ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0149.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Religious Studies Keywords: Leadership, Women, Women Clergy, Black, Religion and Gender.
Online: 8 October 2018 (13:57:05 CEST)
Despite the increase of seminary training, Black clergywomen continuously undergo subjugation, degradation, and humiliation in ministry leadership due to gender and race bias (Leslie, 2013) by clergymen. This article reports the findings of a qualitative study that examined the experiences of Black clergywomen regarding obstacles in ministry leadership and how these clergywomen ascribed meaning to their experiences. The two primary research questions were, “What are the experiences of Black clergywomen regarding obstacles in ministry leadership?” and “How do Black clergywomen attribute meaning to their experiences regarding obstacles in ministry leadership?” The results of the study indicated that bias of gender and inequality exists among clergymen; however, the Black clergywomen learned to embrace the experiences and learned from them. The conclusion of this article includes a discussion regarding practical implications of the education of clergy; and the re-evaluation of the perception of Black clergywomen and their experiences. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the experiences of Black clergywomen pertaining to challenges in clergy leadership and to explore how Black clergywomen attributed meaning to their experiences regarding challenges in ministry leadership.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0043.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: Sufi women, multiple modernity,secularism,muslim women identity
Online: 3 October 2018 (11:55:30 CEST)
Two sufi women take part in activities related to sufism and create an attraction point in the secular side in Turkey.The most striking point is that both women do not wear headscarves although they are muslim women. This article attempts to show how sufi women Cemalnur Sargut and Hayatnur Artıran have idealized a Muslim woman's identity, the work they are doing to achieve this ideal, their attidue toward Rebublic values, and the effects of these attidues on their followers. This article was created from my doctoral thesis and based on Qualitative research which has been established on the basis of 2-year long participant observation and data obtained from in-depth and focus interviews. 31 women and 20 men were interviewed in depth and focus interviews.The main conclusions of my qualitative research are that the influence of theese sufi women is related with process of modernization by accelerating the establishment of the republic in Turkey. It seems that a perception has established concerning that “public apparency’’ of woman will disappear if the “apparency of body’’ disappears and the woman will return to its role which had relapsed into silence for centuries. Besides not using the headscarf, religious conversation have been created by theese sufi women in the balance of religion, philosophy and science and the fact that they are conducting their works under secular institutions such as foundations and associations have also been observed to have a very important effect on seculer side.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1037.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Gender-Based Violence; Iraq; Married women; Safety; Women Empowerment; Social Factors
Online: 17 October 2023 (09:23:59 CEST)
Women's attitudes towards domestic violence play an important role in shaping the social acceptance of domestic violence, acting as both a known predictor of victimization and an indicator of disclosure and help-seeking behavior. Therefore, the study objectives were 1) to conduct a nationwide analysis to explore the factors associated with the acceptance of domestic violence among Iraqi women according to the social-ecological framework, and 2) to identify the most vulnerable women according to the spatial distribution of Iraqi governorates. This cross-sectional study was conducted using secondary data analysis from the 2018 Iraq Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS 6), which included 19,443 married Iraqi women. Logistic regression was employed to examine the factors associated with acceptance of domestic violence. In this study, the analyses were performed according to the Social Ecological Model (SEM). This study revealed that 48.4% of married Iraqi women accepted domestic violence. Yet, women living in South/Central regions of Iraq showed a higher prevalence of domestic violence acceptance namely Anbar, Salahaddin Thiqar, and Misan where the prevalence was (62%-73%). Several factors across the social-ecological model were associated with a higher likelihood of women accepting such behavior, including experiencing functional difficulty, having lower educational attainment, being married to a blood-related husband, and being married to a husband who has multiple wives/partners, living in poverty, residing in rural areas, living in the south and central regions of Iraq, and feeling unsafe in the neighborhood. Conversely, factors that were associated with a lower likelihood of women accepting such behavior were owning a mobile phone and using a computer or tablet. This study provides policymakers with valuable insights to comprehensively assess indicators of attitudes toward domestic violence against women. It also addresses the scarcity of information on the acceptance of domestic violence in Iraq on national and governorate levels, emphasizing the need for urgent national-level policy discussions to achieve key Sustainable Development Goals related to gender equity and good health and well-being.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0575.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Primary Health Care Keywords: Family, Planning, Utilization, Women
Online: 11 October 2023 (07:47:29 CEST)
BACKGROUND: Family planning services are essential to promote family health and reduce maternal morbidity and mortality by preventing unwanted and high-risk pregnancies. Services are aimed at women with serious underlying medical conditions, grand multipara, couples who have reached their desired family size, sexually active teenagers, and anyone else who needs or wants to avoid pregnancy. AIM: This study aims to investigate the use of family planning services among women attending Better Life Primary Healthcare Centre for Family Planning Services in Ondo City, Ondo State, Nigeria. METHODOLOGY: This study included ninety-one (91) women who attended the health centre for family planning services. For this study, a descriptive cross-sectional study and a systematic random sample were adopted. The results were analyzed using SPSS version 21. RESULTS: The results show mean age of the respondents is 30.75 + 6.207. 39 (42.9%) were between the age of 26 – 30 years, 82 (90.1%) were Christians, 23 (25.3 %) were traders and 53 (58.2%) had tertiary education. 27 (29.7%) had 1 – 3 children, 41 (45.1%) weighed between 60 – 70kg, 60 (65.9%) had blood pressure less than 120/80mmHg and 52 (57.1%) utilized Jadelle contraceptive for their family planning services. CONCLUSION: Family planning (FP) has numerous benefits for the mother, the children, the family and society at large. All policies and programs aimed at encouraging women of childbearing age in the community to seek family planning services should be encouraged.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0067.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: overweight; obesity, adult women
Online: 5 October 2020 (10:56:02 CEST)
Introduction: Decreasing overweight and obesity prevalence requires precise data at sub-national levels to monitor progress and initiate interventions. This study aimed to estimate baseline age-standardized overweight prevalence at the lowest administrative units among women, 18 years and older, in seven African countries. The study aims are synonymous with indicator 14 of the global non-communicable disease monitoring framework. Methods: We used the most recent Demographic and Health Survey and administrative boundaries data from the GADM. Three Bayesian hierarchical models were fitted and model selection tests implemented. The age-standardized prevalence of overweight among adult women at national, first and second administrative levels were individually reported in each country in the form of maps and tables. Results: Substantial variation in the age-standardized prevalence of adult female overweight was noted across several second-level administrative units. In numerous locations in Tanzania, Nigeria and Zimbabwe, more than half of the adult female population were overweight and in one location in Tanzania, over 72% of the adult female population were overweight. These estimates were roughly twice the national level overweight prevalence and, in some cases, roughly 10 – 20% greater than the overweight prevalence in first-level administrative units. Conclusion: The observed overweight burden in subnational administrative units suggests the presence of an epidemic tantamount to the situation in more affluent economies. African countries lack the resources to effectively handle the fallout from such epidemic, therefore motivating the need for increased urgency in adopting WHO obesity-related intervention guidelines and implementing more rigorous studies to validate the study findings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0599.v1
Online: 27 July 2021 (11:19:15 CEST)
Background: Women in rural districts of Pakistan face numerous barriers to healthcare, rendering gender-responsive health programming important, including for Tuberculosis (TB). This study was conducted to assess the general understanding of TB and of access to healthcare for women, as a first step towards implementation of a gender responsive TB programme in TandoAllayar, a rural district of Pakistan. Methods: A total of 36 participants were interviewed. The focus group discussion guide comprised of questions on: (1) family/household dynamics (2) community norms (3) healthcare system (4) women’s access to healthcare (5) TB Awareness;, and (6) women’s access to TB Care. Results: Limited autonomy in household financial decision-making, disapproval of unassisted travel, long travel time, lack of prioritization of spending on women’s health and inadequate presence of female health providers, were identified as barriers to access of healthcare for women, higher in younger women. Facilitators to access of TB care included a reported lack of TB-related stigma, moderate knowledge about TB disease, and broad understanding of tuberculosis as a curable disease. Other suggested facilitators include health facilities closer to the villages and the availability of higher quality services. Conclusion: Significant barriers are faced by women in access to TB care in rural districts of Pakistan. Programme implementers in high burden countries, should shift towards improved gender-responsive TB programming.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0601.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: menopause, women, phytoestrogens, bread, soy
Online: 29 January 2021 (06:05:18 CET)
Menopause is the last step in the reproductive history of a woman. The ovaries stop producing hormones and the body reacts by lowering its functions, including the neuronal one. Phytoestrogens are plant products with estrogen-like activity able to affect many body functions. The aim of the present experiment was to study the effects of 30 days of regular consumption of a soy-enriched bread containing a known amount of phytoestrogens (genistein and daidzein). Women at climacteric, within 5 years or more than 5 years of menopause, were asked to include in their diet 200 g/day of a bread containing 40 mg of phytoestrogens. The effect on common menopausal symptoms and neurophysiological, hormonal and antioxidant parameters were determined before and after 30 days through questionnaires and experimental tests. Phytoestrogens were measured in the urine. In all groups, there was a significant increase of phytoestrogens in the urine and a decrease of the classical symptoms of menopause as well as a significant improvement in attentional performance tests, the quality of life index and pain intensity. Phytoestrogens present in the soy-enriched bread, are an important supplement in aging women due to their ability to induce estrogen-like effects without the potential side effects of estrogens.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1905.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: performance; sedentary; women; anthropometric; interval training
Online: 30 November 2023 (07:31:22 CET)
The present study aimed to investigate the effects of a 10-week online high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on body composition and aerobic performance in physically sedentary women. A parallel two-group, longitudinal (pre, post) design was used with physical tests performed before (preintervention) and after (postintervention) the 10-week intervention period. A total of for-ty-eight healthy and physically sedentary women were recruited to participate in this study. Par-ticipants were distributed in two groups: The experimental group (EG) with 24 women (n = 24, age 21.21 ± 2.15 years, weight 61.16 ± 8.94 kg, height 163.96 ± 4.87 cm, body mass index body weight 22.69 ± 2.49 kg/m2), and the control group (CG) with another 24 women (n = 24, age 20.50 ± 1.29 years, weight 62.0 ± 6.65 kg, height 163.92 ± 4 .89 cm, body mass index 23.04 ± 1.74 kg/m2). The EG performed an online HIIT program for 10 weeks, while CG continued with their daily life routines. The repeated measures ANCOVA indicated a significant effect in the within-group analysis for weight (p=0.001; d=-0.96), demonstrating a significant decrease in the Experimental Group (EG) while the Control Group (CG) did not show a significant decrease in body mass in-dex (p=0.15; d=-0.11). Regarding maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) values, the EG exhibited a significant improvement (p=0.001; d=-1.07), whereas the CG did not demonstrate a significant improvement (p=0.08; d=-0.37). A new within-group analysis with power output (W) revealed that EG significantly improved (p=0.01; d=-0.96), while CG did not show a significant improve-ment in power output (W/kg) (p=0.20; d=-0.11). Lastly, the within-group analysis with Load re-vealed that EG significantly improved (p=0.001; d=-0.50), while CG did not show a significant improvement in Load (p=0.10.; d=-0.10). The present study showed that 10 weeks of HIIT in an online environment during the Covid-19 lockdown significantly improved maximum oxygen consumption, and caused weight loss and a significant decrease in body mass index in physically sedentary women. These results suggest HIIT may be used as a time-efficient strategy to improve body composition and cardio-respiratory fitness in sedentary women.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0786.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Primary Health Care Keywords: Exclusive breastfeeding, Working class, Women, Knowledge.
