ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0596.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Paper, Wood And Textiles Keywords: black poplar; thermal stability; wood protection; impregnation, surface properties
Online: 10 October 2023 (10:54:27 CEST)
The objective of this work was to improve the thermal stability, flame resistance and surface properties of black poplar (Populus nigra L.) wood via different impregnation methods. The impregnation method was employed through two distinct modalities: vacuum impregnation and immersion impregnation. Here, poplar wood was impregnated with calcium oxide solutions (1%, 3% and 5%). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analysis revealed a shift in the typical peaks of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin depending on the impregnation method and solution ratio. Thermogravimetric analysis and the limiting oxygen index indicated that the samples impregnated with lime solutions exhibited higher thermal stability than the unimpregnated wood. In both impregnation methods caused a decrease water absorption and thickness swelling of the sample groups. Using a scanning electron microscope, the effect of the impregnation process on the structure of the wood was examined. In terms of surface properties, it was determined that the surface roughness value increased. On the contrary, it was observed that the contact angle value also increased. A significant difference emerged between the applied methods. In conclusion, the applied lime minerals are suitable substances to increase flame resistance and thermal stability of black poplar wood.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0145.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: biomass burning; residential wood combustion; aerosol mass spectrometry; potassium; chemical transport model
Online: 13 November 2019 (11:34:33 CET)
Alkali-containing submicron particles were measured continuously during three months, including late winter and spring seasons in Gothenburg, Sweden. The overall aims were to characterize the ambient concentrations of combustion-related aerosol particles and to address the importance of local emissions and long-range transport for the atmospheric concentrations in the urban background environment. K and Na concentrations in the PM1 size range were measured by an alkali aerosol mass spectrometer (Alkali-AMS) and a cluster analysis was conducted. Local meteorological conditions and some other data sets were obtained, and back trajectory analyses and chemical transport model (CTM) simulations were included for the evaluation. The Alkali-AMS cluster analysis indicated three major clusters: 1) biomass burning origin, 2) mixture of other combustion sources, and 3) marine origin. Low temperatures and low wind speed conditions correlated with high concentrations of K-containing particles, mainly due to regional emissions from residential biomass combustion; transport of air masses from continental Europe also contribute to cluster 1. The CTM results indicate that open biomass burning in the eastern parts of Europe may have contributed substantially to high PM2.5 concentrations (and to cluster 1) during an episode in late March. According to the CTM results the mixed cluster (2) is likely to include particles emitted from different source types and no single geographical source region seems to dominate for this cluster. The back trajectory analysis and meteorological conditions indicated that the marine origin cluster was correlated with westerly winds and high wind speed; this cluster had high concentrations of Na-containing particles, as expected for sea salt particles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0244.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: wood combustion; sawdust pellets; solid woods; heat calorific value; ash content; bio-energy; Papua New Guinea
Online: 21 February 2022 (03:23:34 CET)
Burning woody biomass for energy is gaining attention due to environmental issues associated with fossil fuels and carbon emission. The carbon released from burning wood is absorbed by plants and is carbon neutral. The purpose of this study was to investigate the combustion characteristics (heat calorific values and ash contents) of three timbers: Araucaria cunninghamii, Instia bijuga and Pometia pinnata and recommend for fuelwood. The test samples were sawdust particles (treatment) and solid woods (control) extracted from the heartwoods. The sawdust particles were oven-dried, sieved and pelletized into pellets using a hand-held pelletizing device, thus, forming cylindrical dimension (volume 1178.57 mm3, oven dry density 0.0008 g/mm3). While the solid woods were cubed and oven-dried (volume 1000.00 mm3, oven dry density 0.001 g/mm3). Prior to combustion in a semi-automatic bomb calorimeter, 90 test specimens (15 replicates per treatment and control per species) were conditioned to 14 % moisture content (at temperature 105 ºC) and weighed to a constant (unit) mass (1.0 g). The heat energy outputs and ash residues (of treatments) were analyzed statistically. The results indicated variability in heat energy outputs and ash residues between test specimens of the three species. Comparatively, the treatment specimens of A. cunninghamii produced higher calorific value (18.546 kJ/g) than the control (18.376 kJ/g) whilst the treatment specimens of I. bijuga and P. pinnata generated lower heat calorific values (17.124 kJ/g and 18.822 kJ/g) than the control (18.415 kJ/g and 20.659 kJ/g), respectively. According to ash content analysis, A. cunninghamii generated higher residues (6.3%) followed by P. pinnata (4.5%) and I. bijuga (2.8%). The treatment specimens of the three species could not meet the standard heat energy requirement (20.0 kJ/g) and thus, were unsuitable for fuelwood. However, the control specimens of P. pinnata generated equivalent heat energy (20.659 kJ/g) and could be a potential fuelwood.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1241.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Paper, Wood And Textiles Keywords: wood residuals; forest biomass; wood composite; wood floor; life cycle assessment
Online: 18 July 2023 (12:22:34 CEST)
Keywords: Wood residuals; Forest biomass; Wood composite; Wood floor; Life Cycle Assessment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0347.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: wood; solid wood bending; quality; nondestructive testing
Online: 5 May 2023 (10:14:28 CEST)
Bending of solid wood from European oak is one of the most demanding technological processes due to its specific structural and physical properties and variability. We investigated the influence of wood moisture content (MC) and stiffness, determined by NDT, as well as previous drying methods on the bending ability of the wood. The best quality was obtained with bending specimens bent at a moisture content of at least 16 % and quarter or semi-quartersawn. The number of rejected specimens increased slightly when HF bending was used. Single-stage predrying of oak to a final MC of 8 % resulted in a high rejection rate (> 70 %) regardless of drying technique. The acceptance rate was higher for less stiff specimens where the ratio of ultrasonic velocity in the straight (vS) and bent region (vB) was less than 0.5 (vB/vS).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0215.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: downed deadwood; decay stage; decomposition; wood density; wood moisture
Online: 30 May 2017 (09:04:25 CEST)
Deadwood represents a source of nutrients, carbon and water for metabolism within forest ecosystem. Nutrients are mobilized due to the decomposition of wood, which is a long-term process that can be best studied by analysing environmental data on a temporary scale. Our study provides physico-temporal data on the downed logs of three major tree species in European temperate forests: Abies alba Mill., Fagus sylvatica L. and Picea abies (L.) Karst. Time since death was obtained using tree censuses (repeated for 40 years) and dendrochronology for each single downed log, the oldest being 75 years old. Standard laboratory methods were used for the determination of wood density and moisture changes. F. sylvatica was decomposed rapidly in the initial phase – mass loss was 50% during the 5 years after death, while A. alba and P. abies lost 13% and 16%, respectively. Downed logs of F. sylvatica contained 391 kg of water per m3, while these of P. abies 279 kg. A log-transformed linear model was created that shows the dependence of time since death on mass loss. According to the model, F. sylvatica had the shortest total decomposition time (39 years), followed by A. alba (58 years) and P. abies (86 years).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0071.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: bent trees; tropical species; tree stability; wood; tropical wood
Online: 13 March 2017 (19:28:17 CET)
Bent trees have been observed during the early years in juvenile plantations (less than 5 years-old) of Tectona grandis in Costa Rica. The relationship between bending and the morphological characteristics of the trees was explored. An evaluation of bent trees was conducted in six juvenile plantations (8, 17, 27, 28, 31, and 54 months old) of Tectona grandis. Site 1 with 8-month-old plantations did not display any relationship with any tree morphological variable (diameter, height, and crown weight of tree), whereas for the sites 2, 3, and 4 with 17-, 27-, and 28-month-old plantations, respectively, all the tree morphological variables were statistically correlated with the bent trees. A multiple regression analysis showed that the most influential variables were height to crown base, crown weight, diameter, and total height of the tree. An evaluation of the bending risk factor (RF) was correlated with the height to crown base, crown weight, and form factor. The modulus of elasticity and chemical compositions of bent trees differed from those of straight trees. The causes of tree bending are complex, involving, among other factors, the morphology of the trees, plantation conditions, and other factors specific to the xylem, such as the specific gravity, modulus of elasticity, and presence of calcium and magnesium in the wood.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: climate change; tree decline; wood physical properties; wood anatomy; Quercus brantii
Online: 2 April 2021 (11:12:56 CEST)
Tree decline resulting from climate change results in physiological weaknesses, attack by harmful pests and pathogen, and threatens forest ecosystem stability. In the work described here, the effects of drought on wood density, tree ring width, and variations in vessel morphology were investigated in Persian oak (Quercus brantii) in the forests of the Zagros Mountains, Ilam province, western Iran. Radial discs were cut from trunks of declined and healthy trees and wood blocks cut radially from the sapwood, heartwood, and juvenile core. Observations were made on transverse sections from the blocks using microscopy. In trees with decline symptoms, wood density was greater than the healthy trees. Furthermore, declining trees had the narrowest ring width, reduced vessel diameter, vessel area, and highest number of vessels and tylose in pith towards bark. It was concluded that changes in anatomical features are associated with the weakening of the trees and are components in declining tree health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1071.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Paper, Wood And Textiles Keywords: siliconate; nanometals; wood; protection
Online: 15 June 2023 (08:05:16 CEST)
Wood is very susceptible to the action of biotic agents. There is a growing interest in the protection of wood and wood artworks to extend their life, using environmentally friendly preservatives. The aim of this paper was the study of nano/siliconate impregnation system for wood protection to control biological colonization. The biotic agents studied have been wood decay fungi. In conclusion, this paper has shown that all the treatments have presented an excellent protective performance against biotic agents. Is important to mention that a synergistic effect can be observed when generating the siliconate/nanoparticle mixtures, resulting in protective systems with excellent efficiency for all the degrading agents. Moreover, it presents an easy application, which represents not only a watertight protective system, but also a set of systems that may be used and managed according to the availability of the active components, the costs, and, most importantly, without having to modify the form of application.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0282.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: adaptive forestry; dendroecology; diffuse–porous wood; drought years; vessel traits; wood anatomy
Online: 12 November 2018 (10:31:23 CET)
