ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0094.v4
Subject: Neuroscience And Neurology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD); depression; anxiety; memory; tryptophan; serotonin (5-HT); kynurenine; transaminases; conversion disorder; experimental animal models
Online: 30 September 2023 (10:34:01 CEST)
Memory and emotion, fundamental components of our mental existence, are highly vulnerable to psychiatric disorders like post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This condition has been linked to serotonin (5-HT) metabolism disruptions. Over 95% of the 5-HT precursor tryptophan (Trp) is metabolized through the Trp-kynurenine (KYN) metabolic pathway, but little is known about its role in behavior. Kynurenine aminotransferases are responsible for the production of the Trp-KYN metabolite kynurenic acid. The gene aadat codes for mitochondrial kynurenine aminotransferase isotype 2. We generated CRISPR/Cas9-induced aadat knockout (kat2−/−) mice to examine the consequence of the gene deletion on negative valence in emotion, memory, and motor function in males 8 weeks of age and compared them to their wild-type counterparts. The forced swim test showed increased depression-like behaviors in transgenic mice. Anxiety and memory tests showed no significant differences. The transgenic mice had fewer center field and corner entries, shorter ambulation distances, and fewer jumping counts in the open field test. Overall, the transgenic mice exhibit depression-like behavior in a learned helplessness model, emotional indifference, and motor deficits. Here we present the first evidence that the deletion of the aadat gene triggers depression-like behaviors, uniquely associated with despair experience rather than adverse-conditioned memory. These findings have profound implications, opening avenues for further exploration into the main causes of experience-based depression linked to despair. This investigation has the potential to advance our understanding of these complex conditions and pave the way for improved therapeutic strategies by elucidating the relationship between Trp metabolism and the pathogenesis of PTSD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2123.v1
Subject: Remote Sensing, Environmental And Earth Sciences Keywords: OLCI; harmful algal blooms; Pseudo-nitzschia spp.; support vector machine; multi-spectral sensors; reflectance; Galician rias
Online: 30 September 2023 (10:31:16 CEST)
Pseudo-nitzschia spp. blooms are a recurrent problem in many coastal areas globally imposing some significant threats to the health of human, ecosystems and economy. Monitoring programmes have been established, where feasible, to mitigate the impacts caused by Pseudo-nitzschia spp. and other harmful algae blooms. The detection of such blooms from satellite data could really provide timely information on emerging risks but the development of taxa-specific algorithms from available multispectral data is still challenged by coupled optical properties with other taxa and water constituents, availability of ground data and generalisation capabilities of algorithms. Here, we developed a new set of algorithms (PNOI) for the detection and monitoring of Pseudo-nitzschia spp. blooms over the Galician coast (NW Iberian Peninsula) from Sentinel-3 OLCI reflectances using support vector machine (SVM). Our algorithm was trained and tested with reflectance data from 260 OLCI images and 4607 Pseudo-nitzschia spp. match up data points, of which 2171 were of high quality. The performance of no bloom/bloom model in the independent test set was robust, showing values of 0.80, 0.72 and 0.79 for area under the curve (AUC), sensitivity and specificity, respectively. Similar results were obtained by our below detection limit/presence model. We also present different model thresholds based on optimisation of true skill statistic (TSS) and F1-score. PNOI outperforms linear models, while its relationship with in-situ chlorophyll-a concentrations is weak demonstrating poor correlation with the phytoplankton abundance. We showcase the importance of PNOI algorithm and OLCI sensor for monitoring the bloom evolution between the weekly ground sampling and during periods of ground data absence, such as due to Covid-19.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2122.v1
Subject: Aerospace Engineering, Engineering Keywords: supersonic/hypersonic flow control; energy source; bow shock wave; drag force; lift force; boundary layer; separation area; filamentary plasma; plasma actuator; Richtmyer–Meshkov instability; pulsing flow mode; damping flow pulsations
Online: 30 September 2023 (10:30:53 CEST)
The Review examines studies aimed at the organization of energy (non-mechanical) control of high-speed flow/flight using spatially multi-component plasma structures and combined energy deposition. The Review covers selected works on experimental obtaining and numerical modeling multi-component plasma structures and use of sets of actuators based on the plasma of such a spatially type for the purposes of control of shock wave/bow shock wave – energy source interaction, as well as control of shock wave – boundary layer interaction. A series of works on repetitive multiple laser pulse plasma structures is also analyzed from the point of view of examining shock wave/bow shock wave boundary layer interaction. Self-sustained theoretical models for laser dual-pulse, multi-mode laser pulses and self-sustained glow discharge are also considered. Separate sections are devoted to high-speed flow control using combined physical phenomena and numerical prediction of flow control possibilities using thermal longitudinally layered plasma structures. The wide possibilities for organization and applying spatially multi-component structured plasma for the purposes of high-speed flow control are demonstrated.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2115.v1
Subject: Plant Sciences, Biology And Life Sciences Keywords: Maize; Omics; Stresses; Resistance; Crop Improvement
Online: 30 September 2023 (10:26:37 CEST)
Maize (Zea mays L.) stands as one of the most extensively cultivated crops globally, offering significant contributions to food, animal feed, and biofuel production. Maize yield is significantly impacted by diverse climate and soil variables, yet its productivity faces hindrances due to abiotic stresses, including drought, salinity, extreme temperatures, and cold conditions. In confronting these hurdles, the field of crop breeding has undergone a transformation thanks to high-throughput sequencing technologies (HSTs). These advancements have streamlined the identification of beneficial quantitative trait loci (QTL), associations between markers and traits (MTAs), as well as genes and alleles that contribute to crop improvement. Presently, well-established omics techniques such as genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics are being amalgamated into maize breeding studies. These approaches have unveiled new biological markers that are being employed to bolster maize's capacity to withstand an array of challenges. In this chapter, we explore the current knowledge regarding the morpho-physiological and molecular mechanisms that underlie the resistance and tolerance of maize to biotic and abiotic stresses. The focus is on utilizing omics techniques to augment maize's ability to withstand these challenges. Moreover, it emphasizes the significant potential of integrating various omics techniques to tackle the challenges presented by biotic and abiotic stress in maize productivity, contrasting with singular approaches.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2162.v1
Subject: Aerospace Engineering, Engineering Keywords: heat transfer; gas turbine; turbulence intensity; Reynolds number; boundary layer
Online: 30 September 2023 (10:25:27 CEST)
The amount of heat transfer in gas turbine blades depends on cooling techniques and various flow phenomena. The effect of eddies, passing shock waves and free flow turbulence has been noticed by many researchers since the beginning. The focus of the upcoming work is on the numerical investigation of the effects of turbulence intensity and Reynolds number on the amount of heat transfer from the blade surface with internal cooling. The SST model has been used to solve this problem, which has been compared with the experimental work to ensure the correctness of the numerical simulation. In this regard, by changing the free flow turbulence intensity with values of 1, 5, 7, and 10% and at three Reynolds numbers of 150,000, 350,000, and 750,000, the changes in heat transfer coefficients have been investigated. The results show that with the increase of the turbulence intensity at different Reynolds numbers, due to the positive effect of the flow turbulence on the suppression of separation and promotion of the boundary layer transition, the blade surface heat transferincreases and this increase is more evident at higher Reynolds numbers.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2070.v1
Subject: Public, Environmental And Occupational Health, Public Health And Healthcare Keywords: Vaping; E cigarette; lung injury; lung disorder; association; relationship; adults; long term impact; vaping risk -benefit analysis; attitudes; mental health; side effect; EVALI
Online: 30 September 2023 (10:23:06 CEST)
The electronic cigarette or e-cigarette is the new alternative method to deliver nicotine. In 2007, the United States introduced vaping devices on the market. Due to their attractive taste and lack of adverse effects, these vaping devices have gained popularity among youth and adults. However, there has been increasing evidence that vaping can cause severe lung injury, and these devices release toxic chemicals into the body. E-cigarettes are recognized as a global threat to public health. Nicotine, the most prevalent chemical in vaping devices, is associated with neurological problems and cognitive decline. Long-term use of e-cigarettes can cause adverse health problems, including respiratory illnesses, asthma, bronchitis, and lung inflammation. In 2019, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) officially declared vaping-associated illness EVALI (e-cigarette or Vaping Product Associated Lung Injury). The US Surgeon General published an alarm in December 2016 that e-cigarette consumption among adolescents and teens in the US is a "major public health concern" and that more young people are now vaping than smoking traditional cigarettes and cigars. Since its commercial introduction in 2003, modern electronic cigarettes (or E-cigarette s) have become increasingly popular with smokers, non-smokers, and those who used to smoke who have switched to them. With such a rise in consumption, people are becoming more aware of the irritating, harmful, and perhaps cancer-causing effects on the lungs. (Chadi et al., 2019; Dinardo & Rome, 2019; Lyzwinski et al., 2022; Marrocco et al., 2022; O’Callaghan et al., 2022)
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2121.v1
Subject: Energy And Fuel Technology, Engineering Keywords: magnetohydrodynamic; thermoacoustic; fuel cells; waste-fired power plant; zero emission power plant
Online: 30 September 2023 (10:21:28 CEST)
A layout of urban waste fired zero emission power plant is described in this paper. The principle of layout, which comes from similar coal-fired plants retrieved from the literature, integrates gasification with a power generation section, and implements two parallel conversion processes, one supplied by the heat of the gasifier consisting of a thermoacousticmagnetohydrodynamic (TAMHD) generator, while in the second one the syngas is treated in order to obtain almost pure hydrogen, which is fed to fuel cells. The CO2 deriving from the oxidation of Carbon base is stocked in liquid form. The novelty of the proposed layout lies in the fact that the entire conversion is performed without solid moving parts. The resulting plant avoids any type of emissions in the atmosphere, increases mechanical efficiency as compared to traditional plants, thanks to the absence of moving parts, nonetheless, resolving at its root the ever-increasing waste-related pollution problems.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2067.v1
Subject: Other, Social Sciences Keywords: Climate communication; storytelling; public engagement; climate action; sustainability
Online: 30 September 2023 (10:19:00 CEST)
For achieving climate targets, public engagement is key. Climate communication can play an important role here. Telling regional stories of successful climate action seems a promising form of climate communication: It may convey a feeling of ‘So this is what climate action looks like – and it is people like you and me who are starting to take action.’ This transformative research project (1) formulates hypotheses on what could make such local climate stories effective, (2) then identifies, produces and disseminates stories in the region of Konstanz, Germany, following a rapid prototyping approach, and (3) analyzes the effect of the stories by using focus groups. So far, two prototyping series of filmic story production have been completed in 2022/2023 and some initial insights were derived: Potential protagonists seem willing to tell their stories, and the stories have a potential to inspire people. Technical film quality is relevant. The stories must be selected and told carefully (who is portrayed, which actions are interpreted as success, through which channels are the stories shared), in order to create resonance with different target groups. Next steps are continuation of film production prototyping, a broader sharing of stories, and thorough impact research by focus groups.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2061.v1
Subject: Electrical And Electronic Engineering, Engineering Keywords: indoor positioning system; Bluetooth; Wi-Fi; wearables; energy efficiency
Online: 30 September 2023 (10:17:49 CEST)
In recent years, the application of Indoor Positioning Systems (IPS) has experienced a significant increase in demand, with the aging of the world’s population and their changing lifestyles. While outdoor positioning systems, such as the Global Positioning System (GPS), have significantly advanced over the years, indoor positioning has been restrained by the limitations of the employed technologies. This paper presents a hybrid wireless positioning system able to locate wearables indoor accurately. It is based on the Wi-Fi and Bluetooth technologies, by using trilateration to determine the position of Bluetooth low energy (BLE) wearable devices with an accuracy of up to 1.8 meters. A graphical user interface (GUI) was used to illustrate the performance of the proposed systems, by allowing users to visualize the captured data in two dimensions and three- dimensions in real-time.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2068.v1
Subject: Architecture, Building And Construction, Engineering Keywords: school buildings; building dynamic energy loss; microenvironment; occupants’ behavior
Online: 30 September 2023 (10:16:05 CEST)
The utilization of primary school buildings is multifaceted, primarily due to the high occupancy density, varying thermal preferences among occupants, diverse indoor activities (such as walking, sports, and conversation), and a constant flow of individuals entering and exiting the building. This results in frequent opening and closing of external windows and doors and fluctuations in internal heat gain. Consequently, frequent interactions between the indoor and outdoor microenvironments lead to energy losses. This study conducts a comprehensive literature review on building energy loss stemming from occupant behavior and the interactions between indoor and outdoor microenvironments. Furthermore, it proposes a dynamic real-time monitoring system based on a computer data capture and visualization platform foundation for building energy loss. The research methods include data crawling, data association rule mining, and data association analysis. The research findings yield a universally applicable and informative building energy-saving design theory based on extensive data analysis. Additionally, the system presents information on occupants' behavior and the microclimate data of indoor and outdoor environments on a computer screen, facilitating human-machine communication and enabling timely adjustments to design strategies for new buildings and operation and maintenance strategies for existing buildings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2112.v1
Subject: Waste Management And Disposal, Environmental And Earth Sciences Keywords: Waste; chemical pollution; behavioural pattern; The Natural Step; survey; school; emerging contaminants; New Zealand; essentiality
Online: 30 September 2023 (10:14:25 CEST)
Anthropogenic chemicals are fundamental to our standard of living in modern society. Unfortunately, some chemicals are persistent and can enter waste streams and ultimately the environment. Commonly used household products including pharmaceuticals and personal care products are an important source of contaminants. The aim of this study was to develop an “Up-the-pipe Solutions” framework to raise awareness about the presence and potential risks of chemicals found in household products to reduce their levels in waste streams or substitute them with less harmful alternatives. This approach based on The Natural Step framework and the concept of essentiality recognises the importance of engaging the community to raise awareness around the consequences of our daily activities and behavioural patterns that can lead to the release of persistent contaminants in main waste streams from the kitchen and bathroom and green wastes we generate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2090.v1
Subject: Transportation Science And Technology, Engineering Keywords: asphalt mastic; asphalt mixture; flame retardant - smoke suppressant; performance
Online: 30 September 2023 (10:13:04 CEST)