Online: 13 October 2023 (08:27:52 CEST)
Background: Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) for the first 6 months of life improves the growth, health and survival status of newborns. Breastfeeding has been accepted as the most vital intervention for reducing infant mortality and ensuring optimal growth and development of children. Objectives: The general objective was to identify the factors affecting exclusive breastfeeding among working class women in selected wards in Egbedore Local Government in Osun state, Nigeria. Methodology: This was descriptive cross-sectional study. Leslie Kish formula was used for sample size calculation and multistage sampling was used in selecting 316 working class women for the study. A structured, self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 21.0 and level of significance was set at 5%. Results: 58% of the respondents were between the ages of 25-30. 72% demonstrated good understanding of exclusive breastfeeding based on the 6 months WHO recommendation for exclusive breast feeding, 25.9% had a fair knowledge and awareness of exclusive breastfeeding. 63.3% of the working class mother has a good practice of exclusive breast feeding, 19.6% of the women moderately practices exclusive breastfeeding while 17.1% poorly practices exclusive breastfeeding. Less than 3-months maternity leave for mothers, lack of crèche closer to place of work and lack of breastfeeding break were identified as barriers to exclusive breastfeeding practices among the working class women. The findings demonstrated a significant relationship between knowledge and practices of exclusively breastfeeding among working class women (P-value .009). Conclusion: This study demonstrated that working class women had good knowledge of exclusive breastfeeding and this influenced their breastfeeding practices. A good knowledge was associated with favorable attitudes to the practice of exclusive breast feeding. To derive long-term benefits from early childhood nutrition, interventions should focus on health education and community-based sensitization programs on the needs for mothers to engage in exclusive breast needing for global development.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1258.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Behavioral Sciences Keywords: Schizophrenia; Nutritional deficiencies; Women; Antipsychotics; Poverty
Online: 19 September 2023 (08:27:10 CEST)
Severe mental illness such as schizophrenia is associated with factors such as unemployment, meagre per capita income, and residence in disadvantaged, poorly resourced neighbourhoods. This means difficult access to healthy food and is particularly problematic for pregnant women and mothers with children to feed. Eating problems are also linked to the necessity of taking antipsychotic drugs that often lead to serious cognitive, psychological, and behavioural sequelae. Psychosis makes it extremely difficult to maintain a healthy diet; nutritional deficiencies result, as do medical complications. The results of present literature review confirm the gravity of the problem and suggest a number of potentially useful interventions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0807.v1
Online: 13 September 2023 (05:16:44 CEST)
Flood is one of the most common disaster in Assam.The situation gets worse when pandemic hits the place during the flood time. The paper indicates about women’s flood related lived experiences during pandemic. It is thought that floods will increase the global burden of disease, morbidity, mortality, social and economic disruptions, and will place a continuing stress on health services, especially in low-resource countries. Natural disaster hampers both the men and women. Pandemic means the disease whose prevalence has been all over the world. Covid 19 has been the recently developed pandemic that touches each and every corner of the world. But within such obstruction, both the male and female’s lived experiences of health might be different from each other. This paper articulates the gendering lived experiences of pandemic during the time of flood. However here an attempt has been made to understand women’s negotiation with their everyday life during such time and whether different social, political and cultural capital have been significant factors as far as the negotiation is concerned that has also been discussed through this study. However, on the descriptive note, narrative analysis has been done to understand the women’s negotiation in their everyday life.The study is conducted at different places of Nalbari and Golaghat Districts of Assam. All interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, translated into English and qualitative analysis was done . How disaster made adverse impact on women's everyday life that has been tried to understand through this paper. Keywords- Flood. Pandemic, Lived Experiences, Women, Everyday.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0789.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Gender And Sexuality Studies Keywords: catcalling, harassment; patriarchy; qualitative design; women
Online: 30 April 2021 (15:19:44 CEST)
Patriarchy culture is formed indirectly through a concept of a man as a head of family or the holder of the highest position. It leads to viewpoint that catcalling is assumed normally. Although catcalling seems like a compliment, but it is quite different with the exact compliment. The basic difference from them both is a compliment comes to sincerely from its giver, meanwhile catcalling is aimed to harass indirectly to women. This study aims to give an information and solution about the catcalling expansion in public areas especially by women community. The use of method to finish this study is qualitative design from literature sources for the last four years about problems of catcalling. The result of this study is giving information about catcalling by providing data and looking for solution related to catcalling phenomenon.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0129.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: violence; crime; informal settlements; women; Kenya
Online: 5 April 2021 (12:38:04 CEST)
The purpose of this study was to identify potential causes of violence and crime in informal settlements and residents’ strategies for response and prevention to these issues, as perceived by women living in Mathare informal settlement in Nairobi, Kenya. A total of 55 in-depth interviews were conducted with women living in the informal settlement in 2015-2016. A modified grounded theory approach was used to guide data collection and analysis. The most common contributor to violence and crime identified by women in Mathare informal settlement was idle youth, but leadership and government challenges, corruption and/or inadequacy of police, community barriers, tribalism, and lack of protective infrastructure also emerged as contributing factors. Despite facing many economic, environmental, and day-to-day challenges, women in Mathare identified violence and crime as predominant issues; thus, developing effective response and prevention strategies to these issues in informal settlements is paramount. Women suggest there are many strategies and initiatives to reduce and prevent violence and crime in informal settlements, but also identified barriers to implementing them. Findings suggest there is a need for trust-building between formal and informal organizations and institutions, systems of accountability, and long-term investment to foster sustainable and effective violence and crime response and interventions in these settlements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0056.v1
Online: 10 October 2017 (02:55:22 CEST)
This study aimed to know the conditioning factors of the transition process to the self-care of women diagnosed with HIV/AIDS. This qualitative study was carried out from June to September 2015 with seven seropositive women, users of a specialized service in sexually transmitted diseases in the municipality of Imperatriz, Maranhão State, Brazil. For the data collection, an individual interview was used, and data analysis was performed by content analysis delineated by Hsieh and Shannon (2005). The resources that influence the self-care in the transition process of women with HIV/AIDS are represented by personal conditioning factors, such as the meaning they attribute to the living with the disease, personal attitudes and cultural beliefs, socioeconomic status, preparation and knowledge about the disease, and by conditioning factors found in the community and society. The transition theory can provide important insights about the resources present in the adaptation process of women diagnosed with HIV so that they can perform their self-care satisfactorily.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0616.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Primary Health Care Keywords: assessment; body; mass; index; women; healthcare services
Online: 10 October 2023 (10:42:35 CEST)
BACKGROUND: Body mass index (BMI) is calculated by dividing a person's height in meters by their weight in kilograms and is always expressed in kg/m2. BMI is a reliable risk indicator for various diseases that can develop due to a higher percentage of body fat. There is a possibility of developing certain medical conditions including heart disease, high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes, gallstones, breathing problems and some malignancies that increase with BMI. OBJECTIVE: This study seeks to identify the trends in the Body Mass Index (BMI) of women visiting Better Life Primary Health Care Centre in Ondo City, Ondo State, Nigeria for various healthcare services. METHODOLOGY: Seventy (70) women who participated in this study were randomly selected using systematic random sampling. Their necessary information was obtained using a prepared record sheet to collect their data. Results were analysed using SPSS version 21. RESULTS: The results show mean age of the respondents is 30.50 + 6.52921 21 (30%) were between 31 – 35 years, 21 (30%) were traders, 36 (51%) had tertiary education, 39 (55.7%) were between 151 – 160 cm in height. 32 (45.7%) were between 60 – 80 kg in weight and 30 (42.9%) had normal weight, respectively. CONCLUSION: Body Mass Index (BMI) calculation is an essential tool that can help in identifying one of the significant public health issues that leads to obesity; a predisposing factor to various medical conditions like hypertension, musculoskeletal issues, heart diseases, cancers, and lots more. It is therefore important to incorporate BMI calculation into routine checks to prevent or reduce health burdens that may arise from obesity.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1484.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: vaginal problems; coastal women; water quality; Bangladesh
Online: 22 September 2023 (04:49:00 CEST)
The coastal zone of Bangladesh covers an area of 47,201 square km, 32% of the country, around 35 million people are living coastal zone, where about 15 million are women (Ahmad, 2019). Though the women of this area have a significant contribution in aquaculture, food production and economic growth of Bangladesh, still the health issues of women remain ignored, especially sexual and reproductive health issue. Women and girls experience heightened vulnerabilities to reproductive health problems in coastal areas. In aiming to investigate the prevalence of vaginal problems in coastal area the study has been designed. The study followed retrospective cohort study as a study design and use percentile and regression analysis to draw the result of the study. The study found that 94% of women are experiencing vaginal problems in coastal villages in Bangladesh. This number is about 05 times higher than the non-coastal villages and it also found water use for hygiene practice as a significant role for high rate of vaginal diseases in coastal areas of Bangladesh