The distribution of Mexican Magnolia species´ occur under restricted climatic conditions. As many other tree species from the tropical montane cloud forests (TMCF), Magnolia species appear to be sensitive to drought. Through the use of dendrochronological techniques, this study aims to determine the climate influence on the vessel traits of M. vovidesii and M. schiedeana which are endangered tree species that are endemic to the Sierra Madre Oriental in eastern Mexico. Because most of the tree species in TMCFs are sensitive to climate fluctuations, it is necessary to investigate the differences in the climatic adaptability of the vessel architecture of these trees. This could allow us to further understand the potential peril of climate change on TMCFs. We compared vessel frequency, length and diameter in drought and non–drought years in two Mexican Magnolia species. We used tree–rings width and vessel traits to assess the drought effects on Magnolias’ diffuse–porous wood back to the year 1929. We obtained independent chronologies for M. vovidesii with a span of 75 years (1941–2016), while for M. schiedeana we obtained a span of 319 years (1697–2016). We found that temperature and precipitation are strongly associated with differences in tree–ring width (TRW) between drought and non–drought years. Our results showed anatomical differences in vessel trait response between these two Magnolia species to climatic variation. We suggest that our approach of combining dendroclimatic and anatomical techniques is a powerful tool to analyse anatomic wood plasticity to climatic variation in Magnolia species.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1100.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: released longitudinal maturation stresses; wood properties; Populus×euramericana ‘Zhonglin46’; tension wood; peripheral positions; heights
Online: 15 June 2023 (09:45:51 CEST)
Understanding maturation stress and wood properties of poplar tension wood are critical for improving lumber yields and utilization ratio. In this study, Released Longitudinal Maturation Strains (RLMS), anatomical features, physical and mechanical properties, and nano-mechanical properties of the cell wall were analyzed at different peripheral positions and heights in nine inclined, 12-year-old poplar (Populus×euramericana ‘Zhonglin46’) trees. The correlations between RLMS and wood properties were determined. The results showed that there were mixed effects of artificial inclination on wood quality and properties. The upper sides of inclined stems had higher RLMS, proportion of G-layer, bending modulus of elasticity, and elastic modulus of cell wall but lower microfibril angle than the lower sides. At heights between 0.7 m and 2.2 m, only the double wall thickness increased with height, RLMS and other wood properties such as fiber length and basic density fluctuated or changed little with height. RLMS was a good indicator of wood properties in the tension wood area and at heights between 0.7 m and 1.5 m. The results of this study present opportunities to identify and select better quality wood in poplar trees.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1800.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Fruit; forest; ecosystem; wood; native; Ecuador
Online: 26 July 2023 (12:22:04 CEST)
This study investigated the presence and characteristics of Juglans neotropica in three ecosystems in Southern Ecuador: Montane Evergreen Forest, Evergreen Seasonal Lower Montane Forest, and Semideciduous Foot Montane Forest. The main focus was on the species' multipurpose nature as both a fruit and timber source. Six study sites, totaling at least 0.5 hectares each, were established, with four in Loja province and two in Zamora Chinchipe province.The results showed significant differences in dendrometric variables across the sites, with the most favorable growth recorded in The Tundo, where trees exhibited an average diameter at breast height (DBH) of 45.16 cm, basal area (G) of 1.41 m2, total height (TH) of 19.22 m, canopy height (CH) of 13 m, cubic volume (CV) of 3.55 m3, and total volume (TV) of 5.22 m3. The species displayed a clumped distribution pattern, as indicated by a Morisita index greater than 1. Regarding abundance, the highest density of 297 trees per hectare was found in Argelia, while Victoria had the lowest density of 46 trees per hectare. This research highlights the importance of Juglans neotropica as a multipurpose species, providing both valuable fruits and wood resources in the studied ecosystems of Southern Ecuador.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0599.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Genetics; forest; ecosystem; wood; native; extinction
Online: 8 June 2023 (07:13:55 CEST)
The study was carried out in zone 7 of Ecuador, in ecosystems of the Southern Montane Evergreen Forest of the Eastern Cordillera of the Andes that goes from 2200 to 3000 masl. In the Evergreen Seasonal Lower Montane Forest of Catamayo-Alamor, which ranges from 1600-2000 meters above sea level and finally in the Semideciduous Foot Montane Forest of Catamayo-Alamor, which ranges from 400-1600 meters above sea level. The objective was to know the occurrence, structure and abundance of J. neotropica. The investigation consisted of collecting secondary information on the occurrence of the species, to later verify it in situ. Six sites with areas ≥ 0.5 hectares were identified, four in the province of Loja and two in the province of Zamora Chinchipe. Regarding the structure, it was determined that there are significant statistical differences as well as in the dasometric variables between one site and another, presenting better growths El Tundo with average values in DAP(cm)= 45.16; G(m2) = 1.41; HT(m)= 19.22; HC(m)= 13; VC(m3) = 3.55; VT(m3) = 5.22. Regarding the Morisita index, the species presents adistribution pattern >1. Regarding abundance, it was determined that Algeria presented a maximum of 297 (ind/ha), and La Victoria 46 (ind/ha) with a minimum.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0281.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: load-carrying capacity; wood connection; dowel
Online: 16 November 2021 (09:09:16 CET)
This work presents the results of three connection types in double-shear with dowel fasteners, using the simplified equations from the Eurocode 5. All design parameters were established and compared using three different wood strength and density properties, which constitute the members connections. Eighty-one connections were obtained, allowing to conclude about the number of fasteners needed to the applied tensile load. An increase in the number of dowels was obtained with the increased applied tensile load, lower dowel diameter, lower wood density, and lower strength material in all connection types in the study. The design characteristic load-carrying capacity per shear plane and fastener also decrease with the previously considered parameters.
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Paper, Wood And Textiles Keywords: wood pellet; torrefaction; hydrophobicity; water resistance
Online: 5 October 2020 (16:39:37 CEST)
To examine the hydrophobicity of torrefied wood fuel, the water resistances of torrefied pellets prepared by two different methods were evaluated using exposure tests under indoor and outdoor conditions. Torrefied pellets from the xylem of Japanese cedar (Sugi, Cryptomeria japonica) and oak (Konara, Quercus serrata) were prepared by two methods: the torrefaction of wood chips followed by pelletization and the pelletization of wood chips followed by torrefaction. It was found that the pellets prepared by pelletization followed by torrefaction had much lower moisture levels than those prepared by the other method and they showed almost no change in diameter after an outdoor weathering test. These characteristics are unique and indicate that the pellets can be applied not only for industrial use but also for residential and commercial purposes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1761.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Sustainable Science And Technology Keywords: reused wood; building construction; architecture; circular construction
Online: 27 October 2023 (06:52:16 CEST)
This study explores the perspectives and practices of architects regarding the reuse of wood in construction across five South-Central European countries: Slovenia, Serbia, North Macedonia, Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH), and Montenegro. Based on a survey of architectural professionals, the research explores their attitudes, challenges, and motivations for using reclaimed wood, with a focus on circular construction principles. Key findings reveal unanimous agreement among re-spondents that both their profession and government entities inadequately support or promote wood reuse within the context of circular construction. While architects value reclaimed wood, there are country-specific variations. Environmental benefits, unique aesthetics, historical value, and sustainability are cited as primary motivators for reclaimed wood use. Additionally, re-spondents emphasize the ecological aspect as the most important consideration in wood product reuse, followed by economic and technological factors. Common concerns revolve around the long-term quality and maintenance of wood products. This research provides insights into the challenges and opportunities surrounding reclaimed wood use in South-Central Europe, high-lighting the need for support mechanisms and increased awareness to advance circular construc-tion practices in the region. These findings can have implications for architects and investors by identifying market opportunities, promoting eco-friendly practices, and providing valuable in-sights for future building designs with a focus on reclaimed wood elements within circular con-struction.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: diarrhea; wood creosote; Seirogan; retrospective study; capsule
Online: 6 November 2019 (11:49:10 CET)
Seirogan, a wood creosote, is a nonprescription drug used to treat diarrhea. However, reports of its clinical use are rare. Here, we report on the efficacy of wood creosote (3 capsules daily) for the alleviation of diarrheal symptoms in 148 patients from 10 clinics in Japan. The wood creosote capsules were classified as remarkably effective (44 patients), effective (71 patients), and partially effective (13 patients) based on the degree of alleviation of diarrheal symptoms that were induced by a variety of causes. The antidiarrheal efficacy of the capsules did not differ between males and females, and young patients (21–30 years) showed greater improvement in diarrheal symptoms than did old patients (> 61 years). Although this report is based on the re-evaluation of old data that had been preserved by our company, the effectiveness and range of symptoms that were treatable with wood creosote has likely remained unchanged. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first public report on the clinical effectiveness of wood creosote capsules for the treatment of a wide range of diarrheal symptoms.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0236.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: noise pollution; mechanical wood industries; equipment; control
Online: 31 August 2016 (09:03:57 CEST)
High level of noise is a disturbance to the human environment. Noise in industries is also an occupational hazard because of its attendant effects on workers’ health. Noise presents health and social problems in industrial operations, and the source is related to the machineries used in the industries. One of the unique features of the noise associated with wood machinery is the level of exposure and duration. Equipment used in a factory can be extremely loud. They can produce noise at decibels high enough to cause environmental health and safety concerns. The mechanically driven transport and handling equipment, cutting, milling, shaping and dust extractor installations in the wood industry generate noise. The sources of noise pollution have increased due to non-compliance with basic safety practices. The increased use of locally fabricated machine in the industry has increased the level of noise and vibration. The effects of industrial noise pollution as discussed include: increase in blood pressure; increased stress; fatigue; vertigo; headaches; sleep disturbance; annoyance; speech problems; dysgraphia, which means reading/learning impairment; aggression; anxiety and withdrawal. As presented in this paper, noise control techniques include; sound insulation, sound absorption, vibration damping and Vibration isolation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1782.v1
Subject: Economics, Business, Economics And Management Keywords: DEA; wood processing enterprises; small enterprises; fractional regression
Online: 28 November 2023 (07:49:48 CET)
Micro and small wood-processing enterprises represent the heart of the European forest-based industries, being among the key drivers of economic growth in rural, mountainous, and poor regions. Their economic efficiency is of fundamental importance for their existence and the pro-vision of income for the local population in rural areas. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) is nonparametric, linear-programming-based approach, commonly used to analyse the efficiency of organizational units. This method allows estimating the economic efficiency of a certain eco-nomic system without assumptions about the functional form between resources and products. Furthermore, DEA determines the efficiency frontier and gives results of whether an enterprise, i.e., a Decision Making Unit (DMU) is efficient or not. The main objective of this study was to investigate and evaluate the economic efficiency of micro and small wood-processing enterpris-es in the EU countries and reveal the hidden inputs that facilitate efficiency generation. The eco-nomic efficiency evaluation was carried out on the basis of the official statistical data for the mi-cro and small wood-processing companies in the EU member states for the period 2015-2020 by performing a two-stage DEA analysis. The data used were standardized by value per employee. In addition to the first stage of DEA, fractional regression probit and logit models with four contextual variables were used to reveal the influence of the hidden inputs in the model. The results showed that the micro and small wood-processing enterprises can be regarded as more scale-efficient than technically-efficient entities. The only contextual variable affecting the eco-nomic efficiency was Investments per Person Employed, improving the efficiency by 2% per 1% increase of the investments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0029.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Sawn wood; Socio-economic; Timber marketing; Forest enterprise