Variety of harmful gases are produced in asphalt mixture after mixing, paving and rolling process. Effective measures must be tak-en to suppress the asphalt pavement in the tunnel due to fire accidents and other toxic gases and fumes, reducing the human health during the construction process. In this study, a flame retardant and smoke suppressant (compound) with Mg(OH)2 as the main component was developed, the flame retardant asphalt mixture and asphalt mastics were prepared to evaluate the flame retard-ant-smoke suppressant properties and performance effects. Firstly, its low and high temperature performances were investigated with the bending beam rheometer (BBR) and dynamic shear rheological (DSR), respectively. Then, the indoor combustion test and the cone calorimeter test were used to evaluate the fire retardant smoke suppression effect of the asphalt mastic. Thirdly, the flame retardant effect of asphalt mastic mixed with the compound was further analyzed by thermogravimetric (TG) test and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The pyrolysis temperature, mass loss and microscopic state of asphalt surface were used to verify and explain the flame retardant reaction effect and process of the compound. Finally, the asphalt mixture performance was evaluated, as well as the flame retardant smoke suppression effect was verified by asphalt mixture combustion tests. The results showed that the flame retardant smoke suppression time of the flame retardant asphalt mixture was reduced by 66% and the smoke emission area was reduced by 20%. The flame retardant smoke suppression effect of the asphalt mixture was improved by 44%. The flame-retardant and smoke-suppressing compound and the asphalt mixture with the compound prepared in this study meet the asphalt mixture performance and flame retardant smoke suppression function, providing an option for application of fire retardant and smoke-suppressing asphalt pavement materials in tunnels.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2071.v1
Subject: Polymers And Plastics, Chemistry And Materials Science Keywords: thermally conducive fillers; through-plane thermal conductivity (K⊥), thermal conductivity; polymer composites; Thermally Conductive Polymer Composites (TCPC); Thermal interface materials (TIMs); thermal management
Online: 30 September 2023 (10:11:18 CEST)
The internet of things and growing demand for smaller and advanced devices has created the problem of high heat production in the electronic equipment which greatly reduces the work performance and life of the electronic instruments. Thermal interface materials (TIMs) are placed in between heat generating micro-chip and the heat dissipater to conduct all the produced heat to the heat sink. Development of suitable TIMs with excellent thermal conductivity (TC) in both in-plane and through-plane directions is a very important need at present. For efficient thermal management, polymer composites are potential candidates. But in general their thermal conductivity is low compared to that of metals. The filler integration into the polymer matrix is one of the two approaches used to increase the thermal conductivity of polymer composites and is also easy to scale up for industrial production. Another way to achieve this is to change the structure of polymer chains, which fall out of the scope of this work. In this review, considering the first approach, the authors have summarized recent development in many types of fillers with different scenarios by providing multiple cases with successful strategies to improve through-plane thermal conductivity (TPTC) (K⊥). For better understanding of TC the comprehensive background is also presented. In the end, it is given a detailed conclusion which provides drawbacks of some filler, multiple significant routes recommended by other researchers to build Thermally Conductive Polymer Composites, future aspects along with direction so that the researchers can get a guideline to design an effective polymer based Thermal interface materials. A number of methods to improve the effective (out-plane) thermal conductivity of polymer composites are also discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2041.v1
Subject: Atomic And Molecular Physics, Physical Sciences Keywords: ZnO; First-principle; Magnetic properties; Optical properties; Rare earth element
Online: 30 September 2023 (10:11:05 CEST)
The electronic, optical, and magnetic properties of Nd-doped ZnO systems were calculated using the DFT/GGA+U method. According to the results, the Nd dopant causes lattice parameter expansion, negative formation energy, and bandgap narrowing, resulting in the formation of an n-type degenerate semiconductor. Overlapping of the generated impurity and Fermi levels results in a significant trap effect that prevents electron-hole recombination. The absorption spectrum demonstrates a redshift in the visible region and improved intensity, leading to enhanced photocatalytic performance. The Nd-doped ZnO system displays ferromagnetic, with FM coupling due to strong spd-f hybridization through magnetic exchange interaction between the Nd-4f state and O-2p, Zn-4s, and Zn-3p states. These findings imply that Nd-doped ZnO may be a promising material for DMS spintronic devices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2059.v1
Subject: Gastroenterology And Hepatology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Total serum bile acids; antipyrine clearance; liver-spleen scan; chronic hepatitis; liver cirrhosis; AUROCs
Online: 30 September 2023 (10:08:10 CEST)
Background Total serum bile acids (TSBA), liver-spleen scan and dynamic liver functional tests, in our case the antipyrine clearance (Ap Cl), have been long adopted. The aim of our study was that of assessing whether some diagnostic tests, scarcely performed due to the novel techniques implementation, were reliable diagnostic tools. Methods Data extracted from records of two well-matched for age and gender populations was retrospectively analysed. Specifically, 17 patients with biopsy-proven chronic hepatitis were confronted with 17 subjects suffering from liver cirrhosis. Clinical, laboratory and instrumental findings, such as the Child-Pugh classification, the number connection test for evaluating hepatic encephalopathy, prothrombin time, serum albumin levels, TSBA concentration, Ap Cl determination, abdominal ultrasound and liver-spleen scan imaging as well as endoscopy features were evaluated. Results Cirrhotics showed a median concentration of TSBA increased respect to that of patients with chronic hepatitis, independently from gender, 20.1 versus 12.24 micromol/L, P= 0.0054. The median AP Cl value of the patients with liver cirrhosis was reduced confronted with that of patients with chronic hepatitis, specifically, 13.92 opposed to 18.3 mcg Ap/dL, P= 0.045. Furthermore, the median liver-spleen scan score was higher in cirrhotics than in chronic hepatitis patients, i.e., 3.47 versus 1.47, P= 0.000. The AUROCs of TSBA levels and of the liver-spleen scan scores for differentiating patients with liver cirrhosis from those with chronic hepatitis were 0.82 and 0.96, respectively. When was applied a new predictive model, combining the previous ones, the AUROC to discriminate patients belonging to the two populations was 0.98. The best cut-off of the new index was 26, with a sensitivity and specificity of 100.00% and 82.35%, respectively, correctly classifying 91.18% of the patients. Discussion Both TSBA and liver-spleen scan were high discriminant as well as their combination, while Ap Cl showed some limitations as reliable diagnostic tool. TSBA and liver-spleen scan have been too soon and unnecessarily overlooked.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1843.v2
Subject: Anatomy And Physiology, Biology And Life Sciences Keywords: disuse; fascicle; hypoplasia; longitudinal atrophy; muscle fibers; myofibril; myofilaments; radial atrophy; sarcomere
Online: 30 September 2023 (10:02:22 CEST)
The maintenance of skeletal muscle mass plays a fundamental role in health and issues associated with quality of life. Mechanical signals are one of the most potent regulators of muscle mass, with a decrease in mechanical loading leading to a decrease in muscle mass. This concept has been supported by a plethora of of human- and animal-based studies during the last 100 years and has resulted in the commonly used term of “disuse atrophy”. These same studies have also provided a great deal of insight into the structural adaptations that mediate disuse-induced atrophy. For instance, disuse results in radial atrophy of fascicles, and this is driven, at least in part, by radial atrophy of the muscle fibers. However, the ultrastructural adaptations that mediate these changes remain far from defined. Indeed, even the most basic questions, such as whether the radial atrophy of muscle fibers is driven by the radial atrophy of myofibrils and/or myofibril hypoplasia, have yet to be answered. In this review, we thoroughly summarize what is known about the macroscopic, microscopic, and ultrastructural adaptations that mediated disuse-induced atrophy and highlight some of the major gaps in knowledge that need to be filled.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2177.v1
Subject: Mechanical Engineering, Engineering Keywords: particle image velocimetry; OpenPIV; python; image processing
Online: 30 September 2023 (09:59:14 CEST)
Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) is a widely used experimental technique for measuring flow. In recent years, open-source PIV software has become more popular as it offers researchers and practitioners enhanced computational capabilities. Software development for graphical processing unit (GPU) architectures requires careful algorithm design and data structure selection for optimal performance. PIV software, optimized for central processing units (CPUs), offer an alternative to specialized GPU software. In the present work, an improved algorithm for the OpenPIV-Python software is presented and implemented under a traditional CPU framework. The Python language was selected due to its versatility and widespread adoption. The algorithm was also tested on a supercomputing cluster, a workstation, and Google Colaboratory during the development phase. Using a known velocity field, the algorithm precisely captured the time-average flow, monetary velocity fields, and vortices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2169.v1
Subject: Soil Science, Environmental And Earth Sciences Keywords: Warming; Soil organic carbon mineralization; Temperature sensitivity; Substrate availability; Enzyme activity; Microbial community structure
Online: 30 September 2023 (09:54:19 CEST)
The subtropical forest soil plays a pivotal role in terrestrial carbon (C) cycling. Although global warming is expected to influence subtropical soil C cycling, a consensus on its impact on soil C dynamics remains elusive. Given the significant response of soil microbial respiration to temperature in subtropical soils, understanding its behavior under varying temperature regimes is critical for predicting soil organic C (SOC) responses to climate warming. We conducted a short-term laboratory soil warming incubation experiment, sampling both warmed and un-warmed soils from a subtropical plantation in southeastern China, incubating them at 20 °C, 30 °C, and 40 °C. Our aim was to study the SOC mineralization response to increasing temperatures. Our findings revealed that the temperature sensitivity (Q10) of SOC mineralization to short-term experimental warming varied between the warmed soil and the un-warmed soil. The Q10 of the un-warmed soil escalated with the temperature treatment (20-30 ℃: 1.31, 30-40℃: 1.63). Conversely, the Q10 of the warmed soil decreased (20-30 ℃:1.57, 30-40 ℃:1.41). Increasing temperature treatments enhanced hydrolytic enzyme activity but decreased soil substrate availability in both un-warmed and warmed soil. The Q10 of un-warmed soil was positively correlated with the response ratio of DOC. Additionally, soil microbial biomass exhibited a significant decline, leading to a reduced total amount of PLFAs and a decreased abundance of bacteria, fungi, and Gram-negative bacteria (GN). The changes in temperature also considerably altered the composition of the warmed soil microbial community. A drop in the microbial quotient coupled with a rise in the metabolic quotient indicated that warming amplified microbial respiration over microbial growth. The differential Q10 of SOC mineralization, in response to temperature across varying soil, can largely be attributed to shifts in soil nutrients, C-degrading enzyme activities, and microbial communities (the ratio of fungal to bacterial PLFAs).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2117.v1
Subject: Fluids And Plasmas Physics, Physical Sciences Keywords: avier-Stokes equation; 2D unsteady boundary layers; similarity transformation; exact solution
Online: 30 September 2023 (09:49:14 CEST)
The studies of laminar unsteady boundary layer flows is crucial for understanding turbulence origins. However, the task of finding its solutions poses a significant challenge. In this paper, we propose a novel approach by introducing a similar transformation to convert the 2D unsteady laminar boundary layer equations into a single partial differential equation with constant coefficients. By applying this transformation, we are able to obtain the exact solution for the velocity field of the 2D unsteady laminar boundary layer equations, specifically for the case of flat plate boundary flow. Notably, this is the first time that such an exact solution has been obtained.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2175.v1
Subject: Robotics, Computer Science And Mathematics Keywords: medical and rehabilitation robotics; biomechanics; parallel manipulator; cable-driven; kinematic analysis; robot design; mechanism synthesis; compliant mechanism
Online: 30 September 2023 (09:47:54 CEST)
The ankle is a complex joint with a high injury incidence. Rehabilitation Robotics applied to the ankle is a very active research field. We present cable-driven reconfigurable robot kinematics and statics. We studied how the tendons pull mid-foot bones around the talocrural and subtalar axes. Likewise, we propose a hybrid serial-parallel mechanism analogous to the ankle. Then, using screw theory, we synthesized a cable-driven robot with the human ankle in the closed-loop kinematics. We incorporate a draw-wire sensor to measure the axes’ pose and compute the product of exponentials. We reconfigure the cables to balance the tension and pressure forces using the axis projection on the base and platform planes. Likewise, we also computed the workspace to show that the reconfigurable design fits several sizes. The data used is from anthropometry and statistics. Finally, we validated the robot’s statics with MuJoCo for various cable length groups corresponding to the axes’ range of motion. We suggested a platform adjusting system and an alignment method. The design is lightweight, and the cable-driven robot has advantages over rigid parallel robots, such as Stewart platforms. We will use compliant actuators.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2163.v1
Subject: Applied Mathematics, Computer Science And Mathematics Keywords: M-fractional Westervelt model; The $\exp_a$ function technique; Modified simplest equation technique; Exact solutions
Online: 30 September 2023 (08:53:07 CEST)
This research paper is about to obtain new soliton solutions to the M-fractional (1+1)-dimensional nonlinear Westervelt model by utilizing $\exp_a$ function and modified simplest equation techniques. The gained solutions involving dark, bright, periodic, dark-bright and other solitons. These results have many applications in wave propagation of sound waves, high amplitude in medical imaging and therapy. Achieved results are verified by Mathematica tool and the effect of M-fractional derivative on the solutions is explained through 2-Dimensional, 3-Dimensional and contour plots. At the end, these techniques are simple, fruitful and effective to deal with nonlinear FPDEs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2105.v1
Online: 30 September 2023 (08:49:09 CEST)
In an increasingly changing world, critical thinking is one of the key skills that ensure organisations' competitive advantage. Thus, in higher education institutions there is an accelerating emphasis on developing critical thinking (CT) among students. This paper presents the results of three experimental courses (Pedagogy and didactics of financial accounting, Virtual Learning Environments in Economics, Business Communication), using a blended learning method, aimed at improving students' CT skills. The three courses were delivered by both higher education teachers and trainers from the labour market. After analysing the data from the three experimental courses, it will be possible to assess whether the intervention of labour market trainers contributed to the improvement of students' critical thinking skills, and, in particularly at the level of which components improvements have been identified.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2140.v1
Subject: Civil Engineering, Engineering Keywords: production workshop; environmental vibration; micro-vibration; road traffic; precision instruments
Online: 30 September 2023 (08:47:27 CEST)
Road traffic transportation has flourished in the process of urbanization by its advantages, but it also produces harmful environmental vibrations. The vibration problem is especially significant for production workshops with precision instruments. A field measurement was conducted to analyze the source characteristics and propagation laws of traffic-induced vibrations. Off the northern side of an urban highway lies a microelectronics workshop. When a large truck passes by, both the vibration responses on the ground and in the workshop considerably increase. Greater vibration is produced in the vertical direction than in the X and Y axes. The predominant frequency band of the vibration response caused by road traffic vehicles is lower than 20 Hz. The vertical vibration responses of the first and second floors in the workshop greatly exceed the VC-C limit because of the high daily traffic flow. Attribute to the excitation of the operation of the manufacturing equipment on the second floor, the vertical vibration level of the second floor is essentially higher than that of the first floor. Therefore, it is impossible to disregard the micro-vibration in the workplace produced by the manufacturing machinery as well as the ex-citement of the road traffic. The measured data can be used to test potential numerical models for forecasting vibrations caused by traffic on roads as well as to guide vibration assessment work throughout the planning and design stages of roads.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2165.v1
Subject: Quantum Science And Technology, Physical Sciences Keywords: entropy source; quantum cryptography; quantum hacking; quantum communication
Online: 30 September 2023 (08:46:42 CEST)