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0993.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Roma women; screening; prevention; cervical cancer; HPV
Online: 15 September 2023 (03:56:54 CEST)
Background and Objectives: Romania ranks among the countries with a notably high rate of preventable deaths due to inadequacies in prevention, screening, early detection, and timely management processes. Cervical cancer (CC) is a significant contributor to these preventable deaths, particularly affecting patients from marginalized backgrounds, rural regions, and the Roma population. The purpose of this article was to identify correct and consistent information of the Roma population about the risk of CC, as well as the importance of understanding the causes of the disease and awareness of the available prevention methods. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire applied only to Roma women in Romania. Results: We enrolled 759 patients in the study. These were divided into 2 groups, Group 1 comprised 289 (38.1%) women who had been tested for HPV infection, while Group 2 included 470 (61.9%) women who had never been tested for HPV infection. Characterization of women in Group 1: mostly aged between 25-54 years, with high school education, married, who started sexual activity under the age of 18 years, with only one sexual partner and with over 5 pregnancies. Regarding contraceptive methods, 35.7% of women do not know/ use any contraceptive method, and 32.2% use hormonal contraceptives. Two thirds of the women tested had heard of HPV, and 19.7% were vaccinated against HPV with at least 2-3 doses. A percentage of 8.7 had a diagnosis of CC, compared to those who were not tested (p-0.0001), whereas 63% of the tested women do not know much about CC, as opposed to 85.7% of the group of untested women. Conclusion: Cervical cancer (CC) continues to be a public health issue in Romania, particularly in patients belonging to vulnerable groups. Promotion campaigns for HPV vaccination and CC screening are necessary to reduce the associated mortality and morbidity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0457.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: bone density; DXA; PTX; P1NP; prunes; women
Online: 31 August 2023 (09:03:01 CEST)
Consumption of prunes has been shown to slow bone loss after menopause in American women but there is no data on its effects in Asian women. 135 postmenopausal Korean women with osteopenia were randomized to 100g/day of prunes or no prunes with 600U vitamin D and 800mg of calcium for 12 months. Bone density was measured at baseline and 12 months in the lumbar spine, both hips and the L forearm. Serum levels of CTX and P1NP and vitamin D calcium and phosphate were measured at baseline, 6 and 12 months. PTH was measured at baseline if vitamin D was low Four women dropped out of each group over the 12 months. There was no difference between groups in blood measures or bone density in any region over the 12 month trial., In conclusion 100g/day of prunes has no effect in Korean woman on bone density or bone markers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0407.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: HPV; Cervical cancer; HPV vaccine; Women; HIV
Online: 23 March 2023 (02:45:10 CET)
Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is responsible for most cervical cancer cases globally, with women living with HIV at higher risk of persistent HPV infection and HPV-associated disease. The HPV vaccine is a promising solution to reducing cervical cancer rates, but its uptake among women living with HIV in Nigeria is unknown. Methods: A facility-based, cross-sectional survey was conducted with 1,371 women living with HIV to assess their knowledge of HPV, cervical cancer, and the HPV vaccine, as well as their willingness to pay for the vaccine at the HIV treatment clinic, Nigerian Institute of Medical Research, Lagos. Willingness to pay for the HPV vaccine was also assessed. Multivariable logistic regression models were developed to identify factors associated with willingness to pay for the HPV vaccine. Results: The study found that 79.1% of participants had not heard of the vaccine, and only 29.0% knew of its efficacy in preventing cervical cancer. Moreover, 68.3% of participants were unwilling to pay for the vaccine, and the average amount they were willing to pay was low. Knowledge of HPV, the HPV vaccine, cervical cancer, and income were factors associated with willingness to pay for the vaccine. Health workers were the primary source of information. Conclusion: The study found that 79.1% of participants had not heard of the vaccine, and only 29.0% knew of its efficacy in preventing cervical cancer. Moreover, 68.3% of participants were unwilling to pay for the vaccine, and the average amount they were willing to pay was low. Knowledge of HPV, the HPV vaccine, cervical cancer, and income were factors associated with willingness to pay for the vaccine. Health workers were the primary source of information.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0358.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: environmental knowledge; pollution; rural women; health; China
Online: 21 February 2023 (09:31:19 CET)
Rural women in developing nations are especially vulnerable to higher health risks due to environmental pollution exposure and are more likely to experience poorer health outcomes. Using data from the 2013 China General Social Survey CGSS2013, this study empirically examined the relationship among environmental knowledge (EK), pollution, health investment, and health status of women residing in rural regions in China. We employed a nationally representative sample of 1,930 female individuals for our analysis. Our results showed that the level of EK for women in rural China significantly impacted their self-reported physical and mental health. In order to account for potential endogeneity due to mutual causality, this study employed television usage and network usage as two instrument variables (IVs) of EK. We performed an IV-probit method to correct the estimated errors due to endogeneity. Additionally, to assess the reliability and robustness of our results, we re-estimated our model by replacing health status with the variable Body Mass Index (BMI). The results were consistent, providing evidence of robustness. Additionally, we examined the relationship between health investment (holding and purchasing a public health insurance policy, engaging in frequent physical activity, and acquiring commercial insurance) and health status. Our results indicate that the level of EK had no significant impact on participating in the new rural cooperative medical system. However, the preference of purchasing commercial insurance was positively impacted by EK, though it does not have a direct impact on the health condition. Conversely, an increase in EK and pollution is associated with a greater likelihood of engaging in physical exercise, which could, in turn, improve overall mental health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0493.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: COVID-19; Knowledge; Practice; Pregnant women; Bangladesh
Online: 28 November 2022 (07:02:41 CET)
Background: COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2, is still a global public health concern due to the absence of effective antiviral treatment against different strains. Studies have shown that pregnant women are more susceptible to COVID-19 due to altered physiology and immunological features. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate pregnant women's knowledge, attitudes, and practice (KAP) to prevent COVID-19 and determine the factors associated with KAP. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 425 pregnant women in Northern Bangladesh. The samples were obtained using a simple random sampling technique from April 5 to June 15, 2020. The data were collected by face-to-face survey with a structured and pre-tested questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS version 25. Bivariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed, and p-values < 0.05 at 95% CI were considered statistically significant. Results: Overall, the score of KAP among the respondents was 47.76%, 49.41%, and 56.24%, respectively. Participants' area of residence, educational status of the husband, and antenatal care (ANC) visit were significantly associated with the level of knowledge, whereas age, educational status of the husband, number of living children, and knowledge were significant predictors of attitude. The knowledge of COVID-19 was the only predictor associated with the practice. Conclusion: Our study shows that almost half of the participants had poor knowledge, a negative attitude, and poor practices toward COVID-19. Additional health education programs by healthcare professionals and different media, coordinated and combined efforts of government and individuals' participation will be required to fight the spread of the infection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0401.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: pregnant women; quarantine; mental health; pandemic; survey
Online: 26 July 2022 (09:54:30 CEST)
The objective of this study was to compare the mental well-being of French women who were and were not pregnant during the first COVID-19 pandemic lockdown. We performed a nationwide online quantitative survey including all women between 18 and 45 years of age during the second and third weeks of global lockdown (March 25–April 07, 2020). The main outcome measures was the mental well-being measured by the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale (WEMWBS). This study analysed 275 responses from pregnant women and compared them with those from a propensity score–matched sample of 825 non-pregnant women. The median WEMWBS score was 49.0 and did not differ by pregnancy status. Women living in urban areas reported better well-being, while those with sleep disorders or who spent more than an hour a day watching the news reported poorer well-being. During the first lockdown in France, women had relatively low mental well-being scores, with no significant difference between pregnant and non-pregnant women. More than ever, health-care workers need to find a way to maintain their support for women’s well-being. Minor daily annoyances of pregnancy, such as insomnia, should not be trivialised because they are a potential sign of poor well-being.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0442.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Women; Romani; Health; Cultural Safety; Cultural Competence
Online: 28 December 2021 (10:02:07 CET)
The Romani are the main European ethnic minority. The Romani people’s situation of social vulnerability and their difficulties in accessing the health system, make their health indicators worse than those of the non-Romani population. The present study will delve into the health beliefs and experiences with health services and their professionals through the perspectives of Romani women. In this qualitative study, 16 women of different ages were interviewed in a city located in the South of Spain. Four themes emerged from the analysis of data: the construction of the identity of Romani women, difficulties in life, health and disease beliefs and barriers in the access to the health system. We conclude that every project for the improvement of the health of the Romani community must take into account the active participation of Romani women and must consider the principles of Cultural Safety, by delving into the intercultural training of health professionals and addressing the social determinants of health which affect the Romani collective.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0166.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Pica; iron deficiency anemia; Relationship; pregnant women
