ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0420.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: Refugee Self-Settlement; Vulnerability; Post-Partition Kolkata; Jabar-Dakhal colony; Global South; Urban Ecology
Online: 27 September 2022 (10:17:21 CEST)
Refugee subject position is an evolving topic of contention in the world today with increased migrant and refugee mobilities. Urban refugee spaces are often segregated in the form of colonies, ethnic villages, even ghettos, embodying institutionalised discourses of apathy and violence. These spaces only occupy the cracks and margins of the normative, formal city, as appropriations of inhospitable natural terrains and urban systems. The paper discusses how refugees compete for resources for survival as “bio-political” subjects and are often held summarily responsible for causing ecological stress in host environments. After the 1947 Partition of the Indian subcontinent, millions of Hindu Bengali refugees from East Pakistan flooded the Eastern Indian states of West Bengal, Assam and Tripura. Kolkata particularly drew millions for better livelihood prospects. Facing government apathy and local violence, East-Bengali refugees appropriated the urban fringes of Kolkata and claimed their right to urban space through the political act of squatting or Jabar-Dakhal. The intent of this paper is to investigate and map the spatial distribution of East-Bengali refugee squatters and elaborate on how they transformed the terrain and distributed resources through self-management tactics. This spatial history case-study attempts to uncover locational data from archival government records, existing academic literature and fieldwork to visualise where the 145 pre-1950 and the 123 post-1950 Jabar-Dakhal colonies were located in the Kolkata Metropolitan Area. This case of successful refugee self-settlement is qualitatively read in relation to the major areas of ecological stress in Kolkata. One of the UN sustainable development goals is to make cities and human settlements ‘inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable’. This paper hopes to encourage further studies of urban refugee self-settlement and local integration as a viable but complex socio-political-environmental process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0411.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: small urban green areas; timeseries; GEOBIA; NDVI; MSAVI2; Planet
Online: 27 September 2022 (03:59:34 CEST)
The importance of small urban green areas has increased in the context of rapid urbanization and densification of the urban tissue. The analysis of these areas through remote sensing has been limited due to the low spatial resolution of freely available satellite images. We propose a timeseries analysis on 3 m resolution Planet images, using GEOBIA and vegetation indices, with the aim of extracting and assessing the quality of small urban green areas in two different climatic and biogeographical regions – temperate (Bucharest, Romania) and mediterranean (Athens, Greece). Our results have shown high accuracy (over 91%) regarding the extraction of small urban green areas in both cities, across all analysed images. The timeseries analysis showed consistency in location for around 55% of the identified surfaces throughout the entire period. The vegetation indices registered higher values in the temperate region, due to the vegetation characteristics and the planning of the two cities. For the same reasons, the increase in vegetation density and quality, as a result of the distance from the city centre and the decrease in the density of built-up areas is more obvious in Athens. The proposed method provides valuable insights in the distribution and quality of small urban green areas at city level and can represent the ground basis for many analyses, currently limited by poor spatial resolution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0181.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: geographical location; relief; climate; hydrographic; biological; comfort; grid index; 9 assessment; tourist route
Online: 13 September 2022 (13:39:08 CEST)
The article describes the methodology of the experimental analysis of operational and cost-effective assessment using geographic information system (GIS) technologies, as opposed to the assessment of the tourism potential of the nature of the Fergana Valley in Uzbekistan using long term and costly classical approaches. Based on the ArcGIS (10.8) grid index approach of 20 natural geographical indicators of the valley, such as geographical location, relief, climate, hydrographic and biological, the level of tourism comfort was determined and the location of 6 tourist-recreation zones were defined. The level of accuracy of the tourist-recreational zones all situated utilizing GIS technologies was confirmed by field-expedition approaches.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0136.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: human trafficking, counter trafficking, refugees, Rohingya, emergency response
Online: 9 September 2022 (10:07:45 CEST)
Human trafficking is the third most lucrative form of trafficking in the world (just behind drugs and counterfeit goods). Multiple outbreaks of unrest between October 2016 and August 2017 in the Rakhine State of Myanmar triggered around 745,000 influxes of Rohingyas crossing into Bangladesh through the border boundaries at Teknaf and Ukhiya sub-districts of Cox’s Bazar. In this regard the media confirmed that over a thousand Rohingya people particularly women and girls were victims of human traffickers. This research aims to explore the underlying cause of human trafficking (HT) during emergency response and seeks how the knowledge and capacity of the refugee, local administration and law enforcement agencies in Bangladesh can be improved in promoting counter trafficking (CT) and safe migration processes. In order to achieve the objectives, this research starts with reviewing acts, rules, policies and action plans of the Government of Bangladesh on the HT, CT and safe migration processes. Then, a case study method has been applied to present ongoing the CT and safe migration programs of a NGO called Young Power in Social Action (YPSA) that received funding and technical support from the International Organization of Migration (IOM) for this purpose, the research in this paper will later evaluate the effectiveness of the program through conducting key informant interviews (KII) and focus group discussion (FGDs) with beneficiary and non-beneficiary participants from refugees, law-enforcing agencies (LEA) and non-governmental organizations’ (NGOs) in Teknaf, and Ukhyia sub-districts in Bangladesh. Thus, this research identified program level strengths and weaknesses in relation to the CT, and safe migration process and provide key directions how they can be improved.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0524.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: Vietnam; China; Vietnam - China border; tourism; cross-border tourism
Online: 30 August 2022 (11:32:48 CEST)
This article aims to identify the current development of cross-border tourism between Vietnam and China. The paper analyzes the perception and strategy of cross-border tourism development in the two countries, especially in the context of China’s implementation of the “Belt and Road Initiative” (BRI). The article emphasizes that Vietnam and China have recently made efforts to promote cross-border tourism development. At the same time, Vietnam and China see cross-border tourism development as a significant part of comprehensive border cooperation between the two countries. However, the development plans for cross-border tourism between the two countries are still mainly on the desk, not yet implemented effectively. Thus, its achievements are relatively modest. Besides, the article emphasizes that the interests of the people living in the border area, especially the Vietnam side, are almost “forgotten” in the development of cross-border travel between the two countries. Besides, the article also analyzes the challenges that the two sides are facing, especially the Vietnam side, in promoting the development of cross-border tourism between the two countries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0332.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: social risk; risk management; urban renewal; collectivism; China
Online: 18 August 2022 (07:41:22 CEST)
Social sustainability is the major concern of planners and local officials when urban renewal projects are being conducted. Extreme individualism can potentially cause conflicts of interest, making urban renewal in Western cities fraught with various types of social risks. As a country with deep-rooted socialist tradition, urban renewal projects in China are influenced by collectivist culture and show different features from those of the West. The objective of this research is to investigate how different stakeholders in urban redevelopment projects, including local residents, social organizations, the local state, and developers, interact with each other and how the associated social risks are hedged against. Using a recent well-known project in the city of Guangzhou, the authors attempt to present the latest progress in social risk management in China. With the support from a government-sponsored project, the authors have conducted a questionnaire-based survey and year-long follow-up fieldwork. Using ATLAS.ti software, we found that that “residents’ demand”, “status of collaboration”, and “degree of trust” are the keys to risk management. The results of an ordered probit model show that residents are worried about the overall planning, the relocation timetable, and whether their personal needs are taken into account. It is also indicated that the timely disclosure of project information, high-quality public participation, and a reasonable compensation plan can possibly boost the support rate. The authors suggest that utilizing China’s collectivist culture could be an effective way to mitigate social risks, and residents’ personal interests should also be respected.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0322.v1
Online: 21 July 2022 (10:45:48 CEST)
Albanian migration has always reflected a family character, be that before 1945 when Albania was not yet completely isolated, as well as after 1990 when borders were reopened. This feature characterized all types of movement, internal or international, permanent or seasonal migration, return migration or transnational movements, and remigration. The role of the family has been very important in making decisions regarding migration and answering questions from why to how to migrate, from when to where, whom to ask for help or how to invest remittances. Based on the case study of a rural area in Northern Albania, The Administrative Unit of Dajç, this article explores in detail the roles of family and kinship on decisions regarding return migration, the re-adjustment process, remigration or transnational life. By exploring the role of the family context in remigration and vice-versa the article reflects that the family biography – including the lifestyle, plans for the future or expectations - has changed due to previous migration experiences or challenges and difficulties when returning to the home country. It demonstrates how individual decisions to migrate or to ‘return home’ are negotiated and supported within families making transnational life a family project. The article adopts a new approach in the Albanian Migration Studies which may be implied on broader areas for further research in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0028.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: Total nitrogen; total phosphorous; land use; topographic slope position; pollution source control zoning
Online: 4 July 2022 (03:57:50 CEST)
The eutrophication caused by excessive total nitrogen(TN) and total phosphorus(TP) emissions has been widely concerned by the whole society. Studies have revealed the relationship between land use and TN and TP, but the relationship between land use compound topographic position and TP and TN was seldom studied. Therefore, Spearman correlation and redundancy analyses were used to reveal the relationship between land use compound topographic position and TN and TP based on the monthly data of 28 water quality sampling sites and the land use data of 2013 and 2016 in the lakes of Guizhou Plateau. The results show that the nutritional state of the HBA watershed is medium. The trophic level index (TLI) value and TN concentration were high during flood, while TP concentration was high in dry period. The TN concentration in the tributaries was higher than that in the reservoir area. Construction and valley were the sources of the pollution, whereas forest land and gentle slope were the sink. According to the”source-sink”effect, the optimal zoning of land use was completed, and the urban land pollution govern area should be strengthened firstly. This paper can provide decision support for water environment management and sustainable development decision-making.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0347.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: mobile network data; call detail records; data analysis; human mobility; urban mobility; social sensing; urban geography; urban sociology; commuting; sustainability
Online: 27 June 2022 (04:04:09 CEST)
The analysis of the human movement patterns based on the mobile network data makes it possible to examine a very large population cost-effectively, and led to several discoveries about human dynamics. However, the application of this data source is still not common practice. The goal of this study was to analyze the commuting tendencies of the Budapest Metropolitan Area using mobile network data and propose an automatized alternative to the current, questionnaire-based method. Commuting is predominantly analyzed by the census, but that is performed only once in a decade in Hungary. To analyze commuting, the home and the work locations of the subscribers are determined based on their appearances during and outside the working hours. The home locations were compared to census data at a settlement level. Then, the settlement and district level commuting tendencies were identified and compared to the findings of census-based sociological studies. It has been found that commuting analysis based on mobile network data strongly correlates with the census-based findings, even though home and work locations have been estimated by statistical methods. All the examined aspects, including commuting from sectors of the agglomeration to the districts of Budapest and demographic distribution of the commuters, show that mobile network data can be an automatized, fast, cost-effective, and relatively accurate way of commuting analysis, that could provide a powerful tool to the sociologists interested in commuting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0153.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: Urban waterscape; Covid-19; boreholes; urban governance; Nairobi
Online: 10 June 2022 (08:10:25 CEST)
The Covid-19 pandemic and the initial focus on handwashing measures have again highlighted the importance of water access as an essential service in protecting human health. Yet, especially in southern cities, uneven geographies of water access – often mediated by fragmented and unequal infrastructure systems – may hamper the fight against infectious diseases. The spread of SARS-CoV-2 presented a dilemma for water providers as well as residents in water-deprived urban areas as they had to adhere to new hygiene standards and requirements, despite limited access to basic water infrastructure. Therefore, a deeper understanding of pandemic urban waterscapes – the infrastructure and governance systems as well as everyday practices and technologies – is necessary for ongoing debates on (post-) pandemic or zoonotic cities. In our paper, we focus on changes in urban (water) governance and government water projects in Nairobi since early 2020. We show that Covid-19 has contributed to changes in Nairobi’s waterscape but only in conjunction with recent changes in the city’s overall governance structure. However, if these waterscape changes lead to greater equity in water access, and if they have helped to curb the spread of SARS-CoV-2, is more than questionable.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0485.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: carbon storage & sequestration; climate change; habitat diversity; Kainji national park; protected areas; air quality
Online: 16 May 2022 (04:33:24 CEST)
Due to rising global warming and climate change, biodiversity protection has become a critical ecological concern. The rich biodiversity zones are under threat and are deteriorating, necessitating national, regional, and provincial efforts to safeguard these natural areas. The effective conservation of National Parks and Nature-protected Areas helps to improve biodiversity conservation, forest, and urban air quality. The continuous encroachment and abuse of these protected areas have degraded the ecosystem over time. While exploring the geophysical ecology and biodiversity conservation of these areas in West Africa, Kainji National Park was selected for this study because of its notable location, naturalness, rich habitat diversity, topographic uniqueness, and landmass. The conservation of national parks and nature-protected areas is a cornerstone of biodiversity conservation globally. This study is aimed at the target of United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 13, 2030- Climate Action, targeted at taking urgent action towards combating climate change and its impacts. The study captures both flora and fauna that are dominant in the study area. The 15 identified tree species were selected from over 30 species with 563,500,000 (an average of 3,700,000 in each sample frame) trees for every tree species/type with a total of 63% tree green canopy cover. The study areas divided into three zones were randomly sampled within a stratum of 25x25km frames divided into 150 sample frames for proper analyses using the i-Tree Eco v6.0.23. The following microclimatic data were captured and analyzed; photosynthetically active radiation, rain/precipitation, temperature, transpiration, evaporation, water intercepted by trees, avoided a runoff by trees, potential evaporation by trees, isoprene and monoterpene by trees. This study also further discusses the tree benefits of a green, low carbon, and sustainable environment within the context of biodiversity conservation considering carbon storage, carbon sequestration, hydrology effects, pollution removal, oxygen production, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). There is a quick need for remotely-sensed information about the protected areas at regular intervals and government policies must be strict against illegal poaching, logging activities and other hazardous human impacts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0048.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: Sustainable Development Goals; SDGs; land conflicts; land tenure security; Uganda
Online: 5 May 2022 (16:03:11 CEST)
Land tenure security is important for achieving a number Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The purpose of this paper was to investigate variation in land tenure security across three districts located in different geographical regions of Uganda. Using a quantitative cross-sectional survey data collected in early 2019. The findings show that Kanungu district found in South-Western Uganda had significantly higher levels of land tenure security as compared to Nakasongola (Central) and Nwoya (Northern). Research findings have implications on further study and benchmarking land governance systems in Kanungu. Furthermore, they have implications on implementation of government and donor land titling or registration programs in terms of priority areas. They further sheds light on the importance of accounting for geographical context in land tenure studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0492.v3
Online: 1 April 2022 (06:22:53 CEST)
Disaggregated population counts are needed to calculate health, economic, and development indicators in Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs), especially in settings of rapid urbanisation. Censuses are often outdated and inaccurate in LMIC settings, and rarely disaggregated at fine geographic scale. Modelled gridded population datasets derived from census data have become widely used by development researchers and practitioners. These datasets are evaluated for accuracy at the spatial scale of the input data which is often much courser (e.g. administrative units) than the neighbourhood or cell-level scale of many applications. We simulate a realistic "true" 2016 population in Khomas, Namibia, a majority urban region, and introduce realistic levels of outdatedness (over 15 years) and inaccuracy in slum, non-slum, and rural areas. We aggregate these simulated realistic populations by census and administrative boundaries (to mimic census data), and generate 32 gridded population datasets that are typical of a LMIC setting using WorldPop-Global-Unconstrained gridded population approach. We evaluate the cell-level accuracy of these simulated datasets using the original "true" population as a reference. In our simulation, we found large cell-level errors, particularly in slum cells, driven by the use of average population densities in large areal units to determine cell-level population densities. Age, accuracy, and aggregation of the input data also played a role in these errors. We suggest incorporating finer-scale training data into gridded population models generally, and WorldPop-Global-Unconstrained in particular (e.g., from routine household surveys or slum community population counts), and use of new building footprint datasets as a covariate to improve cell-level accuracy. It is important to measure accuracy of gridded population datasets at spatial scales more consistent with how the data are being applied, especially if they are to be used for monitoring key development indicators at neighbourhood scales with relevance to small dense deprived areas within larger administrative units.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0302.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: Development economics; China’s fishery industry; development quality; spatio-temporal differentiation; panel data
