REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0368.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: fruit; vegetables; depressive symptoms; depression; young people; young adult; nutrition; diet
Online: 15 December 2020 (10:18:23 CET)
Higher consumption of fruit and vegetables has been associated with a lower risk of various chronic diseases including coronary heart disease, obesity, and certain cancers. Recently, fruit and vegetable intake has also been linked with mental health, including depression. This systematic review aimed to evaluate the association between fruit and vegetable intake and depressive symptoms in young people and adults aged 15-45. The systematic review focused on peer-reviewed cohort studies published from 1 January 2000 to 31 August 2020 using searches of six electronic databases. The exposure was fruit and vegetable consumption analysed both separately and/or together, and the outcome was depression or depressive symptoms. Data from eligible studies were extracted according to predefined criteria and the studies were appraised using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) for Cohort Studies to evaluate for study quality and risk of bias. To evaluate the association between fruit and vegetable consumption and depressive symptoms, a narrative synthesis was conducted. Of 9667 potentially relevant studies that were screened for title and abstracts, 144 full text studies were evaluated, and 12 studies from seven countries were deemed eligible and included in the qualitative synthesis. Using the NOS framework one study was categorised as ‘very good’ quality, ten studies were ‘good’ quality, and two studies were ‘moderate’ quality. With respect to combined fruit and vegetable consumption, two studies demonstrated an inverse association with depression. When the effects of fruit and vegetable on depression were analysed separately, five studies showed significant associations in fruit consumption, and two studies showed significant associations in vegetable consumption. Four studies showed no association between combined fruit and vegetable consumption and depression, one study showed no association between fruit consumption and depression, and two studies showed no association between vegetable consumption and depression. Despite some contradictory results in the studies included in this review, the evidence seems to be building that a possible association exists, and this may have implications for addressing the burden of mental illness in young people and adults aged 15-45 years. Well-designed prospective cohort studies are needed to provide more robust evidence on the diet-depression relationship.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0034.v1
Online: 3 April 2018 (08:01:26 CEST)
This paper explores as a case study the development of e-cigarette use and smoking within small friendship group (n=8) in Glasgow, Scotland. Interviewed twice at six months apart these 16/17 year olds reported substantial change in their use of and attitudes towards e-cigarettes and tobacco. At time 1 vaping generated much excitement and interest, with 6/8 having their own vape device. At time 2 only two young people still vaped, with the others no longer professing any interest in continued vaping. The two regular smokers, who had been smoking before they first vaped, now only vaped privately and to reduce their tobacco intake. This small case study illustrates plasticity in the use of electronic cigarettes; just as young people can initiate using these devices so too can they more away from their use- with such changes in actual use occurring within a relatively short period of time. These findings demonstrate more than anything else the volatility in young peoples’ substance use behaviour. If we are to better understand these behaviours we require both quantitative and qualitative research studies that are capable of both monitoring changes in individual and group behaviour over time but which are also able to elucidate the nuance of individual behaviour differentiating between long term, frequent, consistent use and more episodic, experimental and infrequent use by young people.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0560.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: wellbeing; health; young people; LMICs; Kenya
Online: 24 September 2020 (03:29:07 CEST)
The Sustainable Development Goals provide a global development agenda that is meant to be inclusive of all people. However, the development needs for vulnerable populations such as youth are not reflected within the policy agenda of some developing countries. One of the reasons for this is that research that explores health and wellbeing concerns for young people are sparse in the region and where they exist, the focus has been on marginalized subgroups. To address this gap, this cross-sectional study explored the health and wellbeing of youth in Kenya. We conducted 10 focus group discussions and 13 in-depth interviews with youth ages 15 to 24 years. A thematic analysis of the data revealed that structural factors are important influencers of youth perceptions and their social constructions of health and wellbeing. Kenyan youth are concerned about the health status and healthcare services in their communities, as well as issues of community trust of youths and perceived risks of political misuse and emotional suffering. Our findings suggest that youth transitioning into adulthood in resource constrained areas experience feelings of being powerless and unable to take charge over their own life. This impacts how they perceive and socially construct health and wellbeing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0272.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: HIV; AIDS; vulnerable group; young people; trainee teachers; health education
Online: 11 February 2021 (09:39:21 CET)
Discriminatory attitudes towards people living with HIV/AIDS are prevalent. A Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS report (2019) indicated that more than 50% of the people surveyed in one of the studies spanning 26 countries expressed unfavorable attitudes towards HIV-positive people. The objective of this study was to assess the attitudes of senior Education Studies students at a university in Spain towards people with HIV/AIDS so as to propose specific educational interventions. The study employed a quantitative methodological approach; a questionnaire with a 14-item attitude score served as the analytical instrument. The study sample comprised 613 students from the School of Education at the University of Huelva, Spain. The results showed that more than 50% of the School’s senior students had discriminatory attitudes towards HIV-positive people, some of whom were fellow classmates. This study proposes several formative approaches to reducing the stigma suffered by HIV-positive people, while also improving senior students’ skills and capabilities in the field of health promotion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0737.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Disinformation; Responsibility in young people; Covid-19; Credibility; Social effects; Communication solutions.
Online: 30 June 2021 (13:05:53 CEST)
This paper analyzes the main variables which determines the relation between disinformation and the youth responsibility during the last stage of Covid-19 pandemic in Spain. The document presents relevant results on this subject. At the Introduction the reader will find the theoretical framework of the following concepts: disinformation, responsibility, credibility, and youth responsibility variables. The greatest interest, considering the authors specialization, falls in communication factors. The methods applied had been the reference review of the literature found about this subject, as well as a qualitative opinion research through discussion groups with young University students from Communication Schools in Madrid, both public and private. This recent study, held in June 2021, provide a very rich material for this paper. The main results and findings are the facts of being not satisfied with the information received about Covid-19; the knowledge about their most credible sources; the connection between information and responsibility, and some of the solutions said by youth to be more responsible in this context. As a conclusion, this paper confirms the first hypothesis of considering the disinformation as a variable which causes the lack of youth responsibility. Regarding the second hypothesis it is checked that young people consider communication as a solution for being more responsible.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0749.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: psychological distress; loneliness; sense of mastery; adolescents; young adults
Online: 31 May 2021 (11:35:42 CEST)
Background and aims Loneliness and a low sense of mastery have been associated with excessive gambling, but the underlying processes of these relationships remain unstudied. Because psychological distress can increase vulnerability to excessive gambling, we investigated its mediating role in these relationships among young people. To meet the need for cross-country research, we also observed how these relationships occur in four countries with different cultures. Design, setting and participants Demographically balanced cross-sectional survey data were collected for 15–25-year-olds in Finland (n=1200; 50% male), the United States (n=1212; 49.8% male), South Korea (n=1192; 49.6% male) and Spain (n=1212; 51.2% male). Measurements Excessive gambling was measured with the South Oaks Gambling Screen, psychological distress was assessed with the 12-Item General Health Questionnaire, loneliness was measured with the Three-Item Loneliness Scale and low sense of mastery was assessed with the Pearlin Mastery Scale. Associations were examined first using zero-inflated negative binomial regression analyses with excessive gambling as the outcome. In addition, path analyses were performed to study how loneliness and low sense of mastery relate to excessive gambling, with psychological distress as the mediating variable. Findings Loneliness and low sense of mastery were associated indirectly with excessive gambling via psychological distress in all country samples. Low sense of mastery was also directly associated with excessive gambling. There was a direct association between loneliness and excessive gambling only in samples from South Korea and Spain. Conclusions Psychological distress is an important factor in understanding how loneliness and sense of mastery relate to gambling.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0024.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: Citizenship, Young People, Participatory Research, Political Participation
Online: 1 August 2018 (14:23:21 CEST)
This paper provides a synthesis of qualitative studies, examining youth empowerment projects and initiatives which have encouraged young people to have a voice in local, regional and national political debates. Specifically, the article examines the role of UK youth services in building the spirit of citizenship in young people against the challenging question of the changing behaviour pattern and profiles of young British electorates. To do this, the paper draws on four case studies to help rethink the critical moments for disadvantaged and vulnerable young people in their journeys towards citizenship. The article, presents the advantages and limitations of the youth sector to enrich and furnish the spirit of citizenship in today’s youth and argues for a more innovative role in the part played by the state in an era of austerity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0208.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: children; young people; COVID-19; Eastern and Southern Africa; health systems
Online: 17 June 2020 (07:58:53 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic has created extraordinary challenges and prompted remarkable social changes around the world. The implications of the novel coronavirus and the public health control measures that have been implemented to mitigate its impact are likely to be accompanied by a unique set of consequences for specific populations living in low income-countries that have fragile health systems and pervasive social-structural vulnerabilities. This paper discusses the implications of COVID-19 and related public health interventions for children and young people living in Eastern and Southern Africa. Actionable prevention, care, and health promotion initiatives are proposed to attenuate the negative effects of the pandemic and government-enforced movement restrictions on children and young people.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0296.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: new materialism; assemblage; storyboarding; HIV; adherence; antiretroviral therapy; young people; perinatal infection; qualitative evidence synthesis; biopsychosocial
Online: 21 June 2022 (10:54:56 CEST)