Online: 7 July 2021 (07:54:39 CEST)
INTRODUCTION. The most common cause of eating non-food items (pica) is specific deficiencies of minerals, such as iron. This study aimed to assess the relationship between Pica and Iron deficiency anemia among pregnant women. METHODS. The study was conducted in the out-patient department, antenatal Clinic at East Jeddah Hospital from July to September 2020. Design: A quantitative descriptive correlation design. Sample size: A total of 400 pregnant women, included anemic pregnant women, ≥ 18 years old, with singleton fetus and iron deficiency anemia. RESULTS. The mean age was 32.2 ± 6.6, half of the participants reported food cravings. Ice was the main item in pica followed by clay and chalk. Two-thirds had pica, more than half during the 1st trimester. There is a statistically significant relationship between pica and the history of a family member, parity, and gravidity at (P< 0,001, P <0,001, P <0,005) respectively. Hb and hematocrit in relation to pica reflected a statistically significant relationship (P< 0,001) and (P< 0,001), respectively. The symptoms attributed to iron deficiency were significantly associated with pica (P< 0,006). CONCLUSION. The pica and iron deficiency anemia had a significant association with pregnant women in EJH. RECOMMENDATION. The follow-up visits should integrate the food behavior inquiry to check if the pica existing with anemic or non-anemic pregnant women. Also, increase the awareness among midwives-nurses about the prevalence of pica and iron deficiency anemia among pregnant women.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0599.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Gender And Sexuality Studies Keywords: Assisted Reproductive Technologies; Ghana; Infertility; Pregnancy; Women
Online: 29 January 2021 (06:03:03 CET)
Objective: The study aimed to explore the experiences of women undergoing Assisted Reproductive Technologies namely; Invitro Fertilization and Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection at the Finney Hospital and Fertility Centre, New Bortianor, Ghana. Method: A qualitative research design was employed to analyse and describe the experiences of the women seeking Assisted Reproductive Technologies. Fifteen women were invited and interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide. The responses were transcribed verbatim and analysed using content analysis. Results: Three themes emerged from the study: the women’s experiences, challenges and the roles and contributions of significant others. The women were anxious, stressed-up, exhausted and financially burdened. Spouses and health professionals played significant roles by providing social, emotional and financial support for these women. Significant others such as spouses and close relatives were supportive and provided encouragement to the women. Conclusion: The experiences of women undergoing Assisted Reproductive Technologies are multi-dimensional. Thus psychosocial intervention as part of ART services with health insurance cover may be client-centered and more appropriate for these group of women.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0427.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: breast cancer; comorbidities; older women; radiotherapy; survival
Online: 29 May 2018 (13:01:28 CEST)
Background: Radiotherapy plays an important role in the management and survival of patients with breast cancer. The aim of this study was to examine the association between age, comorbidities and use of radiotherapy in this population. Methods: Patients diagnosed with breast cancer from 2004–2013 were identified from the American College of Surgeons National Cancer Database (NCDB). Follow-up time was measured from the date of diagnosis (baseline) to the date of death or censoring. Adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were used as the measure of association. Results: Independently of comorbidities and other important outcome-related factors, patients >65 years of age who received radiotherapy survived significantly longer than those who did not receive radiotherapy (aHR = 0.53, 95%CI = 0.52–0.54). However, as women aged, those with comorbidities were less likely to receive RT (adjusted P-trend by age <0.0001). Conclusions: The development of decision-making tools to assist clinicians, and older women with breast cancer and comorbidities, are needed to facilitate personalized treatment plans regarding RT. This is particularly relevant as the population ages and the number of women with breast cancer is expected to increase in the near future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0122.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: oral health; quality of life; postmenopausal women
Online: 13 August 2016 (03:14:09 CEST)
Interrelationships between traditional dental variables are becoming more evident in far reaching aspects of life such as psychosocial interaction, self-esteem, overall health and even occupational performance. This study compares quality of life (QoL) in postmenopausal women (PMW) with poor oral health (POH) with QoL in PMW with good oral health. 200 randomly recruited PMW received a dental evaluation and completed Utian Quality of Life Survey. The participants were divided into POH and healthy groups based on dental exam. Mean scores were calculated for each QoL item, domain and the overall summary score. For each of the four parameters for periodontitis diagnosis, periodontitis patients’ QoL outcomes were compared to those of healthy patients using T-test with threshold of significance at p<0.05. QoL in all fields measured were significantly poorer in the POH compared to the healthy patients, occupational (19.95±5.35vs. 27.56±6.13), health (18.02±8.23 vs. 26.59 ±6.45), emotional (15.68±10.22vs. 21.15±9.15), sexual (6.2±5.98vs. 10.02±5.35), and total score (60.21±25.85 vs. 84.26±22.35). This study finds that PMW with POH, report significantly poorer quality of life. Clinicians caring for PMW should be aware of that oral health impacts QoL and make appropriate referral decisions for patients’ dental care. Keywords: Quality of Life, Oral Health, Post-menopause, Women
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0695.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Domestic violence, crimes against women, the impact of Corona on the family, male domination, women in Jordanian culture
Online: 26 April 2021 (20:59:09 CEST)
Objectives: The study aimed to uncover the percentages of battered women in Jordan, its causes, forms, and relationship to several social factors. Methodology: The study was conducted on a random, targeted sample of (1308) women based on social sample survey method and electronic questionnaire tool for data collection, the Descriptive statistical method and chi-square test were used to examine statistically significant differences. Results: The study found that the percentage of battered women reached 17.1% during Corona pandemic in 2020, and the increase in men's violence against women during this period of was in large and medium degrees according to the sample. Husbands were the most practicing violence against their wives at 37.5%, followed by fathers against daughters at 28.6%, and brothers against sisters at 26.8%. The causes of male violence are due to social factors represented by male domination culture, interference by family and relatives, and economic factors represented by the high cost of living, low household income and poverty. The most common forms of violence are verbal, physical, and psychological. The study found that women in southern Jordan, who are poorer and less educated, and who live in a large family, are the most abused. The study recommended activating family and community service and reform offices, solving problems of deteriorating economic situation and individual poverty, and enlightening community awareness of the dangers of domestic violence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0363.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Historical Role Models,Contemporary Role Models, Historical and Contemporary Role Models,Rabdan Academy, women leaders,women leaders in media
Online: 14 April 2023 (10:11:41 CEST)
Women's leadership continues to be a critical issue in today's society. Women face significant challenges in leadership, including limited representation in high-level positions and persistent gender-based discrimination. Many factors, including personal experiences, education, work experiences, and the influence of role models, influence women's leadership paths. This study explores how historical and contemporary role models help guide women's leadership choices. Specifically, we seek to understand the role of historical and contemporary role models in shaping women's perceptions of leadership and influencing their career aspirations.The study uses a qualitative research design to explore the experiences of women leaders in different industries. The participants were selected using purposive sampling, and data were collected through semi-structured interviews. Thematic analysis was used to identify patterns in the data, and the results were presented using descriptive statistics and qualitative data analysis.The study findings reveal that historical and contemporary role models significantly shape women's perceptions of leadership and influence their career aspirations. Women who have had access to role models in their personal lives or through media exposure are more confident in their ability to lead. They are more likely to pursue leadership positions. Historical role models provide women with tangible examples of what is possible regardingwomen's leadership. Studying role models from diverse backgrounds is essential in inspiring women from diverse backgrounds to pursue leadership roles.The study findings have significant implications for women's leadership development. They suggest efforts to increase the representation of women in leadership positions should focus on providing access to diverse role models. Additionally, the study highlights the importance of media representation of women leaders, as exposure to role models through media can help overcome barriers to access to role models in personal and professional networks.In conclusion, the study provides important insights into the influence of historical and contemporary role models on women's leadership paths. The study underscores the importance of role models in inspiring and guiding women's leadership journeys and the need for diverse and inclusive representation of women leaders in media and personal and professional networks. The findings provide practical recommendations for women's leadership development initiatives and future research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0291.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: reproductive coercion; intimate partner violence; sexual violence; women
Online: 6 November 2023 (07:36:38 CET)
