper chooses 16 MGEX stations with external high-precision atomic clocks to constitute 15 international time comparison links and uses AR products data from CNES, SGG, CODE, and PRIDE laboratory, using three ambiguity-fixed strategies, to thoroughly evaluate the effects of various strategies and AR products for high-precision time-frequency transfer. We reach the following results by using the IGS final clock product as a reference and comparing it to ambiguity-float. With various ambiguity-fixed procedures, the time stability STD of time transfer is increased for a single GPS, and the improvement ranges from 10% to 40%. The frequency stability has barely improved; up to 40%, the most notable improvement comes from FCB with GRM products. The time stability STD of combinations has improved after the addition of the Galileo system compared to the single GPS, and the improvement ranges from 2% to 9%. Most strategies have improved, while a few techniques have weakened with the GEC (GPS+Galileo+BDS) combination. We feel that the stability has not significantly increased with the system's increase within short-term stability after comparing multiple groups of linkages.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0236.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Space And Planetary Science Keywords: DEM; LCNS; Moonlight; Traverse; Navigation
Online: 15 July 2022 (14:51:20 CEST)
With the renewed interest for lunar surface exploration, the European Space Agency envisions to stimulate the creation of lunar communications and navigation services (LCNS) to enable, among others, autonomous navigation capabilities for lunar rovers. As the number of satellites foreseen in such a service is much smaller compared to Earth based global navigation satellite systems (GNSS), different complementary technologies are pursued to improve the attainable navigation accuracy for lunar rovers. One way to improve the position accuracy provided by the LCNS satellites is to constrain the vertical position using a high resolution digital elevation model (DEM). This article presents the results of a variance covariance analysis of an extended Kalman filter (EKF) implementation in which the LCNS ranging measurements are used together with DEM from the LRO LOLA instrument. Assuming a realistic orbit determination and time synchronization (ODTS) accuracy of the LCNS satellites, the usage of a navigation grade IMU and an oven controlled crystal oscillator (OCXO), a 3-sigma position accuracy of less than 10 meters can be obtained. Furthermore, the availability is substantially improved as the DEM aided solution enables a position solution in case of only 3 visible satellites.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0051.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Space And Planetary Science Keywords: Copernicus; buried basin; mascons; multi source remote sensing data; planetary geology; plane-tary topography; geomorphology
Online: 6 June 2022 (02:56:50 CEST)
Masons are often overlooked part of impact basins, but play an important role in revealing the lunar history. Previous study in masons were usually limited to gravity data. Few researches were reported on morphology features and chronology, which hampers the construction of a complete geological interpretation for the evolution of each mascons. We use multi source remote sensing data to identify the details characteristic of mascons. Result of topography, gravity and characteristic are combined to prove that a mason beside Copernicus crater is a buried peak-ring basin which is about 130km and 260km in diameter. The underground structure is of confirmed as 890m thick mare basalts by analyzing the spectral feature of the material in a geological outcrop called Copernicus H. Geology evolution analysis joint crater size-frequency distribution (CSDF) dating demonstrate that the buried basin impact event occurred in 3.6Ga. Then a hawaiian-style eruption in late Imbrian formed Sinus Aestuum Ⅰ Dark Mantling Deposit (DMD). Mare basalts filling in 3.4Ga. After that, ejecta from Copernicus impact event in about 820Ma and weathering processes cause the disappearing from lunar surface of the buried basin.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0187.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Space And Planetary Science Keywords: Dynamics; Solar System; Global Warming
Online: 20 April 2022 (08:53:55 CEST)
Global warming is one of the problems of human civilization and decarbonization policy is the main solution to this problem. In this work, we propose an alternative method of using the gravity-assist by the asteroids to increase the orbital distance of the Earth from the Sun. We can manipulate the orbit of asteroids in the asteroid belt by solar sailing and propulsion engines to guide them towards the Mars orbit and a gravitational scattering can put asteroids in a favorable direction to provide an energy loss scattering from the Earth. The result would be increasing the orbital distance of the earth and consequently cooling down the Earth’s temperature. We calculate the increase in the orbital distance of the earth for each scattering and investigate the feasibility of performing this project.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0141.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Space And Planetary Science Keywords: forest degradation; biomass change; texture analysis; NDVI; earth observation; satellite data; PlanetScope; WorldView-3; Sentinel-2; Landsat; SkySat; SPOT