Young people living with perinatal infections of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (YLPHIV) face a chronic disease, with treatment including adherence to life-long antiretroviral treatment (ART). The aim of this QES was to explore adherence to ART for YLPHIV as an assemblage within the framework of the BPS model with a new materialist perspective. We searched up to November 2021 and followed the ENTREQ and Cochrane guidelines for QES. All screening, data extraction and critical appraisal was done in duplicate. We analysed and interpreted the findings innovatively, by creating images of meaning, a storyboard, and storylines. We then reported the findings in a narrative first person story. We included 47 studies and identified 9 storylines. We found that treatment adherence has less to do with humans’ preferences, motivations, needs and dispositions, and more to do with how bodies, viruses, things, ideas, institutions, environments, social processes, and social structures assemble. This QES highlights that adherence to ART for YLPHIV is a multisensorial experience in a multi agentic world. Future research into rethinking the linear and casual inferences we are accustomed too in evidence-based health care is needed if we are to adopt multidisciplinary approaches to address pressing issues such as adherence to ART.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0515.v1
Online: 31 December 2021 (11:41:16 CET)
Background : The current corruption case in Indonesia are severely problematic since it is normalized by society. As a response, the current agenda of the Indonesian government to tackle it is by raising awareness of youth towards Indonesia’s corruption case. Aim : This study aims to knowing the importance of anti-corruption education and its applications among students. Method : The methodology of this study is the use of a qualitative survey on Faculty of Pharmacy students and interviews with representatives of students of the Faculty of Pharmacy. The population of this study is students of Airlangga University. The sample of this study is 52 students of class C the Faculty of Pharmacy Result : Students have awareness about corruption and even proposed that the current anti-corruption education is not enough to tackle corruption. Recommendation : The researcher suggests that students can be brave to campaign about the importance of anti-corruption education to the public. Limitation : The limitation of this study is that it is difficult to conduct research because in the online pandemic era, this results in delays in the research process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0321.v1
Online: 11 June 2021 (14:15:25 CEST)
Pancasila is the identity of the Indonesian nation, which means that Pancasila is a national characteristic that cannot be found in any country. Pancasila points are taken from the noble values of the Indonesian state. These principles contain culture, customs, and national character known as manners, cooperation, and high nationalism. As the successor to Indonesian culture, the young generation must be able to preserve and develop Pancasila. In this era of globalization, there are many challenges for the younger generation in preserving Pancasila. This study aims to provide an overview of the decline of Pancasila identity among the younger generation due to the impact of globalization. The research question that has been determined is how the practice behaviour of the younger generation towards the implementation of Pancasila, the solutions and efforts that all Indonesian people can make regarding the crisis of Pancasila identity in the era of globalization. This research method uses a literature review. The research sources were conducted from the latest journals and books published in 2019 until 2021 related to the theme of Pancasila and the millennial generation. The results showed that globalization has greatly facilitated foreign cultures to enter Indonesia. The younger generations use this foreign culture as a lifestyle without filtering it, whether it contains Pancasila values or not. This causes Pancasila has been forgotten and no longer applied in their everyday life. Young people can make various efforts to preserve the national identity, namely Pancasila. Apart from the role of the young generation itself, Indonesian society can also play an essential role in supporting the younger generation to continue implementing Pancasila in their lives. By conducting this research, it is hoped that Indonesia's young generation can understand, select, and stay away from the negative impacts of globalization that enter Indonesia freely. The solution that can be given from this research is that the younger generation must love their own culture more and practice every principle in Pancasila. Parents, educational institutions, and the government must also support the younger generation to maintain national identity, Pancasila values. The limitation of this research is that the researcher did not conduct any primary data, which means the data were not directly from the source. This causes the accuracy of this study to be less guaranteed. The recommendation that the researchers can give for further research is to obtain primary data to ensure accuracy and explore research topics regarding the fading of Pancasila identity in the younger generation in this era of globalization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1565.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: young person; young carer; adolescents; younger onset dementia; dementia; carer; admiral nurse; schools
Online: 25 October 2023 (08:42:58 CEST)
Young dementia carers (YDCs) rarely receive appropriate training and support. Their visibility and identification remain dangerously low and as a consequence, support initiatives being developed are failing to reach them. This study explored the success (or failure) of YDCs identification pathways as well as the barriers and enablers to their implementation. An explorative qualitative approach was followed drawing on the experiences of parents of YDCs, dementia researchers, professionals in the field of dementia/young carers and young adult carers. Data collection involved semi-structured interviews (n=17) and a participatory 2-hour workshop to discuss and critique preliminary themes as well as explore strategies to increase the visibility and identification of YDCs. Five themes were identified: A ‘whole family approach’ (as a pathway to identification); ‘Not a carer’ (self/family identification); A postcode lottery (high variability of support services); Tailored support that is ‘fit for purpose’ and the ‘power’ of peer support. Recommendations on potential initiatives and actions that can help raise awareness and increase identification success of YDCs are proposed. Our findings support the need for a broad and holistic approach to the identification of YDCs that runs alongside the development of support initiatives that are accessible and relatable. The support itself will play a role in improving subsequent identification or hindering it if not ‘fit for purpose’.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0470.v1
Online: 29 December 2021 (14:46:13 CET)
Introduction: Young adults are the second largest segment of the immigrant population in the United States (US). Given recent trends in later age of initiation of tobacco use, we examined variation in use of tobacco products by nativity status for this population group. Methods: Our study included young adults 18-30 years of age sampled in the National Health Interview Survey (2015-2019), a nationally representative sample of the US population. We calculated prevalence of use of any and 2 or more tobacco products (cigarettes, cigars, pipes, e-cigarettes, and smokeless tobacco) for foreign-born (n=3,096) and US-born (n=6,811) young adults. Logistic regression models adjusted for age, sex, race-ethnicity, education, and poverty, while accounting for the complex survey design. Results: Foreign-born young adults were significantly less likely to use any tobacco product (Cigarette = 7.3% vs 10.7%; Cigar= 1.8% vs 4.8%; E-cigarette= 2.3% vs 4.5%, respectively; p<0.01) or poly tobacco use (1.9% vs. 4.2%; p<0.01) than US-born young adults. Adjusted regression models showed lower odds of poly tobacco use among the foreign-born than their US-born counterparts (Odds Ratio = 0.41, (95% Confidence Interval: 0.26-0.63)). Conclusion: Findings highlight the importance of targeted interventions by nativity status and further tobacco prevention efforts needed for the US-born.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0023.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: fake news; young adults; Spain
Online: 1 December 2020 (13:13:27 CET)
The infodiet of young Spanish adults aged 18 to 25 was analysed to determine their attitude towards fake news. The objectives were: to establish whether they have received any training in fake news; to determine whether they know how to identify fake information; and to investigate whether they spread it. The study employed a descriptive quantitative method consisting of a survey of 500 representative interviews of the Spanish population aged between 18 and 25 through a structured questionnaire. The results indicate that they are aware of the importance of training, although generally they do not know of any course and when they do, they do not tend to enrol on one either due to lack of interest or time. These young adults feel that they know how to identify fake content and, moreover, that they know how to do so very well. However, they do not use the best tools. While they do not always verify information, they mainly suspect the credibility of information when it is meaningless. However, they do not tend to spread fake information. We conclude that media information literacy training (MILT) is necessary in educational centres that focuses on the main issues identified.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0300.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: multicultural education, morals, a young generation
Online: 10 June 2021 (15:16:01 CEST)
Introduction: Indonesia consists of a plural society with different ethnic, religious, racial, skin color, and other cultures. The difference must be understood by everyone, especially the younger generation in the digital age. If the younger generation does not have a sufficient understanding of multicultural education values, it will impact the moral crisis of the Indonesian nation. This research emphasizes the importance of multicultural education to the younger generation to understand the differences (pluralism) in society and respect them. Method: The method uses a qualitative method with the literature review method by collecting data on ten journals published in 2019, 2020, 2021. Results: The rise of socio-cultural conflicts in Indonesia is why applying multicultural values to the younger generation. Multiculturalism is needed to establish morals and sensitivity for a young person in the face of various social problems and symptoms at a growing age. Conclusion: Multicultural education is vital to the younger generation considering Indonesia has diverse nations and cultures. The efforts that can make to improve the morale of the nation's children, namely by learning citizenship education and religious education and utilizing information technology to spread things related to the values of multicultural education to the broader community
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0066.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Area Studies Keywords: Afghanistan; health; hope; resilience; young people
Online: 17 February 2017 (07:28:14 CET)
Insecurity, corruption, and rising unemployment have resulted in a mass exodus of young adult Afghans seeking asylum in western nations. This has depleted Afghanistan of generations of young people which are critical to rebuild the country. This study aimed to examine the characteristics of young adult Afghans with no immediate intentions of seeking international asylum; that is, individuals who intend to stay in Afghanistan. In a cross-sectional study conducted in Kabul, we surveyed 232 young adults between 18 and 35 years of age. Surveys included measures assessing standard socio-demographic and -economic factors, as well as health and psychological factors. Univariate logistic regression analyses suggest that participants with an intent to stay in Afghanistan are more likely to be financially stable, possess higher health-related quality of life, lower psychological distress, and higher levels of hope and optimism, as well as higher resilience. When controlling for all other variables in the model, only hope, optimism, and higher resilience remained as significant correlates of intending to stay. Our findings suggest that young people who intend to stay in their country look forward to a better future, which provides strong evidence for the need to strengthen the social contract by fostering resilience, hope and optimism in war-affected communities, in order to prevent a generation of talented young people from seeking asylum in western nations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2259.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: curve of Spee; electromyographic analysis; young adults
Online: 30 June 2023 (13:17:51 CEST)
An analysis of the curve of Spee in relation to muscle activity, assessed by electromyographic analysis, on a group of 16 young adults with previous fixed orthodontic treatment is proposed as a pilot study. Given the high incidence of this type of dental treatment, it is important to point out how, in this field of dentistry, there is a marked tendency to level and flatten this anatomical occlusal curve, as proposed by Andrews. If in orthodontics there is a standardized levelling of the curve of Spee, in the prosthetic and restorative field, the management of the curve of Spee requires greater attention and often even an individualized approach. The purpose of this study is to investigate what the levelling of the antero-posterior occlusal curve entails in terms of masticatory effectiveness and harmony. From the results obtained, it can be seen that in order to optimize the harmony of the stomatognathic apparatus, the curve of Spee is a parameter that requires individual attention: modifying it through standardized levelling has inevitable consequences.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1956.v1