Online: 1 September 2021 (16:16:19 CEST)
Forest enterprise has been identified as a means of generating income among people; plays a vital role in enhancing the quality of life of forest-dependent people. Despite the opportunities timber marketing offers the people, the disparities in the income generation of the marketers in the Bodija sawn wood Market and the effect of socio-economic factors on income generation of the marketers is not well understood. This study was conducted to assess the socio-economic determinants of contributions of timber marketing to the income of timber merchants in Bodija sawn-wood Market. One hundred structured questionnaires were administered randomly in five zones of the sawn wood Market to obtain information on the socio-economic background of the sawn wood marketers and the contribution of timber trade to their incomes. The result indicated that 99.0% of the respondents were male while females constituted 1.00%. Seventy-five percent of the marketers had post-primary education and 25% had primary education. Two percent of the marketers had below 10 years of marketing experience, twenty-six percent had between 11 and 20 years, 57.00% had between 21 and 30 years, and 15.00% had more than 30years experience. Fifty-eight percent of the respondents earned between ₦10000-₦60000 (1US$ = 360.00) from timber marketing, thirty-one percent earned between ₦60001 and ₦110000, 7% earned between ₦110001 and ₦160000, while 4% earned above ₦160000 per month. Chi-square analysis of the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents and income generation at α level of 0.05 indicated that ethnicity (0.001) and years of experience (0.009) significantly influenced income while the level of education (0.101), age (0.122), and religion (0.745) had no significant influence on the incomes of marketers. Experience is an important factor in sawn wood marketing and a major determinant of the contribution of timber marketing to the income of timber marketers in Bodija sawn wood Market.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0633.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: wooden structures; wood-borer; thermal flow; listed buildings
Online: 25 November 2020 (11:03:39 CET)
Wood-borer extermination by a dry heat clean-up is the essential method from the point of view of sustainability of historical wooden structures like trusses and ceilings in heritage-listed buildings. The wooden components are heated by a hot air of temperature about 100°C until the temperature in the centre of the wooden structures reaches 55°C to kill the wood-borers. In this article we review the method and present solution of the heat equation for structural wooden components. We also suggest an approximate formula that enables to estimate the necessary heating time for different cross sections of wooden components and can be used in technical application of the method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0421.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: strength; stiffness; clay; stabilization; microstructure; wood ash; waste
Online: 19 July 2020 (18:49:54 CEST)
The world’s population is growing at a rapid pace, thus increasing the need for shelter, which, because of increased carbon emissions, is making our planet less inhabitable. Thus, supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) are used to reduce the embodied carbon emissions in the building sector. Wood ash, as a replacement for cement in soil treatment, seems to be a promising material. In this study, we considered the strength, stiffness, and microstructural behavior of marine clay treated with cement and wood ash as a cement replacement. Since clay is abundant in nature, it could help stabilize waste to improve the mechanical behavior of produced composites. Portland cement (7%, 10%, and 13%) was replaced with various amount of wood ash (5% and 10%) with two different dry densities (1400 and 1600 kg/m3) and three distinct curing periods (7, 28, and 60 days). Unconfined compressive strength, direct shear, porosity, pulse velocity, x-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy tests were performed on selected specimens to evaluate the structural and microstructural effect of clay–wood ash–cement interaction. The results revealed that the replacement of cement with 5% of wood ash yielded superior performance. The microstructure investigation of wood ash–cement–clay blends further showed the formation of a densified matrix with stable bonds. Furthermore, the porosity and strength properties of blends developed unique relationships, which were further confirmed by other supplementary materials and soils.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0062.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Wood-filled PLA; Thermal Decomposition; Starch; 3D printing
Online: 5 May 2020 (05:44:47 CEST)
Dynamic thermogravimetric (TG) analysis under nitrogen environment was used to understand the thermal decomposition process of 3D printing filaments made of wood-filled polylactic acid (PLA)/starch blend. The characteristic temperatures and apparent activation energy (AAE) of the filaments with various starch contents were calculated with well-known kinetic models by Friedman, Flynn-Wall-Ozawa, Coats-Redfern and Kissinger. With the increased starch content in the filament, the onset thermal decomposition temperatures of the filaments decreased gradually from 272.4 to 155.1°C. The thermal degradation degree became smaller, and the transitional temperature interval became larger with increased starch proportion. The AAE values of the three types of filaments with different starch ratios varied between 97 kJ/mol and 114 kJ/mol, depending on material composition and method of calculation. The improved understanding of thermal decomposition behavior of PLA-starch-wood composites can help develop more biodegradable PLA/starch-based filaments for 3D printing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0286.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: heat-induced; wood discoloration; Eucalyptus; lignin; chromophore system.
Online: 16 July 2018 (12:45:03 CEST)
The color changes corresponding to chromophore structures in lignin caused by exposure of Eucalyptus（Eucalyptus grandis and E. urophylla）to heat were investigated. Eucalyptus wood samples were heated in saturated steam atmospheres for 10 h at 110℃, 130℃, and 150℃. The lignin was isolated before and after heat treatment. The physicochemical properties of the lignin and changes in chromophore structures during heat treatment was evaluated through wet chemical analysis, FTIR, UV-Vis, GPC, XPSand 13C-NMR. The color of the wood became darker and redder with the increase in pressure and temperature. Depolymerization and dehydration reactions occurred via demethoxylation with heat treatment in saturated steam at 110℃ or 130℃. Lignin condensed to form insoluble compounds after heat treatment in saturated steam at 150℃. G units increased and S units decreased through demethylation during heat treatment, as revealed by FTIR and 13C-NMR analysis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0072.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Paper, Wood And Textiles Keywords: thermal treatment; wood modification; thermogravimetry; calibration curve; quality control
Online: 1 November 2023 (11:07:19 CET)
When wood is thermally modified, several chemical reactions take place that change the chemical and physical properties of the wood. These changes correlate with the degree of modification, which is mostly a function of temperature and duration of modification, and consequently with a mass loss during this process. There is a lack of standardized quality control to verify the degree of heat treatment of wood and thus its quality. One of the possible methods to check the degree of thermal modification of a particular type of wood is thermogravimetry (TG). It is based on the assumption that processes that did not take place during thermal modification continue when the TG experiment is carried out. In this method, calibration curves have to be established based on TG measurements of standard samples that have been thermally modified at different temperatures and whose mass loss during modification is known. The calibration curves show the mass loss during the TG measurement as a function of the mass loss during the previous thermal modification. The course of thermal decomposition during the TG measurements is influenced by many parameters, such as the mass of the sample, the heating rate, the atmosphere in which the measurement takes place, and the shape of the crucible in which the sample is placed. In this paper, the influence of these parameters on the calibration curves was investigated. We have focused on oak wood. The best parameters result in a calibration curve with the largest correlation coefficient R2 and the highest slope of the line k. On this basis, we can determine the mass loss during thermal modification of unknown samples of the same wood species under the same measurement conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1960.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: teak wood; closed system; open system; chemical analyses; CIELab
Online: 28 September 2023 (08:11:53 CEST)
Although the effect of thermal modification (TM) on teak wood color is well documented, a few studies were carried out in closed system processes, as well as it remains unclear the effect of different processes on the same material. This work aimed to verify the effect of closed and open system processes of TM on the color of fast-growing teak wood. Thermally modified wood was evaluated in a closed system at 160 °C (CS160) and in an open system at 185 °C and 210 °C (OS185 and OS210). We measured the moisture content (initial and final) of wood, and the corrected mass loss (CML). The chemical analyses encompassed the contents of alpha-cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin, and extractives (total, in acetone and dichloromethane). Wood color was measured before and after TM according to the CIEL*a*b* color space. It was possible to achieve the same color using different processes of thermal modification (CS160 and OS210). TM reduced wood lightness (L*), red-green chromaticity coordinate (a*), and yellow-blue chromaticity coordinate (b*). L* and a* had the bigger and lower variations, respectively. The color of thermally modified wood was significantly changed, even at the mildest condition tested (OS185, 0.33% CML).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1043.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Paper, Wood And Textiles Keywords: nanocomposites; polypropylene; wood; processing technology; SEM; TGA; DSC; DMA
Online: 27 April 2023 (04:45:27 CEST)
The goal of this study is to find out how some properties of wood-polymer nanocomposites are affected by the processing technology, the nanomaterials, and the ratio of coupling agents. To meet this objective, the extruded and dry blended samples are made from wood flour with MAPP, ZnO nanoparticles (0, 1, 3, and 5 wt%), and polypropylene. The mechanical properties of the nanocomposites improve significantly with ZnO and MAPP loading. Due to the more homogeneous structure of nanocomposites, better mechanical results are obtained with the extrusion method. With ZnO and MAPP loading, the thermal stability of nanocomposites improves. The storage and loss modulus values indicate that the processing technology of nanocomposites could be a key factor in the resistance of the materials obtained by extrusion. The storage and loss modulus of nanocomposites manufactured by the extrusion technology are determined to be higher than those of the samples produced by the dry blending method.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0338.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: wood; size effect; Weibull; weakest link; strength; timber; lumber
Online: 24 June 2022 (10:41:14 CEST)
This review critically examines the various ways in which the mechanical properties of wood have been understood. Despite the immense global importance of wood in construction, most understanding of its elastic and inelastic properties is based on models developed for other materials. Such models neglect wood’s cellular and fibrous nature. This review thus questions how well models that were originally developed for homogeneous and effectively continuous materials can describe wood’s mechanical properties. For example, the elastic moduli of wood have been found by many authors to depend on the size of the test specimen. Such observations are incompatible with classical elasticity theory. There is also much uncertainty about how well elastic moduli can be defined for wood. An analysis of different models for size effects of various inelastic properties of wood shows that these models only approximate the observed behaviour, and do not predict or explain the scatter in the results. A more complete understanding of wood’s mechanical properties must take account of it being in some sense intermediate between a material and a structure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0251.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: poplar; glucose resin; sodium silicate; impregnation modification; wood properties