Online: 9 February 2022 (13:38:19 CET)
Forest degradation is known to be widespread in the tropics, but is currently very poorly mapped, in part because there is little quantitative data on which satellite sensor characteristics and analysis methods are best at detecting it. To improve this, we used data from the Tropical Forest Degradation Experiment (FODEX) plots in the southern Peruvian Amazon, where different numbers of trees had been removed from four 1 ha forest plots, carefully inventoried by hand and Terrestrial Laser Scanning before and after the logging to give a range of biomass change (ΔAGB) values. We conducted a comparative study of six multispectral optical satellite sensors (WorldView-3, SkySat, SPOT-7, PlanetScope, Sentinel-2 and Landsat 8) at 0.3 – 30 m spatial resolution, to find the best combination of sensor and remote sensing indicator for change detection. Spectral reflectance, the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and texture parameters were extracted after radiometric calibration and image preprocessing. The strength of the relationships between the change in these values and field-measured ΔAGB (computed in % ha−1) was analysed. The results demonstrate that: (a) texture measures correlates more with ΔAGB than simple spectral parameters; (b) the strongest correlations are achieved for those sensors with spatial resolutions in the intermediate range (1.5 - 10 m), with finer or coarser resolutions producing worse results, and (c) when texture is computed using a moving square window ranging between 9 - 14 m in length. Maps predicting ΔAGB showed very promising results using a NIR-derived texture parameter for 3 m resolution PlanetScope (R2 = 0.97 and RMSE = 1.80 % ha−1), followed by 1.5 m SPOT-7 (R2 = 0.74 and RMSE = 5.25 % ha−1) and 10 m Sentinel-2 (R2 = 0.71 and RMSE = 5.55 % ha−1). Texture models derived from 0.3 m WorldView-3 improved with increasing window size, with highest R2 of 0.62 and RMSE = 6.35 % ha−1 for a window of 14 m in length. The degradation in our field plots is invisible to the 30 m resolution Landsat data. Our findings imply that, at least for lowland Peru, low-medium intensity disturbance can be detected best in optical wavelengths using a texture measure derived from 3 m PlanetScope data. That such data are being collected daily, and currently released free as monthly mosaics over tropical forests as part of the Norway’s International Climate and Forest Initiative (NICFI), is excellent news for monitoring such degradation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0385.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Space And Planetary Science Keywords: Agriculture; Copernicus,; Sentinel 1; Sentinel 2; Literature Review,; EO4Agri
Online: 23 December 2021 (11:45:41 CET)
Copernicus is Europe's space-based Earth monitoring asset, which consists of a complex set of systems that collect data from different sources: remote sensing satellites (RS) and in-situ sensors such as ground stations, airborne and marine sensors. This study was originally prepared for the needs of the Czech agricultural community, where we provided an in-depth analysis of articles related to Earth observation in precision agriculture. At a later stage, we extended this study by comparing the recommendations of the European EO4Agri project and scientific articles published in MDPI. We had two important objectives, one was to validate the results of the EO4Agri project and the other was to look for gaps in current research and community needs. To recognize the importance of using Sentinel 1 data, we also added a specific analysis of methods for data fusion of Sentinel 1 and Sentinel 2 data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0115.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Space And Planetary Science Keywords: 6063 aluminum alloy; Al-Ti-C-La composite alloy; refinement effect; precipitated phase; mechanical properties
Online: 7 July 2020 (08:26:44 CEST)
In this paper, 6063 aluminum alloy for common building profiles is used as the research object. By adding a new Al-Ti-C-La composite alloy, the effect of 6063 aluminum alloy on the microstructure and properties of 6063 aluminum alloy is studied. The results show that Al-Ti-C-La composite alloy has obvious effect on grain refinement of 6063 aluminum alloy. With the addition of Al-Ti-C-La composite alloy, the grain size decreased significantly. When the addition amount of Al-Ti-C-La composite alloy is 1%, the grain size is reduced from 482 μm to 121 μm. Rare earth La is mainly distributed near the Mg2Si phase and β-AlFeSi, and complex compounds such as AlFeSiMgLa are formed. After aging for 270 days on the basis of T6 heat treatment, the tensile strength and elongation of 6063 aluminum alloy augmented with the addition of Al-Ti-C-La composite alloy, and the Vickers hardness gradually diminished. When the addition amount of Al-Ti-C-La composite alloy is 1%, the tensile strength, elongation and Vickers hardness of 6063 aluminum alloy reach 177.2 MPa, 17.8% and 60.9 HV, respectively, and the tensile strength is increased by 16.3%. The elongation is increased by 50.8%, the Vickers hardness is reduced by 15.4%, and the fracture of the alloy is mainly ductile fracture.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0103.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Space And Planetary Science Keywords: lightning whistlers; hiss; e-POP; raytracing; radio receiver; lower hybrid resonance