Online: 29 May 2023 (04:04:50 CEST)
Assessing the development of skills that ensure personal mental toughness in adolescence is important because the increasing autonomy and socialization of adolescents during adolescence inevitably creates the conditions for the emergence of an increasing number of external stressors. Paradoxically, adolescents' confidence in their ability to cope with external stressors decreases during adolescence, which may lead to poorer sport performance in adolescent athletes. The aim of this study was to determine and analyze mental toughness skills in the cadet and junior age groups of young basketball players. An additional aim is to reveal how general (total) mental toughness and age predict each of the athletic mental toughness skills. The analysis of the results of the study revealed that players in the junior age group scored statistically significantly higher on the challenge, commitment, emotional control, life control, overall control, self-confidence in one's abilities, self-confidence in interpersonal interactions, overall self-confidence, total mental toughness, determination and visualization scales. Statistically significant correlations were found between mental toughness skills and the different age groups in all scales except positive cogni-tion and self-belief. Total mental toughness was a strong predictor of the athletic mental tough-ness skills, but age did not predict determination and self-beliefs skills.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0685.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: Kidney cancer; Metabolic syndrome; Age; Young adults
Online: 10 May 2023 (04:38:19 CEST)
The aim of this study was to determine the association of metabolic syndrome (MetS) with kidney cancer and the impact of age and gender on such association. Using Korean National Health Insurance Service database, 9,932,670 subjects who had check-up in 2009 were followed up until the diagnosis of kidney cancer or death or until 2019. Kidney cancer was significantly associated with MetS (HR 1.56). This association was higher in the younger age group (HR: 1.82, 1.5, and 1.37 in 20-39 years, 40-64 years, and ≥65 years, respectively). In terms of the association of kidney cancer with obesity and central obesity, young-aged males showed higher HR for kidney cancer than old-aged ones (HR of obesity: 1.96, 1.52, and 1.25; HR of central obesity: 1.94, 1.53, and 1.3 in 20-39 years, 40-64 years, ≥65 years, respectively), while young-aged females showed lower HR. Kidney cancer was associated with obesity and MetS. The association was higher in younger aged population than in older ones. Regarding gender, MetS, obesity, and central obesity showed higher associations with kidney cancer in younger aged male population, while there was no significant difference in such association according to age in females.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0319.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Disposable E-cigarettes Youth Young Adult Prevalence
Online: 17 November 2022 (02:29:42 CET)
Background: In the 2022 National Youth Tobacco Survey disposable e-cigarette devices are shown to be the most widely used e-cigarette devices amongst U.S. youth. In this paper we report the results of research designed to estimate the prevalence of use of BIDI® Stick branded e-cigarettes amongst youth (aged 13 to 17), and under-age young adults (aged 18 to 20) in the U.S. Methods: Cross sectional online survey of a nationally representative sample of 1,215 youth (13 17 years) recruited via the IPSOS probability-based KnowledgePanel and 3,370 young adults aged 18 to 24 - amongst whom 1,125 were aged 18 to 20. Results: Amongst youth aged 13 to 17, 0.91% [95% CI: 0.44-1.68] or 190,000 [95% CI: 90,000-350,000] youth reported having ever used a BIDI® Stick branded product and 0.04% [95% CI: 0.00-0.38] or less than 10,000 youth reported currently using a BIDI® Stick branded product. Amongst those young adults aged 18 to 20, 3.90% [95% CI: 2.49-5.81] or 470,000 [95%CI: 300,000-700,000] reported having ever used a BIDI® Stick product whilst 0.60% [95% CI: 0.17-1.55] or 70,000 [95% CI: 20,000-180,000] reported they now use a BIDI® Stick product “every day” or “some days”. Conclusions: The low prevalence of youth and underage adult current use of the BIDI® Stick e cigarette suggests that this product is not responsible for the recent growth in the use of disposable e-cigarettes by youth within the U.S. as demonstrated by the 2022 National Youth Tobacco Survey.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0583.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: electrical conductivity; young module; conductive filled; hydrophobic
Online: 28 January 2021 (12:39:17 CET)
A novel hybrid material based on Polyvinyl alcohol-Chitosan (PVA-Cs) was made, reinforced with conductive polymer fillers such as polypyrrole (PPy), Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), carbon black (CB) and multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MW CNT). Our proposal is to use these fillers, which have not been studied in this context before, for obtaining composite materials, and to characterize them for the development of applications in microelectronics. FTIR analysis made evident the different func-tional groups present in the matrix and the fillers used. The use of quaternary mixtures (4 fillers) increased the contact angle, which increased the degree of hydrophobicity of the biocomposite. The Nyquist diagram of the analyzed samples showed a decrease in resistance and energy diffu-sion; the latter due to the transfer of electrons caused by the conductive polymers CB and the MWCNT. In the mechanical tension tests, Young's modulus values of 18.386 MPa were obtained, in contrast with the material matrix of PVA-Cs, which showed values of 11.628 MPa. Further-more, morphological analysis by SEM showed that the materials obtained were homogeneous, with no phase formation. The materials obtained showed higher electrical conductivity in the presence of the OH and NH2 groups, which could have possible applications in biopolymer elec-trodes.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0099.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Ethnic And Cultural Studies Keywords: scientific meeting; interdisciplinary; meeting report; young researchers
Online: 11 January 2020 (10:10:49 CET)
This paper report presents the interdisciplinary science showcased at the Young Scientists Retreat 2019. The retreat was jointly organized by young researchers from Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciência (Portugal) and Institut Curie (France) and took place in Pedrógão Pequeno, a small village in the central region of Portugal in September 2019. Three keynote speakers were invited to present their work, Alfonso Martinez-Arias, Biola Javierre Martínez, and Sara Magalhães. In addition, accepted talks and posters from young researchers were presented at the retreat. Talks were organized in sessions, which included: epigenetics and evolution, immunology, cell biology and metabolism, biostatistics and public health, biophysics, proliferation and morphogenesis, and cell polarity. A post-retreat survey, complied both by IGC attendees as well as a sample of non-attendees, discovered the existence of barriers that prevented the full participation of some junior scientists, especially female postdocs and postdocs with families. We discuss ways in which future retreats could help address this and additional issues common to young researchers in general.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0331.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: business plan; artificial intelligence; forester management; young entrepreneurs
Online: 18 January 2023 (09:33:59 CET)
This paper is introducing KABADA (Knowledge Alliance of Business Idea Assessment: Digital Approach) unique tool, together with opinions of young people about entrepreneurship, their skills and experience with this tool. The focus is on non-business students who study natural sciences, engineering and other areas at the Faculty of Forestry and Wood Technology at Mendel University in Brno, Czech Republic. KABADA tool has been developed and tested by a team of international experts. It can be used to improve forester management. This structured, Web-based, platform which is based on theoretical research, relevant statistics, and artificial intelligence insights, guides entrepreneurs through every step of the way including what challenges and opportunities lie ahead. The research included survey answers from 60 university students before and after using KABADA tool. The results show that students are interested in entrepreneurship but do not have the knowledge, experience and support from curriculum. Majority of students had no or very low experience with entrepreneurship nor any entrepreneurship training or study course before. After using the tool, students declared to have higher knowledge of entrepreneurship and the number of students who intended to become an entrepreneur increased. The tool is available on-line, free of charge.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0326.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: violence; young athletes; sport; self-report; questionnaire; magnitude
Online: 18 August 2022 (03:21:37 CEST)
Initiatives to safeguard athletes from interpersonal violence (IV) are rapidly growing. In Belgium, the knowledge on the magnitude of IV in sport is based on one retrospective prevalence study from 2016 (n=2.043 adults), who participated in organized sport before 18 years. Data on victimization rates in current youth sport populations are lacking. This study aimed to investigate the magnitude of IV in a sample of 769 athletes (13-21 years old), using the Violence Towards Athletes Questionnaire (VTAQ). All types of IV are prevalent in this sample, ranging from 27% (sexual violence) to 79% (psychological violence and neglect). Boys reported significantly more physical violence, while girls reported significantly more sexual violence. IV perpetrated by peer athletes was reported to the same degree as IV perpetrated by a coach (70%), while IV perpetrated by a parent in the context of sport was somewhat less common, but still prevalent (48%). These findings, including factors associated with elevated exposure rates, can serve as a baseline measurement to monitor and evaluate current and future safeguarding interventions in Belgian sport.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0305.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: financial literacy; financial knowledge; household finance; young people
Online: 23 December 2019 (12:30:54 CET)
Financial literacy is a path to sustainability and has an important role in ensuring the financial sustainability of individuals, families, enterprises and national economies. The level of these economic indicators such as debt, payment discipline, savings and financial management all translate into prosperity or insolvency and bankruptcy and result partially from financial literacy. The higher the level of financial literacy, especially of young people, the more favorable the level of economic indicators, which translates into the economy and sustainable development. However, despite many years of research, there is still a lack of a uniform and coherent definition of financial literacy, as well as methods for measuring it. This study offers a small step forward, presenting the authors’ own view of the concept of financial literacy, the conceptualizations of financial literacy and methods used for investigating. Moreover, they present the results of a survey conducted on the financial behaviour, financial attitudes, and financial knowledge of the Polish youth and compare this to a PISA study on 15-year-old students. Results demonstrate a good, and partially very good, level of financial literacy among young Poles, showing that they are rational in their financial decision making.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0336.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: aerobic capacity, dietary nitrates from amaranth, young persons
Online: 27 November 2019 (08:48:45 CET)