True randomness is necessary for the security of any cryptographic protocol, including quantum key distribution (QKD). In QKD transceivers, randomness is supplied by one or more local private entropy sources of quantum origin, which can be either passive (e.g. a beam splitter) or active (e.g. an electronic quantum random number generator). In order to understand better the role of randomness in QKD we revisit the well-known "detector blinding" attack on BB84 QKD protocol, which utilizes strong light to achieve an undetectable and complete recovery of the secret key. We present two findings. First, we show that the detector blinding attack is in fact an attack on the receiver’s local entropy source. Second, based on this insight, we propose a modified receiver station and a statistical criterion which together enable robust detection of any bright-light attack and thus restore security.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2158.v1
Subject: Water Science And Technology, Environmental And Earth Sciences Keywords: surface hydrology; bathymetry; acoustic method; hydrometric windlass; ADCP RiverRay; Cerrado-Amazon transition
Online: 30 September 2023 (08:43:38 CEST)
The intensification of conflicts associated with the use of water in the transition region of the Cerrado and Amazon biomes caused by population and economic growth, combined with the interest in generating energy from hydroelectric plants, raise the need to quantify the surface water availability of rivers contributing with different drainage areas. The present study estimated and compared loco measurements of liquid flow (QL) and depth of rivers in the Teles Pires river basin by reference methods (MLN-7 hydrometric windlass and metal rod/winch) and by Acoustic Current Profiler by Doppler Effect (ADCP RiverRay), in addition, evaluated the total measurement time underestimation uncertainty by ADCP. Field measurements were carried out at monthly intervals between March 2020 and October 2021, seeking to represent the water seasonality and depth and QL variations in the cross-sections of the Caiabi 1 and 2, Celeste, Preto and Renato rivers. The evaluated rivers had a net flow between 3.48 and 60.78 m3 s-1 by the windlass and between 2.66 and 54.30 m3 s-1 by the ADCP, while the depths obtained were from 0.17 to 6.34 m by the rod/winch and from 0.65 to 6.20 m by the ADCP. The methods resulted in similar measurements of net flow and depth in each of the cross-sections, and the statistical performance of the linear regression model was satisfactory with a Willmott concordance index of 0.9977 and 0.9819 for estimates of QL and of the depth of the cross-sections, respectively. The ADCP accurately measured net discharge and depth in shallow (up to 6.5 m) cross-sections of Teles Pires River in relative to the reference method. Determining the total measurement time and pairs of transects to obtain accurate QL by ADCP depends on the hydraulic characteristics of the watercourses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2132.v1
Subject: Food Chemistry, Chemistry And Materials Science Keywords: waxy yam; oxidase content; amylose; amylopectin; radar map analysis
Online: 30 September 2023 (08:42:56 CEST)
Wencheng waxy yam is famous for its glutinous and resilient taste, similar to waxy rice, but there is currently a lack of systematic research on the quality of this featured product, and little is known about its pesticide residues. We carried out a 2-year investigation of Wencheng waxy yam at seven sites from 2021 to 2022 to determine the oxidase content and phytochemical characteristics, namely amylose, amylopectin, protein, reducing sugar, and mineral contents such as K, Fe, and Zn, , including the status of pesticide residues. The results showed that oxidase content was affected by rainfall, and adequate water reduced the production of oxidase, including polyphenol oxidase (PPO), peroxidase (POD), and superoxide dismutase (SOD), during the late growth stage of waxy yam, which was beneficial for reducing browning in yam processing. Radar map analysis showed that, with comprehensive evaluation, standardized production sites 1 and 2 had a relatively higher quality than 3–7 with small farmers. The results of pesticide multi-residue testing showed that no pesticides were detected in 64.29% samples, and the detected residues samples were very low, making the consumption of yam safe for consumers. These findings could be beneficial for the exploitation of the health benefits of waxy yam tubers and the innovation of yam-based functional products.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2166.v1
Subject: Biology And Biotechnology, Biology And Life Sciences Keywords: L-asparaginase II; Bacillus subtilis; saline environment; biochemical characterization
Online: 30 September 2023 (08:39:19 CEST)
L-asparaginase from bacterial sources have been used in antineoplastic treatments and the food industry. A novel type II L-a sparaginase encoded by the N-truncated gene ansZP21 of halotolerant Bacillus subtilis CH11 isolated from Chilca salterns in Peru was expressed using a heterologous system in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3)pLysS. The recombinant protein was purified using one-step nickel affinity chromatography and exhibited activity of 234.38 U mg-1 and a maximum catalytic activity at pH 9.0 and 60 °C. The enzyme shows a homotetrameric form with an estimated molecular weight of 155 kDa by gel filtration chromatography. The enzyme half-life at 60 °C was 3 h 48 min, and L-asparaginase retained 50% of initial activity for 24 h at 37 °C. The activity was considerably enhanced by KCl, CaCl2, MgCl2, mercaptoethanol, and DL-dithiothreitol (p-value < 0.01). Moreover, the Vmax and Km were 145.2 µmol mL-1 min-1 and 4.752 mM, respectively. These findings evidence a promising novel type II L-asparaginase for future industrial applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2159.v1
Subject: Energy And Fuel Technology, Engineering Keywords: nanostructured layer; ultrasonic spray coating; intrinsically conductive polymer; anode electrode; bioelectrochemical devices
Online: 30 September 2023 (08:37:57 CEST)
In this work, we describe the optimization of carbon-based electrodes employed in Bio-Electrochemical Systems (BES) by the deposition on commercial carbon paper electrodes of nanostructured layers of poly(3,4-ethylene-dioxy-thiophene) poly(styrene-sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) via Ultrasonic Spray Coating (USC). This innovative application of USC allowed us to demon-strate that uniform and controlled depositions of PEDOT:PSS can be successfully obtained on car-bon-based electrodes. We characterized the morphology and verified the spatial uniformity of depositions via scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Electrochemical charac-terizations on fabricated electrodes demonstrated a more than two-fold increase in electrochemi-cal active surface area with respect to bare carbon paper. A lab-scale experiments on BES was performed selecting Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs) as the reference devices. Devices featuring USC-deposited PEDOT:PSS electrodes showed a three-fold higher Energy recovery with respect to con-trol cells, reaching a maximum value of (13 ± 2) J·m−3. Furthermore, the optimal PEDOT:PSS con-centration for the MFCs improvement is in line with the values reported in the literature for other deposition methods. In conclusion, this work demonstrates that USC is a promising technique for application in BES.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2135.v1
Subject: Immunology And Allergy, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Influenza vaccine; Grippol® Plus; asthma; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; vaccine efficacy; cytokines; CRP
Online: 30 September 2023 (08:27:03 CEST)
Background: Influenza vaccine is a tool for preventing infection and reducing exacerbations in patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Purpose of this study is to investigate dynamics of CRP and serum cytokines (IL-2, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17) in patients with asthma and COPD, as well as to perform a correlation analysis with the clinical parameters of the disease manifestation. Methods: The study included 34 patients with asthma, 20 patients with COPD vaccinated against influenza during a period of remission from 2 to 4 weeks, both groups being under a basic maintenance therapy, and 26 healthy individuals vaccinated with the trivalent polymer-subunit vaccine Grippol® Plus, containing 5 µg of influenza virus strains and 500 µg of azoximer bromide. Results: Observing patients with asthma and COPD, during a year after the vaccination, has revealed a significant reduction in exacerbations frequency (p < 0.05) and duration (p < 0.05) of the bronchial obstructive syndrome (BF). Before the vaccination the IL-6 level in patients with asthma had a direct moderate correlation with duration of exacerbations of the underlying disease (p < 0.05), along with the number of systemic corticosteroids courses during exacerbations (p < 0.05). In 12 months after the vaccination, while assessing cytokine profile of all study groups, a significant reduction in the level of IL-6 was observed, compared to the baseline values (p< 0.05). Conclusion: Conducted analysis of immunological, clinical, and functional parameters of patients with asthma and COPD has proven for influenza vaccine to be effective in BF patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2164.v1
Subject: Oncology And Oncogenics, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Ewing sarcoma; drug synergy; Kinesin Family Member 11; Aurora Kinase A; SB-743921; and VIC-1911
Online: 30 September 2023 (08:26:49 CEST)
Ewing sarcoma (EWS) is an aggressive pediatric malignancy of the bone and soft tissues in need of novel therapeutic options. To identify potential therapeutic targets, we focused on essential biological pathways that are upregulated by EWS-FLI1, the primary oncogenic driver of EWS, including mitotic proteins such as Aurora Kinase A (AURKA), Kinesin Family Member 15 (KIF15) and its binding partner, targeting protein for Xklp2 (TPX2). KIF15/TPX2 cooperates with KIF11, a key mitotic kinesin essential for mitotic spindle orientation. Given the lack of clinical grade KIF15/TPX2 inhibitors, we chose to target KIF11 (using SB-743921) in combination with AURKA (using VIC-1911), given phosphorylation of KIF15S1169 by Aurora A is required for its targeting to the spindle. In vitro, the drug combination demonstrated strong synergy (Bliss score ≥10) at nanomolar doses. Colony formation assay revealed significant reduction in plating efficiency (1-3%) and increased percent accumulation of cells in G2/M phase with the combination treatment (45-52%) upon cell-cycle analysis indicating mitotic arrest. In vivo studies in EWS xenograft mouse models showed significant tumor reduction and overall effectiveness: drug combination vs vehicle control (p≤0.01), SB-743921 (p≤0.01) and VIC-1911 (p≤0.05). Kaplan-Meier curves demonstrated superior overall survival with the combination compared to vehicle or monotherapy arms (p≤0.0001).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2167.v1
Subject: Mathematics, Computer Science And Mathematics Keywords: nonlinear equations; simultaneous roots; convergence order; iterative processes
Online: 30 September 2023 (08:20:56 CEST)
In this article, an iterative method of two step is proposed for finding all roots simultaneously of polynomial equations. The order of convergence of the proposed algorithm is 2m, by using any iterative scheme of order m. Numerical tests are performed to confirm the theoretical results and to compare the proposed scheme with existing methods for finding all roots simultaneously.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2130.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biology And Life Sciences Keywords: Artemisia; essential oil; GC-MS; AChE; BChE
Online: 30 September 2023 (08:17:03 CEST)
The essential oil (EO) of Artemisia plants contains a large number of bioactive compounds that are widely used. The aim of this study was to analyse the chemical composition of EOs of six Arte-misia plants collected in Croatia and to test their cholinesterase inhibitory potential. GC-MS analysis of EO of A. absinthium showed that the dominant compounds are cis-sabinyl acetate and cis-epoxy-ocimene; in EO of A. abrotanum it is borneol; in EO of A. annua it is artemisia ketone, camphor, and 1,8-cineole; in EO of A. arborescens it is camphor and chamazulene; in EO of A. verlotiorum it is cis-thujone, 1,8-cineole, and trans-thujone; in EO of A. vulgaris, it is trans-thujone and trans-epoxy-ocimene. EO of the five studied Artemisia species from Croatia is rich in mono-terpenoid compounds (1,8-cineole, artemisia ketone, cis-thujone, trans-thujone, cis-epoxy-ocimene, camphor, borneol, and cis-sabinyl acetate). EO of A. arborescens is also rich in chamazulene. The results also showed that the tested EOs have moderate cholinesterase inhibi-tion potential, especially the EOs of A. annua, A. vulgaris, and A. abrotanum. This is the first anal-ysis of the chemical composition of the EOs of four Artemisia plants and the first analysis of cho-linesterase potential for plants collected in Croatia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2161.v1
Subject: Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning, Computer Science And Mathematics Keywords: pollution; dissolved oxygen; Credit River; machine learning; graph neural networks; SHAP analysis
Online: 30 September 2023 (08:15:54 CEST)
An important indicator of human-related pollution in watersheds is dissolved oxygen (DO). The DO is highly dependent on both space and time characteristics of the watershed and is directly linked to eutrophication, which impairs the development of both the aquatic fauna and flora, also negatively impacting the water quality. Aspiring to reach a more accurate and precise forecasting approach to predict levels of DO, the present work proposes new graph-based and transformer-based deep learning models. The models were trained and validated for the Credit River Watershed, and the results were compared with both benchmarking and literature-found approaches. The proposed Graph Neural Network Sample and Aggregate (GNN-SAGE) model was the best-performing approach, reaching coefficient of determination (R2) and Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) values of 97% and 0.34 ppm, respectively. The findings from the Shapley additive explanations (SHAP) indicated that the GNN-SAGE benefited from spatiotemporal information from the surrounding stations, improving the model’s results, and that temperature is a major input attribute for determining future DO levels. The results established that the proposed GNN-SAGE model stands as a state-of-the-art solution for DO forecasting, with potential for real-time water quality applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2148.v1
Subject: Endocrinology And Metabolism, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: reactive hypoglycemia; postprandial hypoglycemia; polycystic ovary syndrome; protein supplements; whey protein; weight loss; adrenal steroids; ghrelin
Online: 30 September 2023 (08:09:53 CEST)
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an insulin resistant state, compensated by hyperinsulinemia. More than 50% of the women with PCOS are obese, and/or have metabolic syndrome. Weight loss improves both metabolic and reproductive outcomes. Not only the energy content, but also the nutrient composition of a diet may be important. This article will present a series of studies from our research comparing effects of dietary protein vs. simple-carbohydrates (CHO). Results of the acute challenge studies demonstrate that simple-CHO intake causes reactive hypoglycemia in one third of the women with PCOS, especially among obese and insulin resistant individuals. Symptoms of hypoglycemia are associated with secretion of cortisol and adrenal androgens. Simple-CHO suppresses the hunger signal ghrelin for a shorter period. During weight loss, women who receive protein supplementation achieve larger amounts of weight- and fat-mass losses. Amino acid compositions of the protein supplements do not affect the improvements in weight and insulin resistance. It is plausible that simple-CHO intake leads to weight gain, or interferes with weight-loss, by causing reactive hypoglycemia, triggering adrenal steroid secretion, and leading to snacking. Since obese women with PCOS are more susceptible to reactive hypoglycemia, a vicious cycle establishes. Restriction of simple-CHO may break this cycle.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2160.v1
Subject: Astronomy And Astrophysics, Physical Sciences Keywords: QSOs; LightGBM; CatBoost; XGBoost; random forest
Online: 30 September 2023 (08:04:34 CEST)
We tested selecting data randomly or proportionally in class imbalanced sample. Collecting data into the training and test set according to the initial ratio of QSOs, galaxies and stars were rec-ommended. We experimented using the original imbalanced data or introducing the class balance technologies: SMOTE, SMOTEENN, SMOTETomek, ADASYN, BorderlineSMOTE1, Border-lineSMOTE2, and RandomUndersampling. The SMOTEENN performed the best in the Sample 1. The LightGBM, CatBoost, XGBoost, and RF were compared when adopting the SMOTEENN using the petroMag_u, petroMag_g, petroMag_r, petroMag_i, petroMag_z, J, H, Ks, W1, W2, W3, W4 magnitudes as features. All of the precisions or recalls exceeded 0.94. The RF cost a little more time than the other three algorithms, but resulted in the best evaluating indicators. Utilizing the SMOTEENN +RF technology, the precision, recall and f1-score for QSOs (galaxies, stars) could achieve 0.98 (0.99, 0.98), 0.99 (0.96, 1.00), 0.98 (0.97, 0.99) respectively in Sample 1. Utilizing the SMOTEENN +RF technology, the precision, recall and f1-score for QSOs (galaxies, stars) could achieve 0.94 (0.96, 0.96), 0.98 (0.90, 0.97), 0.96 (0.93, 0.97) using the petroMag_u, petroMag_g, petroMag_r, petroMag_i, petroMag_z, W1, W2, W3, W4 magnitudes as features.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2168.v1
Subject: Neuroscience And Neurology, Biology And Life Sciences Keywords: brain ischemia; Alzheimer’s disease; CA3 area; amyloid protein precursor; amyloid; α-secretase; β-secretase; presenilin 1 and 2; tau protein; genes
Online: 30 September 2023 (08:01:45 CEST)