Online: 20 January 2022 (11:14:26 CET)
By reviewing the research of development economics in recent years, five key terms of ‘innovation, coordination, green, openness and sharing’ are extracted, corresponding to the five dimensions of the New Development Concept advocated by China. Based on this, an evaluation index system of the development quality of China's fishery industry is constructed. The spatio-temporal characteristics of China's fishery industry development quality were analyzed by using the provincial panel data from 2007 to 2017. The results show that: i) China's fishery industry overall development quality continues to grow, while the variation of provincial quality is also increasing, and the contribution of innovation quality and sharing quality is increasing, becoming an important sub-dimension leading the overall development quality.ii) there is a significant spatial dependence among provincial quality, and the significance is further strengthening. The Hangzhou Bay area and Bohai Bay area have gradually become a dual-core area where the high-quality development of China's fishery industry agglomeration, and the radiation from the dual-core area to the peripheral areas may still be in the process of enhancement. The spatial and temporal distribution of China’s fishery industry development quality keeps the trend of ‘from northeast to southwest’, which is almost parallel to Hu Huanyong line. The gravity center of its distribution is close to the gravity center of Chinese population and economy, and the development quality experienced a process from relatively concentrated to dispersed and then returned to concentrated, and the development speed in the later period was higher than that in the earlier period. iii) Capital accumulation level is the dominant positive influencing factors, while government support level is the dominant negative influencing factors respectively, and both have significant spatial differentiation among provinces.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0153.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: pandemic; green areas; protected areas; urban planning; visitor management; protected area management
Online: 11 January 2022 (18:23:29 CET)
Public green and open spaces fulfil various social, ecological, economic, and aesthetic roles, which complement each another, but can also compete with one another. COVID-19 pandemic catalysed multiple societal changes, including citizens’ perception, needs and expectations posed towards urban green spaces. This article discusses the extent to which the temporally and geographically changed patterns of experiencing these natural spaces also influenced users’ perception and behaviour as well as their appreciation of the conservation areas. The study is based upon two surveys carried out in the greater metropolitan region of Vienna, the capital city of Austria. A quantitative survey (representative online panel) among Viennese population (n=1012), as well as qualitive interviews with experts responsible for conservation areas, administrators of federal parks, along with NGOs representatives were carried out in spring and summer 2021. Our study shows the changed use of urban and suburban large green spaces and conservation areas: first, from the perspective of those responsible for the areas as well as the visitors. Both perspectives supplement one another. They highlight also changed perception of urban citizens towards green spaces during COVID-19 pandemic. An increased importance of time spent in nature (68%) and possibility to visit large green areas (67%) was reported by Viennese citizens. Also, higher recognition of green spaces located close to home was observed among 69% of the respondents. Thus, the presented study contributes to the ongoing international discussion on the transition of societal needs and its effects on urban green spaces induced by the pandemic. Presented results deliver solid arguments highlighting the need of urgent transformation towards a more sustainable, resilient and healthy urban space.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0437.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: Mixed farming; Household resilience; livelihood insecurity; Diversification; structural equation model
Online: 27 December 2021 (15:51:04 CET)
Poor households are more likely less resilient under climate change, risks of productive assets, social-related shocks, and decline of land productivity. The ability to deal with household resilience against poverty under the uncertain condition of risk is limited in the highlands of Ethiopia. The study aims to identify determinants of household resilience to livelihood insecurity under the crop-livestock mixed farming systems in Goncha district, Northwest highlands of Ethiopia. Primary data were collected by conducting face-to-face interviews among 280 households using structured questionnaire. Descriptive statistics, Kruskal-Wallis test and structural equation modeling were used to analyse the data. The results disclosed that sustainable management of the farming systems, cultivation of more fertile farmland, saving performance, diversification of income-earning activities, intensification of livestock husbandry practices, access to irrigation, and familiarity with practical technologies were found to be significant determinants at p<0.001 to household resilience of smallholder farmers. Social network development and tree plantation were explained household resilience to livelihood insecurity at P<0.01 and P<0.1 significant levels, respectively. The study concluded that scaling up sustainable management of the farming system and practical technologies, enhancing saving behavior, promoting income diversification, and intensifying agroforestry are significant for household resilience to livelihood insecurity of smallholders across agro-ecologies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0534.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: Industrial green technology innovation efficiency; Dagum Gini coefficient; spatial econometrics; Regional differences
Online: 29 November 2021 (12:34:49 CET)
Industrial green technology innovation has become an important content in achieving high-quality economic growth and comprehensively practicing the new development concept in the new era. This paper measures the efficiency of industrial green technology innovation and regional differences based on Chinese provincial panel data from 2005 to 2018, using a combination of the super-efficient SBM model for considering undesirable outputs and the Dagum Gini coefficient method, and discusses and analyses the factors influencing of the industrial green technology innovation efficiency by constructing a spatial econometric model. The results show that: firstly, the industrial green technology innovation efficiency in China shows a relatively stable development trend, going through three stages: " stationary period", " recession period " and "growth period ". However, the efficiency gap between different regions is obvious, specifically in the eastern > central > western regions of China, and the industrial green technology efficiency innovation in the central and western regions is lower than the national average. Secondly, regional differences in the efficiency of industrial green technology innovation in China are evident but tend to narrow overall, with the main reason for the overall difference being regional differences. In terms of intra-regional variation, variation within the eastern region is relatively stable, variation within the central region is relatively low and shows an inverted 'U' shaped trend, and variation within the western region is high and shows a fluctuating downward trend. Thirdly, the firm size, government support, openness to the outside world, environmental regulations and education levels contribute to the efficiency of industrial green technology innovation. In addition, the industrial structure hinders the efficiency of industrial green technology innovation, and each influencing factor has different degrees of spatial spillover effects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0485.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: Industrial green innovation efficiency; Innovation value chain perspective; Super-efficient network SBM model; Spatial Dubin model
Online: 25 November 2021 (16:06:00 CET)
Green innovation has become an important combination of high-quality economic growth and sustainable development of ecological environment. In this paper, the super-efficiency network SBM model is used to measure the two-stage green innovation efficiency of industrial science and technology R&D and achievement transformation in 30 provinces and cities from 2009 to 2019, and exploratory Data Analysis (ESDA) and spatial econometric model are used to investigate the spatial-temporal evolution characteristics and influencing factors of green innovation efficiency. The results show that: firstly, the overall efficiency of industrial green innovation is low, and the efficiency of scientific research and development and achievement transformation has experienced three stages of "upward-declining-revitalized period". The low efficiency of achievement transformation is an important factor hiding the improvement of the efficiency of industrial green innovation. Secondly, The industrial green innovation efficiency gradually increases from northwest to southeast, forming a centralized "line" and "block" distribution. The high efficiency area is still concentrated in the eastern coastal region, and the balanced development trend is obvious in the central and western regions. Finally, openness has a positive impact on the two-stage green innovation efficiency; Industrial structure and government investment in science and technology have a positive impact on the efficiency of science and technology research and development, but have no significant effect on the efficiency of achievement transformation. Enterprise size has a positive effect on achievement transformation efficiency, but has no significant effect on R&D efficiency. Environmental regulation has a positive impact on R&D efficiency and a negative impact on achievement transformation efficiency.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0265.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: Local Productive Systems; Meat Industries for the Transformation of the Iberian Pig; business processes; territorial processes; labour processes.
Online: 15 November 2021 (13:46:19 CET)
Local Productive Systems (hereinafter LPS) based on agro-food industries constitute alternative models of development in peripheral rural areas that are subject to internal and external dynamics and processes. The main objective of the research is to investigate the processes and their consequences on four SPLs based on the Iberian Pig Transformation Industry (hereinafter LPS-IPTI) in SW Spain: Fregenal de la Sierra, Higuera la Real, Cumbres Mayores and Jabugo. Using secondary data, a comparison is made between 2002 and 2020 to establish the changes, causes and consequences on the LPS-IPTI studied. The results obtained indicate (1) business and territorial concentration of LPS-IPTI; (2) productive and territorial specialisation in standardised products and quality products; (3) simplification of industrial processes; (4) loss of employment, especially female; (5) external control of companies in the sector which, accordingly, results in the loss of prominence of local actors in favour of foreign companies, reduced social capital and the progressive loss of ownership of the LPS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0095.v1
Online: 4 November 2021 (08:57:00 CET)
The threat of fine particulate matter concentration (PM2.5) is increasing globally, Tackling this issue requires an accurate understanding of its trends and drivers. The article investigates the PM2.5 characteristics of 285 prefecture-level cities in China from 2000-2018 based on multiscale geographically weighted regression(MGWR), and the results show that（1）previous studies based on classical MGWR models may be somewhat unstable, while MGWR can reflect the scale of influence of different variables on the dependent variable, and its regression results are more reliable.（2）PM2.5 is very sensitive to carbon emission(CE) factors, and there is a high degree of spatial heterogeneity, and the influence scale of location is the smallest among all variables, close to the municipal scale.（3）In 2000, the constant term all, IS, OFT, CE, and LT positively affect PM2.5, while GDP (jurisdiction) and UR negatively affect PM2.5; in 2010, the constant term all, GDP (jurisdiction), IS, OFT and LT positively affect PM2.5, while UR and CE negatively affect PM2.5; in 2018 the constant term all, IS, OFT and CE factors positively affect PM2.5, and GDP (jurisdiction), UR and LT negatively affect PM2.5.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0149.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: Farm fragmentation; Land fragmentation; cattle farming; agricultural productivity; Northern Ireland
Online: 9 October 2021 (13:47:08 CEST)
Farm fragmentation is the occurrence of numerous and often discontinuous land parcels associated with a single farm. Farm fragmentation is considered to be a defining feature of Northern Ireland’s (NI) agricultural landscape, influencing agricultural efficiency, productivity, and the spread of livestock diseases. Despite this, the full extent of farm fragmentation in cattle farms is not well understood, and little is known of how farm fragmentation either influences, or is influenced by, different animal production types. This study describes and quantifies farm fragmentation metrics for cattle enterprises in NI, presented separately for dairy and non-dairy production types. We find that 35% of farms consist of five or more fragments, with larger farms associated with greater levels of farm fragmentation, fragment dispersal and contact with contiguous farms. Moreover, this was particularly evident in dairy farms, which were over twice the size of farms associated with non-dairy production types, with twice as many individual land parcels and twice as many fragments. We hypothesise that the difference in farm fragmentation and farm size between dairy and non-dairy production types is associated with the recent expansion of dairy farms after the abolition of the milk quota system in 2015, which may have driven the expansion of dairy farms via the acquisition of land. The high levels of land fragmentation, fragment dispersal and contiguous contact observed in NI cattle farms may also have important implications for agricultural productivity and epidemiology alike. Whilst highly connected pastures could facilitate the dissemination of disease, highly fragmented and parcellised land could also hamper productivity via diseconomies of scale, such as preventing the increase of herd sizes or additionally, adding to farm costs by increasing the complexity of herd management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0434.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: fast food; neighbourhood; deprivation; overweight; obesity; adolesence; confounding
Online: 24 September 2021 (12:51:26 CEST)
The aim of our study is to utilise longitudinal and representative national data to explore the extent that the association between the fast food environment and overweight in adolescents is confounded by neighbourhood deprivation. Longitudinal data from the Millennium Cohort Study for England were obtained for waves 5 (ages 11/12; 2011/12; n=13,469) and 6 (ages 14/15; 2014/15; n=11,884). Our outcome variable was overweight/obesity defined using age and sex-specific International Obesity Task Force cut points. Individuals were linked, based on their residential location, to data on the density of fast food outlets and neighbourhood deprivation. Structural Equation Models were used to model associations at both ages and explicitly test for confounding. While we found some evidence for an association between the number of fast food outlets and overweight, any associations disappeared following accounting for the confounding nature of neighbourhood deprivation. Neighbourhood deprivation was consistently associated to overweight, with adolescents who resided in deprived areas more likely to be overweight. Results were largely consistent depending on different methodological decisions. Our findings suggest that policy efforts should prioritise focusing on tackling the social determinants of excess body mass which will be more effective than interventions aimed at the built environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0282.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: storm surge; coastal region; flooding risk; Rio Grande Valley
Online: 16 September 2021 (11:52:36 CEST)
(1) Background: Cameron County, which is located in the Rio Grande Valley, holds historical records for storm surges with noticeable property damage, fatalities, and injuries; (2) Methods: using storm surge hazard datasets from the National Oceanic and Atlantic Agency (NOAA), and American Community Survey (ACS) 2019 datasets and Geographic Information System (GIS), the study estimates at-risk population and their socio-demographic attributes; (4) Conclusions: Estimated water levels of a storm surge could be reached up to 5 feet in category 1 event, 9 feet in category 2, 17 feet in category 3, and above 20 feet in category 4 and 5. In the category 5 event, there is an estimated 37% (159,659) of the total county’s population (434,294) will be under flooded water. Suggestions are made to better prepare and successfully evaluate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0382.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: living conditions; crime prevention; crime-exposed areas; strategic mapping; GIS; Police
Online: 18 August 2021 (14:04:19 CEST)
This paper presents a theoretically and methodologically grounded GIS-based model for the measurement and mapping of an index of living conditions in urban residential areas across Sweden. Further, the model is compared and evaluated using the Swedish Police’s assessment of crime-exposed areas. The results indicate that geographically measured vulnerable living conditions overlap to a large extent with the areas assessed to be crime-exposed by the Swedish Police. Over 61% of the police-defined crime-exposed areas are characterized by vulnerable living conditions. The results also show that the overlap is not perfect and that there are vulnerable areas that are not included in the police’s assessment of crime-exposed areas, but which are nonetheless characterized by vulnerable living conditions that could negatively affect the development of crime. It is also proposed that the model and the mapped index of living conditions provide a more well-grounded scientific basis for the police's assessment work. As a first step, the Swedish police have implemented the model and the mapped index in the work process employed in their annual identification of crime-exposed or at-risk areas. In addition to assisting the police, the model and the mapped index could also be used to support other societal actors working with vulnerable areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0228.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: Urban Planning, Artificial Intelligence, Information Technology, Smart Cities, E-Governance, E-participation and M-participation
Online: 10 August 2021 (10:12:16 CEST)
This article is an effort to scrutinize the role of Information Technology development in the chronological transformation of Urban Planning domain using the exploratory research approach. In this research, it is argued that the theoretical and practical understanding of Urban Planning should absorb and integrate the bright outcome of the rise of Information and Technology to foster congruent future urban development. The article addresses the trends of transformation in the urban planning domain through the myopic lens of the expansion of information and communications technology era followed by investigating the key drivers shaping the interaction between modern-day urban planning and information technology considering both the dark and bright sides into account.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0206.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: Remote sensing; GIS; AHP; Groundwater potential zone; Weighted overlay analysis; Kilinochchi
Online: 9 August 2021 (16:56:29 CEST)
The scarcity of surface water resources in the dry season in the Kilinochchi district increases the demand for freshwater. Therefore, the existing groundwater resources should be managed to overcome the situation. Several authors worldwide have published studies on the delineation of potential groundwater zone. However, only a few studies addressed the delineation of potential groundwater zones in the Kilinochchi district. This study aims to delineate potential groundwater zones in Kilinochchi, Sri Lanka using integrated Remote Sensing, Geographic Information Systems, and Analytic Hierarchy Process techniques. Groundwater potential zones are demarcated for the Kilinochchi district by overlaying thematic layers: geology, geomorphology, land use/land cover, soil types, drainage density, slope, lineament, and rainfall. Saaty's scale was applied to the assigned weights of the chosen thematic layers and their features. The thematic layers were integrated into a Geographic Information System, and a weighted overlay analysis is carried out to delineate groundwater zones. Thus the resultant map is categorized into five different potential zones: very low, low, moderate, high, and very high. It was found that the very high groundwater potential zone is mainly found in the north-eastern part of the study area covering 111.26 km2. The upper north-western, middle, and eastern parts of the study area fall within the high groundwater potential zone covering about 507.74 km2. The moderate groundwater potential zones (309.89 km2) mainly occurred in the western part, and the extreme west part of the study area falls under low (207.78 km2) and very low (59.12 km2) zones. The groundwater potential map was validated with the existing seventy-nine wells, which indicated a good prediction accuracy of 81.8%. This research will help policymakers better manage the Kilinochchi district's groundwater resources and gives scope for further research into groundwater exploration in the area.