Reproductive coercion and abuse is a hidden and poorly recognised form of violence against women. It refers broadly to behaviours that interfere with or undermine a person’s reproductive autonomy, specifically to promote or prevent pregnancy. Reproductive coercion and abuse can involve physical, sexual, financial or psychological abuse in order to achieve these aims, and is overwhelmingly perpetrated by men against women. As an emerging field of scholarship, conceptual understanding of reproductive coercion and abuse is still in its infancy; however, it is often described as being linked to coercive control. In this article, we seek to highlight the complexity of this relationship through qualitative analysis of in-depth interviews with 30 victim/survivors in Australia recruited from the community, focusing on their perceptions of the perpetrator’s motivations. Our analysis suggests that perpetrator motivations can range from entitlement and self-interest to a deep desire for domination and entrapment. Pregnancy preventing behaviour was more likely to be linked with entitlement and self-interest, whereas pregnancy promoting behaviour tended to be described by participants in relationships where there was a broader pattern of ongoing control and entrapment. Thus, we suggest that coercive control is a motivating factor for some, but not all men who perpetrate reproductive coercion and abuse. A greater understanding perpetrator motivations may be important for practitioners, particularly those working in sexual and reproductive health services, since it could be relevant to women’s level of risk for coercive controlling behaviour or more extreme forms of physical or sexual violence.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1963.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Gender And Sexuality Studies Keywords: sexual health; psychological well-being; women; systematic review
Online: 28 September 2023 (09:57:48 CEST)
(1) Background: Psychological well-being (PWB) and female sexual health are two important areas for women’s quality of life and research, and they are closely related. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the existing literature to explore the association between PWB and sexual health in women. (2) Methods: This review was carried out following PRISMA. The inclusion criteria were studies with samples of adult women, that evaluated and associated sexual functioning and mental health. Scientific articles were identified on Web of Science, Scopus, EBSCO (PsycInfo, PsycArticles, and Psicodoc), ProQuest, and PubMed. The search was limited to years between 2010 and 2023. (3) Results: 14 selected articles were analyzed, in which population samples and variables related to mental and sexual health were examined. 42.9% of the studies included clinical samples, 71.4% focused on anxiety and depression as main mental health variables, and 50% examined female sexual functioning as a sexual health variable. (4) Conclusions: This review provides more up-to-date information about valuable insights into the possible determinants of female sexual health. The association between PWB and female sexual health has been demonstrated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1407.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: Violence against women; Feminicide; Pre-Hospital Emergency Care
Online: 21 September 2023 (12:07:00 CEST)
The violence against women is a theme that extrapolates health issues, since after a victim seek for a health care, there is the notification of the act . In Brazil, many times, these women are first assisted by mobile urgency services (SAMU/SIATE) and, as far as we have concern, there are no other studies with specific data about these assistance. The present paper aimed to analyze SAMU/SIATE assistance to abused women. Qualitative and retrospective epidemiological study of assistance to assaulted women carried out by SIATE and SAMU Maringá/Norte Novo between 2011 and 2020. Women between 20 and 39 years old, non-pregnant, were the main victims, and 19,52% of them have used some kind of drug. The (ex)partner figured as the perpetrator in 17,35%, but there were no information about this variable in 73,75% of the records. The Qui-square test shows a mortality rate superior to 70% among the severe traumatized victims. This is one of the first studies to analyze this kind of care provided by SAMU/SIATE, and reveals some gaps in its “modus-operandi” that can limitate an extrapolation of the results to bigger spheres. More researches in mobile urgency care services, in other provinces also, are needed to propose strategies to fight against this epidemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0395.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Corporate social responsibility; Women directors; Foreign background; China
Online: 6 May 2023 (08:46:00 CEST)
This article investigates the impact of the foreign background of women directors on a firm’s corporate social responsibility (CSR) disclosure and performance. Using a dataset on listed firms on Shanghai and Shenzhen stock exchange from 2010 to 2019, we find that corporate boards with a higher proportion of women directors with foreign education experience tend to disclose more CSR information. CSR performance is also improved when there is a greater proportion of women directors with foreign education and work experience on a board. This study provides new insights into integrating stakeholder, social role, and neo-institutional theories to advance the understanding of CSR engagement in emerging economies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0787.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: irregular migrant women,; metasynthesis; qualitative data; public health
Online: 23 April 2023 (07:41:00 CEST)
Migratory movements are a political, social and public health issue on a global scale. Access to sexual and reproductive health services for irregular migrant women (IMW) is a public health issue. The aim of this study is to identify qualitative evidence on IMW's experiences of sexual and reproductive health care in emergency and primary care settings. Methods: meta-synthesis of qualitative studies. Synthesis includes assembling and categorising findings based on the simili-arty in meaning. The search was conducted between January 2010 and June 2022 using PubMed, WOS and CINAHL databases. Results: of 131 articles found in the initial search, only 9 articles met the criteria and were included in the review. Four main themes were established: (1) The need to focus emergency care on sexual and reproductive health, (2) Unsatisfactory clinical experiences, (3) Forced reproduction, (4) Alternating between formal and informal healthcare services. Con-clusions: IMW’s attitudes towards sexual and reproductive health are influenced by culture, ed-ucational level, fear, barriers and the attitude of healthcare providers. Healthcare institutions need to be aware of the IMW’s experiences to understand the specific difficulties they face. IMW call for socially and culturally sensitive health care, cultural mediators, improved communication and safe environments that ensure confidentiality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0025.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: Maternal immunization; influenza vaccination; pregnant women; pregnancy outcome
Online: 3 April 2023 (11:00:36 CEST)
Background: Maternal influenza vaccination provides effective protection against influenza in-fections in pregnant women and new-borns. In India, the influenza vaccine has not yet been of-fered through immunization programs, owing to the lack of sufficient safety data for Indian pregnant women. Methods: This cross-sectional observational study enrolled 558 women ad-mitted to the obstetrics ward of a civic hospital in Pune. Study-related information was obtained from the participants through interviews using structured questionnaires and hospital records. Univariate and multivariate analysis were used and chi-square with unadjusted and adjusted odds ratio were estimated to account for vaccine exposure and the temporal nature of each out-come, respectively. Results: The protective effect of maternal influenza vaccination against delivering very low birth weight infants was observed. (aOR 2.29, 95% CI 1.03 to 5.58, p=0.03). No association was observed between maternal influenza vaccination for spontaneous abortion (OR 1.42, 95%CI 0.75, 2.68), chorioamnionitis (OR 0.60, 95% CI, 0.1, 3.63), gestational hypertension (OR 1.73, 95% CI 0.72, 4.16) and preterm birth (OR 1.64, 95% CI 0.91, 2.97). Interpretation: These results show that the in-fluenza vaccine administered during pregnancy is safe and has a lower risk of negative birth outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0015.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Asian women; breast cancer; transfer learning; artificial intelligence
Online: 1 March 2023 (08:51:04 CET)
This study utilised an ensemble of pre-trained networks and digital mammograms to develop a supplementary diagnostic tool for radiologists. Digital mammograms and their associated information were collected from the department of radiology and pathology, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia. Thirteen pre-trained networks were selected and explored in this study. ResNet101V2 and ResNet152 had the highest mean PR-AUC, MobileNetV3Small and ResNet152 had the highest mean precision, ResNet101 had the highest mean F1 score, and ResNet152 and ResNet152V2 had the highest mean Youden J index. Subsequently, three ensemble models were developed using the top three pre-trained networks based on PR-AUC, precision, and F1 score. The final ensemble model had a mean precision, F1 score, and Youden J index of 0.82, 0.68, and 0.12, respectively. Additionally, the final model demonstrated a balanced performance across mammographic density. In conclusion, this study exhibited the good performance of the ensemble transfer learning on digital mammograms for the purpose of breast cancer risk estimation. This model can be utilised as a supplementary diagnostic tool for radiologists, thus, reducing their workloads.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0083.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Disaster; Vulnerability; Women; Gender; Disaster Risk Reduction; Bangladesh
Online: 5 July 2021 (09:39:48 CEST)
This paper aims to delve into how gender dimensions observed before, during and after a disaster, have been addressed in two internationally recognised frameworks developed for reducing risks of disasters: Hyogo Framework Action (2005-2015) and Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction (2015-2030). Building on a systematic review, we evaluate 33 scholarly peer-reviewed journal articles, including book chapters and websites in areas of gender, disaster risk reduction and vulnerability. This study documents a comparative picture of these two frameworks and shows the practical implications of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction (SFDRR) by addressing women’s empowerment in the light of their active participation in disaster risk reduction process. The findings of the study suggest that the frameworks have discussed the reduction of women’s socioeconomic vulnerabilities, as well as encouraged their empowerment. Comparing the two frameworks, it appears in the current study that there has been a significant gap in the existing literature that does not explicitly document comparing and contrasting features of a gender lens in the policy documents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0484.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Assessment; Sexual Functioning; Sexual Problems; Sexual Satisfaction; Women
Online: 20 May 2021 (11:09:06 CEST)
Female sexual functioning and satisfaction are impaired by the presence of sexual difficulties. Current study aims to analyze the differences on sexual satisfaction in women according to types of sexual problems (absence of sexual problems, self-perceived and assessed by the FSFI cut-off). A total of 329 women answered to a specific question about presence of self-perceived sexual problems, the Sexual Satisfaction Scale for Women, and the Female Sexual Functioning Index. Main findings revealed that sexually health women had better levels of sexual satisfaction when compared to women who self-report sexual difficulties and women who scored clinical levels in FSFI. Also, women who scored clinical levels in FSFI scored lower on sexual satisfaction compared to women who self-report sexual difficulties. Female sexual satisfaction was negatively affected by sexual difficulties assessed according to the FSFI cut-off. Although with lower impact, self-perceived sexual problems also affect negatively sexual satisfaction in women.