Understanding the phenomena underlying the non-selective susceptibility to ischemia of py-ramidal neurons in the CA3 area of the hippocampus is important from the point of view of elu-cidating the mechanisms of memory loss and the development of post-ischemic dementia. We used an ischemic model of Alzheimer's disease to study changes in amyloid protein precursor gene expression, its cleavage enzymes and tau protein in the CA3 area of the hippocampus af-ter a 10-minute brain ischemia with 12, 18, and 24-month survival. Quantitative reverse tran-scriptase PCR assay showed that the expression of all the genes that contribute to amyloid pro-duction was dysregulated within 2 years in the CA3 area of the hippocampus after ischemia. The expression of the amyloid protein precursor gene was above the control values at all times of the study. The expression of the α-secretase gene also exceeded the control values throughout the study. In contrast, the expression of the β-secretase gene reaching its maximum increase 12 months after ischemia, was below control values after 18 months and again above control values after 24 months of survival. Presenilin 1 and 2 gene expression was significantly elevated throughout the follow-up period, with peak expression of both genes occurring 12 months after ischemia. This suggests that the genes studied are involved in the non-amyloidogenic processing of amyloid protein precursor. Also, tau protein gene expression was significantly elevated throughout the observation period, and peak gene expression was present 12 months after is-chemia. Data indicate that an episode of brain ischemia with long-term survival causes damage and death of pyramidal neurons in the CA3 area of the hippocampus in a manner dependent on modified tau protein. Thus defining a new and important mechanism of pyramidal neuronal death in the CA3 area after ischemia. In addition tau protein gene modification after brain is-chemia is useful in identifying ischemic mechanisms occurring in Alzheimer's disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2144.v1
Subject: Biochemistry And Molecular Biology, Biology And Life Sciences Keywords: mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes; supercomplexes; cAMP/PKA signaling pathway; soluble adenylate cyclase; metabolic flux theory; mitochondrial membrane potential
Online: 30 September 2023 (08:01:36 CEST)
The current view of the mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes I, III and IV foresees the oc-currence of their assembly in supercomplexes providing additional functional properties as compared with randomly colliding isolated complexes. According to the plasticity model, these two structural states of the respiratory chain may interconvert influenced by the intracellular prevailing conditions and in previous studies we candidated the mitochondrial membrane po-tential as a factor controlling their dynamic balance. Here, we extended those studies investigating if and how the cAMP/PKA-mediated signalling influences the aggregation state of the respiratory complexes. Analysis of inhibitory-titration profiles of the endogenous oxygen consumption rates in intact HepG2 cells with specific inhibitors of the respiratory complexes was performed to quantify, in the framework of the metabolic flux theory, the corresponding control coefficients. The results attained inhibiting pharmacologically either PKA and sAC indicate that the reversible phosphorylation of the respiratory chain complexes/supercomplexes influences their assembly state in response to the membrane potential. This conclusion is supported by scrutiny of the available structure of the CI,CIII2,CIV respirasome enabling to map several PKA-target serine residues exposed to the matrix side of the complexes I, III and IV at the contact interfaces of the three complexes.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2156.v1
Subject: Oncology And Oncogenics, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: stem cells; DNA-damage; precancerous cell state; repair; genome reprograming; carcinogenesids
Online: 30 September 2023 (07:58:52 CEST)
Recent successes in the field of evolutionary cancer cell biology (ECCB) have brought to a head two of the most important controversies regarding cancer origin. The first concerns the question of whether carcinogenesis is initiated only by genetic alterations, mutations, and driver genes, as the mutational theory teaches. The ECCB, claims that a large number of polyploidy-related cancers (PGCC cancers) are not due to mutations, but rather to inadequate ancient repair mechanisms used by DNA-damaged stem cells for their repair. Somatic mutations are merely secondary. The second controversy, described in the previous article, concerns the non-mutational theory itself: Are non-mutational polyploid cancers an atavism - as previously thought - or rather the effect of an ancient gene regulatory network aGRN that controls genome reprogramming in precancerous DNA-damaged cells as well in the transformed cells. Finally, the unicellular gene module of cancer, of which the aGRN is a part, has evolved along with the multicellular genome during the last 1000 My of evolution. and non-mutated cancer cell systems are under the control of the aGRN. The atavistic theory relies on phylostratigraphic evidence to determine the age of cancer genes. It states that most cancer-like genes arose during the transition period from unicellularity to multicellularity, but also during the early metazoan era. In our opinion, the atavistic theory is flawed and suffers from many misunderstandings. It provides little insight into the origin and coevolution of the cancer cell system and its control by the ancient gene regulatory network aGRN.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2116.v1
Subject: Marine Engineering, Engineering Keywords: Wave power generation; Oscillating float; Computational Fluid Dynamics; Array
Online: 30 September 2023 (07:55:14 CEST)
This research, which focuses on wave energy generating technology, suggests a brand-new oscillating float-type wave energy conversion system that is appropriate for the offshore wave environment. To accurately model the device, a three-dimensional viscous numerical pool is created based on STAR-CCM+. The array-type power generation device is numerically simulated using theoretical analysis and numerical simulation, and the wave energy power generation device is arranged as double floats in the front and rear rows, representing triangular array type and rectangular array type, respectively. The triangular array type is a superior layout and can make greater use of marine resources, according to this paper's analysis of the hydrodynamic and power generation impacts of the three array types. The findings are meant to serve as a guide for engineering practice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0139.v4
Subject: Immunology And Microbiology, Biology And Life Sciences Keywords: Immune escape; Vaccine efficacy; COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2
Online: 30 September 2023 (07:44:51 CEST)
(1) Background: We previously reported the development of a recombinant protein SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, consisting of the Receptor-Binding Domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, adjuvanted with aluminum hydroxide (alum) and CpG oligonucleotides. In mice and non-human primates, our wild-type (WT) RBD vaccine induced high neutralizing antibody titers against the WT isolate of the virus, and, with partners in India and Indonesia it was later developed into two closely resembling human vaccines, Corbevax and Indovac. Here, we describe the development and characterization of a next-generation vaccine adapted to the recently emerging XBB variants of SARS-CoV-2. (2) Methods: We conducted preclinical studies in mice using a novel yeast-produced SARS-CoV-2 XBB.1.5 RBD subunit vaccine candidate formulated with alum and CpG. We examined the neutralization profile of sera obtained from mice vaccinated twice intramuscularly at a 21-day interval with the XBB.1.5-based RBD vaccine, against WT, Beta, Delta, BA.4, BQ.1.1, BA.2.75.2, XBB.1.16, XBB.1.5 and EG.5.1 SARS-CoV-2 pseudoviruses. (3) Results: The XBB.1.5 RBD/CpG/alum vaccine elicited a robust antibody response in mice. Furthermore, serum from vaccinated mice demonstrated potent neutralization against the XBB.1.5 pseudovirus as well as several other Omicron pseudoviruses. However, regardless of high antibody cross-reactivity by ELISA, the anti-XBB.1.5 RBD antigen serum showed low neutralizing titers against the WT and Delta virus variants. (4) Conclusions: Whereas we observed modest cross-neutralization against Omicron subvariants by sera from mice vaccinated with the WT RBD/CpG/Alum vaccine or with the BA.4/5-based vaccine, sera raised against the XBB.1.5 RBD showed robust cross-neutralization. These findings underscore the imminent opportunity for an updated vaccine formulation utilizing the XBB.1.5 RBD antigen.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2142.v1
Subject: Virology, Biology And Life Sciences Keywords: phage therapy; phage inhibition; complement system; Pseudomonas aeruginosa; myophages
Online: 30 September 2023 (07:42:38 CEST)
Therapeutic phages are primarily chosen based on their in vitro bacteriolytic activity. Although anti-phage antibodies are known to inhibit phage infection, the influence of other immune system components is less well known. An important anti-bacterial and anti-viral innate immune system that may interact with phages is the complement system, a cascade of proteases that recognizes and targets invading microorganisms. In this study, we aimed to study the effects of serum components such as complement on the infectivity of different phages targeting Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We used a fluorescence-based assay to monitor the killing of P. aeruginosa by phages of different morphotypes in presence of human serum. Our results reveal that several myophages are inhibited by serum in a concentration-dependent way, while the activity of four podophages and one siphophage tested in this study is not affected by serum. By using specific nanobodies blocking different components of the complement cascade, we show that activation of the classical complement pathway is a driver of phage inhibition. To determine the mechanism of inhibition, we produced bioorthogonally labeled fluorescent phages to study their binding by means of microscopy and flow cytometry. We show that phage adsorption is hampered in presence of active complement. Our results indicate that interactions with complement may affect in vivo activity of therapeutically administered phages. A better understanding of this phenomenon is essential to optimize the design and application of therapeutic phage cocktails.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2147.v1
Subject: Thermodynamics, Physical Sciences Keywords: AC electro-kinetics; electro-kinetic object manipulation; inhomogeneous object polarization; microchambers; micro-systems; object manipulation; field-cage; μTAS; MatLab® model; thermodynamics; energy dissipation; LMEP
Online: 30 September 2023 (07:40:23 CEST)
In two previous papers, we calculated the dielectrophoresis (DEP) force and corresponding trajectories of high- and low-conductance 200-µm 2D spheres in a square 1x1mm chamber with plane-versus-pointed, plane-versus-plane and pointed-versus-pointed electrode configurations by applying the law of maximum entropy production (LMEP) to the system. Here, we complete these considerations for configurations with four-pointed electrodes centered on the chamber edges. The four electrodes were operated in either object-shift mode (two adjacent electrodes opposite the other two adjacent electrodes), DEP mode (one electrode versus the other three electrodes), or field-cage mode (two electrodes on opposite edges versus the two electrodes on the other two opposite edges). As in previous work, we have assumed DC properties for the object and the external media for simplicity. Nevertheless, every possible polarization ratio of the two media can be modeled this way. The trajectories of the spherical centers and the corresponding DEP forces were calculated from the gradients of the system’s total energy dissipation, described by numerically-derived conductance fields. In each of the three drive modes, very high attractive and repulsive forces were found in front of pointed electrodes for the high and low-conductance spheres, respectively. The conductance fields predict bifurcation points, watersheds, and trajectories with multiple endpoints. The high and low-conductance spheres usually follow similar trajectories, albeit with reversed orientations. In DEP drive mode, the four-point electrode chamber provides a similar area for DEP measurements as the classical plane-versus-pointed electrode chamber.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2146.v1
Subject: Bioengineering, Engineering Keywords: electronic cigarette; vaping; puff topography; aerosol; nicotine; e-liquid; atomizer; particulate matter; photometric sensor; pressure sensor
Online: 30 September 2023 (07:36:56 CEST)
To study and monitor the adverse health consequences from using electronic cigarettes, a user’s puff topography, which are quantification parameters of the user’s vaping habits, plays a central role. In this work, we introduce a topography sensor to measure the mass of total particulate matter generated in every puff and to estimate the nicotine yield. The sensor is compact and low-cost, and is integrated into the electronic cigarette device to promptly and conveniently monitor the user’s daily puff topography. The topography sensor is comprised of a photometric sensor and a pressure sensor. The photometric sensor measures the mass concentration of the aerosol, based on scattering of near-infrared light from airborne particles, while the pressure sensor measures the flow rate. The topography sensor was experimented under various conditions with a wide range of atomizer power, puff duration, and inhalation pressure. The sensor’s accuracy was validated by comparing the sensor’s readings with reference measurements, and the results matched closely with the trends reported by existing studies on electronic cigarettes. An example application of tracking a user’s puff topography was also demonstrated. Our topography sensor holds great promise in mitigating health risks of vaping, and in promoting quality control of electronic cigarette products.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2157.v1
Subject: Dietetics And Nutrition, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: bariatric surgery; sleeve gastrectomy; Roux-en-y gastric bypass; obesity; microbiota; gut-brain axis; beck scale; depression; diet; probiotics
Online: 30 September 2023 (07:27:10 CEST)
Keywords: bariatric surgery, sleeve gastrectomy, Roux-en-y gastric bypass, obesity, microbiota, gut-brain axis, beck scale, depression, diet, probiotics
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2145.v1
Subject: Business And Management, Business, Economics And Management Keywords: economy; tourism; sustainable tourism development; regional destination; sustainable tourism; economic crisis
Online: 30 September 2023 (07:23:55 CEST)
In order to ensure sustainable tourism development, it is currently becoming crucial to look into promotion of popular tourist destinations in Russia. This is due to a number of factors, including the acceptance of the credibility and importance of the concept of sustainable tourism, as well as the awareness of the necessity of taking into account a wide range of short- and long-term effects, external factors, and interdisciplinary aspects of the development of the Russian tourism industry. In the context of a local tourist destination during the economic crisis, the study aims to highlight some of the key economic elements of sustainable tourism. The decision to adopt a regional perspective is necessitated by the fact that many of the most crucial elements for the long-term sustainable development of the tourist complex are established at this level, including decision-making by businesses and authorities that are economically viable. The research focuses on the economic aspects to be considered while designing an overall strategy for the long-term development of regional tourist destinations in Russia. The authors define sustainable tourism from the viewpoint of economics. This understanding extends beyond the relatively limited framework of environmental and socioeconomic consequences of tourism development, affecting some less obvious economic aspects of a regional destination that directly relate to sustainable development.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2139.v1
Subject: Dentistry And Oral Surgery, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Peripheral giant-cell granuloma; giant-cell epulis; giant- cell hyperplasia
Online: 30 September 2023 (07:21:15 CEST)
The Peripheral giant cell granuloma (PGCG) is an asymptomatic, non-neoplastic and proliferative lesion of unknown etiology. Some possible pre-disposing factors such as hormonal changes dur-ing pregnancy, have been suggested. However, the association between PGCG and pregnancy is controversial. There are few reported clinical cases of pregnancy-associated PGCG in the litera-ture, and they occurred only in the lower jaw. The present report is on a 35-year-old female pa-tient at 36 weeks of gestation who presented with a PGCG in the central and lateral incisors of the upper jaw. The management consisted of surgical excision, along with curettage of the affected bony walls. The diagnosis was based on clinical results and imaging examinations, and it was histopathologically confirmed. The patient underwent postoperative follow-up evaluations at 3, 6 and 12 months, and there were no signs of recurrence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2136.v1
Subject: Parasitology, Biology And Life Sciences Keywords: particle separation; parasite egg identification and quantification; diagnostic microfluidic device; extreme point-of-care
Online: 30 September 2023 (07:18:51 CEST)
A recently proposed single image parasite quantification (SIMPAQ) platform based on a Lab-On-a-Disc (LOD) device has been earlier successfully tested in field conditions demonstrating the efficiency in soil-transmitted helminths (STH) egg detection and analysis. A related study (Micromachines 2021, 12, 1032) revealed the effects that can limit the performance of a SIMPAQ method due to the action of the Euler and Coriolis forces, and the interaction of the moving eggs with the walls of the LOD chamber. Here we propose a new improved design that allows to overcome those limitations and enhance the yield of the SIMPAQ LOD device which is demonstrated in the experiments with synthetic particle model system and real parasite eggs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2152.v1
Subject: Neuroscience And Neurology, Biology And Life Sciences Keywords: MMP-9; MMP-9-1562C/T polymorphism; transcriptional regulation; brain; human neurons
Online: 30 September 2023 (07:16:03 CEST)