Online: 10 December 2020 (11:34:11 CET)
In order to improve the performance of soft plantation wood, an environmentally friendly inorganic-organic hybrid wood modifier was developed. First, using urea and melamine as crosslinking agents, the waterborne glucose silicone resin (MUG) was prepared with glucose under the catalysis of inorganic acid and metal ions. Then MUG resin was diluted to 10% and 20% mass fraction, and compounded with sodium silicate (S) of 20% and 10% mass fraction, so the inorganic-organic hybrid G10S20 and G20S10 wood modifier were obtained respectively. Then plantation poplar wood (Populus tomentosa) were impregnated and modified with them. Their physical and mechanical properties were tested and compared with those of the wood treated with S of 20% mass fraction (S20). Infrared analysis showed that amino resin characteristic structure (CO-NH-) existed in MUG resin. The resin has good permeability. Compared with S20 modified wood, the degree of shrinkage of G10S20 or G20S10 modified wood is reduced, their moisture absorption is reduced, and their dimensional stability is improved. Waterborne glucose silicone modifier can effectively improve the wood density, modulus of elasticity, modulus of rapture and compression strength. SEM analysis showed that the cell wall of G20S10 modified wood was significantly thicker than the untreated wood, and there were columnar and granular solid substances attached in some cell cavities, ducts and corners, etc. EDX showed that the number of Si elements on the cell wall was significantly increased compared with the control, indicating that the modifier effectively entered the wood cell wall. The waterborne glucose silicone resin can greatly improve the physical and mechanical properties of wood through organic-inorganic hybridization. It is a green, non-formaldehyde, eco-friendly, low cost, compound wood modifier with broad application prospects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0500.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: water vapour; bound water; diffusion; adsorption; wood; sorption experiment
Online: 19 November 2020 (10:34:08 CET)
The paper presents a model of moisture transport in wood taking into account diffusion and the accompanying adsorption of water vapour through the skeleton. A two-parameter form of the source term was proposed, depending on the distance of the current mass concentration of bound water from the equilibrium state. The tests on cubic samples with a side of 2 cm were carried out which allowed to determine the coefficients of the proposed model on the basis of the reverse method. The tests were performed for pine, larch, oak and ash in all directions of orthotropy. Also the tests on thin samples were performed to verify the source term.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0303.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Food Chemistry Keywords: acacia; anthocyanins; cherry; color; model wine; oak; wood extracts
Online: 27 May 2019 (09:36:10 CEST)
There is a restricted knowledge about the potential impact of the use of different wood species on color and anthocyanin changes during the red wine aging process. This lack of knowledge is even greater when no oak wood species are used. Thus, the aim of this study was to carry out a comparative analysis of the impact of wood chip extracts from oak, acacia and cherry species on the chromatic characteristics and anthocyanins changes by the use of model wine solutions. In this context, several methodologies were used to quantified, color and anthocyanins changes during the aging time studied. The results indicated that the contact between wood chip extracts and grape skin isolated anthocyanin extracts induced a decrease of color intensity, particularly red color, and also the anthocyanin content in the different experimental model wine solutions studied. All chromatic modifications are potentially detected by human eyes because ΔE values were much higher than 3 CIELab units. These tendencies seems to be independent of the wood species used, but more pronounced for higher contact time between wood chip extracts and anthocyanins. The obtained results may contribute to a better understanding of the chromatic changes of red wines when aged in contact with different wood chips species.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1469.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Paper, Wood And Textiles Keywords: microwave-assisted extraction; cellulose extraction; hemicellulose; lignin; wood wastes; sustainability
Online: 23 November 2023 (05:44:05 CET)
An enormous interest in the development of efficient protocols for cellulose extraction has been demonstrated in the last years, however, they were usually based on non-sustainable chemical and thermal approaches. In this work we describe a new and more sustainable method for cellulose extraction from eucalyptus and pine tree wood waste products exclusively performed using microwave-assisted radiation. The methodology includes 3 main steps: i) alkaline treatment; ii) bleaching I, using H2O2; and iii) bleaching II, an acidic treatment. Samples obtained in each step were characterized by Fourier-transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results were compared with those of starting materials, with the commercially available microcrystalline cellulose and with an industrial paper pulp. Results confirmed that for both type of wood wastes, cellulose was retained during the extractions procedures and that the removal of hemicellulose was achieved at the last step as seen by the FTIR spectra and TGA curves. The developed protocol is innovative since it constitutes an easy and quick approach to extract cellulose, from eucalyptus and pine tree wood waste using mild chemical and thermal conditions, microwave irradiation, and environmentally friendly purification steps. This approach offers the possibility of a future scale-up study to potentially apply the develop protocol to the extraction of cellulose in an industrial scale.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0370.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: wood-rotting basidiomycetes; carbon source; cellulases; regulation of synthesis; saccharification
Online: 18 August 2021 (07:41:08 CEST)
In the present study, the polysaccharide-hydrolyzing secretomes of Irpex lacteus BCC104, Pycnoporus coccineus BCC310, and Schizophyllum commune BCC632 were analyzed in submerged fermentation conditions to elucidate the effect of chemically and structurally different carbon sources on the expression of cellulases and xylanase. Among polymeric substrates, crystalline cellulose appeared to be the best carbon source providing the highest endoglucanase, total cellulase, and xylanase activities. Mandarin pomace as a growth substrate for S. commune allowed to achieve comparatively high volumetric activities of all target enzymes while wheat straw induced a significant secretion of cellulase and xylanase activities of I. lacteus and P. coccineus. A synergistic effect on the secretion of cellulases and xylanases by the tested fungi was observed when crystalline cellulose was combined with mandarin pomace. In I. lacteus the cellulase and xylanase production is inducible in the presence of cellulose-rich substrates but is suppressed in the presence of an excess of easily metabolizable carbon source. These enzymes are expressed in a coordinated manner under all conditions studied. It was shown that the substitution of glucose in the inoculum medium with Avicel provides accelerated enzyme production by I. lacteus and higher cellulase and xylanase activities of the fungus. These results add new knowledge to the physiology of basidiomycetes to improve cellulase production.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0024.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: recycling; circularity; concrete waste; wood waste; botanical concrete; heat pressing
Online: 3 May 2020 (06:20:37 CEST)
Botanical recycled concrete, or concrete bonded with wood, is formed by heat pressing the mixture of concrete and wooden waste. Botanical recycled concrete is a relatively new material and the relationship between production condition and its real-world performance is not clear yet. This experimental study investigated the influence of several production condition factors on the density and bending strength of botanical recycled concrete. As a result, temperature and mass ratio of concrete powder to wood flour presented significant effects on the density of this botanical recycled concrete. The increase in production temperature resulted in a remarkable increment in density and bending strength. This is probably due to increased wood flowability and accelerated compaction and bonding formation. The fineness of wood flour had a significant effect on improving bending strength. This is attributed to a larger contact surface between the wood substance and concrete particles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0214.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: SARS-Cov-2; Citrus sp.; Galangal; Curcuma sp.; Sappan wood
Online: 12 March 2020 (13:59:40 CET)
COVID-19 pandemic is a serious problem in the world today. The SARS-CoV-2 virus that causes COVID-19 has important proteins used for its infection and development, namely the protease and spike glycoprotein. The RBD (Receptor Binding Domain) of spike glycoprotein (RBD-S) can bind to the ACE2 (Angiotensin Converting Enzyme-2) receptor at the protease domain (PD) (PD-ACE2) of the host cell, thereby leading to a viral infection. This study aims to reveal the potential of compounds contained in Curcuma sp., Citrus sp., Alpinia galanga, and Caesalpinia sappan as anti SARS-CoV-2 through its binding to 3 protein receptors. The study was conducted by molecular docking using the MOE 2010 program (licensed from Faculty of Pharmacy UGM, Indonesia). The selected protein targets are RBD-S (PDB ID:6LXT), PD-ACE2 (PDB ID: 6VW1), and SARS-CoV-2 protease (PDB ID:6LU7). The affinities of bonds formed is represented as a docking score. The results show that hesperidin, one of the compounds in Citrus sp., has the lowest docking score for all three protein receptors representing the highest affinity to bind the receptors. Moreover, all of the citrus flavonoids possess good affinity to the respected receptors as well as curcumin, brazilin, and galangin, indicating that those compounds perform inhibitory potential for the viral infection and replication. In general, the results of this study indicate that Citrus sp. exhibit the best potential as an inhibitor to the development of the SARS-CoV-2, followed by galangal, sappan wood, and Curcuma sp. that can be consumed in daily life as prophylaxis of COVID-19.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0134.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Paper, Wood And Textiles Keywords: anti-swelling efficiency; citric acid; mechanical properties; thermal treatment; wood protection
Online: 4 September 2023 (08:27:43 CEST)
Modification of Scots pine sapwood (Pinus sylvestris L.) with heterocyclic compounds, imidazole and succinimide, was investigated. Pressure-impregnation with aqueous solutions containing imidazole, imidazole + citric acid, succinimide, succinimide + citric acid, and citric acid + sorbitol (CIOL®) at 5%, 10%, and 15% solid content was followed by oven-curing at 220 °C for 1 hour. Mass changes during treatment steps, bending properties, and anti-swelling efficiency (ASE) were examined. Results indicate that solid concentrations within the range of 5% to 10% were optimal. Results seem to show there are two differing mechanisms in the modification of imidazole and succinimide, respectively. Mass loss due to the heat treatment was highest in imidazole-treated specimens, whereas it remained low and concentration-independent in succinimide-treated specimens. ASE after three cycles reached 31% for imidazole-treated specimens and improved to 38% with the addition of citric acid. For succinimide, ASE increased from 17% to 41%. Bending properties generally showed improvement, except for succinimide + citric acid and CIOL®, which displayed a reduced modulus of rupture. Chemical analyses are warranted to fully understand the reaction mechanisms of the treatments. Imidazole treatment's positive effects are suggested to stem from a thermal reaction between the chemical and wood, indicated by substantial mass loss during leaching and specimen darkening. Succinimide and citric acid might exhibit polymerization with each other and wood components, akin to the CIOL® process. Further research should delve into reaction mechanisms and the impact of imidazole and succinimide on biological durability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2098.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Resistograph; wood density; micro drill resistance; linear model; micro destructive measurement
Online: 30 May 2023 (09:35:40 CEST)