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: spatial machine learning; spatial dependence; spatial heterogeneity; scale; spatial observation matrix; learning algorithm; deep learning
Online: 6 August 2021 (14:18:55 CEST)
Properties of spatially explicit data are often ignored or inadequately handled in machine learning for spatial domains of application. At the same time, resources that would identify these properties and investigate their influence and methods to handle them in machine learning applications are lagging behind. In this survey of the literature, we seek to identify and discuss spatial properties of data that influence the performance of machine learning. We review some of the best practices in handling such properties in spatial domains and discuss their advantages and disadvantages. We recognize two broad strands in this literature. In the first, the properties of spatial data are developed in the spatial observation matrix without amending the substance of the learning algorithm; in the other, spatial data properties are handled in the learning algorithm itself. While the latter have been far less explored, we argue they offer the most promising prospects for the future of spatial machine learning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0199.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: informal settlements; population; displacement; GHS; WSF; HRSL; GRID3; sub-Saharan Africa
Online: 8 July 2021 (11:48:58 CEST)
Satellite-based broad-scale (i.e., global and continental) human settlement data offer foundational information for diverse applications spanning climate hazard mitigation, sustainable development monitoring, spatial epidemiology, and demographic modeling. While many human settlement products report exceptional detection accuracies above 85%, there is a substantial blind spot in that product validation is typically centered on large urban areas rather than rural, small-scale settlements that are home to 3.4 billion people. In this study, we make use of a data-rich collection of 30 refugee settlements in Uganda to produce a targeted assessment of small-scale settlement detection by four broad-scale human settlement products: Global Human Settlements Built-Up Sentinel-2 (GHS-BUILT-S2), World Settlement Footprint (WSF), High Resolution Settlement Layer (HRSL), and Geo-Referenced Infrastructure and Demographic Data for Development (GRID3). We measured each product’s areal coverage within refugee settlements, assessed product detection accuracies in comparison to an independent dataset of 317,416 refugee settlement building footprints, and examined agreement between products. For refugee settlements established before 2016, the human settlement products had a low median F1-Score (F1) of 0.24, a high median false alarm rate of 0.59, and tended to only agree at locations of highest building density. Individually, WSF entirely overlooked 8 of the 30 study refugee settlements (median F1=0.17); GHS-BUILT-S2 underestimated the building footprint area by a median 50% (F1=0.15); GRID3 overestimated the building footprint area by a median 280% (F1=0.38); and HRSL underestimated the median area by 7% (F1=0.34). All products suffer from low detection accuracy and high false alarm rates, but GRID3 and HRSL, based on 0.5 meter resolution imagery, offer better detection accuracy than GHS-BUILT S2 and WSF, which are based on 10-30 meter resolution imagery. These results show that human settlement products have far to go in providing an accurate depiction of small-scale refugee settlements and would benefit from incorporating refugee settlements in training and validation of broad-scale human settlement detection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0410.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: climate proofing; spatial planning; climate change adaptation; framework; cross-regional; integral; co-benefits
Online: 18 May 2021 (10:21:27 CEST)
Spatial planning holds a key role in preventing or mitigating the impacts of climate change on both cities and rural areas, taking a forward-thinking and holistic approach to urban and regional development. As such, spatial planning deals with challenges occurring at different scales and across sectors. The international literature points out the need for horizontal and vertical cooperation to tackle climate change impacts. While there is abundant knowledge regarding the challenges related to climate change at different spatial levels, procedural integration into planning frameworks and practice is currently under-researched. This paper presents a novel theoretical framework that integrates various steps towards a holistic, integrative and adaptive climate proofing process. An iterative process was used for conceptual development, based on literature review followed by external feedback meetings and two workshops with the core team of planning experts responsible for exchange across federal states. By specifically addressing the challenges relating to cross-regional and cross-sectoral planning, this novel framework attempts to (i) facilitate a hierarchy of measures, (ii) maximise co-benefits for various adaptation purposes and climate change mitigation and (iii) foster the long-term institutionalisation of integrative processes across sectors, planning areas and policy levels.
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: 'Big Things'; Starchitecture; Agritecture; Parkitecture; Urban Prairies
Online: 5 April 2021 (16:02:43 CEST)
This article analyses three recent shifts in what  called the geography of ‘Big Things’ meaning the contemporary functions and adaptability of modern city centre architecture. We periodise the three styles conventionally into the fashionable ‘Starchitecture’ of the 1990s, the repurposed ‘Agritecture’ of the 2000s and the parodising ‘Parkitecture’ of the 2010s. Starchitecture was the form of new architecture coinciding with the rise of neo-liberalism in its brief era of global urban competitiveness prevalent in the 1990s. After the Great Financial Crash of 2007-8 the market for high-rise emblems of iconic, thrusting, skyscrapers and giant downtown and suburban shopping malls waned and online shopping and working from home destroyed the main rental values of the CBD. In some illustrious cases ‘Agritecture’ caused re-purposed office blocks and other CBD accompaniments to be re-purposed as settings for high-rise urban farming, especially aquaponics and hydroponic horticulture. Now, Covid-19 has further undermined traditional CBD property markets causing some administrations to decide to bulldoze their ‘deadmalls’ and replace them with urban prairie landscapes, inviting the designation ‘Parkitecture’ for the bucolic results. The paper presents an account of these transitions by reference to questions raised by urban cultural scholars like Jane M. Jacobs and Jean Gottmann to figure out answers in time and space to questions their work poses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0150.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: Change detection; NDVI; Landsat; Land cover land use change; Urban environment
Online: 7 December 2020 (12:44:21 CET)
Urban cities are the major drivers of economic growth and development. Economic growth and development however results in considerable land cover land use dynamics. This study assessed the dynamics in land cover land use that have occurred in New Braunfels, Texas in the last 7 years (2013 - 2020) to observe areas in the city that had experienced considerable shifts in land cover and land use. A 30-meter resolution Landsat images were used to examine possible changes in land cover land use. New Braunfels was observed to have experienced significant changes in land use especially in developed areas. This change can be attributed to the influx of people into the city, contributing to the need for increased urban development. Analysis of this study shows that about 16% (about 553 hectares) of forest land cover class and 28% (about 1,139 hectares) of grassland class in time 1 (August 31, 2013) changed to built-up land use class in time 2 (November 5, 2020). A limitation to this study was that of the spatial resolution of images used. Higher spatial resolution images could impact the producers, users, and overall accuracy assessment. Results from this study can aid in supporting better decision-making for sustainable urban development and climate change mitigation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0387.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: environmental diversity; eco-tourism; Asir region; GIS; RS
Online: 17 September 2020 (08:06:50 CEST)
This is study follows environmental diversity assessment for geotourism development in Asir region. Geotourism seeks to supporting the tourism landscape in its interaction with the historical and archaeological, architectural or immaterial heritage, and requires diversification in terms of product, market and geographical potential. The study is based on various tourist facades and environmental diversity in Asir. As tourism development is a comprehensive undertaking involving many sectors, and these are the challenges to which the country’s tourism industry should respond to promote domestic tourism. quality and spatial pattern of tourism resources, climate comfort, and natural disaster possibility. Based on analyze multi-source datasets collected, geomorphological features of this area, we created a GIS database comprising geologic and topographic maps, and satellite images using these datasets. The findings of the study provided valuable insights into the role of environmental diversity in achieving tourism. The study examined the interrelationship between tourism and environmental diversity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0368.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: Boom bust economy; Resilience; Single industry; Social ecological system; Sustainable development
Online: 17 September 2020 (03:29:07 CEST)
This paper reports on the changing dynamics of a small town’s social-ecological system (SES) concerning oil and gas industry boom-bust economic cycles and both the vulnerability and resilience of the town over the past 30 years. With the goal to understand how resource-based single industry impact social-ecological systems, we developed indicators of human and environmental well-being and assessed them. Seven indicators include labor force distribution, education, oil price, household income, water quality, air quality, and land cover land use. Over this period, Drayton Valley, Canada quadrupled in size, with more than 20% of the population working in the oil and gas sector. Median income rose to 42% above the national average despite the population lagging national benchmarks for educational attainment. There have also been dramatic fluctuations in levels of fluoride, phosphorus, and other chemicals in water quality samples, implying a correlation with fossil fuel extractive activities over this period. Land cover land use change analysis shows a decreased area of water bodies, wetland, and forests, and increased built capital and agricultural land. While economic boom cycles have led to cash inflows, an exclusive focus on the benefits of the oil and gas industry may leave those dependent on the industry vulnerable to social and environmental risk factors during bust cycles that are beyond their control in the everchanging global oil economy. This phenomenon which has been referred to as the “resource curse” suggests the need to anticipate cyclical (or more sustained) periods of low levels of oil and gas production. These results suggest that single boom-bust economies impact every aspect of social-ecological systems. Therefore, a sustainable development plan that comprehensively considers not only economic growth, but also diversification, environment protection, and strategic land use planning is indispensable to ensure the long-term development of communities that depend upon extractive industries.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0359.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: Land Cover; LIDAR; Sociodemographics; Built Environment; Urban Form; Air Quality; Social Justice; Environmental Justice; Policy; Localized Action.