The MMP-9-1562C/T polymorphism influence incidence and course of many diseases of the central nervous system. We found, using luciferase assays and Q-RT-PCR technique, allele-specific in-fluence of MMP-9-1562C/T polymorphism on the MMP-9 promoter activity and on the expression of MMP-9 mRNA in human neurons derived from SH-SY5Y cells. Then, we have elucidated the mechanism responsible for the allele-specific action of the MMP-9-1562C/T polymorphism on transcriptional regulation of the MMP-9 gene using pull-down assay combined with mass spec-trometry analysis, EMSA and EMSA supershift techniques, as well as DsiRNA-dependent gene silencing. We have found that MMP-9 promoter activity and MMP-9 mRNA expression are reg-ulated in human neurons in the MMP-9-1562C/T allele-specific manner with stronger upregulation conferred by the C allele. Moreover, we have revealed that the allele-specific action of the MMP-9-1562C/T polymorphism on the neuronal MMP-9 expression is related to HDAC1 and ZNF384 transcriptional regulators. We show that HDAC1 and ZNF384 bind differentially to the C and the T alleles forming in vitro different regulatory complexes. Moreover, our data demonstrate that HDAC1 and ZNF384 downregulate differentially the MMP-9 gene promoter activity and MMP-9 mRNA expression in vivo in human neurons acting mostly via the T allele.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2129.v1
Subject: Hematology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Immune thrombocytopenia; chronic ITP; myelodysplastic syndrome; chronic myelomonocytic leukemia; refractory thrombocytopenia
Online: 30 September 2023 (07:14:13 CEST)
Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by isolated thrombocytopenia caused by both immune-mediated platelet destruction and impaired platelet production in the bone mar-row, in the absence of any other identifiable cause of low platelets count. ITP in adult patients is a disease that frequently relapses and/or becomes refractory to multiple treatments during its course, with only a small minority of adult patients attaining a sustained complete remission off-therapy. Treatment of refrac-tory ITP can be challenging, due to the unlikeliness of attaining complete response over time. On the other hand, isolated thrombocytopenia may be due to a misdiagnosed clonal myeloid disorder, such as myelodys-plastic syndrome (MDS) or chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML), thus mimicking ITP. We here per-form a narrative review on the association between ITP and MDS/CMML and the possibility of overlap and misdiagnosis between these conditions, while we report also the case a patient treated for a severe re-fractory thrombocytopenia which bone marrow examination led to suspect an overlap of MDS and ITP. Our clinical case describes ITP which is refractory to glucocorticoids, high-dose immunoglobulins, Rituxi-mab, splenectomy, thrombopoietin receptor agonists and Fostamatinib, that ultimately attained a short-lived response to a hypometylating agent that was initiated due to bone marrow examination that aroused the suspect of MDS.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2133.v1
Subject: Geochemistry And Petrology, Environmental And Earth Sciences Keywords: amphibole; thermobarometry; equilibrium crystallization; volcanoes; magma chamber; magma feeding system; seismic tomography
Online: 30 September 2023 (07:10:58 CEST)
This article reports a protocol on the application of Amp-TB2 (single-amphibole ther-mobarometry; ) based on detailed electron microprobe analyses performed on homogeneous natural standards and synthetic glasses, and amphibole crystals (mostly phenocrysts) of volcanic products erupted by Bezymianny volcano during its activity through time. The application of this protocol is facilitated by a new version of the model (Amp-TB2.1.xlsx) including an equation to identify heterogeneous domains (disequilibrium; not suitable for thermobarometric constraints) and homogenous (equilibrium) zones within amphibole crystals, which can be used to quantify the physico-chemical parameters (i.e., pressure, P; temperature, T; volatile content in the melt, H2Omelt; oxygen fugacity, fO2) of “steady-state” magmatic crystallization. Application examples of the protocol, showing detailed core-rim microprobe data and physico-chemical parameter variations in representative amphibole phenocrysts of Bezymianny are also reported. The depth (and P) estimated by Amp-TB2.1 for this volcano are compared to seismic tomography results. Amp-TB2.1 results mainly shows (1) that Bezymianny is characterized by a very dynamic feeding system where the magma is stored at shallow crustal levels before recent activity periods characterized by climatic events and (2) that the pre-eruptive depth of magma storage generally increases with the age of the investigated products.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2153.v1
Subject: Plant Sciences, Biology And Life Sciences Keywords: powdery mildew; wheat; GWAS; FarmCPU; MTAs; candidate genes
Online: 30 September 2023 (05:51:02 CEST)
Powdery mildew (PM), caused by the fungal pathogen Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt), significantly threatens global bread wheat production. Although the use of resistant cultivars is an effective strategy for managing PM, currently available wheat cultivars lack sufficient levels of resistance. To tackle this challenge, we conducted a comprehensive genome-wide association study (GWAS) using a diverse panel of 286 bread wheat genotypes. Over three consecutive years (2020-21, 2021-22, and 2022-23), these genotypes were extensively evaluated for PM severity under field conditions following inoculation with virulent Bgt isolates. The panel was previously genotyped using the Illumina 90K SNP Infinium iSelect SNP assay to obtain genome-wide SNP marker coverage. By applying FarmCPU, a multilocus mixed model, we identified a total of 113 MTAs located on chromosomes 1A, 1B, 2B, 3A, 3B, 4A, 4B, 5A, 5B, 6B, 7A, and 7B at a significance level of p≤0.001. Notably, four novel MTAs on chromosome 6B were consistently detected in 2020-21 and 2021-22 environments. Furthermore, within the confidence intervals of the identified SNPs, we identified 96 candidate genes belonging to different proteins including 12 disease resistance/host-pathogen interactions related protein families. Among these, protein kinases, leucine-rich repeats, and zinc finger proteins, were of particular interest due to their potential roles in PM resistance. These identified loci can serve as targets for breeding programs aimed at developing disease-resistant wheat cultivars.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2149.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: lymphangioleiomyomatosis; tuberous sclerosis complex; benign metastasizing leiomyomatosis
Online: 30 September 2023 (05:48:08 CEST)
Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is characterized by lung cysts that cause lung deterioration, changes in the lymphatic system, and tumors in the kidneys. It mainly affects women of reproductive age and is a progressive disease. LAM can occur as an isolated disease or coexist with tuberous sclerosis (TSC). The source of LAM cells is unknown. Patients with confirmed LAM should be treated with an mTOR inhibitor, sirolimus, or everolimus. We present a case of LAM with TSC in a patient whose symptoms, including lymph nodes and chyaloperitoneum, mainly concern the abdominal cavity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2150.v1
Subject: Econometrics And Statistics, Business, Economics And Management Keywords: financial bubbles; machine learning algorithms; Vietnamese stock market
Online: 30 September 2023 (05:46:52 CEST)
Financial bubble prediction has been a significant area of interest in empirical finance, garnering substantial attention in the literature. This study aimed to detect and forecast financial bubbles in the Vietnamese stock market from 2001 to 2021. The PSY procedure, which involves a right-tailed unit root test to identify the existence of financial bubbles, was employed to achieve this goal. Machine learning algorithms were then utilized to predict real-time financial bubble events. The results revealed the presence of financial bubbles in the Vietnamese stock market during 2006-2007 and 2017-2018. Additionally, the empirical evidence supported the superior performance of the Random Forest and Artificial Neural Network algorithms over traditional statistical methods in predicting financial bubbles in the Vietnamese stock market.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2134.v1
Online: 30 September 2023 (05:42:45 CEST)
Dipteryx spp. is an important species in reforestation in the Amazon. The objective of this study is to characterize and compare the relationships between dendrometric variables in Dipteryx spp. stands in the Western Amazon by fitting linear regression equations for total height and crown diameter. Six forest stands were evaluated in three municipalities. Dendrometric variables collected included diameter at 1.3 m height (dbh), total height (ht) and crown diameter (dc). Simple and multiple linear regression equations were fitted to characterize the relationships between ht and dc. The total aboveground biomass of Dipteryx spp. trees and the carbon stock of the stands were estimated. The general equations showed higher R² values, exceeding 0.7. The general equations for estimating ht and dc were significant for all coefficients. The trees averaged 22 t/ha of aboveground biomass in the stands. There was a variation in carbon sequestration potential among stands, ranging from 5.12 to 88.91 t CO2.ha-1. Single-input equations using dbh as an independent variable are recommended for estimating dc and ht for individual Dipteryx spp. stands. Stands in the Western Amazon play a significant role in carbon sequestration and accumulation. Trees can sequester an average of 4.8 tons of CO2 per year.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2138.v1
Subject: Immunology And Microbiology, Biology And Life Sciences Keywords: Hepatitis C virus; chronic HCV; antivirals; Sustained virological response; IFN therapy; Vaccines
Online: 30 September 2023 (05:39:36 CEST)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a worldwide public health problem. Chronic infection by HCV can lead to liver cirrhosis or cancer. Although some immune-competent individuals can clear the virus, others develop chronic HCV disease due to viral mutations or an impaired immune response. IFNs type I and III and the signal transduction induced by them are essential for a proper antiviral effect. Research on the viral cycle and immune escape mechanisms have generated the basis of therapeutic strategies to achieve a sustained virological response (SVR). The first therapies were based on IFN-, then IFN-α plus ribavirin (IFN-RBV); then, pegylated-IFN--RBV (PEGIFNα-RIV) to improve cytokine pharmacokinetics. However, the maximum SVR was 60%, and several significant side effects were observed, decreasing the patients' treatment adherence. The development of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) significantly enhanced SVR (> 90%); the compounds were able to inhibit HCV replication without significant side effects, even in pediatric populations. The management of coinfected patients HBV-HCV and HCV-HIV has also improved based on DAA and PEG-IFNα-RBV (HBV-HCV). CD4 cells are crucial for an effective antiviral response. IFNλ3, IL28B, TNF-α, IL-10, TLR-3, and TLR-9 gene polymorphisms are involved in viral clearance, therapeutic responses, and hepatic pathologies. Future research focuses on searching for strategies to circumvent resistance-associated substitution (RAS) to DAAs, develop new therapeutic schemes for different medical conditions, including organ transplant, and develop vaccines for long-lasting cellular and humoral responses with cross-protection to different HCV genotypes. The goal is to minimise the probability of HCV infection, HCV chronicity and hepatic carcinoma.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2154.v1
Subject: Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Cytomegalovirus; oncogenesis; oncoprotection; cancer; global; T cell
Online: 30 September 2023 (05:37:35 CEST)
The oncogenicity of the human cytomegalovirus (CMV) is debated to this day. In recent years, mounting evidence addresses an anti-cancer effect via T cell-mediated CMV-targeted tumor de-struction. However, the data mostly comes from single-center studies and in vitro experiments. Broad geographic coverage is required to offer a global perspective. This study examined the correlation between country-specific CMV seroprevalence (n=73) and age-standardized inci-dence rates for 34 tumors using data obtained from the International Agency for Research on Cancer of the World Health Organization. The association between CMV and cancer incidences in 10-year age increments was also analyzed. The study revealed a worldwide inverse correlation between CMV seroprevalence and incidences of 88.2% tumors. Notably, this inverse link persists for all cancers combined (Spearman’s ρ= -0.732, p= 0.001). An antithetical and significant correlation is also observed in particular age groups for the vast majority of tumors. Our results corroborate the conclusions of previous studies and indicate that this phenomenon holds true on a global scale. It applies to a wide spectrum of cancer histologies, suggesting a common under-lying mechanism – CMV-stimulated T cell tumor targeting. Although these results further advance the notion of CMV-based therapies, further in-depth investigation of host-virus interactions is warranted.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2143.v1
Subject: Biophysics, Physical Sciences Keywords: Self-organisation; prediction; symbols; observation; ritualisation; information; models; causality; decision; activity; homoclinic orbit
Online: 30 September 2023 (05:36:59 CEST)
Living organisms are active open systems far from thermodynamic equilibrium. The ability to behave actively corresponds to dynamical metastability: minor but supercritical internal or external effects may trigger major substantial actions such as gross mechanical motion, dissipating internally accumulated energy reserves. Gaining selective advantage from beneficial use of activity requires a consistent combination of sensual perception, memorised experience, statistical or causal prediction models, and resulting favourable decisions on actions. This information processing chain originated from mere physical interaction processes prior to life, here denoted as structural information exchange. From there, the self-organised transition to symbolic information processing marks the beginning of life, evolving by novel purposivity of trial-and-error feedback and accumulation of symbolic information. The emergence of symbols and prediction models can be described as a ritualisation transition, a symmetry-breaking kinetic phase transition of the 2nd kind previously known from behavioural biology. The related new symmetry is the neutrally stable arbitrariness, conventionality or code invariance of symbols with respect to their meaning. The meaning of such symbols is given by the structural effect they ultimately unleash, directly or indirectly, by deciding on which actions to take. The early genetic code represents the first symbols. The genetically inherited symbolic information is the first prediction model for activities sufficient for survival under the condition of environmental continuity, sometimes understood as a “final causality” property of the model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2151.v1
Subject: Electrical And Electronic Engineering, Engineering Keywords: multi-protocol gateway; distributed generation; smart grids; ripple signaling
Online: 30 September 2023 (05:31:31 CEST)
Remote distributed generation control and demand response is nowadays a basic need, especially for the Distributed Network Operators (DNOs). The integration of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) with stochastic production characteristics into the grid in conjunction with the newly appeared stochastic demand consumers (i.e., electric vehicles) hardens the ef-forts of the DNOs to keep the grid’s operation within safe limits and prevent cascading black-outs while staying in compliance with the SAIDI and SAIFI indices during maintenance and re-pair operations. Taking also under consideration the aging of the existing grid infrastructure, making it year by year more prone to failure, it is yet of great significance for the DNOs to have access to real-time feedback from grid’s infrastructure, fast, with low-cost upgrade interventions, easily deployed on the field and with fast response potential, in order to be able to perform real-time grid management (RTGM). In this article, we describe the architecture, development and deployment of a hybrid real-time control system of distributed generation (DG) units, which has the potential to be applied easily to DNO’s substations, RES plants and consumers (i.e. electric vehicles’ charging stations), that combines a low-cost minimum intervention into the electricity grid and its components and eliminates all communication interoperability problems between the different vendors’ installed electrical equipment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2155.v1
Subject: Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology, Biology And Life Sciences Keywords: beraprost; feline; chronic kidney disease; aldosterone; NOS
Online: 30 September 2023 (05:18:01 CEST)
Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of oral administration of clinical dose of beraprost for feline CKD in healthy cats, and also to examine whether NOS inhibition reversed them. Methods: A placebo-controlled pharmacological sequential design study was carried out to assess plasma aldosterone and renin concentrations, mean blood pressure, heart rate, renal plasma flow, and renal vascular resistance. Results: Beraprost reduced plasma aldosterone when compared to the placebo (P < 0.05); this was reversed when NOS inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) was added to beraprost treatment (P < 0.01). No differences in the plasma renin concentration or hemodynamic parameters were detected between beraprost and placebo. The correlation ratios (η2) showed opposite relationships between beraprost and added L-NAME effects on aldosterone concentration, mean blood pressure, heart rate, renal plasma flow, and renal vascular resistance (P < 0.001). Conclusions: In healthy cats, the clinical dose of beraprost suppresses plasma concentration of aldosterone, which can be reversed by inhibition of NOS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1983.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: Chemo-repulsion system; optimal control problem; optimality conditions.