Online: 11 January 2020 (10:53:52 CET)
Whistler mode waves play a major role in regulating the lifetime of trapped electrons in the Earth's radiation belts. Specifically, whistler mode hiss waves are one of the mechanisms that maintains the slot region between the inner and outer radiation belts. The generation mechanism of hiss is a topic still under debate with at least three prominent theories present in the literature. Lightning generated whistlers in their ducted or non-ducted modes, are considered to be one of the possible sources of hiss. We present a study of new observations from the Radio Receiver Instrument (RRI) on the Enhanced Polar Outflow Probe (ePOP: currently known as SWARM-E). RRI consists of two orthogonal dipole antennas, which enables polarization measurements, when the satellite boresight is parallel to the geomagnetic field. Here we present 75 passes of ePOP - RRI from 2014 - 2018, in which lightning whistlers and hiss waves were observed. In more than 50% of those passes hiss is found to co-exist with the lightning whistlers. Moreover, the whistler observations are correlated with observations of wave power at the lower-hybrid resonance. The observations and a whistler mode ray-tracing study suggest that multiple-hop lightning induced whistlers can be a source of hiss and plasma instabilities in the magnetosphere.
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Space And Planetary Science Keywords: unmanned aerial vehicle; undergraduate education; remote sensing; surveying and mapping
Online: 10 December 2019 (07:50:33 CET)
This work mainly discusses an innovative teaching platform on Unmanned Aerial Vehicle digital mapping for Remote Sensing (RS) education at Wuhan University, underlining the fast development of RS technology. Firstly, we introduce and discuss the future development of the Virtual Simulation Experiment Teaching Platform for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (VSETP-UAV). It includes specific topics such as the Systems and function Design, teaching and learning strategies, and experimental methods. This study shows that VSETP-UAV expands the usual content and training methods related to RS education, and creates a good synergy between teaching and research. The results also show that the VSETP-UAV platform is of high teaching quality producing excellent engineers, with high international standards and innovative skills in the RS field. In particular, it develops students' practical skills with technical manipulations of dedicated hardware and software equipment (e.g., UAV) in order to assimilate quickly this particular topic. Therefore, students report that this platform is more accessible from an educational point-of-view than theoretical programs, with a quick way of learning basic concepts of RS. Finally, the proposed VSETP-UAV platform achieves a high social influence, expanding the practical content and training methods of UAV based experiments, and providing a platform for producing high-quality national talents with internationally recognized topics related to emerging engineering education.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0005.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Space And Planetary Science Keywords: International Space Station; space missions; biomonitoring; water biological contamination
Online: 1 October 2019 (16:16:01 CEST)
Space exploration is demanding longer lasting human missions and water resupply from Earth will become increasingly unrealistic. In a near future, the spacecraft water monitoring systems will require technological advances to promptly identify and counteract contingent events of waterborne microbial contamination, posing health risks to astronauts with lowered immune responsiveness. The search for bio-analytical approaches, alternative to those applied on Earth by cultivation-dependent methods, is pushed by the compelling need to limit waste disposal and avoid microbial regrowth from analytical carryovers. Prospective technologies will be selected only if first validated in a flight-like environment, by following basic principles, advantages, and limitations beyond their current applications on Earth. Starting from the water monitoring activities applied on the International Space Station, we provide a critical overview of the nucleic acid amplification-based approaches (i.e., loop-mediated isothermal amplification, quantitative PCR, and high-throughput sequencing) and early-warning methods for total microbial load assessments (i.e., ATP-metry, flow cytometry), already used at a high readiness level aboard crewed space vehicles. Our findings suggest that the forthcoming space applications of mature technologies will be necessarily bounded by a compromise between analytical performances (e.g., speed to results, identification depth, reproducibility, multiparametricity) and detrimental technical requirements (e.g., reagent usage, waste production, operator skills, crew time). As space exploration progresses toward extended missions to Moon and Mars, miniaturized systems that also minimize crew involvement in their end-to-end operation are likely applicable on the long-term and suitable for the in-flight water and microbiological research.