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Wealth index; Women education attainment; Almajiri; Poverty; Nigeria
Online: 8 September 2020 (06:15:00 CEST)
This study used the National Demographic and Health Survey 2013 data to provide empirical answer the question of the relevance of western education in Nigeria relative to ethnic-regional practices of almajiri in the light of women’s educational attainment and wealth index in Nigeria. Women are the most vulnerable in the cultural practices in Nigeria as women’s education in Sub-Saharan Africa is far below the world average. Nigeria was recently proclaimed the world capital of poverty because it is among one of the countries with the highest number of people living below poverty line in the world with a larger proportion of poor being women. Ordinary Least Square (OLS) and Ordered Probit Model were employed to analyse the data. The results revealed a significant effect of western education on women asset accumulation and the precaurious position of women resulting from lack of western education. This implies that higher attainment of western education increases the likelihood of being wealthy. The counterfactual effect of ethnic-regional practices of almajiri confirmed the disadvantage and backwardness of women staying in the region or coming from the ethnicity. This partly explains the likelihood of the differences in the level of development across the geopolitical zones and women welfare. Based on the findings the study recommends that policy maker should provide easy access to quality education, especially at both pre-primary and primary levels for all especially women. Also issues of graduate unemployment should be addressed as it reduces return from education.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0464.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: resistance training; strength test; muscle strength; older women
Online: 19 November 2018 (11:58:41 CET)
Background: The maximal one-repetition test (1-RM) is widely used in scientific research; however, there are conflict results regarding its reproducibility in elderly population. The present study aimed to analyze the reproducibility the test both before and after a 12 week training period by using the bench press and leg press 45° 1-RM tests in the elderly taking into consideration the training experience and strength level of the women. Methods: Elderly women (n = 376; age, 68.5 ± 14.1 years; height, 162.7 ± 5.5 cm; body mass, 71.2 ± 16.0 kg) who underwent ≥3 months of resistance training performed an initial week of familiarization and a second week of testing and retest, with a 48–72 hour interval. Results: The results showed maximal and relative load strength of 39.3 kg and 0.59 kg/body mass for lower limbs and 20.9 kg and 0.31 kg/body mass for upper limbs. The Kappa indices were 0.93 and 0.95, and the intraclass correlation coefficients were 0.99 and 0.99 for the lower and upper limbs, respectively. Conclusion: Therefore, the present study confirms that the 1-RM test has high reliability and reproducibility in the elderly, for both upper and lower limbs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0277.v2
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: gender; leadership; women in top management; career management, Chile
Online: 19 October 2018 (05:48:06 CEST)
The issue of women’s participation in top management and boardroom positions has received increasing attention in the academic literature and the press. However, the pace of advancement for women managers and directors continues to be slow and uneven. The novel framework of this study organizes the factors at the individual, organizational and public policy level that affect both career persistence and the advancement of women in top management positions; namely, factors affecting 1) career persistence (staying at the organization) and 2) career advancement or mobility (getting promoted within the organization). In the study location, Chile, only 32 percent of women “persist”, or have a career without interruptions, mainly due to issues with work–family integration and organizational environments with opaque and challenging working conditions. Women who “advanced” in their professional careers represent 30 percent of high management positions in the public sector and 18 percent in the private sector. Only 3 percent of general managers in Chile are women. Women in Chile have limited access and are still not integrated into business power networks. Our findings will enlighten business leaders and public policy-makers interested in designing organizations that retain and promote talented women in top positions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0147.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Religious Studies Keywords: domestic violence; religion; families; women; abuse; theology; language
Online: 19 May 2017 (09:56:02 CEST)
Carol Winkelmann, in her book ‘The Language of Battered Women’ describes not only the fact that domestic abuse is almost a daily occurrence in the lives of many women but that the language of religion and faith is often used by women in attempts to explain, understand and cope with such abuse . While religious belief and domestic violence may seem contradictory in terms of religious values of faith, virtue and love, research demonstrates that domestic violence in religious families and amidst religious congregations is prevalent. In fact, religious beliefs and practices are often embedded in cultural contexts and thus perpetuate patriarchal notions of dominance, power and submission. Abused Christian women, for example, are more likely to seek help from (male) ministers and others in positions of authority in their local church communities and are equally more likely to remain in or return to unsafe relationships, citing their religious beliefs to support their avoidance of ‘family break-ups’ because of abuse. What, then, is the response of ministers and church authorities to domestic abuse in their congregations? Despite recent calls for the training of pastors and other religious leaders in an understanding of domestic violence and in the recognition of appropriate, helpful responses, the language of some Christian churches can be seen to foster notions of submission so that women and pastors alike can appear confused concerning the experience of abuse. Religious congregations, while acting in love to help the poor and needy, for example, often fail to recognise domestic abuse amongst their own members and, indeed, such a topic can remain taboo in some church communities. Women, in turning to their pastors or other Christian leaders for help, can be silenced by the language of the religion itself, so that the role of wives and mothers may be seen to be submissive and the ‘keeper of the home’; to leave an abusive relationship may thus ‘break-up’ a home and imply failure of the woman to understand her role and fulfil her ‘maternal vocation’. On the other hand, religious beliefs offer victims of domestic violence both hope and comfort. Religious practices, such as prayer, liturgies and corporal (physical) works of mercy, can provide solace and practical assistance for women who suffer abuse. Domestic violence in religious congregations can be addressed within the context of the faith itself, with an emphasis on love and respect, helping women to understand their dignity with avenues of help so that the women can remove themselves and their children from abusive relationships, and the religious congregation and its leaders can call the partners to accountability. This paper seeks to outline a picture of domestic violence in religious congregations, specifically Christian church communities, by drawing on current research in the Western world. It then describes the language of some religious congregations that perpetuates domestic violence, with emphasis on contemporary studies in religious belief and domestic abuse. Finally, the paper makes some suggestions on how religious belief and practice can, in contrast to perpetuating abuse through norms, serve to assist women as victims of domestic violence, and how the connections between domestic violence and religious language or belief can be severed.
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Literature And Literary Theory Keywords: posthuman; deterriteriolization; diaspora; home; Arab women; Arab Anglophone
Online: 11 July 2016 (10:41:37 CEST)
The present paper offers a reading of three selected novels by two Anglophone Arab writers Diana Abujaber and Fadia Faqir. Our reading is fundamentally based on a philosophical post-humanist perception of other ethnic minorities as being inferior and un-human. In interpreting the three novels, Arabian Jazz (2003), My Name is Salma (2007) and Willow Trees Don’t Weep (2014), a main concern is to bring to light how Arabs –and Muslims –have been zombified and de-humanized in Western mainstream media and culture based on a biased stigmatization and stereotyping of a large heterogeneous ethnic group wherein religions, traditions, languages and cultures are diverse. Also, a pivotal preoccupation is going to be the exiling journey of the protagonists from their homelands to Western countries, and how these journeys contribute to the post-humanization of the self, the identity and the culture of Arab displaced immigrants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1868.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Suicidal ideation and attempt, risk factors, women, HIV, Indonesia
Online: 30 October 2023 (09:40:42 CET)
HIV diagnosis and poor HIV management have various detrimental impacts on the lives of people living with HIV (PLHIV). As part of a large qualitative study investigating HIV risk factors and impacts, with the suicide topic not being a focus, this paper describes factors contributing to suicidal ideation and attempts that arose naturally in the stories of women living with HIV (WLHIV) in Yogyakarta and Belu districts, Indonesia. The participants were recruited using the snowball sampling technique. Guided by a qualitative data analysis framework, the data were thematically analysed. Findings indicated participants experienced immense psychological challenges due to the infection, spousal transmission, fear of mother-to-child transmission, and losing a child due to AIDS, which triggered suicidal ideation and attempts. The women’s lack of awareness of HIV management strategies resulted in them feeling trapped and overwhelmed. Associated negative thoughts and the anticipation and experience of stigma relating to their HIV status were influencing factors for thoughts of suicide among participants. Lack of social support from family and friends during the early stage of HIV diagnosis, compounded with pre-existing financial difficulties, lack of income, unemployment, and feeling overburdened, also triggered the women’s thoughts of suicide. Other influencing factors for suicidal ideation and attempts among the women were family breakdown following HIV diagnosis and this was reflected in family disputes, husband-wife separation or divorce, mother-child separation by other family members, reported concern about future relationships, and fear of being rejected or abandoned by their partner due to their HIV positive status. The findings indicate the need for a nuanced approach to counselling within HIV care interventions for couples to support the acceptance of each other’s HIV status whilst maintaining psychological wellbeing. Additionally, the findings indicate the importance of HIV education and awareness among community members for the de-stigmatisation of HIV and to increase the acceptance of PLHIV within families and communities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1687.v2
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: women entrepreneurship capability; sustainability performance; family support; motivation; barriers
Online: 19 October 2023 (02:15:50 CEST)
The research fills the policy research gap for the women entrepreneurship and sustainability performance for examining key successful factors. Previous women entrepreneurship research fails to offer policy recommendations. The research purpose is to investigate these factors affect women entrepreneurship capabilities and sustainability performance by using SEM analysis and making policy recommendation. This research employs online and mail survey and obtains 175 women entrepreneur sample. The study finds that family support and motivation have positive effect on women entrepreneurship capabilities and sustainability performance. Barriers have no effect on performance. Hopefully, the research can provide the guidance to contribute to women’s entrepreneurship opportunities for achieving SDGs. Policy recommendation and managerial implication are discussed in the article.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0658.v2