Over the past five years, the popularity of dietary nitrates as an ergogenic device among athletes has increased significantly. Hypoxic and acidic conditions that occur during exercise facilitate the conversion of nitrite to nitric oxide (NO) and increase the physiological efficiency of exogenously produced nitrite. After a few years of our team predicted experiments, as a nitric oxide precursor, amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus) was identified as a source of dietary nitrates (concentrations 9-11%). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of single-dose and long- term doses of dietary nitrates from amaranth concentrate on the aerobic capacity of physically active young persons. Thirteen healthy and physically active young participants were randomized to experimental and placebo groups using a increasing cycling exercise (ICE) and placebo- controlled design. Pulmonary gas exchange recording (oxygen uptake (VO 2 ), pulmonary ventilation (VE), respiratory exchange ratio (RER)) and analysis of blood lactate samples were obtained. Our findings indicate that the single dose of dietary amaranth (400 mg) significantly improved only the power of the test performance. Long-term (6 days) intake significantly increased the power of the test performance, the maximum oxygen consumption and the power of the test for the first ventilation threshold value (from 37.7±2.7 mL/kg/min during the first test to 41.2±5.4 mL/kg/min during the third test, p <0.05).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0131.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: adolescent; young adults; gender; smoking; drinking; Asian city
Online: 16 January 2018 (04:49:45 CET)
The study aims to explore gender differences in smoking and drinking in three Asian cities—Hanoi, Shanghai and Taipei, and assesses the magnitude of these gender differences across cities. A total of 17,016 adolescents and young adults, aged 15 to 24 years, residing in both urban and rural area of Hanoi, Shanghai and Taipei were selected by multistage sampling methods and surveyed by face to face interview. The gender differences are significant for smoking-only, drinking-only, and both behaviors in each city. With respect to smoking-only, males are more than 30.66 times as likely to report it compared with females in Hanoi, followed by Shanghai and Taipei. The above trend holds true when further examining drinking-only and both smoking and drinking. The magnitude of gender differences in smoking-only, drinking-only, and both behaviors widely vary across the three cities. Future research is needed to further examine the mechanisms behind these gender differences and how these differences may be utilized to prevent and reduce smoking and drinking in the adolescent and young adult population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0040.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Decision Sciences Keywords: farmers; first-generation; decision-making; young farmers; beginning farmers
Online: 2 May 2023 (02:07:33 CEST)
This research aimed to determine salient factors affecting the decision to become a beginning organic farmer. New and beginning organic farmers have unique characteristics, showcasing their dedication to environmental justice and social justice at the expense of their own businesses. This research employed a multiple-case case study design. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 40 first-generation farmers who operate organic farms in Arkansas, Florida, or Georgia. We analyzed interview transcripts using the qualitative analysis approach of coding. Our results revealed the reasons that people with little practical knowledge start farms. They are inspired by those around them who succeed and encouraged by influential characters in the field who assure them they can do something they love and be profitable. This research showed that first-generation farmers find inspiration and develop values rooted in food justice. Our findings have implications for developing and implementing current and future programmatic activities that aim to enhance beginning farmer training and workforce development. Identifying sources of inspiration will help researchers and service providers target newer and beginning farmers to support a vibrant food system, including a burgeoning market opportunity, developing strong communities around food, and building grassroots solutions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0091.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: tobacco age of sale; tobacco policy; youth; young adults
Online: 7 June 2022 (03:44:33 CEST)
Background: Prior to the federal law passed in late 2019, many states passed an increased age of sale law prohibiting youth under age 21 (or Tobacco 21) from purchasing tobacco products and e-cigarettes. Although previous research has documented tobacco retail sales violations, fewer studies have examined age verification and illegal tobacco sales in the context of Tobacco 21 or in repeated purchase attempts in various settings. Methods: In this study conducted between 2019 and 2022, buyers aged 18 to 20 years made repeated unsupervised purchase attempts of cigarettes, cigars, e-cigarettes, tobacco-free nicotine pouches and/or smokeless tobacco in store visits to over 180 tobacco or vape retailers in New Jersey, New York City, and Pitt County, North Carolina. Buyers documented whether they were asked for identification and whether they were able to successfully purchase a tobacco or nicotine product at each visit. Results: The primary outcome will be the percent of retailers that checked buyers’ identification at store visits and the precent of visits that resulted in a successful underage tobacco product purchase. We will aim to compare the results across time periods and study sites while controlling for other factors (including repeated visits). Conclusion: These results will be beneficial to designing compliance check inspections and/or interventions that reduce youth access to tobacco.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0623.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Sustainable Science And Technology Keywords: Limousine Podolian young bulls; beef production; feeding efficiency; water footprint
Online: 11 October 2023 (07:52:18 CEST)
In this study, we have included the water footprint (WF) in the process of optimising animal feed rations. The global footprint of cattle production accounts for the largest share (33%) of the global water footprint of livestock production. Using two homogeneous groups of Limousine Podolian young bulls, two different diets were compared: corn silage feeding (CSF), with corn silage-based diet; and the triticale silage feeding (TSF), with triticale silage-based diet. Silage constituted about 41% and 46% of the feed composition (for CSF and TSF, respectively). Diets were characterised by the same energy and protein content. Despite the lower WF in the TSF group than in the CSF group (7726 vs 8571 l/day/calf respectively), no significant differences were found in animal performances (i.e., daily weight gain and final weight), feed conversion and income over feed costs. These results show that simple production decisions can have a significant impact on water resource. Therefore, the use of triticale silage should be further promoted, especially in world regions with limited water resources where low WF feed formulation is more strategic than elsewhere.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1568.v2
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: inertial training; eccentric overload; strength training; young athletes; team sports
Online: 14 August 2023 (09:51:27 CEST)
Inertial training is one of the most popular training methodologies in the last years and one of the objects of study in recent literature, however more studies are necessary to know its usefulness in young athletes. The aim of the current systematic review is to evaluate the current literature surrounding the chronic effect of inertial training on physical capacities of team sports through functional test. This systematic review was conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Protocols (PRISMA). The results revealed the effectiveness of these tools for improving abilities such jumps, sprints, change of directions and power measure. In conclusion, inertial training can be an adequate stimulus for the better performance in young athletes on team sports.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0363.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: young caregivers; pandemic; service providers; qualitative; social determinants of health
Online: 5 May 2023 (11:37:18 CEST)
This empirical research is part of a larger project beginning in 2020 and ongoing until 2023 exploring the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on young caregivers aged 5-25 years and their families in Canada. Utilizing the social determinants of health as a conceptual framework, this case study emphasizes the voices of professionals offering services to young caregiver clients during the pandemic, and explores their perspectives on the impact of the pandemic on young caregivers and their families. Across three (3) different organizations offering programs and services to young caregiver clients in Ontario, six (6) individual interviews were conducted with directors/program managers and four (4) group interviews were conducted with thirteen (13) staff members who worked directly with young caregivers and their families. Nineteen (19) service providers participated in total. The results of this study highlight five (5) primary themes that emerged through data analysis: i) the role of service providers, ii) the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on organizations and service providers supporting young caregivers and their families, iii) barriers for service users, iv) helpful resources for service providers and organizations, and v) resources needed/preferred by service providers and organization. The pandemic significantly impacted young caregivers and their families, as reported by professionals, and organizations working with young caregivers and their families were tasked with addressing increased service demands and adapting service delivery to follow public health guidelines.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0554.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: eudaimonic well-being; psychological inflexibility; fear of death; young adults
Online: 31 March 2023 (15:12:48 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic has had a profound impact on the mental health, adjustment, and psychological well-being of young adults. Despite extensive research conducted in this area, eudaimonic well-being, one specific form of psychological well-being focusing on self-knowledge and self-realization within existential challenges, has received comparatively less attention. The current study aimed to investigate the potential linkages between two key psychological factors, psychological inflexibility and fear of death, with eudaimonic well-being among young adults in the context of the Covid-19 pandemic. One year after the outbreak, 317 young Italian adults (18-34 yrs.) participated in an online survey, including measures of psychological inflexibility (AAQ-II), fear of death (CL-FODS), and eudaimonic well-being (PWB). Results showed that psychological inflexibility was negatively associated with all the dimensions of Ryff’s model of eudaimonic well-being, while fear of death of others was found to be associated with three of these dimensions (autonomy, environmental mastery, and self-acceptance). Results also indicated a mediation role of psychological inflexibility in the association between fear of death and eudaimonic well-being. These findings expand our knowledge of the potential factors that may influence eudaimonic well-being and provide insights for clinical work with young adults challenged by uncertain times.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0326.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: housing unaffordability; migration; the high-skilled young migrants; land provision
Online: 17 November 2022 (04:22:42 CET)
A large number of studies have concluded that since housing pressure will affect the mobility of highly skilled young migrants (HSYM) in Chinese cities and regions, it is necessary to apply corresponding housing policies to adjust housing unaffordability for HYSM. This study uses a survey data conducted in China's Zhejiang Province of China, where specific policies have been implemented to attract talent and found that housing does crowds out the HSYM from a city, but the HSYM who have a master's degree or above or who work in government organizations or state-owned enterprises are more tolerant of housing unaffordability. The unmarried or those staying in the city for a long period are less tolerant of housing unaffordability. Meanwhile, there are the heterogeneous impacts of factors on the HSYM's tolerance for housing unaffordability across cities of different levels. Therefore, housing policies should highlight urban differences and intra-group differences.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0034.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: autistic spectrum disorder, male to female ratio, biases, young women.
Online: 5 January 2022 (10:57:39 CET)
The ratio of males to females with ASD is generally quoted as 4:1 though it is believed that there are biases preventing females being diagnosed and that the true ratio is lower. These biases have not been clearly identified or quantified. Starting with a clinical dataset of 1711 children <18 years old four different methods were employed in an inductive study to identify and quantify the biases and calculate the proportion of females missed. A mathematical model was constructed to compare the findings with current published data. The true male to female ratio appears to be 3:4. Eighty per cent of females remain undiagnosed at age 18 which has serious consequences for the mental health of young women.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0279.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy And Astrophysics Keywords: Expanding Earth; Exolife; Faint Young Sun Paradox; Radiation Balance Equation.