Online: 16 September 2020 (11:15:01 CEST)
Multiple social and environmental justice concerns are linked to urban form such as the distribution of socioeconomic class populations, healthcare spending, air pollution exposure, and human mobility. This study used 1m resolved LIDAR data to characterize land use in Salt Lake County, Utah and associate it with sociodemographic and air quality data at the census block group and zip code levels. We found that increasing tree cover was associated with higher per capita income and lower minority populations while increasing built cover was linked to lower per capita income and higher minority populations. Air quality showed less strong correlations, however, decreased non irrigated cover, increased built cover, and higher amounts of households living under poverty was related to higher long-term PM2.5 exposure. Several policy efforts have been undertaken to improve air quality and reduce negative health outcomes in Utah which are being informed by regulatory and research grade air quality sensors.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0289.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: land surface temperature; operational land imager; thermal infrared sensor; normalized difference vegetation Index; geospatial technology
Online: 13 September 2020 (15:28:24 CEST)
Land Surface Temperature is a one of the key variable of Global climate changes and model which estimate radiating budget in heat balance as control of climate model. It is a major influenced factor by the ability of the surface emissivity. In this study, were used Landsat 8 satellite image that have Operational Land Imager and Thermal Infrared Sensor to calculate Land Surface Temperature through geospatial technology over Ampara district, Sri Lanka. The Land Surface Temperature was estimated with respect to Land Surface Emissivity and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index values determined from the Red and Near Infrared channels. Land Surface Emissivity was processed directly by the thermal Infrared bands. Pixels based calculation were used to effort at LANDSAT 8 images that thermal Band 10 various dates in this study. The results were achievable to compute Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, Land Surface Emissivity, and Land Surface Temperature with applicable manner to compare with land use/ land cover data. It determines and predicts the changes of surface temperature to favorable to decision making process for the society. Study area faces seasonal drought in Sri Lanka, the prediction method that how land can be efficiently used with the present condition. Therefore, the Land Surface Temperature estimation can prove whether new irrigation systems for agricultural activities or can transformed source of energy into useful form that introducing solar hubs for energy production in future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0277.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: socioecological systems; water ecosystem services; participatory mapping; stakeholder values; spatial analysis; river basin
Online: 13 September 2020 (11:43:38 CEST)
Reductions in water availability and increasing rainfall variability are generating a narrative of growing competition for water in the Mediterranean basin. In this article, we explore the distribution and importance of water resources in the Muga River Basin (Catalonia, Spain) based on key stakeholders’ perceptions. We performed a sociocultural evaluation of the main water ecosystem services in the region through stakeholder interviews and participatory mapping. The basin was generally perceived as a hotspot of ecosystem services, but we detected varying opinions and considerable differences in the perceptions of importance and spatial distribution of water ecosystem services. These discrepancies were linked to the varying levels of stakeholders’ dependence on water. Our findings are important for contributing to correct water planning and management in the river basin, which is a complex water social system marked by conflicts between different stakeholder groups vying for the same resource. This complex situation requires bottom-up strategies to create transparent, participatory decision-making models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0213.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: twitter; discourse analysis; Covid-19; Coronavirus; disinformation; misinformation; social media activity; downplay
Online: 10 September 2020 (03:28:01 CEST)
Misinformation can amplify humanity's most significant challenges. As the novel coronavirus spreads across the world, concerns regarding the spreading of misinformation about it and also people downplaying the severity of it are also growing. This article investigates social media activity in May 2020, specifically Twitter, with respect to COVID-19, the themes of tweets, where the discussion is emerging from, disinformation shared about the virus, and its relationship with COVID-19 incidence rate at the state and county level. A geodatabase of all geotagged COVID-19 related tweets was compiled. Multiscale Geographically Weighted Regression was employed to examine the association between social media activity, population, and the spatial variability of disease incidence; our results suggest that MGWR could explain 96.7% of the variations. Moreover, Covid-19 related twitter dataset content analysis reveals a meaningful strong spatial relationship that exists between social media activity and known cases of COVID-19. Discourses analysis was conducted on tweets to index tweets downplaying the Pandemic or disseminating disinformation; the discourses analysis findings suggest that states in where twitter users spread more misinformation and showed more resistance to pandemic management measures in May are experiencing a surge in the number of cases in July.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0195.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: urban governance; public participation; public comments; web-crawling data; qualitative content analysis; urban China
Online: 9 September 2020 (03:37:38 CEST)
Public participation is crucial in the process of urban governance in smart-city initiatives to enable urban planners and policy makers to take account of the real public needs. Our study aims to develop an analytical framework using citizen-centred qualitative data to analyse urban problems and identify the areas most needed for urban governance. Taking a Chinese megacity as the study area, we first utilise a web-crawling tool to retrieve public comments from an online comment board and employ the Baidu Application Programming Interfaces and a qualitative content analysis for data reclassification. We then analyse the urban problems reflected by negative comments in terms of their statistical and spatial distribution, and the associative factors to explain their formation. Our findings show that urban problems are dominantly related to construction and housing, and most frequently appear in industry-oriented areas and newly-developed economic development zones on the urban fringe, where the reconciling of government-centered governance and private governance by real estate developers and property management companies are most needed. Areas with higher land price and a higher proportion of aged population tend to have less urban problems, while various types of civil facilities affect the prevalence of urban problems differently.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0190.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: human mobility; COVID-19 spread; global pandemic; social restriction policy; Australia
Online: 8 September 2020 (11:31:16 CEST)
Policy induced decline of human mobility has been recognised to be effective in controlling the COVID-19 spread especially in the initial stage of the outbreak, although the relationship among mobility, policy implementation, and virus spread remains contentious. Coupling data of confirmed COVID-19 cases with Google mobility data in Australia, we present a state-level empirical study to: 1) inspect the temporal variation of COVID-19 spread and the change of mobility adherent to social restriction policies; 2) examine the extent that different types of mobility are associated with the COVID-19 spread in eight Australian states/territories; and 3) analyse the time-lag effect of mobility restriction on the COVID-19 spread. We find that social restriction policies implemented in the early stage of the pandemic controlled the COVID-19 spread effectively; the restriction of human mobility has a time-lag effect on growth rates, and the strength of the mobility-spread correlation increases up to seven days after policy implementation but decreases afterwards. The association between mobility and COVID-19 spread varies across space and time, and subjects to the types of mobility. Thus, it is important for governments to consider the degree to which lockdown conditions can be eased by accounting for this dynamic mobility-spread relationship.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0087.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: public space; smart-city; children; affordance; Sardinia
Online: 4 September 2020 (07:41:08 CEST)
The global process of urbanization, and the modification of social interaction determined by the pandemic crisis poses the issue of the place of vulnerable users, and in particular children, within the contemporary city. This research aims to elaborate a theoretical and methodological framework, based on the concepts of affordance and capability, for analyzing the potential of public spaces to enable and support children’s independent activities. This potential, or meaningful usefulness, is expressed by the Index of Meaningful Usefulness of public Urban Spaces (IUIS). The latter is calculated via the tool ‘Opportunities for Children in Urban Spaces’ (OCUS). This methodology is applied to the analysis of significant public spaces within the historic center of the city of Iglesias in Sardinia, Italy. The results reveal adequate usefulness of the selected spaces, while underlining criticalities related to intrinsic spatial and physical attributes. The application to the case study confirms the validity of the theoretical and methodological framework embodied in the OCUS tool for supporting urban design and planning by orienting place-shaping processes towards the acknowledgement of children’s needs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0048.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: urban planning; land management; urban sprawl; spatial analysis
Online: 3 September 2020 (03:59:55 CEST)
Numerous cities in our modern world are unfortunately encountering the negative effects of urban sprawl: this includes unrestricted settlement, degradation in the quality of their environment, traffic congestion, sub-standard buildings, and air pollution as well as flooding, swampy areas, landslides, and settlement zones with dilapidated utilities and infrastructures that are not safe for living. The Ulaanbaatar City land management master plan defined the settlement zone area suitable for living as 33,698 hectares. However, due to unrestricted urban sprawl caused by exponential growth of the city’s population, the settlement zone area reached 39,235 hectares, which exceeds the limit by 5,537 hectares. In order to tackle this issue, several urban planning concepts were developed to be implemented within the Ulaanbaatar City urban planning framework. It is, in any case, problematic to choose a single planning concept due to the fact that neither measurements nor analyses are being made of the respective spatial quantitative indicators in urban planning assumptions that are taking the current situation into consideration. One of the prerequisites for identifying an optimal concept in urban planning is an assessment of the current situation, and measuring the impacts against its quantitative data. In the current research, when defining Ulaanbaatar city sprawl, the base year was selected as 1990, the time when the city started to sprawl. Research analyses were made using geographic information systems based on the satellite data 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005 Landsat ТМ-5, 2010 Quickbird, 2015 World View and 2020 Sentinel2, respectively. Based on the results of determining the city sprawl using spatial indicators, the urban planning concepts applied thus far have been analyzed in relation to land use efficiency and land use structural changes. This research paper addresses the issue of reducing unrestricted urban sprawl by increasing the internal density of the city. The research results show that, by applying the concept of a compact city in urban redevelopment planning for 4,604 hectares, and by allocating the settlements in 12,479 hectares, it is possible to reduce the urban expansion threefold and increase land use efficiency accordingly.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0695.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: Tourism livelihood income; prevent COVID-19; protective intention; merged model; local tourism practitioners
Online: 31 August 2020 (04:37:04 CEST)
(1) Background: This study examines the intention to behave actively prevent COVID-19 among local tourism practitioners by adopting an empirically validated norm activation model (NAM) of Schwartz and merging it with the Expectancy theory of Vroom; (2) Methods: The study aims to develops a theoretical framework for understanding the formation and predicting the change of personal protective intention to prevent COVID-19. Based on 514 valid responses from the field surveys; (3) Results: The author develops the refined model including 7 constructs and 26 observational items, and the results showed that the refined model has enjoys a better predictive accuracy of protective intention than the original NAM; and (4) Conclusions: The intention of preventing COVID-19 should needs wider public support and advocacy, and recognizing the change rule of improving behavioral intentions of preventing COVID-19 to maintain the safe tourism image of tourist attractions in Zhangjiajie is also beneﬁts for local tourism practitioners.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0671.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: Land Suitability Analysis; Major crops; Land Management practice
Online: 30 August 2020 (15:07:23 CEST)
This study to assess the Physical Land Suitability Analysis for Cultivation of Selected Cool Weather Cereal Crops, Misha District, Hadiya Zone, South Central Ethiopia of major cereal crops of barley and teff in Misha district. Each of the criteria was separately reclassified and analyzed for their suitability for supporting barley and teff crops based on the FAO crop requirements specified for them. The major data sources were climatic data, soil, LGP and topographic data as well as key informant interview, questioner observation of crop requirements which have been considered to undertake suitability assessments of the study area. The factor maps like land use /land cover, temperature, rain fall, soil type and altitude were classified based on suitability evaluation methods of FAO and experts’ opinion. At final stage these were reclassified and standardized in GIS software extension tools, which led to the preparation of suitability analysis map of the major crops plant suitability classes. As part of spatial MCDM, AHP pair wise comparison module was used to derive internal and external weights for each individual factors and parameters respectively. Consequently, suitability analysis was done and weighted overlay suitability map was visualized with integration of GIS. The findings show that among total area of land suitability maps for both barley and teff cops were using weighted overlay techniques. The suitability map of teff crop shows that 12,038.22 hectare of the investigated area are highly suitable (S1), 19,646.07 hectare moderately suitable (S2) and 4,501.71 hectare marginally suitable (S3) and 112 hectare not suitable. On the other hand, the suitability map of barley crop shows that 7,898.52 hectare of the investigated area are highly suitable (S1), 22,830.08 hectare moderately suitable (S2), and 5,466.4 hectare marginally suitable (S3) and 103 hectare not suitable for economic reasons (N1). This was done for barley and Teff crops separately. Results of the study revealed that most of the lands in the study area are suitable for the cultivation of the selected crops and other crops. Based on finding, it could be recommended that this work would be used as policy guide for planners; investment could be successful in the District, further suitability research works should be carried out in order to optimize the major crop cultivation and production.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0620.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: Urban green space; COVID-19; urban parks; open space; New York City; urban infrastructure; equity
Online: 27 August 2020 (12:33:15 CEST)
Urban green spaces provide a range of environmental and health benefits, which may become even more critical during times of crisis such as the current COVID-19 pandemic. However, with a radical shift in mobility, additional concerns over safety, and access temporarily restricted during the implementation of social distancing policies, the experience and use of urban green spaces may be reduced. This is particularly concerning for densely populated cities like New York, considered the first U.S. epicenter or vanguard of the outbreak. To better understand the impact of COVID-19 on the perception and use of urban green spaces, we conducted a social survey during the early months of the Covid-19 pandemic in New York City (May 13 - June 15, 2020). The results of the survey show respondents continued to use urban green spaces during the pandemic and consider them to be more important for mental and physical health than before the pandemic began. However, the study revealed a pattern of concerns residents have about green space accessibility and safety, and found key differences between the concerns and needs of different populations, suggesting a crucial role for inclusive decision-making, support for additional management strategies, and urban ecosystem governance that reflect the differential values, needs and concerns of communities across the City. As urban centers face looming budget cuts and reduced capacity, this study provides some empirical evidence to illustrate the value of urban green spaces as critical urban infrastructure, and may have implications for funding, policy, and management, of urban green spaces in NYC, with potential applications to other cities, particularly during times of crisis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0579.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: SAHP (Spatial Analytical Hierarchy Process); Moringa Oleifera; multicriteria evaluation; GIS (Geographic Information System)
Online: 26 August 2020 (10:35:37 CEST)
Land suitability analysis is a basic premise for allocating specific land for specific purpose. The objective of this study was to predict the suitable sites for cultivating Moringa oleifera tree in Ethiopia using Spatial Analytic Hierarchy Process. Findings of this study will have paramount significance in supporting decision making in the agroforestry development sector. This study employs Spatial Analytic Hierarchy Process and Geographic Information System to generate valuable information in land allocation for moringa oleifera tree production. Climate, topography, soil type and land use parameters were evaluated for suitability analysis. The results of the study revealed that most of the central part of the country are categorized as moderately suitable for the production of moringa oleifera tree. Areas classified as highly suitable are distributed along the borders of southern and western part of the country. However, some of the central part was classified as not suitable for Moringa oleifera tree production. This paper tried to investigate analysis of spatial data to predict suitable site for moringa tree production at national level. At national level, highly suitable, moderately suitable, and not suitable class covers an area of 308,508.2, 1,628,930.8 and 59891.3 Square Kilometer respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0499.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: greenspace; NDVI; environmental justice; greenness; Sentinel; satellite; urban green; health equity
Online: 24 August 2020 (03:07:41 CEST)
This paper discusses the potential and limitations of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in environmental justice, health and inequality studies in urban areas. Very often the NDVI is correlated with socioeconomic and/or sociodemographic data to demonstrate the inequality in environmental settings that themselves influence individual health and questions of environmental justice. This paper addresses the limits of the NDVI for such applications and as well its potential, if applied properly. The overall goal is to make people of disciplines other than those that are geo-related aware of the characteristics, limits and potentials of satellite image-based information layers such as NDVI.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0487.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: Twitter; data reliability; risk communication; data mining; Google Cloud Vision API
Online: 22 August 2020 (02:32:40 CEST)
While Twitter has been touted to provide up-to-date information about hazard events, the reliability of tweets is still a concern. Our previous publication extracted relevant tweets containing information about the 2013 Colorado flood event and its impacts. Using the relevant tweets, this research further examined the reliability (accuracy and trueness) of the tweets by examining the text and image content and comparing them to other publicly available data sources. Both manual identification of text information and automated (Google Cloud Vision API) extraction of images were implemented to balance accurate information verification and efficient processing time. The results showed that both the text and images contained useful information about damaged/flooded roads/street networks. This information will help emergency response coordination efforts and informed allocation of resources when enough tweets contain geocoordinates or locations/venue names. This research will help identify reliable crowdsourced risk information to enable near-real time emergency response through better use of crowdsourced risk communication platforms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0364.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: coronavirus; urban socio-spatial vulnerability; health inequity; pandemic outbreak
Online: 17 August 2020 (11:42:07 CEST)
The pandemic outbreak of COVID-19 had begun in March of 2020 on a global scale. This outbreak has originated numerous questions for society and many challenges for public managers. The disease is worrying because it has a high propagation velocity, high lethality levels, and there is no cure. Some groups are considered more vulnerable due to pre-existing disease conditions, age-range, and living conditions. In Latin American countries, people live in different conditions than those who live in countries located in the North hemisphere, such as climatic conditions, less favorable socioeconomic conditions, different educational levels, inequality, precarious urban infrastructure, etc. These factors generate even more concern and uncertainty about the pandemic than in developed countries. This study aimed, although preliminarily, to identify areas of great socio-spatial vulnerability and susceptibility of infection of people over 60 years old of COVID-19 in Brasília, Brazil. In this research, publicly available data and information about the population characteristics and social aspects were used, all connected directly to the census sectors. With the support of Geographic Information System (GIS), a matrix was used to cross-check the data and, thereby, achieve the objective of identifying the most vulnerable sectors for people aged over 60 years old. The results point out to more than 400 census sectors classified as Extremely Vulnerable in Brasília and it should be the object of special attention for public managers to do specific health care actions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0371.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: tourism geography; city connectivity; tourism services value; functional role; urban urbanhierarchy; regional pattern
Online: 17 July 2020 (09:09:52 CEST)
[Background] Previous research achievements of the service-oriented tourist city network have often focused on the analysis of its geographical distribution and service role of the important cities instead of the connections and hierarchical tendencies between the whole city in a large region.[Method]Using big data approaches on the regional connections of 38 tourism organizations including famous hotels, air passenger transport, tourism service agencies across 63 most important tourist cities in China. Fuzzy c-means clustering analysis is used to define 8 city arena clusters. [Results]According to the distributions of connectivity between 63 cities, these eight clusters play different service functional roles in the urban tourism network at four hierarchies. With their “center-edge” memberships, these arena clusters are formed by the interweaving process of regional and hierarchical tourism service connections. The results include the analysis of the various service-oriented tourist city in China and point out the geography “gap” faced by network. [Conclusion] Service-oriented tourist cities need to find their hierarchies and positioning in the network scientifically to avoid blind development, to make regional urban tourism sustainable development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0270.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: VGI; Crowdsourcing; data quality; OSM; Volunteered geographic information; user participation; contribution pattern; OpenStreetMap
Online: 12 July 2020 (17:02:31 CEST)
Recent advancements in web-based geospatial software and smartphone technology have popularized the process of voluntary production and sharing of geospatial data by individual citizens. Through such Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) activities, people across the world participate in online mapping projects (such as OpenStreetMap) to insert their spatial information. The quality of data generated by such VGI activities has profound impacts on online mapping projects and their spatial database. In this study, we examine the VGI contribution pattern in OpenStreetMap through three case study neighborhoods located in three major cities: Tehran, London, and Los Angeles, and investigate how it might affect the process of quality assessment of VGI.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0257.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: Twitter; Spatiotemporal analysis; Mega-events; Olympic Games
Online: 12 July 2020 (14:25:23 CEST)
Olympic Games have a huge impact on the cities where they are held, both during the actual celebration of the event and before and after it. This study presents a new approach based on spatial analysis, GIS, and data coming from Location Based Social Networks to model the spatiotemporal dimension of impacts associated with the Rio 2016 Olympic Games. Geolocalized data from Twitter are used to analyze the activity pattern of users from two different viewpoints. The first monitors the activity of Twitter users during the event -the arrival of visitors, where they came from, and the use resident and tourist made of different areas of the city. The second assesses the spatiotemporal use of the city by Twitter users before the event, compared to the use during and after the event. The results not only reveal which spaces were the most used while the Games were being held but also changes in the urban dynamics after the Games. Both approaches can be used to assess the impacts of mega-events and to improve the management and allocation of urban resources such as transport and public services infrastructure.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0072.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: census; survey design; household survey; LMIC; WorldPop; LandScan
Online: 19 April 2020 (08:09:23 CEST)
Objective: In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), household survey data are a main source of information for planning, evaluation, and decision-making. Standard surveys are based on censuses, however, for many LMICs it has been more than ten years since their last census and they face high urban growth rates. Over the last decade, survey designers have begun to use modelled gridded population estimates as sample frames. We summarize the state of the emerging field of gridded population survey sampling, focussing on LMICs. Methods: We performed a systematic review and identified 43 national and sub-national gridded population-based household surveys implemented across 29 LMICs. Findings: Gridded population surveys used automated and manual approaches to derive clusters from WorldPop and LandScan gridded population estimates. After sampling, many surveys interviewed all households in each cluster or segment, though some sampled households from larger clusters. Tools to select gridded population survey clusters include the GridSample R package, Geo-sampling tool, and GridSample.org. In the field, gridded population surveys generally relied on geographically accurate maps based on satellite imagery or OpenStreetMap, and a tablet or GPS technology for navigation. Conclusions: For gridded population survey sampling to be adopted more widely, several strategic questions need answering regarding cell-level accuracy and uncertainty of gridded population estimates, the methods used to group/split cells into sample frame units, design effects of new sample designs, and feasibility of tools and methods to implement surveys across diverse settings.