Online: 29 September 2023 (16:25:50 CEST)
In this paper we study a bilinear optimal control problem related to a 2D parabolic-elliptic chemo-repulsion system consider a nonlinear chemical signal production term. We prove the existence of global optimal solutions with bilinear control, and applying a result on the existence of Lagrange multipliers in Banach spaces, we derive an optimality system for a local optimal solution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2120.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: coxsackievirus B3; myocarditis; apoptosis; caboxamycin; Streptomyces sp. SC0774
Online: 29 September 2023 (15:42:05 CEST)
Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) is one of the most common pathogens that cause myocarditis in humans. However, a sufficient therapeutic drug was not developed yet. Caboxamycin, a benzoxazole antibiotic, isolated from the culture broth of the marine strain Streptomyces sp., SC0774, displayed an antiviral effect in the CVB3-infected HeLa cells and CVB3-induced myocarditis mouse model. Caboxamycin significantly inhibited CVB3 VP1 production and cleavage of translation factor eIF4G1 from CVB3-infected HeLa cells at a 100 μg/ml concentration. Moreover, virus RNA amplification was dramatically reduced by caboxamycin treatment in HeLa cells. The caboxamycin cardiac protective effect was observed on the CVB3-mediated myocarditis mice model. The caboxamycin-treated mice survival was significantly increased compared to untreated mice (treated vs untreated, 100 vs 45 %). Heart histologic findings showed that myocardium damage and inflammation were significantly decreased by caboxamycin treatment. Caboxamycin directly inhibited caspase3 activity and cardiac myocytes apoptosis. These results suggested that caboxamycin strongly suppressed cardiac myocyte apoptosis and effectively inhibited the proliferation of CVB3 from in vitro and in vivo conditions. Furthermore, this study proposed that caboxamycin could potentially be applied in developing a new antiviral drug for CVB3-induced myocarditis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2119.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: Retinitis pimentosa; Ocular neuromodulation; Ophthalmic nerve stimulation; Ascorbic acid; night blindness; Rod responders
Online: 29 September 2023 (15:18:42 CEST)
Starvation of photoreceptors induced by reduced dysregulated ocular blood flow (OBF) is proposed as a common pathway for pathogenesis of retinitis pigmentosa (RP). The current study evaluated the safety and efficacy of ophthalmic nerve stimulation (ONS) as an OBF neuromodulator, combined with ascorbic acid (AA) as a potent anti-oxidant in treatment of RP. Additionally, the initial characteristics of rod responders were identified. Forty participants with simple RP, were enrolled in a prospective open-label intervention. The severity of the disease was clinically graded into five stages. Patients with established diagnosis of RP; aged ≥ 4 years, with BCVA ≥ 20/400 were included. All participants were daily treated with bilateral ONS sessions combined with systemic AA for two weeks. The primary efficiency endpoint was 6 months’ changes in scotopic vision as measured by a 10-items, 100 points, Low Luminance Questionnaire- (LLQ-10). The secondary efficiency points included best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and contrast sensitivity (CS). Rod responders were defined by ≥ 25points increment of LLQ-10 score. The results showed that ONS combined with AA treatment significantly improved night vision, BCVA and CS in patients with RP. At 6-month visit, twenty-four (60%) patients were identified as rod responders and 16 (40%) patients were non-responders. The mean change in LLQ-10 score was (46.35 ±16.81) in rod responders versus (4.9 ± 7.6) in non-responders (P < 0.0001). A clinically significant improvement of BCVA (≥0.2 logMAR) and CS (≥0.3 log unit) were demonstrated in 44.4% and 56.1% of eyes of rod responders respectively. Collectively, this study sheds light on determinants of rod responsiveness which include patients’ age, duration of night blindness and the stage of RP. It also highlights two therapeutic scenarios; an early disease -modifying intervention that restore night vision and reverse the disease process and a late cone rescue intervention that improve/maintain central vision.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2118.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Surgery Keywords: cytoreductive surgery; extreme cytoreductive surgery; hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy; malign peritoneal mesothelioma; peritoneal cancer index.
Online: 29 September 2023 (14:56:58 CEST)
Extreme cytoreductive surgery (eCRS) may sometimes be required to achieve complete cytoreduction, which is one of the most important prognostic factors. This study investigated the impact of eCRS on survival and peri-postoperative outcomes. Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (MPM) patients who underwent cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (CRS-HIPEC) were retrospectively examined. Patients who underwent CRS-HIPEC were divided into eCRS and less extensive CRS (leCRS) groups. Resection of ≥5 organs or ≥3 small bowel anastomoses was defined as eCRS. Survival and perioperative outcomes of both groups were compared.In the study including 31 patients, eCRS-HIPEC was used in 15 patients. Complete cytore-duction (CC score 0/1) was achieved in all 31 patients. Compared with LeCRS, mean length of stay, length of stay in the intensive care unit, mean peritoneal cancer index (PCI), and intraoperative blood loss were higher in the eCRS group. Additionally, the risk of developing complications was observed to be more frequent and the duration of surgery was longer. Rates of serious complications and morbidity were similar in patients undergoing eCRS compared with leCRS. In patients with high PCI and multiple organ involvement, complete cytoreduction can be achieved by performing eCRS and equivalent survival results can be achieved with low PCI..
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2110.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Surgery Keywords: proliferation rate; endothelium; varicose veins; cryosurgery
Online: 29 September 2023 (14:09:27 CEST)
Cryosurgery has emerged as a promising method for harvesting veins, but the suitability of these cryostripped veins as grafts remains a subject of investigation. This study delves into uncharted territory by conducting an immunohistochemical analysis and exploring the molecular aspects of venous samples obtained through cryostripping. Existing literature lacks comprehensive data on the components of varicose veins' walls, particularly in relation to protein expression. Furthermore, little is known about the proliferation rate of endothelial cells within varicose veins, which we scrutinize alongside an assessment of CD34 endothelial reactivity. Materials and Methods: Our study encompassed 109 samples procured using the cryostripping method, which involves catheterizing veins with a specialized probe cooled to -85°C. Molecular profiling of the intima and endothelium was conducted using two key markers: CD34 and Ki67. Results: Immunoreactivity for CD34 was discernible across all three layers of the varicose vein walls that were excised using cryostripping. Notably, the endothelial cell layer exhibited intense and uniform positivity in 36 out of the 109 samples under investigation. In contrast, the results regarding Ki67 expression, whether pertaining to the intima or endothelium, remain inconclusive. Conclusions: Our findings advocate for the utilization of CD34 as a reliable marker to assess the morphological and molecular integrity of excised venous specimens. As the use of cryosurgery-harvested veins as grafts gains traction, this research contributes valuable insights into their potential viability for transplantation, opening new avenues for further exploration in the field of vascular surgery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2107.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: License plate detection; deep learning; YOLOv5; ShuffleNet
Online: 29 September 2023 (14:07:38 CEST)
The rate of accidents in Morocco is experiencing a significant increase. Automatic license plate detection and recognition (ALPR) is an essential road safety technology. It facilitates applications such as traffic control, law enforcement, and toll collection by allowing for the automated recognition of vehicles on the road. In this study, we incorporated ShuffleNet V2 into the end-to-end YOLOV5 object detection system. The objective was to develop a model capable of identifying Moroccan license plates with an accuracy of 87%. The proposed model is intended to attain a high processing performance of 60 frames per second (FPS) while maintaining a low weight of 1.3 megabytes (MB) and a parameter count of 0.44 million floating point operations (MGFLOP). Our model maintains superior performance and is highly compatible with embedded systems compared to other models utilized in the same context.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0207.v9
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: convex dual variational formulation; duality principle for non-convex local primal optimization; Ginzburg-Landau type equation
Online: 24 November 2022 (14:33:34 CET)
This article develops duality principles and related convex dual formulations suitable for the local optimization of non-convex primal formulations for a large class of models in physics and engineering. The results are based on standard tools of functional analysis, calculus of variations and duality theory. In particular, we develop applications to a Ginzburg-Landau type equation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2100.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: quantum algorithms; quantum machine learning; generative ai; quantum generative ai; generative learning; diffusion ai
Online: 29 September 2023 (14:02:07 CEST)
Image synthesis poses a challenging problem that researchers in computer vision and machine learning have been grappling with for several decades. Numerous machine learning techniques have emerged and proven effective in generating high-fidelity artificial images. This study breaks new ground by exploring image synthesis through generative learning using the D-Wave 2000Q quantum annealer, marking the first attempt to address the issue of generative image synthesis on a Quantum Processing Unit (QPU). Alongside executing image synthesis on the quantum annealer, this research also compares its performance with existing classical models and delves into resolving the Generative Learning Trilemma.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1923.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: COVID-19; Steroids; Tocilizumab; Prophylaxis; Ceftobiprole
Online: 29 September 2023 (14:00:20 CEST)
Objectives: In the context of COVID-19, patients with severe or critical illness may be more susceptible to developing secondary bacterial infections. This study aims to investigate the relationship between the use of prophylactic antibiotic therapy and the occurrence of bacterial or fungal isolates following the administration of tocilizumab in hospitalized COVID-19 patients who had previously received steroids during the first and second waves of the pandemic in Spain. Methods: This retrospective observational study included 70 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 who received tocilizumab and steroids between January and December 2020. Data on demographics, comorbidities, laboratory tests, microbiologic results, treatment, and outcomes were collected from electronic health records. Patients were divided into two groups based on the use of antibiotic prophylaxis, and the incidence of bacterial and fungal colonizations/infections was analyzed. Results: Among the included patients, 45 patients received antibiotic prophylaxis. No significant clinical differences were observed between patients based on prophylaxis use regarding the number of clinically diagnosed infections, ICU admissions, or mortality rates. However, patients who received antibiotic prophylaxis showed a higher incidence of colonization by multidrug-resistant germs compared to the subgroup that did not receive prophylaxis. The most commonly isolated microorganisms were Candida albicans, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Conclusions: In this cohort of hospitalized COVID-19 patients treated with tocilizumab and steroids, the use of antibiotic prophylaxis did not reduce the incidence of secondary bacterial infections. However, it was associated with an increased incidence of colonization by multidrug-resistant organisms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2017.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy And Astrophysics Keywords: RLC electrical model; RC electrical model; cosmology; background radiation; Hubble’s law; Boltzmann´s constant; dark energy; dark matter; black hole; Big Bang and cosmic inflation.
Online: 29 September 2023 (13:28:05 CEST)
Here we mathematically model black holes following dynamics similar to RC electrical model, focusing on their similarities at the singularity. We use this mathematically modelling to hypothesize the origin and growth of a black Hole. Or model consists of several steps defined by: (1) the formation of a black hole following general relativity equations; (2) growth of the black hole modelled as a resistance-capacitance-like electrical circuit. Based on the mathematical modeling of a black hole following dynamics similar to an RC circuit, for a circular motion with constant acceleration, in which the condition is fulfilled, Vt = ω r, we are going to calculate the amount of dark matter in the Milky Way galaxies and the Andromeda galaxy and subsequently the rotation curve of both galaxies to compare them with observed or measured values.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2111.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: qualitative comparative analysis; qualitative analysis; data mining; calibration; truth table; logical minimization; QMC; eQMC; CCubes
Online: 29 September 2023 (13:05:00 CEST)
Qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) was developed by Charles Ragin in 1987 for the comparative analysis of small data sets. The method has become widespread in sociological and economic research. There are examples of successful use of QCA in the field of medicine and epidemiology. The purpose of this review is to describe the key stages of QCA with a discussion the application of this method to the analysis of medical and epidemiological data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2097.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Toxicology Keywords: cellular dynamics; multicellular agent-based model; computer simulation; developmental toxicity.
Online: 29 September 2023 (12:02:33 CEST)
Developmental hazard evaluation is an important part of assessing chemical risks during pregnancy. Toxicological outcomes from prenatal testing in pregnant animals result from complex chemical-biological interactions, and while New Approach Methods (NAMs) based on in vitro bioactivity profiles of human cells offer promising alternatives to animal testing, most of these assays lack cellular positional information, physical constraints, and regional organization of the intact embryo. Here, we engineered a fully computable model of the embryonic disc in the compucell3d.org modeling environment to simulate epithelial-mesenchymal transition of epiblast cells and self-organization of mesodermal domains (chordamesoderm, paraxial, lateral plate, posterior/extraembryonic). Cell fate in the model is determined by an autonomous homeobox (HOX) clock driven by morphogenetic signals (e.g., FGF, WNT, ATRA, CDX). Executing the model renders a quantitative cell-level computation of mesodermal subpopulations and consequences of perturbation based on known embryogeny. For example, synthetic perturbation of the control network rendered altered phenotypes (cybermorphs) mirroring experimental mouse embryology, with 50% reductions in FGF4, FGF8 and BMP4 signaling resulting in 86%, 98% and 59% reductions, respectively in the posterior mesodermal population, while ATRA exposure also resulted in a 78% decrease in this population. This model enables integration of in vitro chemical bioactivity data for specific molecular targets with known embryology to test mechanistic veracity and quantitative prediction of altered development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2103.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Ovarian; Molecular; Genetics; Pathways; Diagnosis; Screening; Panel
Online: 29 September 2023 (12:00:47 CEST)
The purpose of this article is to highlight the new advancements in molecular and diagnostic genetic testing as well as properly classify all ovarian cancers. In this article we address statistics, histopathological classification, molecular pathways implicated in ovarian cancer, genetic screening panels and details about the genes, and also candidate genes. We hope to bring new information in the medical field as to better prevent and diagnose ovarian cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2095.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: AMF; BCF; PGPR; plant immune system; priming; root microbiome; RKNs
Online: 29 September 2023 (11:57:23 CEST)
Commercial formulates of beneficial microbes have been used to enrich the rhizosphere microbiome of tomato plants grown in pots located in a glasshouse. These plants have been subjected to attacks by soil-borne parasites, such as root-knot nematodes (RKNs), and herbivores, such as the miner insect Tuta absoluta. The development of both parasites and the symptoms of their parasitism were restricted in these plants with respect to plants left untreated. A mixture, named in the text as Myco, containing plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), opportunistic biocontrol fungi (BCF), and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) was more effective in limiting pest damages than a formulate containing the sole AMF (Ozor). Therefore, Myco-treated plants inoculated with RKNs were taken as a model to further study which biocontrol agent (BCA) was specifically responsible of plant immunization and the molecular pathways exploited to achieve such an immunization. The PGPR contained in Myco were not able to reduce nematode infection, rather, they worsened symptoms on plants, compared with those observed on untreated plants. When plants were treated with suspensions of Bacillus subtilis at concentrations similar to those provided with Myco and then inoculated with RKNs, infection was actually more severe than that on untreated plants. Therefore, it was argued that both BCF and AMFwere the microorganisms that, colonizing roots, synergistically stimulate plant immune system against RKNs. Beneficial fungi lowered the activities of the defense supporting enzymes endochitinases and β-1,3-glucanase to be able to colonize the roots. However, as early as three days after nematode inoculation, these enzyme activities, and the expression of the encoding pathogenesis related genes (PR-2, PR-3) were found to be enhanced in roots with respect to not inoculated plants, thus indicating that plants had been primed against RKNs. Addition of paclobutrazol, which reduced salicylic acid (SA) levels in cells, and of diphenyliodonium chloride, which inhibits superoxides generation, completely abolished the repressive effect of Myco on nematode infection and presumably plant immune reaction. Inhibitors of copper enzymes and of the alternative cyanide-resistant respiration did not significantly alter resistance induction by Myco. When Myco-treated plants were subjected to a moderate water stress and inoculated with nematodes, they retained numbers of developed individuals in the roots similar to those present in regularly watered plants, in contrast to what occurred in roots of untreated stressed plants that hosted very few individuals because of poor nutrient availability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2101.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Virtual Reality; Foreign Language Learning; Constructivism; Cognitive Load Theory; VR-CCL Framework; Technology-Assisted Learning
Online: 29 September 2023 (11:54:59 CEST)