Online: 10 March 2021 (13:07:09 CET)
We present a plausible solution to the now forty seven year old paleoclimatology riddle of the so-called Faint Young Sun Paradox via the combined hypothesis of the conservation of the state of radiation balance between the Earth and Sun and that of an expanding Earth, where, in the face of a changing (increasing) Solar luminosity, the Earth would maintain steady temperatures by re-adjusting the height of its atmosphere. That is to say, depending on whether or not the radius of the solid Earth is changing, this re-adjustment of the height of the Earth’s atmosphere would mean two things — i.e.: (1) either the height increases — in which event the Earth accretes matter from its immediate surroundings (i.e., the obvious pool formed by the Solar wind) thereby increasing the mass of the Earth’s atmosphere, or: (2) the height decreases — in which event the Earth naturally expels matter from its atmosphere, thereby decreasing the effective mass of the Earth. We demonstrate that if –- as the current state of the art ITRF observations seem to indicate, namely that — the Earth’s landmass is steadily expanding globally at a paltry rate of ∼+0.45±0.05mm·yr−1, and, that the Earth’s atmosphere is to have a present radial vertical height of about one third of the Earth’s radius (∼2860km) from the Earth’s surface, then, one can (might) with relative ease, explain not only the presence of liquid water on the Earth’s surface some ∼3.20±0.70Gyr ago during the Archaean eon when the Sun was about 75% of its current luminosity, but also the present radial expansion rate of the Earth. When all is said and done, the Earth system is herein cast as an auto-self-regulating incubator where the auto-self-regulating mechanism is as a result of the Earth’s atmosphere responding by automatically re-adjusting its height.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0148.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Gender And Sexuality Studies Keywords: Husband Consent; Family Planning; Spousal Communication; Young Mothers; Peri-Urban
Online: 6 September 2020 (16:15:15 CEST)
Men are perceived as significant barriers to the uptake of contraception in some communities, and lack of spousal communication regarding contraception is evident in some studies conducted in South-West and Northern Nigeria. The objective is to identify and discuss how husband consent to family planning (FP) and spousal communication influence family planning use among peri-urban dwellers in Nigeria. The study was limited to the primary dataset collected among young mothers that resides in peri-urban between the age of 15-30 years in South West, Nigeria. The result showed that the use of family planning was high among the respondents whose husband give consent to the use of family planning, and respondents who had appropriate spousal communication. Similarly, respondents whose spouse asks questions or whose husband advises on communication are likely to use FP. On the other hand, respondents whose husband didn’t give consent, respondents with inappropriate communication with the spouse, respondents whose spouses didn’t give advice, and those whose spouses didn’t ask questions are less likely to use FP.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0047.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: young interferometer; depolarization measurement; modulation of depolarization; liquid crystal device
Online: 6 May 2019 (10:22:05 CEST)
In a depolarizing instrument, such as a broadband imaging spectrometer, the depolarizers are placed on the system for stabilization the optical signal. They are also used to reduce measurements offsets due to strong polarization dependence, which produce drastic deterioration of the signal to noise ratio. Dynamic depolarizer with a controllable degree of polarization is also required to study the effect of noise on quantum information. The article described a new instrument for characterization the variable depolarizer with features which make it different from a polarimetric system. The analysing system based on the simple structural design and has good stability for real-time measurement. A practical application of the described interferometer system for variable depolarizer characterization is also presented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0098.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Theater Keywords: theatre for adolescents; theatre for young audiences; art for youth
Online: 28 August 2017 (08:44:33 CEST)
In this paper I analyze the three plays produced during the inaugural season (2011) of the Theatre for Young Audiences Research Center of the National Theater Company of Korea and place it within the context of contemporary ideas and realities surrounding Korean youth. In the first part of this paper I explore how Korean youth are perceived by society and the reality in which they live. In the second part I analyze the aforementioned plays, especially through the directions of the production and portrayal of adult and young characters. The last part offers concluding thoughts. Through this study I ask the question of whether if it is possible for theatre to actually portray the realities of adolescents, when in fact the identities of youth are still fluid and the experiences of youth as diverse as those of adults. I suggest that theatre artists break free to depict reality or educate audiences and focus on providing a critical experience to adolescents.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0067.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Transition Medicine; Pediatric migraine; Pediatric; Migraine; Migraine in young adults
Online: 14 June 2017 (09:26:13 CEST)
Migraine is a common condition that affects children as they develop into adults. Transition of care from pediatric to adult care has becoming an increasingly popular topic in the medical literature. It has been suggested that discussions between patients, their families and providers should be initiated as early as age 13. Patients who are un or underprepared have poorer outcomes due to increased morbidity and worsening of their medical condition. Many children continue to have migraine into adulthood and if efforts are taken to ensure patients receive appropriate transfer of care, the results can significantly decrease the economic burden of this disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0757.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: breast cancer; young patients; genomic; disease-free survival; galactose metabolism; stemness
Online: 9 August 2023 (09:35:55 CEST)
In recent years, there has been a notable rise in the incidence of breast cancer among young patients, who exhibit worse survival outcomes and distinct characteristics compared to the intermediate and elder patients. Therefore, it’s imperative to identify identify the specific features unique to young patients, which could offer insights into potential therapeutic strategies and improving survival outcomes. In our study, we performed an integrative analysis of bulk transcriptional and genomic data from extensive clinical cohorts to identify prognostic factors. Additionally, we analyzed the single-cell transcriptional data and conducted in vitro experiments. Our work confirmed that young patients exhibited higher grading, worse disease-free survival (DFS), a higher frequency of mutations in TP53 and BRCA1, a lower frequency of mutations in PIK3CA, and upregulation of eight metabolic pathways. Notably, galactose metabolism pathway showed upregulation in young patients and was associated with worse DFS. Further analysis and experiments indicated that galactose metabolism pathway may regulate the stemness of cancer cells and ultimately contribute to worse survival outcomes. In summary, our finding identified distinct clinicopathological, transcriptional, and genomics features and revealed a correlation between galactose metabolism pathway, stemness, and poor disease-free survival of breast cancer in young patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0711.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Primary Health Care Keywords: pornography; qualitative research; sexual behavior; sex education; sexual health; young women
Online: 9 August 2023 (09:05:39 CEST)
This study explores female university students' attitudes and concerns toward pornography, based on their experience watching it and on sexual encounters with men. It used a qualitative descriptive design. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with 22 participants between March and April 2020. Thematic data analysis was performed using COREQ reporting guidelines. Three themes emerged from the data: 1) the sexual learning process, 2) the role of pornography in women’s sexuality, and 3) sexual experiences. Participants reported how they learned about sexuality and how pornography influenced sexual experiences. Self-esteem issues and societal norms regarding hair removal, and difficulty saying “no” to unwanted or humiliating sexual practices were found. Young women were not comfortable with women’s representations in mainstream pornography. They blame pornography for negative sexual experiences and claim it influences them and young men. Participants usually assumed submissive roles during sex and permitted aggressive sexual behaviors. The study reveals valuable information on how young women learn about sex, difficulty in refusing unwanted sexual activities, and even aggressive practices. Sexual education programs should include assertiveness training to improve sexual health, consent, and well-being.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0569.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: young children; early childhood; digital; wellbeing; review; definition; measurement; contributor; intervention.
Online: 30 December 2022 (04:29:30 CET)
Digital wellbeing concerns the balance and health we may experience in digital use, and the existing studies have focused on adolescents and adults. However, young children are more vulnerable to digital overuse and addiction than adults; thus, their digital wellbeing deserves empirical exploration. This scoping review synthesized and evaluated 35 collected studies on young children’s digital use and their wellbeing that were published until October of 2022 to understand the definitions, measurements, contributors, and interventions. The synthesis of evidence revealed that: (1) there was no consensus about its definition; (2) there were no effective measurements of young children’s digital wellbeing; (3) both child factors (duration and place of digital use, child demographic characteristics) and parent factors (digital use, parental perception, and mediation) contribute to young children’s wellbeing; and (4) there were some effective applications and interventions. This review contributes to the theoretical development by mapping the existing work on young children's digital wellbeing, proposing a model, and identifying the research gaps for future studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0055.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: COVID-19; vaccine hesitancy; young children; parents; health disparities, social determinants
Online: 2 August 2022 (09:22:32 CEST)
On 17 June 2022, the U.S. FDA authorized the Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines for emergency use in children ages 6 months – 4 years. Seroprevalence has increased during the current Omicron variant wave for children under 5 years and the burden of hospitalization for this age group is similar or exceeds other pediatric vaccine preventable diseases. Research following the October 2021 approval of vaccines for children 5 – 11 indicates high prevalence of parental vaccine hesitancy and low uptake, underscoring the urgency of understanding attitudes and beliefs driving parental COVID-19 vaccine rejection and acceptance for younger children. One month prior to FDA approval, in the present study 411 U.S. female guardians of children 1 – 4 years from diverse racial/ethnic, economic, and geographic backgrounds participated in a mixed method online survey assessing determinants of COVID-19 pediatric vaccine hesitancy. Only 31.3% of parents intended to vaccinate their child, 22.6% were unsure, and 46.2% intended not to vaccinate. Logistic regression indicated significant barriers to vaccination uptake including: Concerns about immediate and long-term vaccination side effects for young children, the rushed nature of FDA approval and distrust in government and pharmaceutical companies, lack of community and family support for pediatric vaccination, conflicting media messaging, and lower socioeconomic status. Vaccine-resistant and unsure parents were also more likely to believe children were not susceptible to infection and that the vaccine no longer worked against new variants. Findings underscore the need for improved public health messaging and transparency regarding vaccine development and approval, the importance of community outreach, and increased pediatrician attention to parental concerns to better improve COVID vaccine uptake for young children.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0718.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: early-onset breast cancer; hereditary cancer; whole-exome sequencing; young women
Online: 31 August 2020 (09:46:26 CEST)