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: satellite imagery; social indicator; urban; poverty; SDG
Online: 15 April 2020 (10:19:27 CEST)
Ninety percent of the people added to the planet over the next 30 years will live in African and Asian cities, and a large portion of these populations will reside in deprived neighborhoods defined by slum conditions, informal settlement, or inadequate housing. The four current approaches to neighborhood deprivation mapping are largely silo-ed, and each fall short of producing accurate, timely, comparable maps that reflect local contexts. The first approach, classifying “slum households” in census and survey data and aggregating to administrative areas, reflects household-level rather than neighborhood-level deprivation. The second approach, field-based mapping, can produce the most accurate and context-relevant maps for a given neighborhood, however it requires substantial resources, preventing up-scaling. The third and fourth approaches, human interpretation and machine classification of satellite, aerial, or drone imagery, both overemphasize informal settlements, and fail to represent key social characteristics of deprived areas such as lack of tenure, exposure to pollution, and lack of basic public services. The latter, machine classification of imagery, can be automated and extended to incorporate new and multiple sources of data. This diverse collection of authors represent experts from these four approaches to neighborhood deprivation mapping. We summarize common areas of understanding, and present a set of requirements to produce maps of deprived urban areas that can be used by local-to-international stakeholders for advocacy, planning, and decision-making.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0445.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: international tourism; coronavirus; COVID-19; post-viral tourism; recovery strategies
Online: 31 March 2020 (05:00:08 CEST)
The coronavirus pandemic will deeply affect the tourism and travel sector. It is already clear now that its economic impact would be more severe that in the case of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) in 2002-2003. Although not as deadly as SARS, coronavirus infection has a longer incubation period and leaves about 85% of the infected without any (or with just mild) symptoms which makes it more difficult to track and to contain. Moreover, it appears to be much more contagious than its predecessor. The goods news is that most people recover from the disease and develop antibodies that can protect them from getting infected again (natural vaccination). Those cured might become the key element for the post-virus recovery strategies of tourism organisations. People with the acquired immunity to the virus would be capable of travelling freely without spreading the disease. Airlines, hotels and gastronomy should aim at this group offering them discounts and special offers. However, the problem is how to effectively ensure that everyone who claims to be cured from COVID-19 is telling the truth. Health tracking bracelets, apps, and other advanced technological solutions should be put in place. Recent best practices from Hong Kong, mainland China, or India might be applied.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0243.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: classification; morphology; geoprocessing; variography; geostatistics
Online: 15 March 2020 (12:50:52 CET)
This paper presents a script that classify spatial patterns of residential urban growth using a morpho-structural approach. The script performs a combination of variography analysis and morphological closings over buildings possessing a residential function in 2002 and 2017 within a region located in southern France named Centre-Var. The different bounding regions then allow classifying new residential buildings into different categories according to their degrees of clustering/scattering and to their locations regarding existing urban areas. Preliminary results show that this protocol is able to provide useful insights regarding the degree of contribution of each new residential building to different patterns of urban growth (clustered infill, scattered infill, clustered edge-expansion, scattered edge-expansion, clustered leapfrog and scattered leapfrog). Open-access to the script and to the test region data is provided.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0213.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: cities; definition; megalopolis; large urban regions; functional urban regions; urban agglomerations; world; statistical delineation; comparative urban research
Online: 12 March 2020 (13:55:54 CET)
Cities’ delineation remains a hot topic of debate in a time where comparisons between cities are becoming increasingly based on different issues that address various scales of interventions and thus different concepts of cities. Aiming to compare cities and their insertion into globalization, we suggest that the “urban field of influence” is the best way to approach cities for this specific perspective. However, after reviewing the different existing possible concepts, we replace this concept with four different approaches proposed by Pumain et al. (1992): political entities, morphological agglomerations, functional urban areas and conurbations/Mega city regions. We discuss the top-down and bottom-up existing initiatives launched at the world scale and then use a mixed top-down and bottom-up approach to propose a new delineation of a large urban region (LUR), denoting a concept close to the conurbation or Mega city-region concept. The compositions of these LURs are published as an initial incomplete framework, suggesting the need for further critical comments and contributions to improve them.
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: agricultural activities; central region; forest cover depletion; LULC; urbanization
Online: 18 February 2020 (10:54:53 CET)
Cameroon territory is experiencing significant land use and land cover (LULC) changes since its independence in 1960. But the main relevant impacts are recorded since 1990 due to intensification of agricultural activities and urbanization. LULC effects and dynamics vary from one region to another according to the type of vegetation cover and activities. Using remote sensing, GIS and subsidiary data, this paper attempted to model the land use and land cover (LULC) change in the Centre Region of Cameroon that host Yaoundé metropolis. The rapid expansion of the city of Yaoundé drives to the land conversion with farmland intensification and forest depletion accelerating the rate at which land use and land cover (LULC) transformations take place. This study aims at assessing the impacts of both agriculture and urbanization on the LULC change in the Centre Region of Cameroon. A detailed LULC map from MAPBOX high resolution images and three LULC maps were produced from Landsat TM-OLI images (1984-2015). A maximum likelihood classification techniques using ERDAS Imagine, showed forest decline with a total loss of 54% in thirty years. Also, Landsat and MAPBOX images to which we added 1951 aerial photograph and SPOT 6 (2006) were used to analyse urban growth in the city of Yaoundé. The results show a remarkable urban spatial spread of the metropolis between 1951 and 2015, with a peak in 2000. Images processing enabled us to analyse the long term dynamics of LULC change since the 1950s in this Region using ArcGIS & QGIS software’s. Based on this dynamic, a LULC projection map was produced using Markov model on IDRISI Selva, demonstrating the decrease of the dense forest (45% in 2015 to 0.25% in 2050). It was estimated that by 2050, the entire dense forest can be depleted if nothing is done, while only 12.67% of the secondary forest would remain in the Region. Such a projected map is very useful to decision makers for council development and urban planning. This effective forest depletion ties with the hypothesis that urbanization of Yaoundé and its secondary surrounding satellite cities (within a radius of 30-100km) is a veritable driving force of deforestation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0292.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: cultural differences; spatial interaction patterns; emotion analysis; Zhihu topic data; cultural geography
Online: 22 December 2019 (10:05:48 CET)
As an important research content in cultural geography, the exploration and analysis of the laws of regional cultural differences has great significance for the discovery of distinctive cultures, protection of regional cultures and in-depth understanding of cultural differences. In recent years, with the "spatial turn" of sociology, scholars are paying more and more attention to the implicit spatial information in social media data and the various social phenomena and laws they reflect. One important aspect is to grasp the social cultural phenomena and its spatial distribution characteristics through the text. Using machine learning methods such as the popular natural language processing (NLP), this paper can not only extract hotspot cultural elements from text data but also accurately detect the spatial interaction pattern of some specific cultures and the characteristics of emotions towards non-native cultures. Taking the 6,128 answers to the question “what are the differences between South and North China that you never know” on the Zhihu Q&A Platform as an example, with the help of NLP, this paper has explored the cultural differences between South and North China in people’s mind. This paper probes into people’s feeling and cognition of the cultural differences between South and North China from three aspects, including spatial interaction patterns of hotspot cultural elements, components of hotspot culture and emotional characteristics under the influence of cultural differences between North and South. The study reveals that 1) people from North and South China have great differences in recognizing each other’s culture. 2) Food culture is the most popular among many cultural differences. 3) People tend to show negative attitude towards the food cultures different from their own. All these findings shed light upon the understanding of regional cultural differences and addressing cultural conflicts. In addition, this paper also provides an effective solution to the study from a macro perspective, which have been difficult for new cultural geography.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0268.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: environmental health science; community engagement; community based participatory research; community-university partnerships
Online: 20 December 2019 (07:07:29 CET)
Community-engaged research is understood as existing on a continuum from less to more community engagement, defined by participation and decision-making authority. It has been widely assumed that more is better than less engagement. However, we argue that what makes for good community engagement is not simply the extent but the fit or alignment between the intended approach and the various contexts shaping the research projects. This article draws on case studies from three Community Engagement Cores (CECs) of NIEHS-funded Environmental Health Science Core Centers (Harvard University, UC Davis and University of Arizona,) to illustrate the ways in which community engagement approaches have been fit to different contexts and the successes and challenges experienced in each case. We analyze the processes through which the CECs work with researchers and community leaders to develop place-based community engagement approaches and find that different strategies are called for to fit distinct contexts. We find that alignment of the scale and scope of the environmental health issue and related research project, the capacities and resources of the researchers and community leaders, and the influences of the socio-political environment are critical for understanding and designing effective and equitable engagement approaches. These cases demonstrate that the types and degrees of alignment in community-engaged research projects are dynamic and evolve over time. Based on this analysis, we recommend that CBPR scholars and practitioners select a range of project planning and management techniques for designing and implementing their collaborative research approaches and both expect and allow for the dynamic and changing nature of alignment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0251.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: sustainability development; land use change; Corine Land Cover
Online: 19 December 2019 (07:21:51 CET)
The article presents the author's method of land use change assessment in the context of sustainable development and the results of its application based on the transformations that occurred in individual areas of Europe in the years 2012–2018. This method is based on data from the CORINE Land Cover program and local government units presenting the degree of urbanization (DEGURBA). The authors evaluate the transformations taking place in space, reducing them to economic, social and environmental dimensions. They then analyse the results in terms of space (covering the entire Europe) and in terms of division into: large cities, small towns as well as suburbs and rural areas. It has been shown that: development of the economic dimension most often takes place at the expense of natural resources; the higher the population density and more important function in the functional system of a given country, the greater the sustainable development differentiation level in the analysed dimensions, of which the social dimension is characterized by the lowest differentiation and the economic dimension is the highest; development of rural areas is less sustainable than in case of large urban centres. The result interpretation also leads to the conclusion that the areas of Europe are very diverse in terms of sustainable development. However, the method itself, despite the imperfections observed by the authors, may be used in further or similar studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0007.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: urban; growth model; forecast; built; settlement; machine learning; time series
Online: 2 December 2019 (05:15:03 CET)
Advances in the availability of multitemporal and global built-/human-settlements datasets as derived from Remote Sensing (RS) can now provide globally consistent definitions of “human-settlement” at unprecedented spatial fineness. Yet, these data only provide a time-series of past extents and urban growth/expansion models have not had parallel advances at high-spatial resolution. We present a flexible modelling framework for producing annual built-settlement extents in the near future past last observed extents as provided by RS-based data. Using a random forest and autoregressive temporal models with short time-series of built-settlement extents and subnational level data, we predict annual 100m resolution binary settlement extents five years beyond the last observations. We applied this framework within varying contexts and predicted annual extents from 2010 to 2015. We found that our model framework preformed consistently across all sample countries and, when compared to time-specific imagery, demonstrated the capacity to capture human-settlement missed by the input time-series and validation extents. When comparing building footprints of small settlements to forecast extents, we saw that the modelling framework had a 12 percent increase in ground-truth accuracy. This framework shows promise for predicting near-future settlement extents, and provides a foundation for forecasts further into the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0277.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: urban diversity; commercial landscape; small retail unit; mon-and-pop store
Online: 24 November 2019 (13:21:12 CET)
After globalization, South Korea’s retail landscape has been saturated with large-scale, corporate type retails. However, recently new commercial districts composed of small retail units are returning and bringing about a change. This study sought to take note of this phenomenon and identify its features and meanings from the perspective of urban ecology. A density-distribution analysis was conducted to investigate how they were forms, and an analysis of traces on the Internet and an analysis on the types of businesses were done to identify sociocultural characteristics. Results showed that they had similar type of locations and growth patterns, that they harmoniously congregated in a form of smaller-individual stores, and that their use of similar names for their stores had an impact of branding their entire districts. It was also noted that a shared culture through social networking services served as a growth boost for their unfavorable location. The spontaneous formation of such commercial districts can be an outcome of an urban ecological process geared toward blank niches burgeoning in the current retail structure of Korea. The causes and conditions found in the cases reveal meaningful policy implications for cities facing the same urban crisis diversity.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0187.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: maptable; interactive PSS; collaborative planning; PSS; stakeholders; participation
Online: 16 November 2019 (00:49:02 CET)
Interactive Planning Support Systems (PSS) implemented on a maptable are deemed suitable to support participatory planning processes. Through their interactive nature and user-friendly interface they are supposed to facilitate exchange of knowledge between stakeholders, consensus building among them, group learning processes, and thereby strengthen participation. We analyze in this systematic review, based on 16 case studies using interactive PSS, how such PSS have contributed to the goal of strengthening stakeholder participation. Results show that tools and applications have become more sophisticated in recent years and the goals of the studies changed from collaboratively designing interventions to observing and understanding how the application of such tools contributes to improved plan outcomes and group based learning. However, many case studies lack a proper framework and operationalization for investigating the impacts of the tools and applications on participation. Consequently, impacts on participation are assessed rather incidentally based on implicit assumptions and often no distinction is made between the different aspects of participation. In conclusion, further theoretical studies conceptualizing impacts of interactive PSS on participation are needed as well as empirical studies testing these impacts in real world case contexts with various groups of stakeholders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0051.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: urban structure; urban form; urban fabric; Japan; Osaka
Online: 4 October 2019 (11:52:16 CEST)