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Space And Planetary Science Keywords: scaling law; head/tail breaks; living structure; beauty; streets; cities
Online: 26 July 2019 (04:19:25 CEST)
Conceived and developed by Christopher Alexander through his life’s work: The Nature of Order, wholeness is defined as a mathematical structure of physical space in our surroundings. Yet, there was no mathematics, as Alexander admitted then, that was powerful enough to capture his notion of wholeness. Recently, a mathematical model of wholeness, together with its topological representation, has been developed that is capable of addressing not only why a space is good, but also how much goodness the space has. This paper develops a structural perspective on goodness of space – both large- and small-scale – in order to bridge two basic concepts of space and place through the very concept of wholeness. The wholeness provides a de facto recursive definition of goodness of space from a holistic and organic point of view. A space is good, genuinely and objectively, if its adjacent spaces are good, the larger space to which it belongs is good, and what is contained in the space is also good. Eventually, goodness of space – sustainability of space – is considered a matter of fact rather than of opinion under the new view of space: space is neither lifeless nor neutral, but a living structure capable of being more living or less living, or more sustainable or less sustainable. Under the new view of space, geography or architecture will become part of complexity science, not only for understanding complexity, but also for making and remaking complex or living structures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0292.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Space And Planetary Science Keywords: nitrate; Mars; Atacama Desert; sedimentation rates; biomass preservation; extremophiles
Online: 25 July 2019 (11:52:52 CEST)
Nitrate is rich in Mars sediments owing to long-term atmospheric photolysis, oxidation, and deposition coupled with a lack of leaching via rainfall. The Atacama Desert in Chile, which is similarly dry and rich in nitrate deposits, is used as a Mars analog in this study to explore the potential effects of high nitrate levels on microbial growth. Seven study sites sampled across an aridity gradient in the Atacama Desert were categorized into 3 clusters – hyperarid, intermediate, and arid sites, as defined by major elements in the regolith, associated biomass, and precipitation. Intriguingly, the distribution of nitrate concentrations in the shallow subsurface suggests that the buildup of nitrate is not solely controlled by precipitation. Correlations of nitrate with SiO2/Al2O3 and grain sizes suggest that sedimentation rates are also important in controlling nitrate distribution. At arid sites receiving more than 10 mm/yr precipitation, rainfall shows a stronger impact on biomass than nitrate does. However, high nitrate to organic carbon ratios are generally beneficial to N assimilation as evidenced both by soil geochemistry and enriched culturing experiments. This study suggests that even in the absence of precipitation on contemporary Mars, the nitrate levels are sufficiently high to benefit potentially extant Martian microorganisms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0120.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Space And Planetary Science Keywords: astrotoxicology, astrobiology, astrochemistry, mars, manned space flight, microgravitation, radiation
Online: 2 July 2019 (11:28:36 CEST)
After astrochemistry and astrobiology, astrotoxicology is a further subfield of astroscience. Astrotoxicology is an interdisciplinary science that combines physics, biology, chemistry, astronomy, medicine and toxicology. Unlike toxicology on Earth, astrotoxicology in space must take into account the specific features of extreme conditions such as gravity, radiation, temperature or pressure and also consider the distinctions of extreme conditions on other celestial bodies. The field of action of astrotoxicology is, therefore, the influence of lower gravity on the toxicological characteristics of substances in the human body, the special dangers caused by increased radiation in space and on other planets and the special chemical changes caused by the extreme conditions in space on substances and the toxicological consequences associated with them. Despite growing space research, there are so far only a few pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic or toxicological investigations under conditions of microgravity and knowledge of toxicology under the extreme conditions in space in particular. Future studies will be the beginning of astrotoxicology, a previously unknown branch of toxicology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0314.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Space And Planetary Science Keywords: the Chang’e-4 lunar rover; phase-locked; signal-to-noise ratio; spectral resolution; infrared focal plane components
Online: 27 May 2019 (12:01:44 CEST)
The Chang’e-4 (CE-4) lunar rover, equipped with The Visible and Near-IR Imaging Spectrometer(VNIS) which based on acousto-optic tunable filter spectroscopy, was launched to the far side of the moon on December 8, 2018. The detection band of VNIS ranges from 0.45 to 2.4μm. Because of the weak reflection of infrared radiation from the lunar surface, a static electronic phase-locked acquisition method is adopted in the infrared channel for signal amplification. In this paper, full-link simulations and modeling are conducted of the infrared channel information flow of the instrument. The signal/noise characteristics of VNIS are analyzed in depth, and the signal-to-noise(SNR) ratio prediction and laboratory verification are presented. On January 4, 2019, the VNIS started working successfully and acquired high-resolution spectrum data of the far side of the moon for the first time. Through analysis, the SNR ratio is in line with predictions, and the data obtained by VNIS in orbit are consistent with the information model proposed in this paper.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0129.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Space And Planetary Science Keywords: cryosphere; ice; uniformitarianism; new rule