Young women with breast cancer represent 15% of cancer cases in Latin America. Genomic studies have found that early-onset breast-cancer cases exhibit a higher genetic susceptibility and a specific genomic signature as compared to their older counterparts. The aim of this study was to describe clinically relevant germline mutations in a cohort of young women with breast cancer. To achieve this, we analyzed hereditary-cancer genes from whole-exome sequencing data in 108 unrelated women with an extreme phenotype of breast cancer (≤40 years of age), diagnosed and treated at the National Cancer Institute of Mexico; 11% of the patients carried a pathogenic variant. BRCA2 comprised 46% of the mutations, followed by BRCA1 with 23%; PALB2 with 15%; and TP53 and RAD51C with 8 % each. This article describes a novel pathogenic mutation in RAD51C c.519dupT. The median age at diagnosis was 35 years overall; however, it was six years younger in patients with mutations. Age at diagnosis (OR=0.82, CI 95% 0.71-0.94; P= 0.008) and first-degree family history of cancer (OR=8.26, CI95% 1.35-50; P= 0.022) were the only epidemiological variables associated with mutational status. We found no differences in disease-free survival (p=0.403) or overall survival (p=0.735) among mutational status subgroups.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0629.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: Community Health Survey; CHS; PM10 long-term effect; young adults; BMI
Online: 28 August 2020 (09:26:19 CEST)
Background: The associations between long-term exposure to particulate matters (PM) in residential ambiance and obesity are comparatively less elucidated among young adults. Methods: Using 2017 Community Health Survey data with aged 19−29 participants in 25 communities, Seoul, the relationship between obesity and long−term PM10 levels of living district was examined. We defined obesity as overweight (25≤BMI<30) or obese (30≤BMI) using Body Mass Index (BMI) from self-reported anthropometric information. Analysis was conducted sampling weighted logistic regression models by fitting municipal PM10 levels according to individual residence periods with 10 years and more residing in a current municipality. Socio-demographic factors were adjusted over all models and age−specific effect was explored among aged 19–24 and 25–29. Results: Total study population are 3,655 [men 1,680 (46.0%) and aged 19–24 1,933 (52.9%)] individuals. Among the communities with greater level of PM10; 2001–2005, associations with obesity were increased for overall with residence period; 10 years ≤ [Odds ratio, OR 1.071, 95% Confidence interval (CI) 0.969–1.185], 15 years ≤ [OR 1.118, 95% CI 1.004–1.245], and 20 years ≤ [OR 1.156, 95% CI 1.032–1.294]. However, decreased associations were detected for PM10; 2006–2010, and age–specific effects were modified according to the residence period. Conclusions: Although currently PM10 levels are decreasing, higher levels of PM10 exposure at the residential area during the earlier life-time may contribute in increasing obesity among young adults.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1789.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: young adults; housing; living at home; spatial autoregressive panel data model; Sweden
Online: 27 October 2023 (11:13:43 CEST)
This study investigates why young adults live with their parents in Sweden. As young adults’ living arrangements affect decisions about marriage, education, childbirth, and participation in the workforce, more knowledge for policy makers is crucial to implementing effective policies to support young adults and promote financial independence and well-being. Using a data set from 1998 to 2021 at the municipal level in Sweden, we used a spatial autoregressive panel data model to examine the proportion of young adults living at home and regional disparities. The study uncovers intraregional variations, illustrating how different municipalities within Sweden exhibit different patterns of young adults living at home. Our findings reveal that economic factors, such as unemployment, significantly impact this pattern. The dynamics of the housing market, demographic factors, cultural differences, and location-specific characteristics also play an essential role in explaining this pattern. The findings suggest that the key drivers are the lack of rental housing, high unemployment rates, a high degree of urbanisation, interregional migration, and lack of social capital.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0750.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: behavior; theory; addiction; gambling; college students; university students; young adults; betting; gaming
Online: 12 June 2023 (03:54:54 CEST)
Gambling among college students can start as a pastime activity. However, this pastime can lead to problem gambling and pathological gambling. This cross-sectional study aimed to identify and explain gambling behavior among university students using a novel fourth-generation multi-theory model (MTM) of health behavior change. Data were collected from a sample of 1,474 university students at a large southwestern university in the U.S. between January 2023 and February 2023, utilizing a validated 39-item survey. The statistical analyses employed in this study encompassed descriptive statistics, independent samples t-tests, and hierarchical regression modeling. Among students who engaged in gambling in the past month, the constructs of participatory dialogue (β = 0.052; p < 0.05), behavioral confidence (β = 0.073; p < 0.0001), and changes in the physical environment (β = 0.040; p = 0.0137) accounted for 27.7% of the variance in the likelihood of initiating the behavior change. Furthermore, the constructs of emotional transformation (β = 0.104; p = 0.0003) and practice for change (β = 0.060; p = 0.0368) accounted for 22.6% of the variance in the likelihood of sustaining quitting gambling behavior. The Multi-Theory Model (MTM) can be employed to design interventions aimed at reducing problem gambling among college students.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2217.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: epidemiology; baseball injury; young baseball players; injury prevalence; early single sport specialization
Online: 31 May 2023 (10:06:25 CEST)
This study aimed to describe the injury profiles of young Korean baseball players according to position and age as the proportion and distribution of injuries based on playing position and age remains unclear. A total of 271 elite youth baseball players aged 8 to 16 years were divided into two groups: elementary school (ES) (n=135) and middle school (MS) (n=136). The participants' basic, baseball practice, and injury information were collected. Injuries in the MS group were not limited to the elbow and shoulder, and the injury prevalence varied by age group and baseball position. The most injured body region in the ES group was the elbow joint, regardless of the position. In contrast, the most injured body region in the MS group was the lower back, except for infielders whose elbows were the most injured. Additionally, the MS group was more likely to experience injuries of the lower back (OR=4.27, 95% CI=2.47–7.40), shoulder (OR=1.93, 95% CI=1.08–3.43; P=0.024), and knee (OR=2.15, 95% CI=1.17–3.94; P=0.012). Our findings indicate that excessive practice and lack of rest during MS (growth spurt period) can significantly increase the risk of lower back problems in young baseball players.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0028.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: excessive Internet gaming; heart rate variability; high frequency; impulsivity, young male adults
Online: 3 April 2023 (13:46:36 CEST)
Several studies have reported a relationship between autonomic dysfunction during tasks and Internet addiction. Changes within 24 h regarding heart rate variability (HRV) may be a more sensitive indicator than short term observations. We evaluated the influence of excessive Internet usage on HRV using a 24 h electrocardiogram (ECG) and examined acute changes during computer game tasks. A total 13 high school students and 22 young adults were recruited, and divided into excessive Internet user and non- excessive user groups based on Internet addiction test scores. The ECG was recorded continuously for 24 h by a wearable sensor and during two computer games (the Iowa gambling task and each participant’s preferred game) using a standard type ECG system. Multiple psychometric tests were also conducted. The excessive Internet user group exhibited clinically significant depressive symptoms, and higher self-reported scores for anxiety, impulsivity, autistic tendencies, and sleep problems than the non- excessive internet user group. There were weak differences within the 24 h high-frequency (HF) band power between two groups. During the Iowa gambling task, younger participants exhibited a reduced HF response, which may be related to weaker top- down self- regulatory mechanisms.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0620.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: mental health risk, transpersonal gratitude, emotional intelligence, life contentment, adolescents, young adults
Online: 25 July 2020 (18:14:54 CEST)
World statistics demonstrate that around 970 million people around the globe suffer from mental health problems (Ritchie & Roser, 2019), a major proportion of which comprised of adolescents and young adults (UNODC, 2018). Also, because of increased mental health issues the problems like substance use, suicide, depression, anxiety, and stress are also increasing (Armstrong, 2019; Bandelow & Michaelis, 2015; Ritchie & Roser, 2018; United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime [UNODC], 2019). It is thus a dire need to address the issue. The present coneptual paper proposed the role of transpersonal gratitude, emotional intelligence, and life contentment for reducing mental health risk among the adolescents and young adults.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.2004.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD); Havighurst developmental tasks; life histories methodology; young people; adults
Online: 28 July 2023 (11:53:11 CEST)
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental condition, characterized by persistent deficits in communication/social interaction and restricted and repetitive patterns of behavior, interests or activities. It is usually identified in childhood, despite late diagnoses in cases of greater functionality. Havighurst proposes a set of fundamental tasks throughout the life cycle, whose achievement is probably compromised in the ASD, even though it lacks scientific evidence. This study innovates, as it is based on Havighurst's theoretical model for understanding the development process of three adults and one young person, diagnosed with ASD level I, at different life stages. Through the methodology of life histories, interviews were subject to content analysis. Results pointed out the early detection and interventions importance, minimizing adversities, above all by those who had late diagnoses. Self-perceived success, not expected, was found in some development tasks (e.g. conscience and morality development). Also were noticed expected limitations related to ASD (e.g. difficulties in relationships with peers and in the labor market inclusion). Probably, in cases of greater severity and less functionality/autonomy, there would be greater failure in development tasks. It is crucial to improve research on this developmental model and on the factors that delay the diagnosis, including cases of different levels of severity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1202.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: young caregiver; baseline interviews; pandemic; qualitative; COVID-19; longitudinal; social determinants of health
Online: 29 April 2023 (04:09:48 CEST)
This qualitative research study is a part of a larger research project exploring the experiences of young caregivers aged 5-26 years and their families navigating the COVID-19 pandemic between 2020 to 2023. Data was collected from 14 young caregivers who participated in baseline interviews. The central research question guiding this study: What was, is, and will be the impact of changing public health restrictions on young caregivers and their families during the pandemic and pandemic recovery? Seven themes emerged through analysis: 1) Navigating Care During the Height of Public Health Restrictions, 2) Neighbourhood and Built Environment During the Pandemic, 3) Perceptions Towards COVID and Public Health Restrictions/Efforts, 4) The Impact of Public Health Restrictions on Relationships, 5) Mental Health Challenges of Being a Young Caregiver During a Pandemic, 6) Navigating Formal Services and Supports and 7) Recommendations from Young Caregivers. The findings from this empirical research suggest that young caregivers found it easier to navigate their caregiving responsibilities when public health restrictions and work-from-home mandates were initially implemented, however, this later changed due to challenges in finding respite from caregiving, maintaining social connections with friends, creating personal space at home, and finding adequate replacements of programs once offered in-person.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0664.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: COVID-19 lockdown; psychological impact; perceived stresses-R scale; PSS scale; young adults
Online: 28 July 2020 (04:39:39 CEST)
Context: COVID-19 pandemic and the Lockdown implemented as a measure to contain the virus spread has taken a toll over the psychological well-being of the people especially the young adults, the confinement along with the environment of a highly infectious pandemic around the induvial are put under great stress.Aims: The current study aims to assess the psychological impact and perceived stress due to COVID-19 lockdown in Young Adult population of India.Settings and Design: It is a cross sectional, observational study.Methods and Material: The survey was conducted using Google forms involving snowball sampling technique which obtained 267 responses in total. (IES-R) and (PSS) scales were used for the study.Statistical analysis used: Descriptive analysis were performed on the sociodemographic parameters and the comparison of means were done by Chi-square test in SPSS Statistic 21.0 (IBM SPSS Statistics, New York, United States). Results: The mean IES-R and PSS scores obtained for the population in this study was 25.64±18.95 and 18.27±6.10 respectively. Out of the 267 respondents in total 61.4% (n=164) of them were males. Maximum of the respondents 62.54%(n=167) belonged to the age group of 18-23 with mean age being 23.14± 2.913. 92.5% of the respondents were unmarried and only 26.6% belonged to the rural part of India. Females, younger individuals were found to have higher IES-R and PSS scores. Conclusions: There is significant psychological burden and stress on the young Indian population with females and younger individuals particularly students are the most vulnerable population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0076.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Young carers; Informal carers; Life satisfaction; Social support; Family functioning; Academic functioning; Caring activities