The Japanese city presents a certain number of peculiarities in the organization of its physical space (weak zoning regulations, fast piecemeal destruction/reconstruction of buildings and blocks, high compacity, incremental reorganization). Compared to countries where urban fabrics are more perennial and easily distinguishable (old centers, modern planned projects, residential areas, etc.), in Japanese metropolitan areas we often observe higher heterogeneity and more complex spatial patterns. Even within such a model, it should be possible to recognize the internal organization of the physical city. The aim of this paper is thus to study the spatial structure of the contemporary Japanese city, generalizing on the case study of Osaka and Kobe. In order to achieve this goal, we will need to identify urban forms at different local scales (building types, urban fabrics) and to analyze them at a wider scale to delineate morphological regions and their structuring of the overall layout of the contemporary Japanese city. Several analytical protocols are used together with field observations and literature. The results, and more particularly the building and urban fabrics types and their location within the Osaka-Kobe metropolitan area, are interpreted in the light of Japanese history and model of urbanization. A synoptic graphical model of an urban morphological structure based upon Osaka is produced and proposed as an interpretative pattern for the Japanese metropolitan city in general.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0320.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: water; agriculture; migration; caribbean sids; climate change
Online: 29 September 2019 (02:54:00 CEST)
Caribbean SIDS are among the most vulnerable to climate change which will have a disproportionate impact on local environments and economies. Whilst there is a growing literature on how Caribbean SIDS can adapt to become more resilient a question that has received little attention is with regard to migration as an unplanned response. It is recognised that events such as hurricanes and flooding can lead to internal relocation in the short term but societal responses to droughts through migration have not generally been investigated. This paper seeks to address this by considering the case of the island of Carriacou, part of the state of Grenada. Carriacou with its small population, limited land area and local economy, historically based on agriculture has had a high degree of migration. This is in part a response to limited economic opportunities. Environmental stress manifest through limited water availability, inappropriate land management and social conditions is likely to be exacerbated by climate change and variability. Resultant increases in the frequency and intensity of droughts, in the absence of proactive interventions, are likely to result in non-linear migration, both to Grenada itself and beyond.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0153.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: vehicle park violations; POI; urban safety; urban healthy living; parking prediction
Online: 15 September 2019 (15:52:05 CEST)
Car parking is a challenging part of urban transportation and the traffic violations around it cause many problems for citizens. In recent years, due to the fast growth and development of urbanization, temporary and unauthorized stopping of cars along the streets, especially in large cities, has led to an increased traffic, urban disorders, dangers for citizens, and violation of rules. Studies have shown that there is a direct relationship between vehicle parking violations and urban places. GIScience capabilities and tools play an important role in analysing the spatial distribution of these violations. In this study, we investigated the spatial distribution of vehicle violations in a region of Tehran, Iran that is suffering from a heavy traffic load and heavily polluted air. Although two dissimilar urban segregations exist in the north and south of the study area, our analysis indicates a similar pattern of car parking violations. In both of the areas, about 70% of all curb parks are legal, while the remaining are illegal. Also, spatial analysis reveals a direct relationship between some POIs and the occurrence of car park violations so that the density of legal curb parks is high near some POIs, and less near some others and vice versa. For example, the number of vehicle park violation around the hospitals is more than the average of the study area. However, the number of park violations around the universities is less than the average. Our findings reveal that co-location of certain POIs, for instance a hotel and a supermarket will lead to an increase in the number of park violations. In other words, there is a strong correlation between the type of POIs and curb-parks violations. Our results also show that POIs have an impact radius that leads to violations occurring in that area. For example, the area of the impact of a hospital on the creation of car park violations was estimated at 125 meters. Our presented approach along with the discussed findings along with conclusions can be useful to a large range of stakeholders including urban planner, traffic police departments, local municipalities, law enforcement agencies, and environmentalists to have a better perspective of infrastructure planning.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0089.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: nighttime light data; human activities; karst rocky desertification; environmental impact; China
Online: 8 September 2019 (16:49:12 CEST)
Due to remarkable socioeconomic development, an increasing number of karst rocky desertification areas have been severely affected by human activities in southern China. Effectively analyzing human activities in karst rocky desertification areas is a critical prerequisite for managing and restoring areas with tremendous negative impacts from desertification. At present, a timely and accurate way of quantifying the spatiotemporal variations of human activities in karst rocky desertification areas is still lacking. In this communication, we attempted to quantify human activities from the corrected NPP-VIIRS nighttime light data from 2012 to 2018 based on statistical analysis. The results show that a significant increase of night lights could be clearly identified during the study period. The total nighttime lights (TL) related to severe karst rocky desertification (S) were particularly concentrated in Guizhou and Yunnan. The nighttime light intensity (LI) related to the S areas in Chongqing were the strongest due to its rapid socioeconomic development. The annual growth rate of nighttime lights (GL) has been slow or even negative in Guangdong because of its various karst rocky desertification restoration programs. This communication could provide an effective approach for quantifying human activities and provide useful information about where prompt attention is required for policy-making on the restoration of the karst rocky desertification areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0262.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: land use and cover; land surface temperature; built-up land; agricultural land; gradient analysis; Nuwara Eliya; Sri Lanka
Online: 26 August 2019 (05:07:33 CEST)
Although urbanization has contributed to improving living conditions, it has had negative impacts on the natural environment in the urbanized areas. Urbanization has changed the urban landscape and resulted in increasing land surface temperature (LST). Thus, studies related to LST in various urban environments have become a popular research topic. However, few LST studies focusing on the mountain landscapes (i.e. hill stations) have been carried out. The primary objective of this study is to investigate changes in the landscape and their impacts on LST intensity (LSTI) in the tropical mountain city of Nuwara Eliya, Sri Lanka. The study utilized annual median temperatures extracted from Landsat data collected from 1996 to 2017 based on the Google Earth Engine (GEE) interface. The fractions of built-up (BL), forest (FL), and agricultural (AL) land were calculated using land use and cover maps based on the urban-rural zone (URZ) analysis. The urban-rural margin was demarcated based on the fraction of BL (<10%) and LSTI was measured using the mean LST difference in the urban-rural zone. In addition, the mixture of land use types was calculated using the AL/FL and BL/FL fraction ratios, and grid-based density analysis. The result shows that the BL in all URZ rapidly developed, while AL decreased during the period 1996 to 2017. There was minimal change in the forest area of the Nuwara Eliya owing to the government forest preservation policies. The fraction of the BL increased from 32.4% in 1996 to 58.7% in 2017 in the city center zone (URZ1) resulting in increased mean LST by 4.7 °C. Furthermore, the increase of the BL/FL fraction ratio and the decrease of the AL/FL fraction ratio were positively correlated with the mean LST. Grid-based analysis showed an increasing positive relationship between mean LST and density of BL. This indicated that BL density has been a crucial element in increasing LST in the study area. The results of this study will be a useful indicator to introduce improved landscape and urban planning in the future to minimize the negative impact of LST on urban sustainability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0070.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: city; large urban regions; Russia; globalization; open database
Online: 6 August 2019 (08:33:24 CEST)
This study explores how to delineate Russian cities in order to make them comparable on the world scale. In doing so we introduce the concept of large urban regions (LUR) applicable to the Russian urban context. This research is motivated by a principal research question: how to construct a statistical urban delineation, which would allow first, to demonstrate integration of cities into globalization, and second, to make global urban comparative research. Previous studies on urban delineation in Russia have focused almost exclusively on functional urban areas, which have substantial limitations and are not suitable for global urban comparisons. Addressing this research gap, we propose a new definition of Large Urban Regions (LUR). In doing so, first, we introduce the context of Russian cities (2), then we discuss existing Russian urban concepts (3), and justify a need for a new urban delineation (4). Afterwards, we present a general method to delineate Large Urban Regions in Russian context (5.1), and illustrate it in the two case studies of St. Petersburg (polycentric region) and Samara (monocentric region) (5.2). In the last part (6), we discuss the 10 the largest urban regions in Russia and describe a constructed database including all Russian LURs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0066.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: Anthropocene; resilience; social-ecological systems; sustainability; transitions; wilderness
Online: 6 August 2019 (03:36:20 CEST)
Since the late 1980s the idea of sustainable development has been gaining widespread recognition as a guiding framework for policies on development and the environment. However, the concept of sustainable development has received a number of criticisms, including its over-emphasis on meeting human needs through economic growth, as well as its failure to recognize dynamic human-environment interactions. In response to these shortfalls, the concepts of resilience and adaptive governance have emerged as alternative perspectives for pursuing sustainable development. Resilience in social-ecological systems emphasizes the capacity of coupled human-environment systems to deal with change while continuing to develop. Adaptive governance relies on diverse and nested institutional mechanisms for connecting actors across multiple scales to manage conflicts and uncertainties in ecosystem management processes. However, the ethical dimensions of resilience and adaptive governance have not received enough attention. A promising ethical perspective for guiding policies on human-environment interactions is the philosophy of deep ecology which highlights the need for recognition of the intrinsic values of all living things, as well as the nurturing of ecological and cultural diversity. We argue that an integration of the principles of deep ecology and adaptive governance provides a complementary set of ethical principles and institutional attributes that offers better prospects for pursuing sustainable development in the era of the Anthropocene. The implications of this integrative agenda include: adoption of a holistic conception of dynamic human-environment interactions; recognition of diverse knowledge systems through an anti-reductionist approach to knowledge; promotion of long term sustainability through respect for ecological and cultural diversity; and embracing decentralization and local autonomy. We further illustrate this integrative agenda using the management of protected areas as a case study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0014.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: decision-making; tourism; sustainable development goals; Iceland; synergies; trade-offs
Online: 1 July 2019 (12:10:11 CEST)
The development of major economic sectors can provide the bedrock on which long-lasting national economic prosperity is formed. Iceland’s tourism sector is an example of a rapidly expanded industry in recent years, to the extent that it has become the largest sectoral contributor to the nation’s economy. The growth of the sector has led to a number of sustainability impacts, thus presenting opportunities and challenges in terms of meeting the seventeen Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) of the United Nations. Using the case study of Iceland, this paper aims to advance conceptual understanding of the synergies and trade-offs between a nation’s tourism sector and performance across the 169 targets of the SDGs. Empirical results were derived from four theme-based focus groups, comprised of expert participants, who were tasked with completing scoresheets concerning their perception of the extent of synergies and trade-offs for each target. The majority (126 in number) of the mean scoresheet outcomes for the SDG targets revealed neither synergies nor trade-offs. However, 32 synergies and 11 trade-offs were identified. Many of the target synergies related to new economic opportunities, such as jobs, employment and training for young people. Target trade-offs tended to be environmental and social. In particular, concern was voiced about the greenhouse gas emissions of the Icelandic tourism sector, which derives from international aviation, cruise ships and rental car usage. The outcomes of this study are of particular relevance to tourism companies, policy-makers and governance institutes, all of whom are increasingly endeavouring to link their activities with the fulfilment of the SDGs, maximising synergies, mitigating the extent of any potential trade-offs, and potentially transforming trade-offs into synergies. Furthermore, the results are likely of interest to academics focused on researching the broad sustainability impacts of economic sectors and their contribution to meeting the visionary goals of the SDGs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0230.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: urban fabrics; seismic vulnerability; critic analysis; cost modelling; Urban preservation programming; building works programming
Online: 23 June 2019 (14:08:14 CEST)
Vulnerability is the big issue of the small inland urban centers exposed to the risk of depopulation. In the climate and in the context of an increasing seismic risk in the center-northern part of Italy, seismic vulnerability can become the determinant cause of the final abandonment of a small town. In some Italian regions, as well as Emilia Romagna, municipalities are implementing seismic vulnerability reduction policies based on the Emergency Limit Condition that has become a basic reference for ordinary land planning. This study proposes a valuation planning approach to the seismic vulnerability reduction carried out within the general planning framework concerning the Faentina Union, a group of five small towns located in the south-western part of the Province of Ravenna, Italy. The approach consists of three main stages: knowledge – the typological, constructive and technological description of the buildings specifically concerning their vulnerability degree; interpretation – the analyses aimed to outline a range of hypotheses about the damages in case of seism; planning – identifying the works intended to definitely reduce the vulnerability of the buildings. This stage includes a cost modelling tools aimed at outlining the trade-off between the extension and the intensity of the vulnerability reduction works, given the budget.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0222.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: water consumption; water metabolism; tourism destination; resilience; non-conventional water resources; sustainable tourism; overtourism; shortage; Spain
Online: 22 June 2019 (11:52:42 CEST)
Tourism, and particularly residential tourism, has led to a change in the urban and demographic model of towns along the European Mediterranean coastline. Water as a limited and limiting resource for the growth of tourism is a popular topic in the scientific literature. However, the incorporation of non-conventional resources (desalination) has meant, in theory, that this limitation has been overcome. The aims of this paper are: a) to identify the different tourism models implanted in this territory and describe them from the point of view of their consumption of water in the demand cycle from 2002 to 2017; b) analyse the hydrosocial cycle, highlighting the measures aimed at satisfying water demand; and c) identify the limitations associated with these hydrosocial systems. To this end, different types of information will be processed, and various complex indicators produced. The results show the importance that demand management and the use of desalinated water in increasing the resilience of this territory to aridity. However, this has generated other problems associated with a tsunami of construction and the continuity of a non-sustainable territorial model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0049.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: mobile phone data; residents commuting behavior; agent-based model; urban planning; traffic congestion
Online: 6 June 2019 (11:31:48 CEST)
Abstract：Commuting of residents in big city often brings tidal traffic pressure or congestions. Understanding the causes behind this phenomenon is of great significance for urban space optimization. Various spatial big data make possible the fine description of urban residents travel behaviors, and bring new approaches to related studies. The present study focuses on two aspects: one is to obtain relatively accurate features of commuting behaviors by using mobile phone data, and the other is to simulate commuting behaviors of residents through the agent-based model and inducing backward the causes of congestion. Taking the Baishazhou area of Wuhan, a local area of a mega city in China, as a case study, travel behaviors of commuters are simulated: the spatial context of the model is set up using the existing urban road network and by dividing the area into travel units; then using the mobile phone call detail records (CDR) of a month, statistics of residents' travel during the four time slots in working day mornings are acquired and then used to generated the OD matrix of travels at different time slots; and then the data are imported into the model for simulation. By the preset rules of congestion, the agent-based model can effectively simulate the traffic conditions of each traffic intersection, and can also induce backward the causes of traffic congestion using the simulation results and the OD matrix. Finally, the model is used for the evaluation of road network optimization, which shows evident effects of the optimizing measures adopted in relieving congestion, and thus also proves the value of this method in urban studies.