Online: 14 February 2019 (10:12:21 CET)
The lack of a uniform approach in Earth and planetary science is apparent in the current levels of inconsistency found within the research itself, the data analysis and the interpretation of results. Thus, data interpretation differ depending on whether the study refer to Earth conditions or from space. These differences are particularly pronounced for cryosphere studies, where geocentric approaches remain within ice research and its application in analogical studies. Here, the principle of spatial uniformitarianism is presented, to allow for a definitive departure from geocentrism and a proper understanding of the role of ice within both the Earth and celestial bodies. At the practical level, it may affect several geo-scientific disciplines currently inconsistent and bridging the gap among them. This rule is universal and complements the Hutton-Lyell 1795/1830 principle.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0243.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Space And Planetary Science Keywords: inter-satellite link; whole-constellation centralized extended Kalman filter; distributed orbit determination; iterative cascade extended Kalman filter; increased measurement covariance extended Kalman filter; balanced extended Kalman filter
Online: 24 January 2019 (08:01:25 CET)
To keep the global navigation satellite system functional during extreme conditions, it is a trend to employ autonomous navigation technology with inter-satellite link. As in the newly built BeiDou system (BDS-3) equipped with Ka-band inter-satellite links, every individual satellite has the ability of communicating and measuring distances among each other. The system also has less dependence on the ground stations and improved navigation performance. Because of the huge amount of measurement data, centralized data processing algorithm for orbit determination is suggested to be replaced by a distributed one in which each satellite in the constellation is required to finish a partial computation task. In current paper, the balanced extended Kalman filter algorithm for distributed orbit determination is proposed and compared with whole-constellation centralized extended Kalman filter, iterative cascade extended Kalman filter, and increasing measurement covariance extended Kalman filter. The proposed method demands a lower computation power however yields results with a relatively good accuracy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0483.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Space And Planetary Science Keywords: visually impaired people; mobile devices; assistive cartography.
Online: 25 September 2018 (10:32:06 CEST)
The vision can be used to recognize images and to improve mental pictures of environments. Visually impaired people feel a lack of aid for their independent or facilitated urban mobility, which can be achieved with the use of mobile devices and cartographic tools using audiovisual outputs. This work raises issues about urban mobility for the accessibility of visually impaired people in areas still unexplored by them, it uses cartographic technologies in electronic devices. For a preview of the test area located in Monte Carmelo (MG), a tactile model was used to form the first image of the eight volunteers. Results were obtained through research with not blind and blind individuals, it validated the use of áreas’s mobile registration prototype positioning in field or not, when the coordinates from the objects are known for registration. The results indicate that both the tactile model and the audiovisual prototype can be used by blind and non-blind people. Above all, the prototype proved to be a viable and adequate option for decision making in urban environments. New ways of presenting data to blind or otherwise blind people can still be studied.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0513.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Space And Planetary Science Keywords: usability; perceived added value; public participation; planning support system; 3D visualization; E-participation
Online: 30 August 2018 (05:23:28 CEST)
Public participation is significant for the success of any urban planning project. However, most members of the general public are not planning professionals and may not understand the technical details of a 2D paper-based plan, which might hamper their participation. One way to expand the participation of citizens is to present plans in well-designed, user-friendly and interactive platforms that allow participation regardless of the technical skills of the participants. This paper investigates the impacts of the combined use of 3D visualization and E-participation on public participation in Kisumu, Kenya. A 3D City model, created with CityEngine2016, was exported into a web-based geo-portal and used as a Planning Support System in two stakeholder workshops in order to evaluate its usability. For e-participation, 300 questionnaires given out to planning practitioners. Five indicators were developed for evaluating the usability of the 3D model while the usability of e-participation was evaluated using communication, collaboration and learning as indicators. Results showed that effectiveness and efficiency varies within different professional groups while the questionnaires showed strong preference for e-participation methods, especially SMSs/USSDs and emails. The study concludes that the use of 3D visualization and E-participation has the potential for improving the quality and quantity of public participation and recommends further research on the subject.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0390.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Space And Planetary Science Keywords: SAR remote sensing, Optical remote sensing, RISAT-1, LISS III, RVI, VI, cotton, height, LAI, Biomass, Vegetation water content