With the widespread Application of Virtual Reality (VR) in education, optimizing foreign language learning in VR has become a focal point of research. This paper introduces a comprehensive theoretical framework (VR-CCL) based on constructivism and cognitive load theory to enhance foreign language learning in VR. Through a literature review, we explore the applications of VR in education, foreign language learning theories, and prior works on technology-assisted language learning. We further detail the three main components of the VR-CCL framework and validate its effectiveness through two case studies: Duolingo VR and Rosetta Stone VR. Finally, we discuss the strengths and limitations of the framework and its implications for educators and developers.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2106.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: BBB; endothelial glycocalyx; enlarged perivascular spaces; metabolic syndrome; neuroinflammation; neurovascular unit; obesity; perivascular spaces; perivascular unit; type 2 diabetes mellitus
Online: 29 September 2023 (11:14:38 CEST)
Abstract: Astrocytes (ACs) are the most abundant human cell in the brain and importantly, are the master connecting and communicating cells that provide structural and functional support of brain cells at all levels of organization. Further, they are recognized to be the guardians and housekeepers of the brain. Protoplasmic perivascular astrocyte endfeet and their basal lamina form the delimiting outermost barrier (glia limitans) of the perivascular spaces in postcapillary venules and are important for the clearance of metabolic waste and comprise the glymphatic system, which is critically dependent on the proper waste removal by the pvACef polarized aquaporin 4 water channels. Also, the protoplasmic perisynaptic astrocyte endfeet (psACef) are important in cradling the neuronal synapses that serve to maintain homeostasis and serve a functional and supportive role for synaptic transmission. Enlarged perivascular spaces (EPVS) are emerging as important aberrant findings on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and associate with white matter hyperintensities, lacunes, aging, accepted to be biomarkers for cerebral small vessel disease, increased in obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes. Knowledge is exponentially expanding regarding EPVS along with the glymphatic system, since EPVS are closely associated with impaired glymphatic function and waste removal from the brain to the cerebrospinal fluid and systemic circulation. This review intends to focus on how the pvACef play a crucial role in the development of EPVS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2104.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: extinct lauxaniid flies; age of Acalyptratae; Paleogene
Online: 29 September 2023 (10:57:05 CEST)
Hemilauxania parvula sp. nov., a new fossil species of the family Lauxaniidae (Diptera: Acalyptratae), is described and illustrated from Oise amber, France (Eocene, lower Ypresian, ca 53 Ma) and its relationship is discussed. Inasmuch as this first finding of a member of Schizophora in Oise amber probably represents the oldest known record of this group of Diptera, the age of Schizophora, based on the known fossil records, is discussed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2083.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: Cystic Fibrosis; transition of care; pediatrics; Gastrointestinal care; Pancreatic enzyme; highly effective modulators
Online: 29 September 2023 (10:43:47 CEST)
Cystic Fibrosis is a chronic disease affecting multiple systems including the GI tract. Clinical manifestation in patients can start as early as infancy and vary across different age groups. With the advent of new highly effective modulators, the life expectancy of PwCF has improved significantly. Various GI aspects of CF care such as nutrition are linked to the overall improvement in morbidity, lung function, and quality of life of PwCF. The variable clinical presentations and management of GI diseases in pediatrics and adults CF should be recognized. Therefore, it is necessary to ensure efficient transfer of information between pediatric and adult providers for proper continuity of management and coordination of care at the time of transition. The transition of care is a challenging process for both patients and providers and currently, there are no specific tools for GI providers to help ensure smooth transition. In this review, we aim to highlight the crucial features of GI care at the time of transition and provide a checklist that can assist in ensuring an effective transition and ease the challenges associated with it.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2082.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Internal Medicine Keywords: Non-invasive respiratory support 1; SARS-CoV-2 2; Hospitalization 3; CPAP 4; HFNO 5; Bilevel 6
Online: 29 September 2023 (10:41:45 CEST)
Introduction: The objective of the study is to assess the failure of therapies with HFNO (High-Flow Nasal Oxygen), CPAP, Bilevel or combined therapy in patients with hypoxemic acute respiratory failure due to SARS-CoV-2 during their hospitalization. Methods: Retrospective and observational study of SARS-CoV-2 positive patients who required non-invasive respiratory support (NIRS), at the Reina Sofía General University Hospital of Murcia between March 2020 and May 2021. Results: Of 7355 patients, 197 (11,8%) were included. 95 of them failed this therapy (48,3%). We objectivated that during hospitalization in the ward the combined therapy with HFNO and CPAP had a lower failure rate overall and the highest treatment purely with Bilevel (p = 0,005). In the comparison of failure in therapy without two levels of airway pressure, HFNO, CPAP and combined therapy of HFNO with CPAP, (35,6% of patients) presented a 24,2% failure compared to those who did have two levels of pressure with Bilevel and combined therapy of HFNO with Bilevel (64,4% of patients) with 75,8% associated failure (OR: 0, 374; CI 95%: 0,203-0,688. p=0,001).Conclusions: The use of NIRS in conventional hospitalization is safe and effective in patients with respiratory failure secondary to SARS-CoV-2 infection. The therapeutic strategy with Bilevel increases the probability of failure, with the combined therapy strategy with CPAP and HFNO being the most promising option.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2093.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Unmetabolized folic acid (UMFA); folic acid; one-carbon cycle; Methylation; epigenetic; carcinogenesis; aging; neurodevelopment; embryogenesis; folate
Online: 29 September 2023 (10:39:29 CEST)
This review delves into the intricate relationship between folate (Vitamin B9) intake, especially its synthetic form, folic acid, and its implications on health and disease. While folate plays a pivotal role in the one-carbon cycle, essential for DNA synthesis, repair, and methylation, concerns arise from its excessive intake. The literature underscores potential deleterious effects, such as an increased risk of carcinogenesis, disturbances in DNA methylation, and impacts on embryogenesis, pregnancy outcomes, neurodevelopment, and disease risk. Notably, these consequences stretch beyond the immediate effects, potentially influencing future generations through epigenetic reprogramming. We probe into the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects, including accumulation of unmetabolized folic acid, Vitamin B12 dependent mechanisms, altered one carbon metabolism, altered methylation patterns, and interactions with critical receptors and signaling pathways. Furthermore, we emphasize differences in the effects and mechanisms mediated by folic acid compared to natural folate. Given the widespread folic acid supplementation, it is imperative to further research its optimal intake levels, and the molecular pathways impacted by its excessive intake, ensuring the health and well-being of the global population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2098.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: Additive manufacturing; antimicrobial materials; biopolymers; copper composite additives; medical devices
Online: 29 September 2023 (10:36:34 CEST)
Background: Advances in additive manufacturing and the development of antimicrobial biopolymers facilitate the production of critical medical devices with strong and safe biocidal properties. The purpose of this study was to assess the antimicrobial efficacy, safety, and longevity of a polylactic acid-based biopolymer supplemented with a copper-based composite additive. Methods: An antimicrobial polylactic acid-based biopolymer was tested against several inoculants including Staphylococcus Aureus, MRSA, E. coli, Listeria, HCoV-229E (a SARS-CoV-2 surrogate), and HIV-1. Material safety was evaluated according to international testing standards for in vitro cytotoxicity. Results: The main findings of the present investigation showed a strong and long-lasting biocidal effect of a polylactic acid-based biopolymer embedded with a copper-based composite additive against Staphylococcus Aureus, MRSA, E. coli, Listeria, HCoV-229E (a SARS-CoV-2 surrogate), and HIV-1. Furthermore, the cytotoxicity and safety assessment of the antimicrobial biopolymer was found to be “non-toxic” and safe for human skin contact. Conclusions: The present investigation showed that the antimicrobial biopolymer exhibits strong and long-lasting biocidal properties against an array of viral and bacterial inoculants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2074.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: RAF1 aberration; amplification; fusion; single nucleotide variants; RAF inhibitor
Online: 29 September 2023 (10:33:00 CEST)
Purpose: Therapeutic targeting of RAF1 is promising, but it requires further investigation for the relation between clinical features and RAF1 aberrations regarding the MAPK signaling pathway in various solid tumors to realize the precision medicine. Methods: Between October 2019 and June 2023, Samsung Medical Center, 3,895 patients with metastatic cancer patients received a next-generation sequencing (NGS) using TruSight Oncology 500 (TSO500) assay as a routine clinical practice. We surveyed the incidence of RAF1 aberration including mutation (single-nucleotide variant [SNV]), amplification (copy-number variation), and fusion. Results: In 3,895 metastatic cancer patients, 77 (2.0%) had RAF1 aberrations in their tumor specimen. Of 77 patients, 44 (1.1%) had RAF1 mutations (SNV), 25 (0.6%) had RAF1 amplification and 10 (0.3%) had RAF1 fusions. Among 10 patients with RAF1 fusion, concurrent RAF1 amplification and RAF1 mutation were detected in one patient each. The most common tumor types were bladder cancer (11.5%), followed by ampulla of Vater (AoV) cancer (5.3%), melanoma (3.0%), gallbladder (GB) cancer (2.6%), and gastric cancer (2.3%). Microsatellite instability high (MSI-H) tumors were found in 5 out of 76 patients (6.6%) with RAF1 aberration, while MSI-H tumors were found only in 2.1% of patients with wild-type RAF1 cancer (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: We showed that when patients with metastatic solid cancer receive NGS test, approximately 2.0% have RAF1 aberrations in their tumor specimen.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2102.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: aerodynamic performance; wind turbine; icing; rainfall; hailstorm; dust; sand; insects; humidity; sea spray
Online: 29 September 2023 (10:30:55 CEST)
This paper provides a review of the aerodynamic behavior of horizontal axis wind turbines operating in hazardous environmental conditions. Over the past decade, renewable energy use has accelerated due to global warming, depleting fossil fuel reserves, and stricter environmental regulations. Among renewable options, solar and wind energy have shown economic viability and global growth. Horizontal axis wind turbines offer promising solutions for sustainable energy demand. Since wind turbines operate in an open environment, their efficiency depends on environmental conditions. Hazard environmental conditions, such as icing, rainfall, hailstorm, dust or sand, insects’ collisions, increased humidity and sea spray, result in degraded aerodynamic performance. The outcome of the most studies is that lift is degraded and at the same time drag is increased when wind turbines operate under these conditions. The objective of this review is to improve our comprehension of the crucial aspects to take into account when designing wind turbine blades, and it offers suggestions for future research paths. It serves as a valuable resource that can inspire researchers who are dedicated to enhancing the aerodynamic performance of horizontal axis wind turbines.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2066.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Primula macrocalyx; Primula woronowii; Primula saguramica; Extraction; Stoichiometric Anticatalytic; Antioxidant; ABTS; DPPH; Neutrophils; Myeloperoxidase; Reactive oxygen species
Online: 29 September 2023 (10:28:36 CEST)
The goal of this article was to evaluate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory like activities of three species from genus Primula L. growing in Georgia: Primula macrocalyx, Primula woronowii and Primula saguramica . First, fractions containing shoot and root parts were air-dried, grinded and extracted by 80% ethanol followed by condensation and freeze-drying. Second, further chromatographic separations were done on Diaion HP-20 with the following solvents: H2O, methanol (50% and 100 %) and ethylacetate 100% to obtain the expected fractions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2075.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: Continuous Glucose Monitor; People not living with diabetes; Regulations
Online: 29 September 2023 (10:22:43 CEST)
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a prevalent metabolic disorder that poses a significant public health challenge. Prioritising its prevention is essential for enhancing health at both individual and community levels. With the burgeoning interest in wearable health technologies and individualised nutrition, continuous glucose monitoring systems (CGMs) have expanded their scope, transitioning from exclusive use in diabetes management to lifestyle enhancement for individuals without diabetes (PNLD). While CGMs primarily target glycaemic stabilization, their potential role in mitigating noncommunicable conditions, including T2DM, warrants exploration. This review examines the regulation of CGMs and critically assesses the purported benefits of CGMs for PNLD, as presented in the 'health and wellness' sector: (1) early dysglycaemia detection through glucose variability observation; (2) refining glycaemic control by tailoring nutrition according to postprandial glucose response; and (3) promoting and fine-tuning physical activity based on instantaneous data feedback. The current literature inadequately supports the clinical relevance and lasting impact of these interventions. Moreover, a glaring paucity of research exists on the potential negative consequences of CGM usage, such as obsessive symptom tracking and potential onset of disordered eating behaviours, like orthorexia. This highlights a pressing need to refine CGM regulation in the UK, especially concerning its 'off-label use'. Addressing these research gaps and regulatory issues may enhance the role of CGMs in T2DM prevention strategies and non-communicable diseases among PNLD, ensuring a more unified and effective approach. Current evidence suggests caution in endorsing CGMs as a holistic instrument for T2DM prevention through lifestyle refinement is warranted.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2089.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: maize; global nutrition; macronutrients; biofortification; genetic modification; maize processing
Online: 29 September 2023 (10:15:15 CEST)
This chapter explores the pivotal role of maize (Zea mays L.) in global nutrition, emphasizing its status as a staple food worldwide. It discusses maize's complex nutritional profile, including macronutrients, micronutrients, and dietary fiber. The chapter also covers biofortification efforts to enhance maize with essential nutrients, addresses nutritional concerns related to maize-centric diets, and explores genetic modification and agronomic strategies to boost nutrient-rich maize yields. Additionally, it delves into maize processing traditions, nutrient retention techniques, and the importance of promoting nutrient-rich maize varieties. The chapter outlines post-harvest strategies to combat nutrient loss and prevent contamination while emphasizing the significance of consumer education and diverse diets. Case studies illustrate the impact of improved maize nutrition and provide replicable strategies. The chapter concludes by considering emerging research and technology, identifying challenges, and proposing solutions to enhance maize's nutritional value in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2099.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: human operator; trust in artificial intelligence; recommender systems; intelligent decision-making systems; admissible probability of disaster; and equipment predictive analytics
Online: 29 September 2023 (10:03:36 CEST)
Here, we propose a prescriptive simulation model of a process operator’s decision-making assisted by artificial intelligence (AI) algorithm in a technical system control loop. We analyze situations fraught with a catastrophic threat that may cause unacceptable damage. Operators’ decision-making is interpreted in terms of a subjectively admissible probability of disaster and subjectively necessary reliability of its assessment. We distinguish four extreme decision-making strategies corresponding to different ratios between the above variables. An experiment simulating a process facility, an AI algorithm and operator's decision-making strategy was held. It showed that depending on the properties of a controlled process (the speed of hazard onset) and the AI algorithm characteristics (Type I and II error rate), each of such strategies or some intermediate strategy may prove to be more beneficial than others. The same approach is applicable to the identification and analysis of sustainability of strategies applied in real-life operating conditions, as well as to the development of a computer simulator to train operators to control hazardous technological processes using AI-generated advice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2088.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: plant-based diet; vegan diet; healthy habits and eating trends; dietary patterns
Online: 29 September 2023 (09:53:37 CEST)
Veganism and the interest towards a plant-based diet are experiencing exponential growth worldwide, and in Italy more and more individuals and families are adopting this lifestyle and diet, too.Such a change in eating habits also imperatively implies the support and expertise of medical and health care professionals, who to date are still often unprepared and skeptical about this dietary pattern, despite scientific evidence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2096.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: constipation; laxatives; liquid paraffin; fat-soluble vitamins; vitamin A; vitamin E; vitamin D3; vitamin K1; pharmacokinetics; experimental model.
Online: 29 September 2023 (09:52:43 CEST)
The pharmacokinetic profile of fat-soluble vitamins A, E, K1, and D3 co-administered with liquid paraffin or water in an experimental rat model was investigated. Animals received a solution of the four vitamins orally through a probe, followed 10 minutes later by the administration of either the liquid paraffin product dissolved in water (Emuliquen Simple®) or water (control). Vitamin formulations were 20, 50, 0.30 and 0.10 mg/kg for vitamins A, E, K1, and D3, respectively. Blood samples were collected before dosing and at 0.17, 1, 2, 4, 8, and 24 hours post-dosing. Vitamin concentrations were quantified by liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. No relevant differences in the absorption of vitamins in terms of AUC0-last (area under the curve up to the last measurable concentration) or Cmax in the absence or presence of co-administration of the liquid paraffin product were observed. The difference of these parameters between the treatment groups for all vitamins was in the range of bioequivalence (≤ 20%). The liquid paraffin-based laxative product did not interfere with the absorption of vitamins A, E, K1, and D3 that are ingested in the diet, which is clinically relevant due to the high prevalence of functional constipation in children and adults.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1935.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: glaucoma drainage device; glaucoma surgery; valve; nanotechnology; nanoparticles; nanomedicine.