Online: 4 September 2023 (04:05:23 CEST)
Caring for an ill or disabled relative can present significant challenges that may exceed the per-sonal resources of the caregiver. Young carers (YCs) often take on this role, providing support to family members or friends, which can have far-reaching effects on various aspects of their lives. This study involved 235 adolescents, 106 YCs and 129 non-carers (NCs), who completed ques-tionnaires assessing life satisfaction, social support, family functioning, academic functioning, and caring activities. Group effects measured with MANOVA and MANCOVA (controlling for age effects), showed YCs to have higher amounts of caregiving activities than NC (as expected) but lower satisfaction with life. Hierarchical regressions also found that, for YCs, academic func-tioning, social support and the negative impact of caregiving predicted satisfaction with life; and that the negative impact of caregiving on YCs is explained by their family functioning and the amount of their caregiving activities. For NCs, only academic functioning, social support and family functioning predicted satisfaction with life. In conclusion, caregiving has a negative im-pact on YC’s life satisfaction, but this effect is determined by their social support, academic func-tioning and negative impact of caring, which in turn depends on their familiar functioning and amount of caring activities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0386.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: Helicobacter pylori; Type 1 diabetes mellitus; HbA1c; Child; Children; Young patients; Pediatrics; Adolescents; Meta-analysis
Online: 4 August 2023 (08:21:09 CEST)
This study aimed to present a systematic meta-analysis examining the association between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection, hemoglobin A1c levels, and the development of type 1 diabetes mellitus. The initial search identified 451 articles related to the association between H. pylori infection and T1DM. Among them, 14 articles had 2,971 participants meeting the inclusion criteria for advanced meta-analysis. A significant association was observed between H. pylori infection and T1DM, with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.87 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.27–2.78, p = 0.002). A subgroup analysis on H. pylori status showed that a longer duration of diabetes diagnosis and higher hemoglobin A1c levels were significantly associated with H. pylori infection (p < 0.001 for both). However, there was no significant association between H. pylori infection and the diagnostic age of diabetes (p = 0.306). These findings contribute to the understanding of the association between H. pylori infection and T1DM, thereby highlighting the potential role of H. pylori in influencing the duration and glycemic control of diabetes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0289.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: stroke; CNS; ischaemic; haemorrhagic; biomarker; panel; young adults; children; triage; specifici-ty; sensitivity; prediction values
Online: 29 April 2022 (07:44:11 CEST)
Early stroke diagnosis remains a big challenge in healthcare partly due to the lack of reliable diagnostic blood biomarkers, which in turn leads to increased rates of mortality and disability. Current screening methods are optimised to identify patients with a high risk of cardio-vascular disease, especially among the elderly. However, in young adults and children, these methods suffer low sensitivity and specificity and contribute to further delays in their triage and diagnosis. Accordingly, there is an urgent need to develop reliable blood biomarkers for triaging patients suspected of stroke in all age groups, especially children and young adults. This review explores some of the existing blood biomarkers, as single biomarkers, or biomarker panels, and examine their sensitivity and specificity for predicting stroke. A review was performed on PubMed and Web of Science for journal articles published in English during the period 2001 to 2021 which contained information regarding biomarkers of stroke. In this review article, we provide comparative information on the availability, clinical usefulness, and time-window periods of eight single blood biomarkers and six biomarker panels that have been used for predicting stroke in emergency situations. The outcomes of this review can be used in future research for developing more effective stroke biomarkers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0553.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: disability statistics; kappa; intraclass correlation coefficient; young adolescents; functional difficulties; special education; survey; health behaviour
Online: 25 August 2020 (11:48:46 CEST)
Determining disability prevalence is an important area for population statistics, especially among young adolescents. The Washington Group on Disability Statistics is one source of reporting disabilities through functional difficulties. However, young adolescents self-reporting this measure is in its infancy. The purpose of this study was to carry out an intra-rater test-retest reliability study on a modified set of items for self-reporting functional difficulties. Young adolescents (n=74; boys=64%; age m=13.7, SD=1.8) completed a self-reported version of the child functioning module in a supervised classroom. The second administration took place two weeks later. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Kappa (k) statistics were used to test reliability of the items, and interpretation through Landis & Koch, and Cohen, respectively. The majority of items had substantial or moderate agreement, although there was only fair agreement for self-care (ICC=0.59), concentration (ICC=0.50), and routine (ICC=0.54). Kappa statistics of behaviour were interpreted to be large (k=0.65), and seeing (k=0.49), walking (k=0.49), and speaking (k=0.49) difficulties were moderate. The majority of the items in the self-reported version of the child functioning module can be used in a scale format, although some caution may be required on items of self-care and concentration when used as a dichotomous variable.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0367.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: young people experiencing homelessness; disadvantaged youth; engagement; community-based research; positive youth development; mental skills training
Online: 22 August 2022 (03:25:19 CEST)
Underpinned by the new world Kirkpatrick model and in the context of a community-based, sport psychology program (My Strengths Training for Life™) for young people experiencing homelessness, this process evaluation investigated: (1) young peoples’ reactions (program and facilitator evaluation, enjoyment, attendance, and engagement) to and learning (mental skills and transfer intention), (2) the relationship between reaction and learning variables, and (3) the mediators underpinning this relationship. 301 young people living in a West Midlands housing service completed questionnaires on demographics, reaction and learning variables. Higher levels of program engagement were positively associated with more favorable reactions to the program. Enjoyment positively predicted learning outcomes, which was mediated by transfer intention. Recommendations are made for: (1) a balance between rigor and flexibility for evaluation methods with disadvantaged youth, (2) including engagement as well as attendance for indicators of meaningful program participation, (3) measuring program experiences (e.g., enjoyment) to understand program effectiveness, and (4) providing opportunities for skill transfer during and after program participation. Findings have implications for researchers, program commissioners, and policy makers working designing and evaluating programs in community-based settings.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Adolescent girls; Female genital mutilation/cutting; Global health; Sexual initiation; Sexual and reproductive health; Young women
Online: 30 August 2020 (17:28:36 CEST)
Despite several attempts by governments and non-governmental organizations to eliminate female genital mutilation or cutting, it is puzzling that this traditional procedure is widely practiced today in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Scholarly arguments on the influence of female genital mutilation on sexual behavior up until now remain inconclusive. The current study sought to examine the association between female genital mutilation and early sexual initiation among girls and young women (AGYW) in SSA. Data from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) of 12 SSA countries were combined. A total of 30,089 AGYW (15-24 years) who had ever had sex and had complete information on all the variables of interest were considered. The outcome variable for the study was early sexual initiation. The study employed multilevel logistic regression for the data analysis, with reported odds ratio and associated 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The overall prevalence of female genital mutilation among AGYW was 49.9%, with the highest and lowest prevalence in Guinea (95.8%) and Togo (3.3%) respectively. The prevalence of early sexual initiation was 42.4%, with the highest and lowest prevalence in Niger (59.9%) and Burkina Faso (30.6%) respectively. AGYW who had not experienced female genital mutilation were less likely to have early sexual initiation [OR= 0.74, CI= 0.70-0.78], compared to those who had experienced female genital mutilation, after controlling for significant covariates. The likelihood of early sexual initiation was high among AGYW aged 15-19 [OR=2.38, CI=2.26-2.51] but low among AGYW with secondary education [AOR=0.58, CI=0.54-0.63], those who had never married [OR=0.68, CI=0.60-0.78], those in households with richest wealth quintile [OR=0.64, CI=0.57-0.72], those who were exposed to mass media [OR=0.88, CI=0.83-0.93], and those working [OR=0.91, CI=0.87-0.96]. Not undergoing female genital mutilation in the midst of socio-economic factors (e.g., education level, household wealth) could limit AGYW from early sexual debut. These findings underscore the need for effective campaign and programs (e.g., educational programs, entrepreneurial training, micro-finance schemes) against the practice of female genital mutilation. Policy interventions (e.g., “schooling for the girl-child” initiatives) that might delay early sexual initiation among adolescent girls and young women in the midst of identified socio-economic factors should be developed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1456.v1
Subject: Engineering, Safety, Risk, Reliability And Quality Keywords: Navigation System display; Distraction; Visual Search Behavior; Fixation; Dwell; Eye-tracking; Young Drivers; Night Driving; Driving Safety
Online: 22 May 2023 (03:38:37 CEST)
Navigation systems are considered as a fast and efficient source of road information to drivers. However, they can distract drivers with more potential accidents on the road. This study examined the effect of navigation systems on driver distraction and visual search while driving in different driving conditions. An eye-tracking system was used to collect visual search data from twenty young drivers while using a driving simulator. Several factors were investigated, including the driving environment (urban and rural), the illumination level (day and night), and the display of the navigation system (large and small) as well as their interactions. Several measures related to eye movements were used in this experiment, including percentage of total Global Positioning System (GPS) fixation duration, average duration of GPS fixation, GPS fixation frequency, the percentage of total dwell duration for the road ahead, the frequency of dwelling on the mirrors and driver’s right and left side windows, and the percentage of dwellings on the mirrors and driver’s right and left side windows. Statistical analysis of the collected data was performed with repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). The experiment revealed that the small GPS display creates more distraction in terms of average gaze duration and total gaze duration. Moreover, daytime driving conditions increase distraction. Regarding the driver’s visual search, the study showed that the visual search area is wider and more spread out during the day, which leads to better driving performance. This study will compare small and large navigation displays to determine which one is more effective in reducing driver distractions, and contribute to understanding driver distraction and visual search while using the navigation system display.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0417.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Recreational substance abuse; drug abuse; marijuana; amphetamine; acute ischemic stroke; risk factors; young adult; NIS; Stroke; Sudden Cardiac Death
Online: 27 September 2022 (09:41:00 CEST)