To improve the measurement accuracy of wood density and study the linear correlation between the drill feed resistance and wood density, a new micro drill instrument that can can simultaneously measure the rotation resistance and feed resistance of the drill needle was designed. The test wood samples included hardwood, softwood and conifer. The absolute dry density of each wood sample was measured. The drill resistance data was tested by using self-developed micro drill instrument and Resistogaph 650-SC. 4 linear models between drill resistance and the absolute dry density of wood . The results showed that: the statistical indicators of each model of the self-made micro drill resistance in-strument were better than the corresponding indicators of Resistogaph 650-SC; the coefficient of determination of the linear regression model between the feed resistance of the self-made micro drill resistance instrument and the absolute dry density of wood was 0.946; the statistical indicators of model including rotation resistance and feed resistance, were better than those of the model only including rotation resistance. Therefor, the design proposed in the article is reasonable, and increasing the feed resistance can improve the measurement accuracy of the micro drill resistance instrument for measuring wood density.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1221.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Paper, Wood And Textiles Keywords: Carbon footprint; Wood residuals; Sawdust; eucalyptol; Odor release; Plywood; carbon footprint
Online: 29 April 2023 (07:27:51 CEST)
A sustainable matrix based on eucalyptol essential oil/sawdust was developed and applied on one-sided laminated plywood. This finish aims to serve as a eucalyptol odor slow release. Eucalyptol odor release was monitored with gas chromatography coupled with a flame ionization detector (GC – FID: Limits of Detection and Quantification of 0.70 g/m3 and 2.11 g/m3, respectively, and with linearity up to 18.6 g/m3). Measurement of the eucalyptol odor released was performed during a six-month period and it was found that the release followed a first-order exponential decay with a decay rate constant of 0.0169 per day. The half-life was determined to be of 48 days. The granulometry and particle size porosity of sawdust were analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy. Sawdust size fraction between 112 – 200 μm showed best eucalyptol absorption capacity with 1:3 masses ratio (sawdust:eucalyptol). The time capacity of eucalyptol release depends of composite eucalyptol – sawdust quantity. Where this relation was determined: 15.0 grams of composite eucalyptol-sawdust by 0.8 mm diameter aperture gave 6 months of eucalyptol release, that was considered very positive, understanding high volatility of eucalyptol and a small quantity of composite for further products. The new product is characterized by a carbon footprint (considering the industry frontiers) of 5.94 kg CO2eq/m2 of plywood floor.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0173.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: environmental corrosivity; air quality; IOT; autonomous sensor; RFID; corrosion; archeological wood
Online: 10 May 2021 (11:07:39 CEST)
The control of air quality in museums or storages is of fundamental interest for the conservation of historic artifacts. The present work reports an example of application of RFID sensors developed in the European project SensMat and dedicated to this issue. The sensors are based on the varia-tion of property of an RFID tag coupled to a sensitive silver thin film exposed to the environment. As it will be described in the paper, such low cost sensors are interrogated by a commercial reader and provide the environmental corrosivity index and thus the presence of pollutants. The selected case study concerns the monitoring of pollution by H2S in a building dedicated to conservation and restoration of archeological and historical woods. The ability of sensors to map spatially the corrosivity within buildings is highlighted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0493.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings And Films Keywords: oriental lacquer; oil-modified refined lacquer; drying oil; blending; wood coating
Online: 22 October 2018 (12:17:02 CEST)
Oriental lacquer, a natural and renewable polymeric coating, comes from the sap produced by lacquer trees. For practical application, oriental lacquer must be refined to reduce excess water and enhance its quality. In this study, drying oils were blended with oriental lacquer during the refining process to prepare an oil-modified refined lacquer (OMRL). The type and adding amount (0, 10, and 20% by wt.) of drying oils for wood coatings utilization were evaluated. Rhus succedanea oriental lacquer is composed of 54.1% urushiols, 34.3% water, 7.2% plant gum, and 4.4% nitrogenous compounds, and drying oils, including tung oil (TO), linseed oil (LO), and dehydrated castor oil (DCO) were used as materials in this study. The results show that the drying oil acts as a diluent, which reduces the viscosity and enhances the workability and could shorten the touch-free drying time and speed up the hardened drying of the OMRL. The results also indicate that the hardness, mass retention, Tg, tensile strength, abrasion resistance, and lightfastness of OMRL films decrease as more drying oils are blended. Conversely, the bending resistance, elongation at break, impact resistance increase, and particularly, the gloss, is greatly improved through the blending of more drying oils. In conclusion, the LO-modified refined lacquer (RL) has the highest film gloss and the DCO-modified RL has the shortest drying time for coating; otherwise, the film properties are similar among the three types of drying oil.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1309.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: wood lignocellulose; pretreatment; enzymatic saccharification; glucose; kraft pulping; sulfite delignification; biomodified pulp
Online: 20 September 2023 (08:02:44 CEST)
Sulfite and kraft pulping are two principal methods of industrial delignification of wood. In recent decades, those have been considered as possibilities to pretreat recalcitrant wood lignocellulosics for enzymatic hydrolysis of polysaccharides and subsequent fermentation of obtained sugars to valuable bioproducts. Current work compares chemistry and technological features of two different cooking processes in the preparation of polysaccharide substrates for deep sacchari-fication with P. verruculosum glycosyl hydrolases. Bleached kraft and sulfite pulps were subjected to hydrolysis with enzyme mixture of high xylanase, cellobiohydrolase and β-glucosidase activities at a dosage of 10 FPU/g of dry pulp and fiber concentration of 2.5, 5 and 10%. HPLC was used to analyze soluble sugars after hydrolysis and additional acid inversion of oligomers to monosaccharides. Kraft pulp demonstrated higher pulp conversion after 48 h (74-99%), mostly resulted from deep xylan hydrolysis. Sulfite-pulp hydrolysates, obtained in similar conditions, due to higher hexose concentration (more than 50 g/L), had higher fermentability for industrial strains producing alcohols, microbial protein or organic acids. Along with saccharification, enzymatic modification of non-hydrolysed residues occurred, which led to decreased degree of polymerization and composition changes in two industrial pulps. As a result, crystallinity of kraft pulp increased by 1.3%, which opens possibilities for obtaining new types of cellulosic products in pulp and paper industry. The high adaptability and controllability of enzymatic and fermentation processes creates prospects for the modernization of existing factories.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2182.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Carpathian foothills; ecosystem services; grazing ecology; land abandonment; wood-pasture; tree hay
Online: 31 August 2023 (15:06:14 CEST)
Recent Socio-economic changes resulted to mass abandonment of agricultural lands in Central-Eastern Europe. This leads to landscapes homogenisation, especially the disappearance of semi-open habitats of the farmland-woodland interface. The information on potentials of transforming feral, abandoned landscapes to wood-pastures is limited. We studied the ecological features and silvopastoral benefits of a landscape subjected to intensive cattle grazing after ~20 years of abandonment, i.e. the mosaic of habitats, cattle’s preference for habitats and for arboreal forages. The nutritional characteristics of arboreal forage and herbaceous forage were compared. After the initial increase in the landscape’s woodland share, cattle grazing halted further woody succession and stabilised the landscape structure, with treeless grassland occupying 49% of the landscape (most preferred by cattle with regard to the time spent), followed by treed grassland (19%), pioneering birch/alder groves (13%), riparian vegetation (12%, least preferred by cattle), and close-canopy woods (6%). The consumption intensity of arboreal forages was on about 4.5 folds higher than that of herbaceous forage. Our study proved that the grazing herd of arobust cattle breed can turn a feral, post-agricultural land into a working wood pasture, consisting of interconnected open grasslands and various facets of woodland, which seldom occur in contemporary high forests. We advocate for the transition management of abandoned farmlands towards integrated silvopastoral landscapes for sustainable provision of multiple ecosystem services that cannot be provided by segregated agriculture and forestry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0499.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: greenhouse gas balance; wood products; forest management; climate change mitigation; carbon storage
Online: 31 December 2021 (10:32:16 CET)
The global carbon neutrality challenge places a spotlight on forests as carbon sinks. However, greenhouse gas (GHG) balances of wood for material and energy use often reveal GHG emission savings in comparison with a non-wood reference. Is it thus better to increase wood production and use, or to conserve and expand the carbon stock in forests? GHG balances of wood products mostly ignore the dynamics of carbon storage in forests, which can be expressed as the carbon storage balance in forests (CSBF). For Germany, a CSBF of 0.25 to 1.15 t CO2/m³ wood can be assumed. When the CSBF is integrated into the GHG balance, GHG mitigation substantially deteriorates and wood products may even turn into a GHG source, e.g. in the case of energy wood. Here, building up the forest carbon sink would be the better option. We conclude that it is vital to include the CSBF in GHG balances of wood products if the wood is extracted from forests. Only then can GHG balances provide political decision-makers and stakeholders in the wood sector with a complete picture of GHG emissions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0252.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Chinese fir wood; sodium silicate; phenol formaldehyde oligomer; respiratory impregnation; comparative study
Online: 25 August 2019 (15:32:30 CEST)
To compare The effects of organic and inorganic impregnation on the properties of unmodified, phenol formaldehyde oligomer-modified (PFOMCF), and sodium silicate-modified Chinese fir wood (SSMCF) were compared using samples prepared using the respiratory impregnation method. Impregnation and reinforcement effects and water resistance of PFOMCF and SSMCF were compared and the results was showed that the weight percentage gain, density increase rate, bending strength, and compressive strength of SSMCF were clearly higher than those of PFOMCF and had a lower water absorption rate within 60 h. The impregnation and reinforcement effects and dimensional stability of SSMCF were better than those of PFOMCF. FT-IR, XRD, CONE, and TGA examinations were used to test and analyze the chemical structure, crystalline structure, flame retardancy, and heat resistance of these modified woods. The results indicated that SSMCF possessed more hydrogen bonds than PFOMCF and that Si–O–Si chemical bonding with high bond energy was formed. Meanwhile, the weakened degree of the diffraction peak of SSMCF was much less than that of PFOMCF. These results explained that the mechanical properties and water resistance of SSMCF were better than PFOMCF. Compared with PFOMCF, SSMCF had a lower heat release rate (HRR), peak-HRR, mean-HRR, total heat release, smoke production rate, and total smoke production as well as higher thermal decomposition temperature and residual rate. Inorganic sodium silicate was shown to be a better flame retardant, while SSMCF had good smoke suppression effects, thermal stability, and safety performance in the case of fire.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0270.v2
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: wood-based sector, intersectoral cooperation, intermunicipal cooperation, Poland, partnership, new institutional economy
Online: 8 August 2018 (10:38:25 CEST)
Intersectoral and intermunicipal cooperation are still underdeveloped spheres of public and economic development policies. Academic discussions are invariably focused on pro-competitive activities, the economic efficiency of which is not always sufficient. In this paper the authors attempt to identify factors leading to cooperation between local government authorities and economic entities, focusing on examples from the forest and wood-based sector in Poland. These processes are analysed in the framework of the New Institutional Economy, both in the theoretical and practical context.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1188.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: pellet; wood; biomass; atmosphere; outdoor; indoor air quality; VOCs, PAHs; heavy metals; chemometrics.