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: land degradation; participatory methods; photo elicitation; Sahel; local knowledge; remote sensing
Online: 15 April 2019 (12:45:49 CEST)
Land degradation monitoring and assessment in the Sahel zone has relied substantially on temporal trends of remote sensing-based vegetation indices, which are proxies for the bioproductivity of the land. However, prior studies have shown that negative or positive trends in bioproductivity are not necessarily associated with degradation or improvement of land condition. In this short communication, while acknowledging the contributions of remote sensing-based indices and global-scale datasets to dismantling an outdated desertification narrative, we argue that local land users have much to contribute to our understanding of land degradation, and particularly to ensuring that scientific assessments of degradation capture variables relevant to them. We used the participatory photo elicitation method in three sites in the Senegalese Ferlo in order to elicit local pastoralists’ perspectives on land degradation and identify the indicators that they use to characterize pasture quality, while empowering them to lead the discussion. The discussion revealed indicators far beyond bioproductivity, including livestock performance as well as composition and quality of the herbaceous and woody vegetative cover, invasive species, soil quality and water availability. We found that the pastoralists’ knowledge and interest in the issue could potentially be harnessed more systematically, and at larger scales, in order to build a spatially explicit field-based knowledge base of land degradation complementary to remote sensing-based maps of trends in bioproductivity. Such a dataset could serve as a standalone product or as a reference dataset for development and validation of remote sensing-based indicators.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0255.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: dog theft; pet theft; dogs; pets, crime; animal geography; GIS
Online: 28 March 2019 (06:40:57 CET)
Dogs are considered property under UK law, while current discourses of pet ownership place canine companions as part of an extended family. This means sentences for those who steal dogs are not reflective of a dogs’ sentience and agency, rather reflecting the same charges for those who steal a laptop or wallet. This is particularly problematic as dog theft is currently on the rise in England and Wales and led to public calls to change the law. Recognizing that a more robust analysis of dog theft crime statistics is required, we gathered dog theft data for 2015, 2016 and 2017 from 37 of 44 police forces through FOI requests. This paper uses this data to examine how dog theft crime statistics are constructed; assesses the strengths and weaknesses of this data; and categorizes, maps and measures dog theft changes temporally per police force in England and Wales. Our findings reveal there has been an increase in dog theft crimes, 1,294 in 2015, 1,525 in 2016 (+17.85%), and 1,678 in 2017 (+10.03%); and a decrease in court charges related to dog theft crimes, 62 (4.7%) in 2015, 48 (3.14%) in 2016, 37 (2.2%) in 2017. There were police force inconsistencies in recording dog theft crime which meant some data was unusable or could not be accessed or analysed. There is a need for a qualitative study to understand dog theft crime in different areas, and standardised approach to recording the theft of a dog by all forces across England and Wales.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0087.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: Noise mapping; END directive; GIS; open source; standards, road traffic; population exposure
Online: 11 February 2019 (09:48:53 CET)
The urbanisation phenomenon and related cities expansion and transport networks entail preventing the increase of population exposed to environmental pollution. Regarding noise exposure, the Environmental Noise Directive demands on main metropolis to produce noise maps. While based on standard methods, these latter are usually generated by proprietary software and require numerous input data concerning, for example, the buildings, land use, transportation network and traffic. The present work describes an open source implementation of a noise mapping tool fully implemented in a Geographic Information System compliant with the Open Geospatial Consortium standards. This integration makes easier at once the formatting and harvesting of noise model input data, cartographic rendering and output data linkage with population data. An application is given for a French city, which consists in estimating the impact of road traffic-related scenarios in terms of population exposure to noise levels both in relation to a threshold value and level classes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0301.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: geostatistics; spatial modeling; KDE; OHSA; IDW; tourism; Coimbra
Online: 30 January 2019 (05:21:59 CET)
Spatial modeling in Geographic Information Systems (GIS) always involves choices. The existence of constraints, either of a financial nature or related to the specifics of the software itself, to the algorithms, the uncertainty and even the reliability of the data, the purposes and the applications of the studies, make this a kind of guiding compass for GIS analysts. Building on a previous exercise of data acquisition (check-ins) based on two Digital Social Networks (DSN—Facebook and Foursquare) and on the awareness of the use of voluntary geographic information generated by tourists sharing their topophilic ties through DSN, the present analysis aims to evaluate the contribution of modern techniques of spatial analysis applied to tourism in the “Alta and University of Coimbra” area. Concepts and procedural tasks related to density determination, cluster analysis and identification of patterns associated with regionalized variables have thus been implemented with the purpose of evaluating and comparing the results obtained through the application of two techniques of spatial analysis, Kernel Density Estimation (KDE) and Optimized Hot-Spot Analysis (OHSA) & Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) Interpolation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0181.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: coffee shop, single origin, connoisseur consumers, sustainable consumption, dynamics capabilities
Online: 17 December 2018 (09:33:49 CET)
Sustainable consumption became the community’s attention as the respond of worrying consumption growth direction that tends to excessively exploit nature without considering the continuity of the next generation. Take into account the growing coffee consumption in Indonesia, this article tries to prove whether the connoisseur consumers (CCs) are capable to mediate dynamics capabilities (DCs) of single origin coffee shops (SOCSs) and to encourage the consumption sustainability. In-depth interview to 30 SOCS managers, 60 baristas and 450 consumers, it is found that CCs are capable of supporting the business continuity of SOCSs because they are loyal consumers with the contribution of more than 20% from the total consumers. Correlation testing between connoisseurs’ attributes and the number of visits also shows positive value. It means there is a significant relationship. In addition, related to the sustainability attribute, the existence of CCs has encouraged the practice of consumption sustainability. At the same time, CCs are capable to moderate SOCSs to improve sensing, seizing, and transforming shop management to put up with the competition. Based on the above findings, CCs are moderating SOCSs in improving their DCs to be more potential in improving the sustainable consumption of coffee commodity in the future.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0599.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: geographies of disruption; data analytics; policy intervention; Uber; disruptive technology; disruptive innovation; path dependency; platform development; platform economics
Online: 27 November 2018 (06:52:38 CET)
The topic of technology development and its disruptive effects has been the subject of much debate over the last 20 years with numerous theories at both macro and micro scale offering potential models of technology progression and disruption. This paper focuses on how the potential theories of technology progression can be integrated and considers whether suitable indicators of this progression and any subsequent disruptive effects (particularly considering these geographically) might be derived, based on the use of big data analytic techniques. Given the magnitude of the economic, social and political implications of many disruptive technologies, the ability to quantify disruptive change at the earliest possible stage could deliver major returns by reducing uncertainty, assisting public policy intervention and managing the technology transition through disruption into deployment. However, determining when this stage has been reached is problematic because small random effects in the timing, direction of development, the availability of essential supportive technologies or “platform” technologies, market response or government policy can all result in failure of a technology, its form of adoption or optimality of implementation. This paper reviews some of the key models of technology evolution and their disruptive effect including, in particular, the geographical spread of disruption. It suggests a methodology for utilising the recent explosion of open and web-discoverable data to determine a methodology to achieve this earlier determination and considers the potential exploitation of big data modelling and predictive analytical techniques to achieve this goal.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0410.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: social representations; natural hazard risk; Alpine hazards; risk communication; risk management; qualitative risk research;
Online: 16 November 2018 (13:35:01 CET)
The term “risk” is connoted with divergent meanings in natural hazard risk research and the practice of risk management. Whilst the technical definition is accurately defined, in practice, the term “risk” is often synonymously used with “danger”. Considering this divergence as a deficiency, risk communication often aims to correct laypersons’ understanding. We suggest in reference to Breakwell (2001) to treat the variety of meanings as a resource for risk communication strategies instead. However, there is no investigation so far, of what laypersons’ meanings of risk actually comprise. To address this gap, we examine the meanings of risk applying a social representations approach (Moscovici, 2001) in a qualitative case study design. Results of the study among inhabitants of Swiss mountain villages show that differences in meanings were found according to hazard experience and community size. We found commonly shared core representations, and single peripheral ones. We conclude with suggestions on how to make usage of the knowledge on SR in risk communication.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0661.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: national parks; ecosystem service value; natural infrastructure; natural capital
Online: 29 October 2018 (07:11:30 CET)
The annual budget for the United States National Park Service was roughly three billion dollars in 2016. This is distributed amongst 405 National Parks, 23 national scenic and historic trails, and 60 wild and scenic rivers. Entrance fees and concessions generate millions of dollars in income for the National Park Service; however, this metric fails to account for the total value of the National Parks. In failing to consider the value of the ecosystem services provided by the National Parks we fail to quantify and appreciate the contributions our parks make to society. This oversight allows us to continue to underfund a valuable part of our natural capital and consequently damage our supporting environment, national heritage, monetary economy, and many of our diverse cultures. We explore a simple benefits transfer valuation of the United States national parks using National Land Cover Data from 2011 and ecosystem service values determined by Costanza (et al). This produces an estimate suggesting the parks provide $84 billion / year in ecosystem service value. If the natural infrastructure 'asset' that is our national park system had a budget comparable to a piece of commercial real estate of this value, the annual budget of the National Park Service would be roughly an order of magnitude larger at something closer to $30 billion rather than $3 billion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0610.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: land price map; land use development; GIS; spatio-temporal changes; sustainability; Olomouc
Online: 25 October 2018 (14:23:11 CEST)
Land price sustainability issues have been addressed by many authors in the past. Most of these researchers used land prices (from land price maps) as the primary data source in their studies. Only a few papers analysed official land price maps, which are available very rarely. For this reason, we studied the spatial and temporal changes of land prices in the city of Olomouc based on an analysis of official land price maps from 1993 to 2017. We proposed several research hypotheses to confirm some general statements about land price development. We concluded that some macroeconomic indicators had a significant impact on changes in land prices. In the residential and commercial areas and historical centre, land prices are significantly higher than in other monitored aspects (land-use types). We also concluded that no link existed between land-use stability and land price stability. Surprisingly, no long-term stable areas were found in the area of interest. The analysis also confirmed that land price and its change over time varied in different spatial aspects. Surprisingly, the smallest influence was reflected in the economic aspect. Regarding natural events in recent decades, we observed a significant drop in land prices in the vicinity of watercourses threatened by flooding. These findings can assist in better understanding local development and changes in land price.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0492.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: dispersed urbanism; residential strategies; residential mobility; economic crisis; Barcelona Metropolitan Region; social crisis; land squandering
Online: 22 October 2018 (12:14:10 CEST)
The development of dispersed urbanism in Spain ran parallel to the real estate boom and consolidated a new model of city sprawl based on the expansion of suburban areas. This process, which started in the mid 1980s, came to a halt with the onset of the economic crisis in 2007. With it, construction stopped, mobility fell and urban growth came to a standstill. The purpose of this article is to carry out an analysis of the recent evolution and chronology of the expansion of dispersed urbanism in the Barcelona Metropolitan Region (BMR) in order to gain an insight into some of the explanatory factors of such expansion and to deal with the future prospects of middle-term development of dispersed urbanism in the BMR and in Spain. To do this, we examine the trends in the housing market, in residential mobility and we take stock of the impact of business cycles. The conclusion is that dispersed areas retain their appeal in the stages of creation and expansion of households. For this reason, an effective economic recovery and a renewed rise in the price of housing in denser cities may contribute to an upturn in the popularity of the dispersed residential model, which nowadays could be considered to be in a ‘lethargic’ stage, waiting for certain factors to coincide and re-activate its expansion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0447.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: socio-environmental vulnerability; Barcelona; spatial analysis; qualitative methodology; GIS
Online: 19 October 2018 (11:33:48 CEST)
The city of Barcelona, like other cities in the world, suffers strong internal socio-economic inequalities. Numerous works have sought to detect, quantify, characterize and / or map existing intra-urban differences, almost always based on quantitative methodologies. With this contribution, we intend to illuminate the complementary role that qualitative methodologies can play in studies on urban socio-environmental vulnerability. We consider aspects that are not quantifiable but that may be inherent to many such vulnerable spaces, both in the constructed environment and in the social ambit. These questions are considered through selected neighborhoods of Barcelona which have been shown (in prior works, mainly studies of quantitative manufacturing) to possess elements of vulnerability including a high presence of immigrants from less-developed countries, low per capita income, aging populations, or low educational levels. The results reveal the multidimensionality of vulnerability in the neighborhoods analyzed, as well as the essential complementarity among methodologies that detect and support possible public actions aimed at reducing or eliminating intra-urban inequalities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0431.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: urban resilience; regional resilience; sustainability; cities; multi-level approach; complex systems; panarchy; adaptive cycles
Online: 19 October 2018 (04:16:55 CEST)
This study aims to understand the current state of research in urban resilience and to open a discussion about multi-level perspectives for this concept. Starting with the history of the concept of resilience, we identify three main stages in resilience concept’s evolution: conceptualization, contextualization and operationalization. Confusion occurs between sustainability and resilience, therefore we clearly separate these two concepts by creating conceptual maps. Such maps also underline the specificities of urban and regional resilience discourses. We illustrate that urban resilience research, operating within intra-urban processes, is oriented towards natural disasters, while regional resilience research, operating mostly within inter-urban processes, is oriented towards economic shocks. We show that these two approaches to resilience – urban and regional – are complementary, and we propose to integrate them into a multi-level perspective. By combining these two discourses, we propose a multi-level approach to urban resilience that takes into account both top-down and bottom-up resistance processes. In the discussion section, we propose to take the panarchy perspective as a theoretical framework for multi-level urban resilience, that explains the interactions between different levels through adaptive cycles, relationships between which can help to explain urban resilience.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0255.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: agricultural land conversion; land economic value; urbanization; land rent
Online: 12 October 2018 (05:18:09 CEST)
Agricultural land conversion (ALC) is an incentive–driven process. In this paper we further investigate the inter–relationship between land economic value (LEV) and ALC. To achieve this goal, we calculated LEV for agricultural and non-agricultural (housing) uses in two areas in East Java, Indonesia. The first area represents suburban agriculture, facing rapid urbanization and experiencing high rate of ALC. The second area represents rural agriculture with zero ALC. Furthermore, we identified factors affecting LEV in both areas for both uses. The resut of this study show that agricultural land yielded higher economic benefit in rural area. Conversely, comparing to agricultural land, housing creates 7 times higher value in urban area. Moreover, agricultural land shown to create higher profit after converted. Ironically, the similar comparison doesn’t exists in rural area. Agricultural land only yielded 19% more value, indicate that agricultural land can be easily converted. It is also proven by the growing number of new urban core in the periphery area. There are several factors affecting land economic value, for agricultural use, soil fertility, accessibility, and cropping pattern are important variables. While accessibility and location in urban area increases land value for housing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0085.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: SDG11; Land Use Efficiency; Open Data, GHSL; Landsat; Urbanization; Urban expansion; Population mapping