Online: 20 July 2018 (14:56:07 CEST)
Morphological parameters like cotton height, branches, Leaf Area Index and biomass are mainly affected by the vegetation water content (VWC). Periodical assessment of the VWC and crop parameters is required for timely management of the crop for maximizing yield. The study aimed at using both optical and microwave remotely sensed data to assess cotton crop condition based on the above mentioned traits. Vegetation indices (VI) derived from ground based measurements (5 narrow band and 2 broad band VIs) as well as satellite derived reflectance (2 broad band VIs) were assessed. Regression models were derived for estimating LAI, biomass and plant water content using the ground based indices and applied to the satellite derived spectral index (from LISS-III) map to estimate the respective parameters. HH and HV polarization from RISAT-1 were used to derive Radar Vegetation Index (RVI). The coefficient of determination of the model for estimating LAI, biomass and vegetation water content of cotton with optical vegetation index as input parameter were found to be 0.42, 0.51 and 0.52, respectively. The correlation between RVI and plant height, date of planting in terms of the age of the crop and vegetation water content were found to range between 0.4 to 0.6. The fresh biomass from RVI showed spatial variability from 100 gm-2 to 4000 gm-2 while the dry biomass map derived from NDVI showed spatial variability of 50 to 950 g m-2 for the study area. Plant water content in the district varied from 65 to 85%. The correlation between optical vegetation index and RVI was not significant. Hence a multiple linear regression model using both optical index (NDVI and LSWI) and SAR index (RVI) was developed to assess the LAI, biomass and plant water content. The model showed a R2 of 0.5 for LAI estimation but not significant for biomass and water content. This study show cased the use of combined optical and microwave (C band) remote sensing for cotton condition assessment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0063.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Space And Planetary Science Keywords: regional group interaction; similar hotspot flow patterns; spatial interaction; visual analytics; Geo-Information-Tupo; GIS
Online: 4 July 2018 (09:26:18 CEST)
The interaction between different regions normally is reflected by the form of the stream. For example, the interaction of the flow of people and flow of information between different regions can reflect the structure of cities’ network, and also can reflect how the cities function and connect to each other. Since big data has become increasingly popular, it is much easier to acquire flow data for various types of individuals. Currently, it is a hot research topic to apply the regional interaction model, which is based on the summary level of individual flow data mining. So far, previous research on spatial interaction methods focused on point-to-point and area-to-area interaction patterns. However, there are a few scholars who study the hotspot interaction pattern between two regional groups with some predefined neighborhood relationship by starting with two regions. In this paper, a method for identifying a similar hotspot interaction pattern between two regional groups has been proposed, and the Geo-Information-Tupu methods are applied to visualize the interaction patterns. For an example of an empirical analysis, we discuss China’s air traffic flow data, so this method can be used to find and analyze any hotspot interaction patterns between regional groups with adjoining relationships across China. Our research results indicate that this method is efficient in identifying hotspot interaction flow patterns between regional groups. Moreover, it can be applied to any analysis of flow space that is used to excavate regional group hotspot interaction patterns.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0155.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Space And Planetary Science Keywords: essential climate variables; climate data records; earth observation satellites; quality assurance; traceability; user requirements; climate applications; surface albedo; LAI; FAPAR; NO2; HCHO; CO
Online: 11 June 2018 (11:24:59 CEST)
Data from Earth Observation (EO) satellites are increasingly used to monitor the environment, understand variability and change, inform evaluations of climate model forecasts and manage natural resources. Policy makers are progressively relying on the information derived from these datasets to make decisions on mitigating and adapting to climate change. These decisions should be evidence based, which requires confidence in derived products as well as the reference measurements used to calibrate, validate or inform product development. In support of the European Union’s Earth Observation Programmes Copernicus Climate Change Service, the Quality Assurance for Essential Climate Variables (QA4ECV) project fulfilled a gap in the delivery of climate quality satellite derived datasets by prototyping a robust, generic system for the implementation and evaluation of Quality Assurance (QA) measures for satellite-derived ECV climate data record products. The project demonstrated the QA system on six new long-term, climate quality ECV data records for surface Albedo, Leaf Area Index, FAPAR, NO2, HCHO and CO. Provision of standardized QA information provides data users with evidence-based confidence in the products and enables judgement on the fitness-for-purpose of various ECV data products their specific applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0157.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Space And Planetary Science Keywords: geometry-free; geometry-based; wide-lane ambiguity; orbit and clock residual error