Online: 16 June 2023 (08:54:56 CEST)
Air pollution and the increasing production of greenhouse gases has prompted greater use of renewable energy sources; the EU has set the use of green energy at 32 percent by 2030. With this in mind, in the last 10 years the demand for pellets in Italy has more than doubled making Italy the second largest consumer in Europe. The quality of the pellets burned in stoves is crucial to indoor and outdoor pollution. Among other parameters, moisture and ash are used to classify pellets according to EN ISO 17225:2014. This work involved the analysis of the organic and inorganic fraction of both some finished products on the Italian market and some raw materials (e.g., wood chips) sampled according to the technical standard EN 14778:2011. The analytical results showed the presence of some substances potentially harmful to human health such as formaldehyde, acetone, toluene and styrene for the organic fraction and nickel, lead and vanadium for the inorganic fraction. The chemometric approach showed that it is the inorganic fraction which is most responsible for the diversification of the samples under study. The detection of some substances may be a warning bell about the impact of such materials both for the environment and for the human health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0125.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: trade-off; dialectic; TRIZ; Inventive Principle; wood wasp ovipositor; intracranial endoscope; Pareto curve
Online: 3 May 2023 (09:44:40 CEST)
Our knowledge of physics and chemistry is relatively well defined. Results from that knowledge are predictable as, largely, are those of their technical offspring such as electrical, chemical, me-chanical and civil engineering. By contrast biology is relatively unconstrained and unpredictable. A factor common to all areas is the trade-off, which provides a means of defining and quantifying a problem and, ideally, its solution. In order to understand the anatomy of the trade-off and how to handle it, its development (as the dialectic) is tracked from Hegel and Marx to its implementa-tion as dialectical materialism in Russian philosophy and TRIZ, the Theory of Invention. With the ready availability of mathematical techniques, such as multi-objective analysis and the Pareto set, the trade-off is well-adapted to bridging the gaps between the quantified and the unquantifiable, allowing modelling and the transfer of concepts by analogy. It is thus an ideal tool for biomimet-ics. An intracranial endoscope can be derived with little change from the egg-laying tube of a wood wasp. More complex transfers become available as the technique is developed. Most im-portant, as more trade-offs are analyzed, their results are stored to be used again in the solution of problems. There is no other system in biomimetics which can do this.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0311.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: residential wood combustion; emission modelling; MetVed model; cabin heating; cabin development; mountain areas
Online: 16 November 2022 (12:54:16 CET)
Emissions from wood burning for heating in secondary homes or cabins is an important aspect for the development of high-resolution emission inventories in specific areas. Norway is used as case study as the national wood consumption for heating in cabins is around 20% of the total. Our study shows first a method to estimate emissions from cabins based on traffic data to derive cabin occupancy, which combined with heating need allows for the spatial and temporal distribution of emissions. The combination of residential (RWC) and cabin wood combustion (CWC) emissions shows large spatial and temporal differences, and a temporally “cabin population” can in areas be orders of magnitude larger than the registered population. While RWC emissions have been steadily reduced, CWC have kept relatively constant or even increased, which results on an increase in the cabin share to total heating emissions up to 25-35%. When comparing with regional emissions inventories, our study shows that the gradient between rural and urban areas is not well represented in regional emissions inventories, which resembles a population-based distribution and does not allocate emissions in cabin municipalities. At last, our study shows that CWC emissions may become an increasing environmental concern as higher densification trends in mountain areas are observed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0076.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Phase Change Materials; PCM; Thermal Energy Storage; Latent Heat Storage; Wood Stove; Stovepipe
Online: 3 August 2018 (15:53:56 CEST)
Batch combustion in wood log stoves is a promising application for latent heat storage (LHS), due to the transient heat production with high peak effects. The current study aimed at designing a compact, passive and durable LHS system storing a substantial part of the heat release during batch combustion and effectively releasing the stored heat to the room for 6 to 10 hours after the last batch. The LHS system consists of a coaxial cylinder located at the top of the wood stove, replacing part of the regular stovepipe. Internal metallic fins were applied as heat transfer enhancement to homogenize the temperature distribution inside the PCM. The effect of radial fin lengths was numerically investigated through a parametric study using five different fin lengths within the PCM. Using 35-mm fins in the 70-mm PCM layer yielded the best trade-off for the application. This configuration enabled achieving a slow but close to complete melting of the PCM within a realistic combustion duration, while avoiding overheating the PCM above its degradation temperature. Thereafter, the discharge allowed releasing the stored latent heat for 6 hours. The exhaust gas inlet temperature proved to have a strong influence on the PCM thermal performance.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0086.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Ceratonia siliqua; powdery mildew; Cercospora leaf spot; wood decay fungi; Xylosandrus compactus-Fusarium solani.
Online: 3 October 2023 (05:37:25 CEST)
Main pathogens affecting carob (Ceratonia siliqua) tree in the Mediterranean basin are described in this overview. The most widespread diseases periodically occurring on carob orchards are powdery mildew (Pseudoidium ceratoniae) and cercospora leaf spot (Pseudocercospora ceratoniae). The causal agents of so-called “black leaf spots” (e.g. Pestaliotiopsis, Phyllosticta and Septoria spp.) are responsible for similar symptoms to above mentioned foliar diseases but are reported on carob orchards with a negligible frequency. Likewise, canker and branch diebacks caused by fungal species belonging to Botryosphaeriaceae are almost never recorded. Among wood diseases that may compromise old or previously damaged carob specimens, “brown cubical heart rot” caused by Laetiporus sulphureus is the most widespread and recurrent issue; this pathogen is also well-known for edible fruit bodies that are also appreciated for pharmaceutical and industrial purposes. On the other hand, “white decays” caused by Fomes and Ganoderma species are less common and reported for the first time in this review. Like-gall protuberances on twigs at uncertain aetiology or tumours on branches associated to Rhyzobium radiobacter are described although these symptoms are seldom detected as it happens also for necrotic leaf spots caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. ciccaronei. A list of worldwide pathogens not yet recorded but at high-risk potential of introduction in Italian carob producing area is also provided. Finally, some concerns are addressed to new phytopathogenic fungi vectored by invasive Xylosandrus compactus ambrosia beetle. Comprehensively, all described pathogens could potentially in near future become limiting factors for carob production, because they could be favoured by high-density orchards, increasing global network of trade exchanges and high frequency through which extreme events of climate changes globally occur. Thus, symptoms and signs, causal agents, epidemiology and whenever applicable recommendations for disease prevention and management are provided in this review.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0218.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Agriculture; climate change; energy emission; forest transformation; policy actions; livelihood; wood fuel; Zero-Deforestation
Online: 25 April 2022 (05:24:42 CEST)
Uganda possesses natural rainforests that serve enormous environmental ecosystems and biodiversity services. Moreover, the country is known for its various tropical rainforest hardwoods, birds, and animal species. Over the years, the trend in the natural forest land has declined at an alarming rate; hence need to investigate the possible drivers. The loss of such biodiversity and ecosystems risks desertification and extreme climatic condition. As the world moves towards Zero Deforestation 2030, understanding the determinants of deforestation and forest degradation is paramount. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to understand the impact and relationships between net forest conversion, energy emission, agriculture, and forest production of Roundwood. We used data from FAO for the period 2004-2016. Using the ADF and KPSS test, we checked for the unit root presence in the variables. Also, the study used two different regression models: multiple linear regression and dynamic linear model. To analyze the determinants of deforestation, we used net forest conversion in Uganda. There was 94 % variation in the dependent variable (Net Forest conversion). The outcome of the dynamic linear regression showed that agriculture and energy emission positively impact net forest conversion. Based on our findings, this study recommended the modernization of agriculture by the government of Uganda to stop cutting down the forests on a big scale. Also, the study suggested that the government strictly legislate Roundwood and wood fuels/charcoal and firewood to reduce huge dependency on forests toward Zero-Deforestation by 2030. If well-structured and implemented, government policies could solve the unnecessary over dependency on the rainforest, the heart of the region's climatic conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0567.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: post-extraction residues; fir wood greenery; bioconversion; protein feed additive; Pleurotus pulmonarius; chemical composition
Online: 27 January 2021 (16:05:16 CET)
The effectiveness of forest resources depends on the comprehensiveness and rationality of their consumption and processing into finished products. This article discusses a problem of utilising solid fir wood greenery residues generated during the industrial production of essential oils. Bioconversion is considered to be the most promising utilization method. The objective of this research was to study the chemical composition of bioconversion products of fir wood greenery-based substrates. The РР-3.2 strain of Pleurotus pulmonarius (Fr.) Quél was used as a biodestructor. In the process of bioconversion, the contents of polysaccharides and lignin substances is reduced to 38 and 28 % respectively. Up to 20 % of protein accumulates in bioconversion products of fir wood greenery. The amount of nucleic acids is not more than 1.5 g per 1 kg, the contents of heavy metals, such as mercury, cadmium, arsenic, lead, do not exceed maximum permissible concentration standards. The substrate weight loss reaches 15 %. When fallen leaves and post-extraction poplar bud residues are added to the substrate, the substrate-destroying activity of fungi rises, as well as the protein content increases by 3 %. The digestibility of products as a result of bioconversion increases 1.6–2.8 times depending on the substrate composition. The obtained data enable to recommend post-fermented substrates based on fir wood greenery and balsam poplar biomass for use as a protein feed additive.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0231.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: forestry; wood-based sector; anti-crisis economic strategy; pandemic crisis; Analytic Hierarchy Process; Poland
Online: 14 May 2020 (06:15:23 CEST)
Forestry and the wood-based sector, including the wood industry, which is an important element of economic systems and a source of budget revenues for many countries in the world, found itself in the first quarter of 2020 in a situation of a serious threat of a prolonged crisis as a consequence of the pandemic. In this perspective, it is necessary to review existing sector strategies and look for new solutions to ensure first survival, then functioning and finally development of entities forming the wood market. In the scientific research, which is the subject of this work, an attempt was made to multi-criteria analysis of the selection of the optimal anti-crisis strategy for actors from forestry and the wood-based sector in the face of a pandemic. Preparatory studies were conducted on the example of Poland, where both forestry and the wood industry belong to the dominant sectors of the economy, conducting them at the turn of March and April 2020. The research was referred to the primary wood raw material market in Poland, which is the main link in the value chain, created first by the dominant owner: Państwowe Gospodarstwo Leśne "Lasy Państwowe" - the “State Forests” National Forest Holding (SFNFH), and then forest service entrepreneurs, to entities representing the wood industry. The work uses a concept modified for the purposes of the author's research scenario, based on the method of multi-criteria hierarchical analysis AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process). The best possible decision was to be searched that would allow the selection of the optimal anti-crisis strategy for enterprises - actors of the sector concerned. Based on the collected results and their expert discussion, recommendations for sectoral policy for forestry and the wood-based sector were then formulated. The proposed solutions are located against the background of a dispute between the concept of institutional intervention and a model taking into account the effects of market factors. The work is both cognitive (optimization and adaptation of the research method) and practical up-to-date. An accurate development strategy for forestry and the wood-based sector is urgently needed and necessary to implement as quickly as possible.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0163.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: Ranavirus; FV3; vIF-2α knockout mutant; bath exposure; wood frog; sublethal effects; reservoir host
Online: 15 March 2019 (11:58:03 CET)
Ranaviruses have been associated with rising numbers of mass die-offs in amphibian populations globally. With life-stages occupying different environments and presenting distinct physiologies, amphibian of different ages are likely to play an important role in pathogen persistence. To assess the potential role of post-metamorphic amphibians as a Ranavirus reservoir, we performed a bath-exposure study on wood frogs using environmentally relevant doses (~103 and ~104 PFU/mL) of wild-type (WT) and knockout Frog virus 3 (FV3), deficient for the vIF-2α immune-evasion gene, the effects of which have never been addressed in post-metamorphic anurans. We observed 42% infection prevalence and low mortality (10%) across the virus challenges, with half of the mortalities attributable to ranavirosis. Prevalence and viral loads followed a dose-dependent pattern. Notably, when exposed to the vIF-2α knockout (DvIF-2α) FV3, individuals exhibited significantly decreased growth and increased lethargy in comparison to WT FV3 treatments. Although 85% of individuals in the virus treatments exhibited stereotypic signs of ranavirosis throughout the experiment, at termination (40 days post exposure) most individuals were clear of signs of infection. Overall, this study provides evidence that even a single short time exposure to environmentally relevant doses of Ranavirus may cause sublethal infections in post-metamorphic amphibians, thus indicating their possible role as a reservoir for this pathogen.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0640.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: bamboo bundle veneer; bamboo bundle/wood veneer laminated composite; floor slabs; vibration performance; static deflection