Online: 4 October 2018 (15:35:06 CEST)
The Global Human Settlement Layer (GHSL) produces new global spatial information, evidence-based analytics and knowledge describing the human presence on the planet based mainly on two quantitative factors: i) the spatial distribution (density) of built-up structures and ii) the spatial distribution (density) of resident people. Both factors are observed in the long-term temporal domain and per uniform surface units in order to support trends and indicators for monitoring the implementation of international framework agreements. The GHSL uses various input data including global, multi-temporal archives of fine-scale satellite imagery, census data, and volunteered geographic information. In this paper, we present the characteristics of GHSL information to demonstrate how original frameworks of data and tools rooted on Earth Observation could support Sustainable Development Goals monitoring. In particular, we demonstrate the reach of gridded, open and free, local yet globally consistent, multi-temporal data in filling the data gap for the Sustainable Development Goal 11. Our experiments produce a global estimate for the Land Use Efficiency indicator (SDG 11.3.1) for 10,000 urban centers, calculating the ratio of land consumption to population growth rate that took place between 1990 and 2015. The results of our research demonstrate that there is a potential to lift SDG 11.3.1 from a tier 2 as GHSL provides a global baseline for the essential variables called by the SDG 11.3.1 metadata.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0534.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: syndemic; El Niño; infectious disease; diarrhea; malaria; respiratory; cholera; spatial cluster; GIS
Online: 27 September 2018 (06:04:08 CEST)
El Niño is a quasi-periodic pattern of climate variability and extremes often associated with hazards and disease. While El Niño links to individual diseases have been examined, less is known about the cluster of multi-disease risk referred to as an ecosyndemic, which emerges during extreme events. The objective of this study was to explore a mapping approach to represent the spatial distribution of ecosyndemics in Piura, Peru at the district-level during the first few months of 1998. Using geographic information systems and multivariate analysis, two methodologies were employed to map disease overlap of 7 climate-sensitive diseases and construct an ecosyndemic index, which was then mapped and applied to another El Niño period as proof of concept. The main findings showed that many districts across Piura faced multi-disease risk over several weeks in the austral summer of 1998. The distribution of ecosyndemics were spatially clustered in western Piura among 11 districts. Furthermore, the ecosydemic index in 1998 when compared to 1983 showed a strong positive correlation, demonstrating the utility of the index. The study supports PAHO efforts to develop multi-disease based and interprogrammatic approaches to control and prevention, particularly for climate and poverty-related infections in Latin America and the Caribbean.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0389.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: human mobility; residential mobility; smart card; public transportation; opportunity cost of travel time
Online: 26 September 2018 (05:46:51 CEST)
This study attempts to investigate a method for creating an index from mobility data that not only correlates with the number of people who relocate to a place but also has causal influence on the number of such individuals. By creating an index based on human mobility data, it becomes possible to predict the influence of urban development on future residential movements. In this paper, we propose a method called the travel cost method for multiple places (TCM4MP) by extending the conventional travel cost method (TCM). We assume that the opportunity cost of travel time on non-working days reflects the convenience and amenities of a neighborhood. However, conventional TCM does not assume that the opportunity cost of travel time varies according to the departure place. In this paper, TCM4MP is proposed to estimate the opportunity cost of travel time with respect to the departure place. We consider such estimation to be possible due to the use of massive mobility data. We assume that the opportunity cost of travel time on non-working days reflects the convenience and amenities of the neighborhood. Therefore, we consider that the opportunity cost of travel time has a causal influence on future residential mobility. In this paper, the validity of the proposed method is tested using the smart card data of public transportation in Western Japan. Our proposed method is beneficial for urban planners in estimating the effects of urban development and detecting the shrinkage and growth of a population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0323.v1
Online: 17 September 2018 (16:11:45 CEST)
Fracking in the UK has yet to reach full industrial development but it is still subject to significant opposition. This study uses Beck’s Risk Society theory and anti-politics to examine the views voiced by opponents to fracking in Yorkshire, England. A qualitative approach was used; local newspaper reports were evaluated alongside semi-structured interviews with protesters to provide a thematic analysis. Although there are signs of post-materialist concerns with the environment these issues did not dominate the discussion. Scientists were not held responsible for the risks involved in fracking. Instead economic greediness of politicians and austerity measures were perceived as putting the environment and people’s health at risk. Interviewees thought fossil fuel energy production was economically advantaged over more sustainable energy and jobs in the low carbon economy. Protesters’ trust in politicians had been eroded but faith in democracy remained. It is suggested a citizen-led deliberative approach to all the concerns raised, not simply those relating to scientific risk, might achieve some level of resolution over fracking in the UK.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0196.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: global indices, global metrics, global society, new global geographies, principal components analysis.
Online: 11 September 2018 (12:05:12 CEST)
There are now a wide variety of global metrics. To find the degree of overlap between these different measures, we employ a principal components analysis (PCA) to 15 indices across 145 countries. Our results demonstrate that the most important underlying dimension highlights that economic development and social progress go hand in hand with state stability. The results are used to produce categorical divisions of the world. The threefold division identifies a world composed of what we describe and map as Rich, Poor and Middle countries. A five-group classification provided a more nuanced categorization described as; The Very Rich, Free and Stable, Affluent and Free, Upper Middle, Lower Middle, and Poor and Not Free.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0226.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: adaptation; adaptive capacity; adaptation tracking; climate change; systematic review; vulnerability; developed nation; Australia
Online: 13 August 2018 (10:13:42 CEST)
We develop and apply a systematic literature review methodology to identify and characterize the ways in which the peer-reviewed literature depicts how climate change adaptation is occurring in Australia. We reviewed the peer-reviewed, English-language literature between January 2005 and January 2018 for examples of documented adaptation actions. Our results challenge previous assumptions that adaptation action is not happening in Australia and describes adaptation processes that are underway. For the most part, actions can be described as preliminary or groundwork, with a particular focus on documenting stakeholder perspectives on climate change and adaptation, and modelling or scenario planning in the coastal zone, agriculture and health sectors. Where concrete adaptations are reported, they are usually in the agricultural sector and are most common in the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia’s food basket. The findings of the review advance our understanding of adaptation to climate change as a process and the need to consider different stages in the process when tracking adaptation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0135.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: climate finance; REDD+; forest conservation; peacebuilding; sustainable food systems
Online: 7 August 2018 (07:42:05 CEST)
Linking climate action with sustainable development goals (SDGs) might incentivize social and political support to forest conservation. However, further examination of the conceptual entry points for linking efforts for reducing forest-based emissions with those for delivering SDGs is required. This review paper aims to contribute to fulfilling this research need. It provides insights into the links between conserving forests for climate change mitigation and peacebuilding. Specifically, the paper examines opportunities to harness climate finance for conserving forests and achieving long-lasting peace. It does so via a literature review and the examination of the Orinoquia region of Colombia. Findings from the literature review suggest that harnessing climate finance for conserving forests and peacebuilding is, in theory, viable if activities are designed in accordance with social, institutional, and economic factors. Meanwhile, the Orinoquia region provides evidence that these two seemingly intractable problems are proposed to be solved together. At a time when efforts for reducing forest-based emissions are being designed and targeted at (post-) conflict areas in Colombia and elsewhere, the paper’s findings might demonstrate to government agencies — both environmental and non-environmental — the compatibility of programs aimed at reducing forest-based emissions with efforts relating to peacebuilding and sustainable food.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0214.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: location-based services; geosurveillance; social media; location data; geoprivacy; attitude; geolocation; geotagging
Online: 12 July 2018 (08:15:03 CEST)
Modern mobile devices are replete advanced sensors that expand the array of possible methods of locating users. This is often viewed in a positive light, as a tool to gather and use spatial information, but it also brings with it the problem of “geosurveillance” in which the “Location” becomes a product in itself. In the realm of software developers, this has been reduced and discretized to a set of coordinates, devoid of human experiences and meanings. To function in such digitally augmented realities, people need to adopt specific attitudes, often accompanied with anxiety. We explored attitudes toward locational data collection practices using questionnaire surveys (n = 280) from Poznan and Edinburgh. The prevailing attitude is neutral with a strong undertone of resignation, in which surrendering personal locational information is viewed as a digital currency. A smaller number of people had stronger, emotional views, either very positive or very negative, based on uncritical technological enthusiasm or fear of privacy violation. Such a wide spectrum of attitudes is not only produced by interaction with technology but can also be viewed as a result of different perceptions and values associated with space and place itself.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0029.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: ecosystem services; agricultural systems; mapping; values; cross-scale; participatory; local
Online: 3 July 2018 (08:16:24 CEST)
Given the cross-scale interactions of agricultural ecosystems, it is important to collect ecosystem service data at the multiple spatial scales they operate at. Mapping of ecosystem services helps to assess their spatial and temporal distribution and is a popular communication tool of their availability and value. For example, maps can be used to quantify distance between areas of available ecosystem services and their beneficiaries and how services fluctuate with changes in land use patterns over time, allowing identification of synergies and trade-offs. However, a lack of local context and too large a resolution can reduce the utility of these maps, whilst masking heterogeneities in access due to equity dynamics. This review identifies and summarizes eight main methods of ESS mapping found in the literature—remote sensing, biophysical modelling, agent based modelling, economic valuation, expert opinion, user preference, participatory mapping, and photo-elicitation. We consider what spatial scales these methods are utilized at and the transferability of data created by each method. The analysis concludes with a methodological framework for mapping ecosystem services, intended to help researchers identify appropriate methods for a multi-scale research design. The framework is exemplified with an overview of a research project in Ethiopia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0389.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI); Yelp; Natural Language Processing (NLP); machine learning; cultural boundaries; consumption behavior; urban computation; GIS; Word2Vec
Online: 25 June 2018 (12:50:46 CEST)
This study aims to put forth a new method to study the socio-spatial boundaries by using georeferenced community-authored reviews for restaurants. In this study, we show that food choice, drink choice, and restaurant ambience can be good indicators of socio-economic status of the ambient population in different neighborhoods. To this end, we use Yelp user reviews to distinguish different neighborhoods in terms of their food purchases and identify resultant boundaries in 10 North American metropolitan areas. This data-set includes restaurant reviews as well as a limited number of user check-ins and rating in those cities. We use Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques to select a set of potential features pertaining to food, drink and ambience from Yelp user comments for each geolocated restaurant. We then select those features which determine one’s choice of restaurant and the rating that he/she provides for that restaurant. After identifying these features, we identify neighborhoods where similar taste is practiced. We show that neighborhoods identified through our method show statistically significant differences based on demographic factors such as income, racial composition, and education. We suggest that this method helps urban planners to understand the social dynamics of contemporary cities in absence of information on service-oriented cultural characteristics of urban communities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0296.v1
Online: 19 June 2018 (11:13:23 CEST)
Whether evaluating gridded population dataset estimates (e.g. WorldPop, LandScan) or household survey sample designs, a population census linked to residential locations are needed. Geolocated census microdata data, however, are almost never available and are thus best simulated. In this paper, we simulate a close-to-reality population of individuals nested in households geolocated to realistic building locations. Using the R simPop package and ArcGIS, multiple realizations of a geolocated synthetic population are derived from the Namibia 2011 census 20% microdata sample, Namibia census enumeration area boundaries, Namibia 2013 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS), and dozens of publicly available spatial datasets. Realistic household latitude-longitude coordinates are manually generated based on public satellite imagery. Simulated households are linked to latitude-longitude coordinates by identifying distinct household types with multivariate kmeans analysis, and modelling a probability surface for each household type using Random Forest machine learning methods. We simulate five realizations of a synthetic population in Namibia's Oshikoto region, including demographic, socioeconomic and outcome characteristics at the level of household, woman, and child. Comparison of variables in the synthetic population were made with 2011 census 20% sample and 2013 DHS data by primary sampling unit/enumeration area. We found that synthetic population variable distributions matched observed observations and followed expected spatial patterns. We outline a novel process to simulate a close-to-reality microdata census geolocated to realistic building locations in a low- or middle-income country setting to support spatial demographic research and survey methodological development while avoiding disclosure risk of individuals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0200.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: farmland change; soybean; production potential; GAEZ; Western Jilin
Online: 12 June 2018 (16:01:54 CEST)
In recent 40 years, the quantity and spatial patterns of farmland in Western Jilin have changed dramatically, which had great impact on soybean production potential. This study used one of the most advanced crop production potential models, the Global Agro-cological Zones model, to calculate the soybean production potential in Western Jilin based on meteorological, terrain, soil and land use data, and analyzed impact of farmland change on soybean production potential during 1975-2013. The main conclusions were the following. First, the total soybean production potential in Western Jilin in 2013 was 89.22 thousand tons. The production potential of eastern area was higher than the other areas of Western Jilin. Second, farmland change led to a growth of 33.03 thousand tons in soybean production potential between 1975 and 2000, and a decrease of 10.30 thousand tons between 2000 and 2013. Third, taking account of two situations of farmland change, the conversion between dryland and other categories, and the change of irrigation percentage led to the total soybean production potential in Western Jilin increased by 23.13 and only 2.87 thousand tons respectively between 1975 and 2000, and increased by 1.13 and 2.81 thousand tons respectively between 2000 and 2013. In general, the increase of soybean potential production was mainly due to grassland and woodland reclamation. The results of this study would be a good reference for protecting safe baseline of farmland, managing land resources, and ensuring continuity and stability of soybean supply and food security.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0165.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: Urban resilience, flood resilience programme, robust evaluation, subjective resilience, Senegal, Africa, BACI
Online: 11 June 2018 (16:52:35 CEST)
In the last decade, sub-Saharan African countries have taken various measures to plan for and adapt to floods in order to reduce exposure and its impacts on human health, livelihoods and infrastructure. Measuring the effects of such initiatives on social resilience is challenging as it requires to combine multiple variables and indicators that embrace thematic, spatial and temporal dimensions inherent to the resilience thinking and concept. In this research, we apply a before-after-control-intervention (BACI) evaluation to empirically measure the impacts of the “Live with Water” (LWW) project on suburban households in Dakar, Senegal. We developed a resilience index that combines anticipatory, adaptive and absorptive capacity – considered as structural dimensions – with the concept of transformative capacity – considered as a temporal reconfiguration of the first three dimensions. Our finding let us estimate that the project increased the absorptive and the anticipatory capacities by 10.61% and 4.61%, respectively. However, adaptive capacity remained unchanged. This may be explained by the fact that the programme was more successful in building drainage and physical infrastructures, rather than improving multi-level organisations and strategies to cope with existing flood events. Further flood resilience program should better combine engineering approaches with institutional change and livelihood support to poor urban dwellers.