Online: 28 May 2018 (06:06:06 CEST)
Orbit and clock products are used in real-time GNSS precise point positioning without knowing their quality. This study develops a new approach to detect orbit and clock errors through comparing geometry-free and geometry-based wide-lane ambiguities in PPP model. The reparameterization and estimation procedures of the geometry-free and geometry-based ambiguities are described in detail. The effects of orbit and clock errors on ambiguities are given in analytical expressions. The numerical similarity and differences of geometry-free and geometry-based wide-lane ambiguities are analyzed using different orbit and clock products. Furthermore, two types of typical errors in orbit and clock are simulated and their effects on wide-lane ambiguities are numerically produced and analyzed. The contribution discloses that the geometry-free and geometry-based wide-lane ambiguities are equivalent in terms of their formal errors. Although they are very close in terms of their estimates when the used orbit and clock for geometry-based ambiguities are precise enough, they are not the same, in particular, in the case that the used orbit and clock, as a combination, contain significant errors. It is discovered that the discrepancies of geometry-free and geometry-based wide-lane ambiguities are coincided with the actual time-variant errors in the used orbit and clock at the line-of-sight direction. This provides a quality index for real-time users to detect the errors in real-time orbit and clock products, which potentially improves the accuracy of positioning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0275.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Space And Planetary Science Keywords: synthetic aperture radar; P-band radar; thematic applications
Online: 30 March 2018 (15:51:54 CEST)
Possibilities of utilization of two frequencies synthetic aperture radar (SAR) operating simultaneously in P-band and S or L-band are considered. Advantages of such system are shown. They are caused by improvement of data interpretation and by decrease of ionosphere influence. Tasks of surface and subsurface sensing by the complex SAR were under investigation for vegetation, soil covers are given. As an example, the investigation results of coniferous forest areas backscattering by the spaceborne P-band SAR together with L-band SAR in the September-February period are presented. Studies have shown that the joint use of the results in L and P bands offer unique opportunities to explore the effects of changes in the backscattering properties of forest surfaces.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0103.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Space And Planetary Science Keywords: Cloud detection; Deep learning; Image Compression.
Online: 15 February 2018 (16:49:55 CET)
An effective on-board cloud detection method in small satellites would greatly improve the downlink data transmission efficiency and reduce the memory cost. In this paper, an ensemble method combining a lightweight U-Net with wavelet image compression is proposed and evaluated. The red, green, blue and infrared waveband images from Landsat-8 dataset are trained and tested to estimate the performance of proposed method. The LeGall-5/3 wavelet transform is applied on the dataset to accelerate the neural network and improve the feasibility of on-board implement. The experiment results illustrate that the overall accuracy of the proposed model achieves 97.45% by utilizing only four bands. Tests on low coefficients of compressed dataset have shown that the overall accuracy of the proposed method is still higher than 95%, while its inference speed is accelerated to 0.055 second per million pixels and maximum memory cost reduces to 2Mb. By taking advantage of mature image compression system in small satellites, the proposed method provides a good possibility of on-board cloud detection based on deep learning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0164.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Space And Planetary Science Keywords: CCD defects; space telescopes; nano-satellites
Online: 18 January 2018 (04:31:20 CET)
The BRightest Target Explorer (BRITE) is the pioneering nanosatellite mission dedicated for photometric observations of the brightest stars in the sky. The BRITE CCD sensors are poorly shielded against extensive flux of energetic particles which constantly induce defects in the silicon lattice. In this paper we investigate the temporal evolution of the generation of the dark current in the BRITE CCDs over almost 4 years after launch. Utilizing several steps of image processing and employing normalization of the results it was possible to obtain useful information about the progress of thermal activity in the sensors. The outcomes show clear and consistent linear increase of induced damage despite the fact that only about 0.14% of CCD pixels were probed. By performing the analysis of temperature dependencies of the dark current, we identified the observed defects as phosphorus-vacancy (PV) pairs, which are common in proton irradiated CCD matrices. Moreover, the Meyer-Neldel empirical rule was confirmed in our dark current data, yielding EMN=24.8 meV for proton-induced PV defects.