Online: 20 April 2023 (09:43:19 CEST)
Bamboo engineering materials are green, high-strength, tough, durable, and structurally safe, and have promising application prospects in various modern green and low-carbon buildings. To invest the vibration behavior of new bamboo bundle veneer -laminated lumber (BLVL) for use in floor slabs, this study designed two kinds of full-scale vibration tests under a pedestrian load: an extraction hammer impact test, and a static concentrated load test, it is expected to provide theoretical and data support for the application of bamboo bundle veneer laminated composite materials in the construction field. The results showed that the self-oscillation frequency and mid-span deflection of the BLVL composite met the requirements of multiple relevant regulations when used as the structural material of floor slabs. The BLVL floor slab had a higher flexural stiffness and better vibration-damping performance than the OSB floor slab. The first-order self-oscillation frequency of the BLVL composite floor slab was 13.769 Hz, the damping ratio of the first three orders of modalities was 1.262–2.728%, and the maximum static deflection in the span of the joist was 0.932 mm under a 1 kN concentrated load. The 1 kN static deflection of the BLVL was reduced by 22.33%, and the root mean square (RMS) acceleration of the walking load response was significantly lower than that of the OSB floor slab. The preparation of BLVL composite materials by homogeneous lamination of bamboo bundle veneer and wood veneer may help improve the vibration behavior of bamboo-wood structures such as floor slabs and walls.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0138.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: membrane operations; pulp and paper industry; lignin; hemicelluloses; wood extractives; carboxylic acids; biorefinery; integrated biorefinery
Online: 8 March 2023 (02:30:49 CET)
The pulp and paper industry is one of the biggest industry sectors worldwide, whose market growth is expected to reach 370.12 billion USD by 2028. However, as a water-intensive process, the pulp and paper production generate huge volumes of contaminated effluents, some of which contain dissolved high-value chemical compounds, such as lignin, hemicellulose, or carboxylic acids. These compounds can be recovered using membrane operations. Thus, membrane operations represent a method to valorize effluents and byproducts from this industry sector and narrow the gap between biorefinery models and the pulp and paper production as an integrated biorefinery. The present review reviews the state-of-the-art-research and the state-of-the-art applications of membrane operations in the pulp and paper industry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0042.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: selective laser sintering (SLS); wood-plastic composites (WPC); carbon nanotube (CNT); mechanical properties; binding mechanism
Online: 7 November 2017 (02:43:15 CET)
A new type of low cost, environmentally friendly wood-plastic composites (WPC) containing carbon nanotubes(CNT)of low content 0%, 0.05wt%, 0.1wt% and 0.15wt%, wood fibers of 14wt% and polymer PES of 86wt% was manufactured by the selective laser sintering (SLS) approach of 3D printing. The experimental results showed that the incorporating of CNTs could obviously increase the mechanical properties of the wood/PES composites material. The tensile strength, bending strength and elasticity modulus were 76.3%, 227.9% and 128.7% higher with 0.1wt% CNTs than without CNTs. And the mechanical properties of specimens firstly increased and then decreased with the increasing contents of CNTs. The SEM results of the specimens’ fracture morphology indicated that the preferable bonding interfaces between wood flour grains and PES grains were achieved by adding CNTs to the composites. There are two reasons to explain why the composites possessed the superior mechanical properties: CNTs could facilitate the laser sintering process of wood plastic composites due to their thermal conductivities; also, CNTs could directly reinforce the WPC composites as reinforcement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1786.v1
Subject: Environmental Science, Environmental And Earth Sciences Keywords: chainsaw chain type; inhalable wood dust concentration; motor-manual harvesting; operator health and safety; tree species
Online: 28 November 2023 (08:24:19 CET)
This study examines the impact of chainsaw chain type and tree species on the concen-tration of inhalable wood dust generated during motor-manual harvesting in forested areas. The chainsaw chain is a critical component, contributing not only to productivity but also to the oper-ator's health and safety. Wood dust creation during harvesting operations poses significant risks and necessitates careful attention due to its potential health effects. We investigated the effects by conducting real-world measurements of inhalable dust within the operator's breathing zone during forestry work. Two different chain types were evaluated: the commonly used 3/8" pitch chain (conventional chain) and the 0.325" pitch chain. Additionally, measurements were taken for three tree species: beech, oak, and pine (including both live and standing dead trees after a fire). Results showed that, overall, using the conventional 3/8" chain type yielded the highest concentration of wood dust for all three tree species. Notably, the highest wood dust concentration was observed in the burned Pinus brutia cluster, also with the 3/8" chain pitch. These findings emphasize the im-portance of understanding how chain type and tree species contribute to wood dust levels and provide valuable insights for enhancing operator health and safety during motor-manual har-vesting operations
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0731.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: wood; relative humidity; climate impact for conservation; holographic interferometry; NDT; digital speckle pattern interferometry; cultural heritage
Online: 13 November 2023 (09:22:43 CET)
The understanding of structural alteration mechanisms due to relative humidity impact on organic supports of paintings is of crucial significance for the preventive conservation strategies in order to ensure the long-term preservation of important cultural identity artworks. The effort in this paper is to simulate Museum realistic relative humidity condition in a climate chamber while monitoring the structural responses through a quantitative interferometric method allowing the quantitative correlation between the physical values of deformation and mass alteration relevant to relative humidity fluctuations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0158.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: additive manufacturing; 3D printing; fused filament fabrication; Young's module; tensile strength; Timberfill; PLA; wood-PLA composite
Online: 16 January 2020 (07:38:26 CET)
The present study evaluates the manufacturing parameters effects on the tensile properties of material composed by polylactic acid (PLA) with wood fibers known as Timberfill. The specimens were built through fused filament fabrication (FFF). The influence of four printing parameters (Layer height, Fill density, Printing velocity, and Orientation) are considered through a L27 Taguchi orthogonal array in order to reduce experimental runs. Tensile test is applied to obtain the response variable used as output results to perform the ANOVA calculations. Fill density is the most influential parameter on the tensile strength, followed by building orientation and layer height, whereas the printing velocity shows no significant influence. The optimal set of parameters and levels is found, being 75% fill density, 0○Z-axis orientation, 0.4 mm layer height, and 40 mm/s velocity as the best combination. Applying this combination showed 9.37 MPa in maximum tension. Lastly, five solid Timberfill specimens manufactured via injection molding technology were also tested and the results compared to the printed samples. The values of the elastic modulus, elastic limit, and maximum tension of the injected samples were almost twofold of those were obtained for the FFF samples, but the maximum elongation of injected specimens was fell sharply.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1230.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: logistics value chain; internal pricing mechanism; emission allowance price; carbon sink; renewable forest; security of wood supply
Online: 21 November 2023 (10:44:31 CET)
The importance of the national security of supply has been emphasized in recent years due to the COVID-19 pandemic and changes in operating environments. Thanks to autonomy and resiliency in fuel procurement, organizations with decentralized energy plants may be able to quickly adapt to the changing needs of society. The main aim of this study was to increase the sustainability of a Finnish CHP plant's wood procurement by determining the company's profitable wood procurement region while keeping the forests renewable. The income received from the sale of energy and the costs incurred from the procurement of wood were collected from the ERP system as input data for the developed DSS. The environmental sustainability of wood procurement was assessed by considering the additional costs caused through the EEAP mechanism if the carbon sink of the forest worsened due to wood procurement in the area. The supply chains were compared so that the CHP plant managers could adopt the best energy wood value chains. The results showed that updating the procurement strategy would be necessary. The CHP plant managers should purchase energy wood from a larger procurement area than the current one and focus on roadside purchases of wood. The Techno-Economic Wood Payment Ability Model was a useful part of the DSS to guide wood buyers toward sustainable wood procurement by increasing the share of renewable forests.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1273.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: forest ecosystem services; rental income; wood production function of forests; water protection and regulation function of forests
Online: 18 May 2023 (05:18:40 CEST)
The owners of forests with water protection functions in Bulgaria do not receive compensation for their limited right to use wood and non-wood forest products from the forest areas they own. At the same time, the contribution derived from forests with water protection functions is received by water users and water consumers, whereas the costs of managing the forests are borne by their owners. The problem thus defined is not a forestry one, but an economic one, and the purpose of this paper ensues therefrom, namely to propose and test a methodology for valuating the produc-tion function of forest areas with water protection function in Bulgaria, allowing a fair distribu-tion of income between the forest owner and the user of forest ecosystem services. The methodol-ogy is based on the form of forest management and the analytical expression of the economic rela-tionship between a forest owner and a user of forest ecosystem services, constructed using Schen-rock’s formula. It has been tested with actual data on forest areas with water protection functions falling within the administrative and territorial scope of Velingrad municipality and based on the obtained results proposals have been made for the distribution of the contributions generated by forest ecosystems between the forest owner and the user of the forest ecosystem services.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0394.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: heat treatment; termite control; termites; Crytotermes brevis; wood pest; heat technology; non-chemical; pest management; condominium; temperature sensor
Online: 3 December 2021 (10:12:33 CET)
With heat treatments to control drywood termites (Blattodea: Kalotermitidae), the presence of heat sinks causes heat to be distributed unevenly throughout the treatment areas. Drywood termites may move to galleries in heat sink areas to avoid exposure to lethal temperatures. Our studies were conducted in Crytotermes brevis-infested condominiums in Honolulu, Hawaii to reflect real-world condominium scenarios; either a standard heat treatment performed by a heat remediation company or an improved heat treatment was used. For improved treatments, heated air was directed into the toe-kick voids of C. brevis infested cabinets to reduce heat sink effects and increase the heat penetration into these difficult-to-heat areas. Eight thermistor sensors placed inside toe-kick voids, treatment zone, embedded inside cabinets’ sidewalls, and in a wooden cube recorded target temperatures of above 46 °C or 50 °C for 120 minutes. A pretreatment and follow-up inspections were performed at 6 months posttreatment to monitor termite inactivity using visual observations and by recording the numbers of spiked peaks on a microwave technology termite detection device (Termatrac). In improved treatment condominiums, significantly higher numbers of spiked peaks were recorded at pretreatment as compared to 6 months posttreatment. Efficacious heat treatment protocols using the improved methods are proposed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0287.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: bias; efficiency; element size; LAD; LAI; leaf and wood separation; LiDAR; multiple viewpoints; point cloud; TLS; UAV; voxel
Online: 24 May 2019 (07:53:44 CEST)
The amount and spatial distribution of foliage in a tree canopy have fundamental functions in ecosystems as they affect energy and mass fluxes through photosynthesis and transpiration. They are usually described by the Leaf Area Index (LAI) and the Leaf Area Density (LAD), which can be measured through a variety of methods, including voxel-based methods applied to LiDAR point clouds. A theoretical study recently compared the numerical errors arising from different voxel-based estimation methods for Plant Area Density (PAD) based on Beer’s law-based, contact frequency and Maximum-Likelihood Estimation, showing that the bias-corrected Maximum Likelihood Estimator was theoretically the most efficient. However, this earlier study i) ignored wood volumes; ii) neglected vegetation clumping inside the voxel; iii) ignored instrument characteristics in terms of effective footprint, iv) was limited to a single viewpoint. In practice, retrieving LAD from PAD is not straightforward, vegetation is not randomly distributed in volumes of interest, beams are divergent and forestry plots are usually sampled from more than one viewpoint, to mitigate the effect of occlusion. In the present short communication, we extend the previous efficient formulation to actual field conditions to i) account for the presence of both wood volumes and wood hits, ii) rigorously include correction terms for vegetation and instrument characteristics, iii) integrate multiview data. A numerical comparison with other methods commonly used to combine information from different viewpoints led to error reduction, especially in poorly-explored volumes, which are frequent in actual canopies. Beyond its concision, completeness and efficiency, this new formulation -which can be applied to multiview TLS, but also UAV LiDAR scanning - can help reducing errors in LAD estimation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0451.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: economic agroforestry zone; Salix spp.; Populus spp.; Alnus spp.; short rotation coppice (SRC); short rotation forestry (SRF); energy wood.