Online: 29 September 2023 (09:39:52 CEST)
Purpose: Glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness, however, it remains incurable even with the appropriate treatment. Intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction is currently the only proven method to decline glaucoma progression. When medical therapy fails, surgical treatment usually arises as the solution to a better IOP control. Nevertheless, its success is compromised by frequent post-operative complications, most of them due to excessive fibrous tissue formation during wound healing process. Nanotechnology devices for glaucoma surgery can improve post-operative IOP control and reduce undesirable fibrosis. This systematic review aims to summarize some advances of nanotechnology application to ophthalmology, giving an overview about the state of the art of the nanotechnology based glaucoma drainage devices. Methods: A literature search in the PubMed/Medline database was performed using the keywords: “glaucoma surgery”, “glaucoma drainage device”, “nanotechnology”, “nanoparticles”, “nanomedicine” and “valve”. Were included articles published until March 1, 2023. A first identification of relevant articles was done through the title and abstract’s information, and a second selection was done by full-text articles assessment. Seven articles were included in this systematic review. Results: Nanotechnology-based glaucoma drainage devices included in this review promise to overcome the challenges of glaucoma surgical treatment by allowing a more effective control over post-operative scarring, a noninvasive and customized control of aqueous humour (AH) drainage while achieving optimal IOP reduction through all phases of the post-operative period. Conclusion: Despite the decreased post-operative complications and apparently enhanced biocompatibility of nano-based drainage devices, further in vivo tests and human studies are needed to evaluate cytotoxicity and corroborate the biocompatibility and efficacy showed in the initial testing results of these devices.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2094.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: nonequilibrium thermodynamics; entropy production rate; Lyapunov function; complexity; extremal principle; fractal dimension; biological phase transitions
Online: 29 September 2023 (09:36:32 CEST)
An overview of the link between nonequilibrium thermodynamics and complexity theory is offered. It is shown how the rate of entropy production can be quantified through the spectrum of the Lyapunov exponents. It was shown how the entropy production per unit of time meets the necessary and sufficient conditions to be a Lyapunov function and constitutes per se an extremal principle. The entropy production fractal dimension conjecture was established. It is shown how the rate of entropy production as a non-extremal criterion represents an alternative way of sensitivity analysis of differential equations. Finally, an extension to biophysical-chemical systems, on the one hand, the use of the dissipation function is shown, as a thermodynamic potential out of equilibrium, in the characterization of biological phase transitions. On the other hand, it was evidenced how the rate of entropy production represents a physical quantity to evaluate the complexity and robustness of cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2091.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: ME/CFS; chronic fatigue syndrome; functional capacity; post exertional malaise; questionnaire; survey
Online: 29 September 2023 (09:21:59 CEST)
: Myalgic Encephalomyelitis / Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) is an acquired disease with significant morbidity that affects both children and adults. Effective tools to assess functional capacity (FC) are severely lacking which has significant consequences for timely diagnosis, assessments for patient disability benefits and assessing the impact and effectiveness of interventions. In interventional research the inability to assess FC can result in an incomplete assessment of the potential effect of the intervention. Specifically of concern is that if an intervention is effective in reducing symptom load, patients may increase their activity level to reach a pre-intervention symptom load. Thus, if FC is not accurately assessed, beneficial treatment outcomes may be missed. To address this issue, using extensive, repeated patient feedback we have developed a new questionnaire, FUNCAP, to achieve optimal FC assessment in ME/CFS patients. The questionnaire covers eight domains and activity types: A. Personal hygiene / basic functions, B. Walking / movement, C. Being upright, D. Activities in the home, E. Communication, F. Activities outside the home, G. Reactions to light and sound, and H. Concentration. Through five rounds of anonymous web-based surveys and a further test - retest validation round, two versions of the questionnaire were developed; a longer version comprising 55 questions (FUNCAP55) to improve diagnostic and disability benefit/ insurance FC assessments and a shorter version (FUNCAP27) for interventional research and less extensive FC assessments. FUNCAP may also be useful in other conditions where fatigue and PEM is present, such as Long Covid.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2084.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Collaborative cross (CC); Smad4 knock out; body weight gain; machine learning (ML); genotyping
Online: 29 September 2023 (08:44:37 CEST)
Background: Obesity and its attendant conditions have become major health problems worldwide and is currently ranked as the fifth most common leading cause of death globally. Complex environmental and genetic factors are the cause of the current obesity epidemic. Diet, lifestyle, chemical exposures, and other confounding factors are difficult to manage in humans. The mice model is helpful in researching genetics BW gain because genetic and environmental risk factors can be controlled in mice. Studies in mouse strains with various genetic backgrounds and established genetic structures provide unparalleled opportunities to find and analyze trait-related genomic loci. In this study, we used the Collaborative Cross (CC), a large panel of recombinant inbred mouse strains, to present a predictive study using CC mice SMAD4 knockout profiles to understand and effectively identify predisposition to body weight gain. Materials and Methods: Male C57Bl / 6J Smad4+/- mice were mated with female mice from 10 different CC lines to create F1 mice (Smad4+/- x CC). Body weight (BW) was measured weekly until week 16, then monthly until the end (week 48). The heritability H2 of the assessed traits was estimated and presented. Comparative analysis of various machine learning algorithms for predicting the BW changes and genotype of mice was conducted. Results and conclusions: Our data showed that the body weight records of F1 mice with different CC lines differed between wildtype and mutant Smad4 mice during the experiment. Genetic background affects weight gain and some lines gained more weight in the presence of Smad4 knockout, while others gained less, but in general, the mutation caused overweight mice, except for a few lines. In both control and mutant groups, female %BW had a higher heritability H2 value than males. Additionally, both sexes with wildtype genotypes showed higher heritability values than the mutant group. Logistic Regression provides the most accurate mouse genotype predictions using machine learning. We plan to validate the proposed method on more CC lines and mice per line to expand machine learning for BW prediction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2087.v1
Online: 29 September 2023 (08:42:33 CEST)
In times of war, civilians experience a heightened risk of exposure to traumatic experiences. This can lead to a greater risk of developing mental health conditions such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which can impact individuals and communities. Research suggests that the severity of the reactions to traumatic events is likely to be influenced by the level of exposure to the traumatic events and personal characteristics. This paper examines the correlation between symptoms of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and various factors such as the extent of exposure to missile alarms, personal traits, and socioeconomic elements among Israeli civilians impacted by rocket attacks from Hamas. Our specific focus is on the influence of these rocket attacks on Israel's populace during the military operation conducted by the Israeli army, "Guardian of the Walls," in May 2021.Our findings suggest that, typically, individuals who have experienced less exposure to missile attacks and alarms, those belonging to larger families, and those with a higher level of education and income are less prone to experiencing post-traumatic symptoms. The study was carried out using surveys that gathered demographic information about the participants, as well as a specific questionnaire designed to evaluate the presence and extent of post-trauma symptoms.These findings could aid in devising preventative strategies to mitigate the PTSD risk among vulnerable groups. They indicate the importance of considering socio-economic elements when delivering mental health services to those impacted by violent incidents and trauma.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2064.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Security Systems Keywords: adversarial attacks; artificial intelligence; machine learning; defense mechanisms; system integrity; model vulnerabilities; advanced attack techniques; Fast Gradient Sign Method (FGSM); Carlini and Wagner Attack (C&W); targeted attacks; non-targeted attacks; blackbox attacks
Online: 29 September 2023 (08:42:10 CEST)
This comprehensive analysis thoroughly examines the topic of adversarial attacks in artificial intelligence (AI), providing a detailed overview of the various methods used to compromise machine learning models. It explores different attack techniques, ranging from the simple Fast Gradient Sign Method (FGSM) to the intricate Carlini and Wagner Attack (C&W), emphasising the wide range of adversarial approaches and their intended goals. The discussion also distinguishes between targeted and non-targeted attacks, highlighting the adaptability and versatility of these malicious efforts. Additionally, the study delves into the realm of black-box attacks, revealing the capability of adversarial strategies to compromise models even with limited knowledge. Real-life examples illustrate the tangible consequences and potential dangers of adversarial attacks in various fields such as self-driving cars, multimedia, and voice assistants. These cases highlight the difficulties in ensuring the legitimacy and dependability of AI-powered technologies and programs. The article stresses the importance of ongoing research and innovation to address the growing difficulties posed by advanced methods like deepfakes and disguised voice commands in preserving the security of AI systems. This study provides valuable insights on how different adversarial strategies and defence mechanisms interact within AI. The results emphasise the urgent need for stronger and more secure AI models to combat the increasing number of adversarial threats in today's AI landscape. These findings can guide future research and innovations in developing more resilient AI technologies that can better withstand various adversarial vulnerabilities and challenges.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2040.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Surgery Keywords: O-Z flap; scalp reconstruction; malignant melanoma; skin cancer
Online: 29 September 2023 (08:41:04 CEST)
The scalp is a unique anatomical region with distinct challenges for reconstruction, especially in cases of melanoma excision. This study explores the utilization of the O-Z flap technique as an alternative approach for patients with melanoma, where traditional free flap reconstruction may not be feasible due to age or underlying health conditions. However, in this case, the patient had a history of angina and was unwilling to undergo a long operation due to his advanced age. This study highlights the importance of following NCCN guidelines for melanoma resection margins based on tumor thickness and underscores the value of staged resection planning to minimize deficits. This requires an individualized approach as each patient may have different circumstances (general health condition, age, compliance, etc.). So we planned a staged excision first. In the first surgery, we would resect the tumor minimally and then determine the exact size of the tumor. Then, in the second surgery, we resected it with a safety margin according to the guidelines. The O-Z flap, a local flap with an "O"-shaped defect and "Z"-shaped incision line, is introduced as a reconstructive option. The surgical procedure, advantages, and limitations of this approach are discussed. This study provides valuable insights into achieving successful scalp reconstruction while considering aesthetic outcomes and patient-specific factors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2065.v1
Subject: Engineering, Metallurgy And Metallurgical Engineering Keywords: additive manufacturing; interlocking structure; Design for Additive Manufacturing (DfAM); Netfabb Local Simulation
Online: 29 September 2023 (08:39:31 CEST)
Additive manufactured interlocking structures often face challenges in achieving suitable joinability due to thermal deformation. This issue becomes particularly interesting when fabricating structures that require high density but not fully connected layers, such as soft-magnetic materials. This study focuses on systematical investigation of the deformation as a function of finger thickness and building direction in model interlocking structure. In the perpendicular direction to the build plate, the distortions of joint part were significantly reduced due to lower thermal stress. In addition, the effect of laser power and scan speed on interlocking structure are systematically discussed. Additionally, through stress and thermal simulations of additive manufacturing process, it was confirmed that the compensated model can enhance the joinability of interlocking structures. These findings contribute to the development of optimal design for additive manufactured parts of soft magnetic materials such as stators in electric motor components, which needs insulations and density.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2086.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy And Astrophysics Keywords: photon; gravity; antigravity; dark energy; redshift
Online: 29 September 2023 (08:37:21 CEST)
This paper delves into the intricate interactions of photons in the realms of gravity and antigravity. Photons, being fundamental particles of light, exhibit remarkable behaviors as they traverse through the cosmos. They journey through the vast expanses of the universe until they venture into the enigmatic invisible realm. The photon's encounters with gravity and antigravity are explored in detail. When confronting the gravitational influence of massive objects, such as celestial bodies, photons neither gain nor lose energy, but they exchange momentum with the external gravitational field while steadfastly preserving their intrinsic momentum. Intriguingly, the photon's interaction with the mysterious force of antigravity, propelled by dark energy, presents an irreversible transformation. The consequences of this interaction are profound, as photons undergo a cosmic redshift of a magnitude greater than that induced by gravity or other redshift mechanisms. This distinctive effect manifests as the photon departs from the gravitational embrace of galaxies and embarks on a journey beyond their boundaries, where the domain of zero gravity commences. Furthermore, the paper elucidates the dynamics of external forces exerted by massive objects on photons during their interactions. These forces momentarily carry the photons while they engage with the massive objects. Yet, despite this external assistance, the photons maintain their original momentum. Notably, within a gravitational field, the effective deviation from this transportation remains zero, reaffirming the photon's commitment to its initial trajectory.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2027.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: triple-network convergence; fault recovery; TD3 algorithm; DoS attack; resilience
Online: 29 September 2023 (08:35:10 CEST)
Recently, the triple-network convergence system (TNCS) has emerged from the deep integration of the power grid, transportation network, and information network. Fault recovery research in the TNCS is important since this system's complexity and interactivity can expand the faults scale and increase faults impact. Currently, fault recovery focuses primarily on single power grids and cyber-physical systems, but there are certain shortcomings, such as ignoring uncertainties including generator start-up failures and the occurrence of new faults during recovery, energy supply-demand imbalances leading to system security issues and communication delay caused by network attacks. In this study, we propose a recovery method based on the improved TD3 algorithm, factoring in shortcomings of the existing research. Specifically, we establish a TNCS model to analyze interaction mechanisms and design a state matrix to represent the uncertainty changes in the TNCS, a negative reward to reflect the impact of unit start-up failures, a special reward to reflect the impact of communication delay and an improved Actor network update mechanism. Experimental results show that our method obtains the optimal recovery decisions, maximizes restoration benefit in power grid failure scenarios and demonstrates a strong resilience against communication delay caused by DoS attacks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2043.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Avipoxvirus; molecular characterization; phylogenetic analysis; viral introduction; Portugal
Online: 29 September 2023 (08:32:26 CEST)
Avipoxvirus (APV), a linear dsDNA virus belonging to the subfamily Chordopoxvirinae of the family Poxviridae, infects more than 278 species of domestic and wild birds. It is responsible for causing the avian pox disease, which is characterized by its cutaneous and diphtheric forms. With a high transmission capacity, it can cause high economic losses and damage to the ecosys-tem. Several diagnostic methods are available and vaccination of birds can be an effective pre-ventive measure. To update the molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of viruses isolated in Portugal between 2017 and 2023, ten APV-positive samples were analyzed. A P4b gene fragment was amplified by PCR and the nucleotide sequence of the amplicons was deter-mined by Sanger sequencing. The sequences obtained were aligned using ClustalW, and a max-imum likelihood phylogenetic tree was constructed. With this study, it was possible to verify that the analyzed sequences are distributed in subclades A1, A2, B1, and B3. Since some of them are quite similar to others from different countries and obtained in different years, it is possible to conclude that there have been several viral introductions in Portugal. Finally, it was possible to successfully update the data on avipoxviruses in Portugal.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2037.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Nile tilapia; Oreochromis niloticus; Streptococcus agalactiae; formalin-killed vaccine; immunocompetence
Online: 29 September 2023 (08:29:48 CEST)
To investigate the early immune responses and explore the optimal vaccination periods, Nile tilapia at 1, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42 days after yolk sac collapse (DAYC), were immersed in formalin-killed Streptococcus agalactiae vaccine (FKV-SA). The results found that specific IgM by ELISA in 21 DAYC (0.108 g) was first detected at 336 h after vaccination (hav), whereas 28-42 DAYC (0.330 - 0.580 g), could be initially detected at 24 hav. qRT-PCR analysis of the TCRβ, CD4, MHCIIα, IgHM, IgHT, and IgHD genes at 21- 42 DAYC immunized with FKV-SA immersion route for 24, 168 and 336 hav, revealed that most immune-related genes were significantly higher in the vaccinated larvae in all DAYCs than the control larvae (P < 0.05) after 336 hav. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated the stronger signals of IgM in the gills, head kidney, and intestine tissues at 21, 28, and 35 DAYC were observed in all vaccinated larvae compared with the control. Interestingly, at all DAYCs, FKV-SA larvae exhibited significantly higher survival rates and an increased relative percent survival (RPS) than the control after challenge with viable S. agalactiae, particularly in larval fish that were immunized with FKV-SA for 168 and 336 hav (P < 0.05).