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0030.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Space And Planetary Science Keywords: tri-stereo; DSM, validation; urban surface morphology
Online: 5 January 2018 (05:18:21 CET)
A very high-resolution DSM covering an area of 400km2 over the Athens Metropolitan Area has been produced using Pleiades 1B 0,5m panchromatic tri-stereo images. Applied Remote Sensing and Photogrammetry tools have been used resulted in a 1x1m DSM over the study area. DSM accuracy has been evaluated by comparison with measured elevations with D-GPS and a reference DSM provided by the National Cadaster & Mapping Agency S.A. In addition, different combinations of stereo images have been prepared for further exploitation of the quality of the produced DSM by stereo vs. tri-stereo images. Results show that the produced by the tri-stereo images DSM has an RMSE of 1.17m in elevation (z), which is among the best reported in the relevant literature. Stereo based DSMs from the same sensor have worst performance to this end. Satellite Remote Sensing (SRS) based DSMs over urban areas provide the best cost-effective approach in comparison to airborne-based datasets due to high spatial coverage, lower cost and high temporal coverage. Pleiades-based high-quality DSM products can serve the domains of urban planning/climate, hydrological modelling and natural hazards, as major input for simulation models and morphological analysis at local scale.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0056.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Space And Planetary Science Keywords: environmental risks; satellite data; GIS techniques; Egyptian temples
Online: 9 November 2017 (03:10:49 CET)
Over the years, the Egyptian temples at Luxor city have been intensely investigated, but most of these studies just focused on the classical sides of the archaeological and historical descriptions. Many of the environmental problems are inevitable results of the unplanned urban crawling around the monuments temples. This paper aims at assessing the environmental changes around some temples of Luxor City using Remote sensing and GIS techniques. In particular, a historical database made up of Corona and Landsat TM data have been investigated along with the new acquisitions of Quickbird2 and Sentinel2. Results from our investigation highlighted rapid changes in urban and agricultural areas, which adversely affected the Egyptian monumental temples causing serious degradation phenomena. Using the information obtained from our RS&GIS based analysis, mitigation strategies have been also identified for supporting the preservation of the archaeological area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0159.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Space And Planetary Science Keywords: YG-13A; geometric accuracy; validation
Online: 25 April 2017 (11:19:25 CEST)
YG-13A represents the highest level of Chinese SAR satellites to date. In this paper, we report on experiments conducted to improve and validate ranging accuracy with YG-13A. We analyze the error sources in the YG-13A ranging system, such as atmospheric path delay, and transceiver channel delay. A real-time atmospheric delay correction model is established to calculate the atmospheric path delay, considering the troposphere delay and ionosphere delay. Six corner reflectors (CRs) were set up to ensure the accuracy of validation methods. Pixel location accuracies of up to 0.479-m standard deviation can be achieved after a complete calibration. We further demonstrate that the adjustment of the CRs can cause a marginal loss of ranging precision. After eliminating this error, the ranging accuracy is improved to 0.237 m. For YG-13A, a single frequency GPS receiver is used and the orbital nominal accuracy is 0.3 m, which is the biggest factor restricting its ranging accuracy. Our results show that the ranging accuracy of YG-13A can achieve decimeter-level, which is lower than centimeter-level accuracy with TerraSAR-X loading a dual frequency GPS. YG-13A has great convenience in terms of access to control points and target location that does not depend on ground equipment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0060.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Space And Planetary Science Keywords: Ionosphere; vertical total electron content (VTEC); seismo-ionospheric anomaly
Online: 11 April 2017 (06:54:25 CEST)
This paper studies ionospheric vertical total electron content (VTEC) variations before the 2014 Mw8.2 Chile earthquake. VTEC derived from 14 GPS (Global Positioning System) stations and GIM (Global Ionospheric Map) were used to analyze ionospheric variations before the earthquake using the sliding interquartile range method, and results showed that significant positive VTEC anomalies occurred on 28 March. To explore possible causes of these anomalies, effects of solar and geomagnetic activities were examined, and VTEC variations during 17 March to 31 March in 2009-2013 were cross-compared. Also, VTEC for a full year before the earthquake was investigated. Results indicated that these anomalies were weakly associated with high solar activities and geomagnetic storms and that these anomalies were not normal seasonal and diurnal variations. An analysis of the spatial distribution of the observed anomalies was also presented, and it demonstrated that anomalies specifically appeared around the epicenter on 28 March. It suggests that observed anomalies may be associated with the subsequent Chile earthquake. Equatorial anomaly variations were analyzed to discuss the possible physical mechanism, and results showed that the equatorial anomaly unusually increased on 28 March, which indicates that anomalous electric fields generated in the earthquake preparation area and the meridional wind are possible causes of the observed ionospheric anomalies.