Online: 31 October 2022 (09:26:58 CET)
The main goal of the review is to provide a summary and an assessment of the potential of fast-growing tree species for suitable transformation of agroforestry areas for biomass production in the Baltic Sea region. The article summarizes the research on the management process of agroforestry zones by establishing short rotation plantations with tree species Salix spp., Populus spp., Alnus spp. and looks at the perspectives of planning of these zones as biomass producers. Short rotation forestry (SRF) with a combination of species and a rotation time of 15 to 30 years, depending on the species used, is the most suitable approach for management of these agroforestry zones. Willows (Salix spp.) and poplars (Populus spp.) are suitable for short rotation coppice (SRC), as these tree species can be harvested at much shorter intervals, respectively, 1–5 and 4–10 years, facilitating their use in agricultural systems. In Alnus spp. short rotation plantation the life cycle for energy wood production is assumed to be 15-30 years. The black alder plantations in agroforestry zones are used for sawnwood and firewood production, with a rotation span of 20–40 years. Calculated economic agroforestry zone repayment period is about 10-15 years, if costs and prices as in 2021 are used.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1468.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Kalmusia variispora; Neosetophoma italica; Paraconiothyrium variabile; Seimatosporium vitis; meteorological conditions; wood inhabitant
Online: 23 November 2023 (05:42:59 CET)
A three-year survey was conducted to estimate the incidence of grapevine trunk diseases (GTDs) in Greece and identify fungi associated with the disease complex. In total, 310 vineyards in different geographical regions in northern, central, and southern Greece were surveyed, and 533 fungal strains were isolated from diseased vines. Morphological, physiological and molecular (5.8S rRNA gene-ITS sequencing) analyses revealed that isolates belonged to 35 distinct fungal genera, including well-known (e.g. Botryosphaeria sp, Diaporthe spp., Eutypa sp., Diplodia sp., Fomitiporia sp., Phaeoacremonium spp., Phaeomoniella sp.) and lesser-known (e.g. Neosetophoma sp., Seimatosporium sp., Didymosphaeria sp., Kalmusia sp.) grapevine wood inhabitants. GTDs-inducing population structure differed significantly among the discrete geographical zones. Phaeomoniella chlamydospora (26.62%, n=70), Diaporthe spp. (18.25%, n=48) and F. mediterranea (10.27%, n=27) were the most prevalent in Heraklion, whereas D. seriata, Alternaria spp., P. chlamydospora and Fusarium spp. were predominant in Nemea (central Greece). In Amyntaio and Kavala (northern Greece), D. seriata was the most frequently isolated species (>50% frequency). Multi-genes (rDNA-ITS, LSU, tef1-α, tub2, act) sequencing of selected isolates, followed by pathogenicity tests revealed that Neosetophoma italica, Seimatosporium vitis, Didymosphaeria variabile and Kalmusia variispora caused wood infection with the former being the most virulent. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of N. italica associated with GTDs worldwide. This is also the first record of K. variispora, S. vitis and D. variabile associated with wood infection of grapevine in Greece. The potential associations of disease indices with vine age, cultivar, GTD-associated population structure and the prevailed meteorological conditions in different viticultural zones in Greece are presented and discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0090.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geochemistry And Petrology Keywords: CO2; CH4; δ13С in wood; tree-ring; Pinus sylvestris; iWUE; ci/ca; temperature; precipitation; evapotranspiration; cloud fraction; Tatarstan Republic; Russia
Online: 3 October 2023 (09:20:36 CEST)
Human-caused anthropogenic greenhouse emissions impact climate globally. In this pilot study, we aim to reveal the impact of oil and gas emissions from local oil deposits in the regime of their natural degradation and development and eco-physiological changes of pine forests in Tatarstan Republic, Russia over the past century. We performed stable carbon isotope analysis in pine tree rings (13Cptrw) to reveal the impact of oil and gas emissions from the giant oil field reservoirs located in Leninogorsk region (UVRT) and the natural reserve site in Raifa. Our results show decreasing 13Cptrw at UVRT in 1943 when oil extraction was started, and in 1970, when it reached the maximum production. We found that 13Cptrw from UVRT indicates on developing unfavourable drier conditions and suppressed tree growth caused by both human-induced oil and deposit infrastructure and natural processes compared to undisturbed Raifa. The 13Cptrw from Raifa is more negative compared to UVRT, which can be explained by higher forest sensitivity to human-induced impact. From an ecophysiological point of view decreasing intercellular to ambient CO2 concentration at the leaf level and increasing intrinsic water use efficiency along with decreasing tree-ring width at UVRT (1970-2021) indicate on development of drought conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0069.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: non-thermal plasma; wood gasification; charcoal gasification; water steam gasification; plasma stability; optical temperature measurement; carbon conversion; reaction kinetics; Arrhenius diagram
Online: 5 April 2018 (11:13:38 CEST)
Compared to conventional allothermal gasification of solid fuels (e.g. biomass, charcoal, lignite etc.), plasma-assisted gasification offers an efficient method to apply energy into the gasification process to increase the flexibility of operation conditions and to increase the reaction kinetics. In particular, non-thermal plasmas (NTP) are promising, in which thermal equilibrium is not reached and electrons have substantially higher mean energy than gas molecules. Thus it is generally assumed that in NTP the supplied energy is utilized more efficiently for generating free radicals initiating gasification reactions than thermal plasma processes. In order to investigate this hypothesis, we compared purely thermal to non-thermal plasma assisted gasification of biomass in steam in a drop tube reactor at atmospheric pressure. The NTP was provided by means of gliding arcs between two electrodes aligned in the inlet steam flow. Electric power of about 1 kW was supplied using a high voltage generator operating at frequencies between 70 and 150 kHz and voltage amplitudes up to 10 kV. A laser-assisted optical method (Raman spectroscopy) was applied for measuring the gas temperature both in the conventionally heated steam and flow-down of the visible plasma filaments of the gliding arcs. Reaction yields and rates were evaluated using these measured gas temperatures. The first experimental results have shown that the non-thermal plasma not only promotes the carbon conversion of the fuel particles, but also accelerates the reaction kinetics. The carbon conversion is increased by nearly 10% using wood powder as the fuel. With charcoal powder more than 3% are converted into syngas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0005.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: Red wood ants (Formica rufa-group); tree age classes; West Eifel Volcanic Field; herbaceous layer; woodpecker cavities; clearings; re-inventory; climate change
Online: 1 March 2023 (02:57:20 CET)
We re-inventoried red wood ant nests (RWA) in 12 study sites (≈1281 ha) in the Westeifel Volcanic Field, Germany, in an area-wide and integrated ecosystem approach after 12 years. Combined with the re-identification of previously mapped nests using a photo database, this approach leads to more accurate nest counts in (re)inventories. A total increase of nests from 1144 (2009) to 1252 (2021), and a dramatic one for the Heidberg site by 52-fold (2009) and 85-fold (2021) compared to a 1984 inventory was observed, contrasting with earlier postulations of a decline in RWA. Early to medium mature (41-80 years) and mature (³81–140 years) spruce forests were the preferred habitat. Large increase in small nest sizes suggests an increase in new nest settlements also in clearings, despite climate-induced forest dieback over the past decade. A decline in biodiversity in the herbaceous layer was observed; highly proliferating blackberries had no negative impact on RWA nests. Monitoring of woodpecker cavities in RWA nests is suggested as an indirect indicator tool for evaluating populations in forests. Positive ground movement rates caused by the Eifel plume are suggested another factor favoring nest settlements. This study contributes to the urgent update of statistically valid data required to a) effectively substantiate the status-quo of RWA occurrences, b) protect RWA as ecosystem engineers, c) advance understanding of Geo-Bio-Interactions in the wake of climate change, and c) contribute to the German government's Insect Conservation Action Program.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0041.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: pine nut; pine nut syndrome (PNS); pine mouth syndrome (PMS); non-wood forest products; Leptoglossus occidentalis (Western conifer seed bug); Sphaeropsis sapinea (sphaeropsis blight)
Online: 17 July 2017 (05:58:34 CEST)
Pine nuts are non-wood forest products (NWFP) with constantly growing market notwithstanding a series of phytosanitary issues and related trade problems. The aim of paper is to review the literature on the relationship between phytosanitary problems and trade development. Production and trade of pine nuts in Mediterranean Europe have been negatively affected by the spreading of Sphaeropsis sapinea (a fungus) associated to an adventive insect Leptoglossus occidentalis (fungal vector), with impacts on forest management activities, production and profitability and thus in value chain organization. Reduced availability of domestic production in markets with growing demand has stimulated the import of pine nuts. China has become a leading exporter of pine nuts, but its export is affected by a symptom associated to the nuts of some pine species: the ‘pine nut syndrome’ (PNS). Most of the studies embraced during the review are associated to PNS occurrence associated to the nuts of Pinus armandii. In the literature review we highlight the need for a comprehensive and interdisciplinary approach to the analysis of the pine nuts value chain organisation, where research on food properties and clinical toxicology be connected to breeding and forest management, forest pathology and entomology and trade development studies.