Background: Substance use continues to be on the rise in the United States and has been linked to new onset cardiovascular (CVDs) and cerebrovascular disorders (CeVDs) leading to hospitalizations. We aimed to study the association of different subtypes of substance use disorders (SUDs) among hospitalized patients, with the different subtypes of CVDs and CeVDs, using the National Inpatient Sample (NIS) Database. Additionally, we aimed to assess the odds of hospitalizations with new onset CVDs and CeVDs among patients with different types of SUDs. Methods: A retrospective study of the NIS database (2016-2017) using the ICD-10-CM codes was performed. The hospitalizations with a secondary diagnosis of SUDs were identified. Weighted univariate analysis using the chi-square test and multivariate survey logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate for the incidence, prevalence, and odds of association between vascular events and SUDs. Results: There were a total of 58,259,589 hospitalizations, out of which 21.42% had SUDs. Out of all the hospitalized patients between the age 18-50, more patients had SUDs than not (31.83%, p< 0.0001). This difference existed for all the different subtypes of SUDs including alcohol related disorder (42.61%), amphetamine dependence (76.17% vs 31.83%), cannabis related disorder (75.17%), cocaine related disorders (57.87%), hallucinogen related disorder (82.91%), inhalant related disorders (67.25%), opioid related disorders (52.86%), and nicotine dependence (35.72%). We found a significant association of acute ischemic stroke with amphetamine dependence (OR 1.23, 95%CI 1.14-1.33), cocaine related disorders (1.17, 1.12-1.23) and nicotine dependence (1.42, 1.40-1.43). Similarly, the association of intracerebral hemorrhage was higher with amphetamine dependence (2.58, 2.26-2.93), and cocaine related disorders (1.62, 1.46-1.79). The association of subarachnoid hemorrhage was noted to be higher with amphetamine dependence (1.82, 1.48-2.24) and nicotine dependence (1.47, 1.39-1.55). In terms of association of cardiovascular disorders with SUDs,the patients with myocardial infarction had higher odds of nicotine dependence (1.85, 1.83-1.87) than not, Similarly, the patients with angina pectoris were noted to have a higher association with cocaine related disorders (2.21, 1.86-2.62), and those with atrial fibrillation had a higher association alcohol related disorders (1.14, 1.11-1.17). Conclusion: Our study demonstrates the variability of CVD and CeVD in patients hospitalized for SUD. Findings from our study may help promote increased awareness and early management of these events. Further studies are needed to evaluate specific effects of frequency and dose on the incidence and prevalence of CVD and CeVD in patients with SUD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0368.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: psychological well-being; young offenders; social support; pretrial detention; correctional camps; positive and negative feelings; positive and negative affects
Online: 29 November 2019 (04:16:05 CET)
The present article aims at investigating the role of social support in the emotional well-being of young offenders. We hypothesized that perceived social support would be positively related to the emotional well-being of juvenile offenders. The methods were worked out to study perceived and received social support, psychological well-being and emotional state of the juvenile offenders. The entire sample consisted of 56 males aged from 15 to 18 years old (M = 16.5; SD = 0.8). 32 subjects (57%) were in pretrial detention and 24 participants (43%) were in a correctional camp located in the central region of Russia. The study detected that the level of psychological well-being of the respondents from the camp was correlated neither with perceived social support nor with the frequency of seeking assistance from the different sources of support. For the respondents in the pretrial detention, the level of psychological well-being was directly connected to the degree of the perceived support from the friends. The obtained differences might be associated with the influence of social environment in the pretrial detention and in the camps.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0035.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Adolescents and young adults (AYA) cancer; molecular profiling; precision oncology; genomics; whole genome sequencing; next-generation sequencing; sarcoma; diagnostic biomarkers
Online: 1 December 2023 (08:09:28 CET)
Sarcomas are a heterogenous group of tumours that commonly carry poor prognosis with limited therapeutic options. Adolescents and young adults (AYA) with sarcoma are a unique and under-studied patient population that have only achieved modest survival gains compared to other groups. We present our institutional experience of AYA with sarcoma who underwent comprehensive molecular profiling (CMP) using either large-panel targeted DNA sequencing or whole genome and transcriptome sequencing and evaluated the feasibility and clinical impact of this approach. Genomic variants detected were determined to be clinically relevant and actionable following the Molecular Tumour Board evaluation. Clinicians provided feedback regarding the utility of testing three months after reporting. Twenty-five patients who were recruited for CMP are included in this analysis. The median time from consent to final molecular report was 45 days (interquartile range 37-57). Potentially actionable variants were detected for 14 patients (56%) and new treatment recommendations were identified for 12 patients (48%). Pathogenic germline variants were identified in three patients (12%), and one patient had a change of diagnosis. Implementation for CMP for AYA with sarcoma is clinically valuable, feasible and should be increasingly integrated into routine clinical practice as technologies and turnaround times continue to improve.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1258.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: non-memory led dementia; young onset dementia; inherited dementia; care-partners; carers; caregivers; healthcare professionals; healthcare students; virtual environments; qualitative; arts and health
Online: 20 November 2023 (16:45:26 CET)
This study investigated co-constructed research poetry as a way to understand the lived experiences of people affected by rarer dementia and as a means to use poetry to convey those experiences to healthcare professionals. Using mixed-methods, 71 people living with rarer dementia and care-partners (stakeholders) contributed to co-constructing 27 poems with professional poets; stakeholders’ verbatim words were analysed with descriptive qualitative analysis. Stakeholders were also surveyed and interviewed about their participation. Healthcare professionals (n = 93) were surveyed to elicit their responses to learning through poetry and its acceptability as a learning tool. Poems conveyed a shared narrative of different aspects of lived experience, often owing to atypical symptoms, misunderstandings by professionals, lack of support pathways, and a continuous struggle to adapt. Stakeholder surveys indicated it was a valuable experience to both co-create and respond to the poems, whilst group interviews revealed people’s experiences of the research poetry were characterised by reflection on lived experience, curiosity and exploration. Healthcare professionals’ responses reinforced the poetry’s capacity to stimulate cognitive and affective learning specific to rare dementia support and prompt both empathy and critical thinking in practice. As the largest poetry-based study that we are aware of, this novel accessible approach of creating group poems yielded substantial information about the experiences and needs of those affected by rarer dementia and how poetry can contribute to healthcare education and training.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0308.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Olive pruning; compost; recycling; Capsicum annuum L.; soil organic carbon (SOC); soil organic matter (SOM); olive young tree; Olea europaea L.; peat replacement.
Online: 20 January 2022 (14:26:24 CET)
To substitute of conventional manure and peat with alternatives sourcing from environmental conservation concerns, several promising alternatives has been attracting scientific parties’ interest, recently. However, among them compost perform the best, mostly and support carbon sequestration and mitigation against climate change. The article describes the made locally produced 70% in volume olive pruning branches compost (COMP) performance in two trials as an organic amendment in pepper production and an olive sapling substrate during 2019-2021 organic management in Turkey. The application of COMP to pepper trial conducted using factorial randomised block design with 4 replications and 6 treatments increased total organic matter and soil organic carbon, significantly (p<0.05) as compared to non-used plots in two locations. The olive sapling trial was conducted using a randomised plot design with 4 replications and 4 treatments. After the 12 months of growth, compost had the largest architecture rooted plants significantly different (p<0.05). Fresh volume (cm3) of COMP used saplings were obtained 35% less than 40% peat treatment, significantly (p<0.05) while 6th month measurement was found as 40%. It is concluded that to enhance circular economy recycling and composting olive pruning branches is lucrative for the country to reduce external input usage in organic horticultural production.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0803.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: educational concept; green business school; new green deal; interdisciplinary capacity and movement building; green failure; young generation collaboration network; prevent big ideas from failure, theory U, science and action-based research, design thinking
Online: 31 December 2020 (12:44:11 CET)
This article addresses the question why initiatives in the field of green business and sustainable development often fail. Therefore, it dismantles some typical patterns of failure and shows – as a case study – how these patterns can be challenged through an innovative educational concept: the green business and sustainable development school. The applied methodology is a real-life project that is designed through blended, interdisciplinary elements from business model canvas, Theory U, participation and design thinking. The results of the school initiative are discussed and evaluated by four distinctive stakeholder groups and outline the school’s supporting potential to overcome typical patterns of failure by the younger generation in the future. This article concludes with ideas to enhance the school concept reaching out to even more stakeholder-groups to increase its reliability and viability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.2058.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: augmented reality; literacy engagement; reading for pleasure; transformative education; emergent digital technologies; United Arab Emirates Ministry of Education; UAE; Storytime; interactive literacy experience; young learners; bilingual literacy; local and global contexts; 3D objects; interactive games; learner agency; family engagement; global community; curriculum integration; creativity; holistic learning experiences
Online: 31 October 2023 (09:43:21 CET)
This case study explores the transformative effects of emergent digital technologies, particularly augmented reality (AR), on literacy engagement and reading for pleasure. The United Arab Emirates Ministry of Education implemented the UAE Storytime programme, utilising AR to create an interactive literacy experience for young learners. The programme incorporated bilingual episodes, featuring stories based on local and global contexts, with 3D objects and interactive games to enhance understanding. The results indicate a positive correlation between the use of AR and literacy engagement. A high proportion of learners scanned the QR codes to access the AR objects, which enhanced their engagement and understanding of the stories. The programme fostered a learner agency, engaged family members in the learning process, and established a sense of global community. The study recommends the integration of similar initiatives into the curriculum to promote collaboration, creativity, and holistic learning experiences.
REVIEW | doi:10.3390/sci2030068
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Tropical Medicine Keywords: COVID-19; pooling clinical trials; hyperinfection; steroids; treatment; targeted healthcare; population health management; cancer treatment; clinical research; clinical trials; developing vaccines; ranking and rating hospital quality; school closures; interventions for delirium; assessments of COVID-19 death inequities; regulatory safeguards; preventing child abuse and maltreatment; prevalence of health care worker burnout; nursing home ratings; challenging oncology practice; addressing racial; ethnic; social and economic divides; violence against sexual minority adolescents; primary tumors; metastasis; stages of cancer; reforming cancer clinical trials; supporting carers; protection and prevention; benign and malignant tumors; reforming cancer clinical trials; protection of healthcare personnel; comparing excess deaths in NYC; 1918 influenza pandemic; the possibility of full recovery from COVID-19; mental health impact of COVID-19 on young adults; ranking and rating nursing home quali
Online: 21 August 2020 (00:00:00 CEST)
The SARS-CoV-2 virus that causes the COVID-19 disease has wreaked havoc on the world community in terms of every imaginable parameter. The research output on COVID-19 has been nothing short of phenomenal, especially in the medical and biomedical sciences, where the search for a potential vaccine is being conducted in earnest. Much of the advanced research has been distributed in the leading medical journals, including the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), where the latest research is distributed on a daily basis. The purpose of this paper is to provide some perspectives on 44 interesting and highly topical research papers that have been published in JAMA, at the time of writing, within the past two weeks. The diverse topics include public health, general medicine, internal medicine, oncology, paediatrics, geriatrics, and biostatistics.