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Knowledge; Attitude; Women of Reproductive Age; Cervical Cancer Prevention
Online: 17 October 2023 (11:47:57 CEST)
BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is the second most frequent cancer among women worldwide between 14 and 49 years of age including Nigeria. Figures have greatly reduced in developed countries after the introduction and implementation of effective screening and vaccination programs which is greatly undeveloped and inefficient in Nigeria and other developing countries at large. OBJECTIVES: The study assessed the knowledge and attitude of reproductive age women towards cervical cancer prevention in selected tertiary institutions in Osun State. METHODOLOGY: The study was a descriptive cross-sectional study carried out among reproductive age women in selected tertiary institutions in Osun State, Nigeria. A probability based multistage sampling technique was adopted as the sampling technique for the study. Data was collected using a semi-structured, self-administered and interviewer guided questionnaire. RESULTS: Age of respondents was 25.305±8.195. 313(79.0%) of the total respondents were Christians, and 83(21.0%) of the respondents were Muslims. For the overall knowledge score, only 52.0% of the respondents had good knowledge while 48.0% of the respondents had poor knowledge. 52.0% exhibited negative attitude towards cervical cancer prevention while 48% exhibited positive attitude towards cervical cancer prevention. Only 23% of the respondents had taken part in screening and vaccination towards cervical cancer prevention while 77% of the respondents had not. CONCLUSION: The knowledge of reproductive age women towards cervical cancer prevention was above average while their attitude towards cervical cancer prevention was low. This issue could be addressed by increasing the awareness of the effects of cervical cancer among reproductive age women in the country.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0101.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: female; women; academia; higher education; leadership; gender equality; diversity
Online: 2 August 2023 (02:26:53 CEST)
The goal of this narrative review was to identify, synthesize and summarize research providing both institutional and personal recommendations for female leaders who aspire to hold leadership roles in academia. Existing evidence regarding factors that influence females acquiring leadership positions was first gathered and examined, noting recurring issues that have been identified as inimical to women assuming leadership roles. Recent research studies and statistical trends were then investigated, tracking and reporting on the increase in female leadership in academia that has occurred over recent years. Quantitative and qualitative literature focusing on successful strategies to support females aspiring to academic leadership positions were then elaborated upon, with specific factors identified in order to deepen understanding of shifts that may help to account for the rise of females in academic leadership roles. The recommendations resulting from the findings of this narrative review could be used to scaffold female success in the pursuit of academic leadership roles and offer insights for university executives and administrators on methods of more effectively supporting an increase in female leaders in academia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2009.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: heart failure; cardiomyopathy; ischemic heart disease; prognosis; women; men
Online: 29 June 2023 (07:27:12 CEST)
Background: Limited research has explored sex-specific differences in death predictors of HF pa-tients with ischemic (iCMP) and nonischemic (niCMP) cardiomyopathy. This study assessed sex differences in niCMP and iCMP prognosis. Methods: We studied 7,487 patients with HF between February 2017 and September 2020. Clini-cal features and echocardiographic findings were collected. We used Kaplan-Meier, Cox propor-tional hazards models, and score chi-square of Cox regression to determine death predictors in women and men. Results: mean age was 64.3±14.2 years, with 4,417 (59%) males. Women with iCMP and niCMP exhibited significantly higher mean age, higher mean left ventricular ejection fraction, and smaller left ventricular diastolic diameter than men. Over 2.26 years of follow-up, 325 (14.7%) women and 420 (15.7%) men, and 211 women (24.5%) and 519 men (29.8%) died in niCMP (p=NS) and iCMP (p=0.004), respectively. Cumulative incidence of death was higher in men with iCMP (log-rank p<0.0001) but similar in niCMP. Cox regression showed chronic kidney disease, dia-betes, stroke, atrial fibrillation, age, and myocardial infarction, as main predictors of death for iCMP in women and men. Conclusion: Women exhibited a better prognosis than men in iCMP, but similar for niCMP. Nevertheless, sex was not an independent predictor of death for both CMP.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2212.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: GBS; Antibiotic susceptibility pattern; pregnant women; Wolaita Sodo; Ethiopian
Online: 2 June 2023 (04:53:16 CEST)
Background: Streptococcus agalactiae or Group B Streptococcal colonization of the gastrointestinal and genital tracts of pregnant women usually remains asymptomatic; even if it is the critical determinant of infection in neonates and young infants. It causes early and late onset of invasive Group B Streptococcus (GBS) disease manifesting as septicemia, meningitis and pneumonia. Now it is recognized as an important cause of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality in many parts of the world including Ethiopia where the magnitude of the problem has been little studied. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of GBS colonization, to identify associated risk factors and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern among pregnant women at selected health facilities of Wolaita Sodo Town, Southern Ethiopia. Methodology: A health facility based cross-sectional study design was conducted at WSUCSH & Wolaita Sodo Health Center from June to August, 2022. A total of 279 pregnant women who were in ANC follow up with at 35-37 weeks of gestation were included. For GBS isolation, recto-vaginal swabs were inoculated in 1ml Todd-Hewitt broth medium supplemented with 10μg/ml colistin and 15μg/ml nalidixic acid and followed by identification of isolates based on colonial morphology, gram stains, catalase reaction and CAMP tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using modified Kirby–Bauer disk diffusion method. All collected data were organized in Epi info 220.127.116.11, then transfer tabulated using SPSS version 20. Logistic regression analysis was used to see the association between variables. Finally, the p-value < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: In present study, 279 pregnant mothers included and their age was between 15 to 38 years with a mean of 26.5 ± 4.5 years. Of all participants, the highest 120 (43.01%) were housewives. The overall carriage rate of GBS was 67(24.0%). GBS colonization showed a statistically significant association with college and above levels of maternal education [AOR= 6.610, 95% CI (1.724 - 25.349), P=0.01]. High susceptibility of GBS isolate was seen to Penicillin G & Chloramphenicol (92.5%) for each, Ampicillin, and Ceftriaxone (89.6%) each, following Vancomycin (74.62%), and Erythromycin (77%). Relatively, GBS showed high resistance to Tetracycline (88 %). Conclusion: In this study, the overall prevalence of GBS colonization was 24.0%. College and above educational level was statistically significant with GBS colonization. This study used to give attention to the management of pregnant women by making GBS culture one of the routine diagnoses during ANC follow-up and to prevent infection by early detection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0001.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: BMI; obesity; pregnancy; maternal outcome; neonatal outcome; Qatari women
Online: 3 April 2023 (02:07:18 CEST)
Background Obesity compromises the health of a woman's pregnancy and her newborn. Aim: To describe weight-gaining changes throughout pregnancy and evaluating outcomes for the mother and the baby. Methods A retrospective review of women who delivered singletons using Large Perinatal Registry. According to their BMI, patients were categorized into four categories: underweight, normal, overweight, and obese. Mode of delivery, gestational diabetes, hypertensive diseases, obstetric cholestasis, and postpartum hemorrhage were the main maternal outcome measures. The newborn outcome indicators were birth weight, NICU hospitalization, premature birth, and stillbirth. Results The study sample included 2,352 natives (25%) and 7,058 expatriates (75%). The majority of the sample (4726) were aged 20-29 years, 43.6% were aged 30-39 years, and 2.1% and 3.9% were aged 19 years and 40 years respectively. The incidence of hypertension, obstetric cholestasis, diabetes, postpartum hemorrhage, and cesarean section varied among the entire sample. In the underweight group, the incidence of CS was 15.7%, in the normal weight group (24.9%), in the overweight group (31.3%), and in the obese group (41%). Hypertensive disorders were 3 times more prevalent in obese women than in normal-weight women (2%), and 5.3% of obese women had PPH compared to 5. 6% of women of normal weight. The underweight groups gained the most weight during pregnancy, whereas the obese gained the least. Conclusions A significant proportion of pregnant women in our sample will become obese by the time of delivery. Obesity during pregnancy is associated with negative maternal and fetal outcomes.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0081.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: Tetanus Toxoid Vaccine; Vaccine Uptake; Tetanus; Pregnant Women; Sudan
Online: 6 March 2023 (02:27:52 CET)
Tetanus toxoid (TT) vaccination during pregnancy has been proven as an effective preven-tive measure to reduce the incidence of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. This study aimed to assess the determinants of TT vaccine uptake among pregnant women in two public maternity specialized hospitals in Sudan. A hospi-tal-based cross-sectional study was conducted in two public hospitals, Omdurman Ma-ternity and AL-Saudi hospitals in Omdurman, Khartoum State in Sudan, from February to April 2020. Logistic regression analysis was carried out to identify factors associated with receiving three or more doses of TT vaccine among pregnant women (protected against tetanus), presented as Odds ratios, with p-values <0.05 considered significant (at 95% confidence interval). The study recruited 350 pregnant women, with 313 participants in-cluded in the analysis. This study found that only 40% of the pregnant women received 3 doses or more (protected) of TT vaccine during their current pregnancy. Pregnant women who attended Al Saudi hospital were less likely to be protected against Tetanus (received ≥ 3 doses) compared to those who attended Omdurman hospital [OR= 0.49 (95%C.I 0.29-0.82), p-value <0.05]. Furthermore, the number of children at home was a significant predictor of mothers’ immunization status as those with five children or more were ten times more to be protected against tetanus [OR= 10.54 (95% C.I 4.30-25.86), p-value <0.05]. We conclude that this low rate of TT vaccine uptake found in this study among pregnant women increases the number of newborn babies susceptible to contracting neonatal tetanus. This study provides useful information that can inform the will increase in the probabilities of morbidities and mortalities that result from maternal and neonatal tetanus. The findings of this study should be considered in development of communication strategies targeting and prioritizing at-risk groups to increase TT vaccine uptake among pregnant women in Sudan.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0385.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: Obstetric Violence; Midwives; Mistreatment and Abuse; Childbirth; Women; Ghana
Online: 25 October 2022 (09:40:35 CEST)
Obstetric violence has been recognized as a major impediment to facility-based delivery, increasing the risk of preventable complications and maternal mortality. In Ghana, studies on women’s birth experiences reveal enormous and brutal acts of violence during delivery; but inquiries into why midwives abuse women have largely been unexplored. This study explored the perspectives of midwives on the drivers of obstetric violence in the Western and Ashante Regions of Ghana. A qualitative study was conducted involving 30 in-depth interviews with midwives in eight health facilities. The data were analyzed thematically using NVivo 12. The results of the study reveal a normalization of violence in the delivery room and the intensity of violence is heightened during the second stage of labor. Midwives reported perpetrating or witnessing physical violence, abandonment of women, stigmatization of HIV women, verbal abuses such as shouting, and the detention of women in the health facilities. Obstetric violence occurs as a result of the pressures of the midwifery profession, poor maternal efforts of women, disrespect of midwives, women’s disobedience, and uncooperative attitudes. The culture of acceptability of obstetric violence is a major driver, contributing to its normalization. Midwives do not consider obstetric violence as abuse, but rather, as a delivery strategy which aids a successful delivery. It is therefore justified and viewed as a necessary part of the delivery process. There is a critical need for retraining midwives on alternative birthing strategies devoid of violence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0059.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: smallholder women farmers; Newcastle disease vaccines; informal institutional barriers
Online: 6 May 2022 (04:34:32 CEST)
Institutional barriers can hinder effective access and utilisation of Newcastle disease vaccines among smallholder chicken farmers. Many studies have focused on formal institutional barriers with minimal focus on informal institutions - unwritten rules and regulations that govern access and utilisation of Newcastle vaccines. However, informal institutions are more profound and encultured in individuals’ daily activities. This study sought to investigate informal institutional barriers to access and utilisation of Newcastle disease vaccines among women smallholder chicken farmers in Makueni, Kenya. The cross-sectional qualitative study employed in-depth interviews, key informant interviews and focus group discussions as data collection methods. Study informants were conveniently and purposively sampled. Informal institutional barriers to access and utilisation included: fear of Newcastle disease vaccine as a new technology, use of herbal remedies, mistrust of community vaccinators, gender division of labour, ownership of household resources and beliefs that indigenous chickens do not need vaccines. The study concludes that women chicken farmers are constrained by unwritten rules, norms, regulations and gender roles that hinder their access to and utilisation of the Newcastle disease vaccines. The need to examine informal institutions to identify and eradicate barriers to access and utilisation of Newcastle disease vaccines by farmers is recommended.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0372.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: HIV; stigmatizing attitudes; women migrant workers; industrial zones; Vietnam
Online: 29 March 2022 (03:36:48 CEST)
Despite intensive HIV education and prevention efforts in the past years, stigmatizing attitudes toward people living with HIV (PLWH) remain a major barrier to HIV prevention and treatment efforts in Vietnam. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of stigmatizing attitudes regarding HIV and identifying correlative factors that impact perceptions of PLWH among women migrant workers working in the industrial zones (IZ) in Hanoi, Vietnam. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1061 women migrant workers aged 18 to 29 from January to November 2020 in Hanoi, Vietnam. Stigmatizing attitudes toward PLWH were measured using a four-item scale. Multiple logistic regression was conducted to examine factors associated with stigmatizing attitudes. Over seventy-six (76.2 %) of the participants reported having at least one of the four stigmatizing attitudes. Greater levels of stigmatizing attitudes toward PLH were significantly associated with lower HIV knowledge, lower education and being Kinh (the ethnic majority in Vietnam). A high level of stigmatizing attitudes toward PWH among the study participants suggests that there is an urgent need for the development of appropriate culturally interventions and outreach education activities to reduce stigmatizing attitudes toward PWH among women migrant workers working in the IZs in Vietnam.Despite intensive HIV education and prevention efforts in the past years, stigmatizing attitudes toward people living with HIV (PLWH) remain a major barrier to HIV prevention and treatment efforts in Vietnam. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of stigmatizing attitudes regarding HIV and identifying correlative factors that impact perceptions of PLWH among women migrant workers working in the industrial zones (IZ) in Hanoi, Vietnam. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1061 women migrant workers aged 18 to 29 from January to November 2020 in Hanoi, Vietnam. Stigmatizing attitudes toward PLWH were measured using a four-item scale. Multiple logistic regression was conducted to examine factors associated with stigmatizing attitudes. Over seventy-six (76.2 %) of the participants reported having at least one of the four stigmatizing attitudes. Greater levels of stigmatizing attitudes toward PLH were significantly associated with lower HIV knowledge, lower education and being Kinh (the ethnic majority in Vietnam). A high level of stigmatizing attitudes toward PWH among the study participants suggests that there is an urgent need for the development of appropriate culturally interventions and outreach education activities to reduce stigmatizing attitudes toward PWH among women migrant workers working in the IZs in Vietnam.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0475.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Climate change, vulnerable women, perception, adaptation, Bangladesh, high flood
Online: 20 May 2021 (10:23:39 CEST)
The contextual and risk perception of climate change plays a critical role in an individual’s decision-making process. It could also help people to respond appropriately to the consequences of global climate change and eventually take necessary adaptation actions. However, the perceptions of climate change are often gendered and vary among men and women. Therefore, this study explores different perceptions of climate change and its local adaptation options among ultra-poor vulnerable women, particularly in highly vulnerable flood-prone regions of Bangladesh. The research followed an empirical research methodology to collect primary and secondary information using qualitative and quantitative research tools. The study findings reveal that climate change perceptions at the individual level are relatively low (63%). Still, they have been observing significant changes in various climatic variables over the past 30 years. Moreover, this study identified some major adaptation options such as plinth raising (100%), livestock rearing (100%), homestead gardening (82%), seasonal migration (82%), and using indigenous knowledge (69%), and so on to tackle the adverse impacts of climate change-induced extreme events including flooding at the local level. For implementing these adaptation measures, the respondents spent a significant amount of financial resources from individual sources in the study area. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) is used in addition to the statistical analyses to understand any connections between the climate change perceptions and other variables associated with the community under study. The SEM result shows that climate change will be a long–term problem, which offers a strong predictor in this model, considering standardized regression weight β= 0.56. It means, despite inadequate knowledge on climate change of the respondent’s, climate change is occurring and becoming the worst factor limiting cultural, economic, and environmental development in the study area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0324.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Adipose tissue, Adiposity, Sedentary bouts, Alpha sedentary, Elderly women
Online: 14 November 2018 (08:09:04 CET)
Background: This study aimed to describe the frequency and duration of sedentary bouts and assess the bidirectional cross-sectional associations between these characteristics and adiposity in elderly women. Methods: Data from 314 elderly community-dwelling women (mean age 66.6±6.5 years) from Czech Republic, Poland, and Slovakia were analyzed. Measures were collected in 2008–2017. Fat mass percentage (FM%) was used as an indicator of adiposity. The patterns of sedentary behaviour were monitored using an accelerometer, and ≥5, ≥10, ≥20, ≥30, ≥40, and ≥60 minute bouts were analyzed. The exponent alpha was also calculated to express the accumulation of sedentary time in bouts. We performed a multiple linear regression analysis to assess the bidirectional causal association between variables. Results: There was a significant association of FM% with time spent in bouts with a duration ≥5, ≥10, ≥20min (β ranging 0.11–0.28, p≤0.01) and the frequency of bouts with a length ≥5, ≥10, ≥20, and ≥30min (β ranging 0.03–0.74, p≤0.05) in fully-adjusted models. In contrast, a strong negative association was observed between FM% and alpha (bout distribution) in both directions (p≤0.001). Conclusions: Our results suggest that the sedentary characteristics such as bout duration, bout frequency, and distribution (alpha) are bidirectionally associated with adiposity and they should be considered in further research in older adults.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0259.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: SARS-CoV-2 infection; COVID-19 disease; women´s health; menstrual-related disturbances; formerly menstruating women; secondary amenorrhea; perimenopause; heavy menstrual bleeding
Online: 5 June 2023 (07:58:02 CEST)
After three years of the onset of the pandemic, there is scarce evidence about how COVID-19 disease affect the female reproductive system, and consequently, the menstrual cycle. Since the common causes of secondary amenorrhea are considered as exclusion criteria in the studies about menstrual changes following SARS-CoV-2 infection, the prevalence of this event and the influencing factors in formerly menstruating women remains unknown. A retrospective observational cross-sectional study was conducted on Spanish adult women (N= 17,512), using an online survey; a subpopulation of SARS-CoV-2-infected-formerly menstruating women was included in the present analysis (n= 72). Collected data included general characteristics, medical history, and specific information about COVID-19 disease. 38.9% of the respondents experienced menstrual-related disturbances after suffering from the COVID-19 disease, unexpected vaginal bleeding being the most common (20.8%). Other alterations related with the length – “shorter” by 12.5% − and the flow − “heavier than usual” 30.3% − of the menstrual bleeding were reported. The binary logistic regression showed that being a perimenopausal woman (AOR 4.608, CI 95%, 1.018 – 20.856, p = 0.047) and having heavy menstrual bleeding (AOR 4.857, CI 95%, 1.239 – 19.031, p=0.023) are influential factors. This evidence could help health professionals to provide scientifically up-to-date information to their patients, empowering them to actively manage their reproductive health, especially in those societies where menstrual health is still a taboo.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0420.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Antipsychotics; Child Custody; Interventions; Mothers; Parenting; Schizophrenia; Stigma; Support; Women
Online: 8 October 2023 (03:31:56 CEST)
While persons with schizophrenia find steady employment difficult to sustain, many of the women take on the most difficult task of all – motherhood. The aim of this paper is to review the challenges of motherhood in this population and the treatment strategies needed to keep mothers and children safe, protecting health and fostering growth. This is a narrative review reflecting the author’s life experience and a non-systematic search of the recent literature. Topics added are the stigma against motherhood in the context of schizophrenia, mothers’ painful choices, issues of contraception, abortion, and child custody, fostering and kin placement of children, the effects of antipsychotics, specific perinatal delusional syndromes, and parental supports. Recommendations are to work collaboratively with mothers who struggle with serious mental illness, take note of their strengths as well as their failings, offer a wide array of family services, monitor closely for safety, and appreciate the challenges these women daily face.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0481.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Transmission; Rubella; Pregnant women; Friendship Sino-Gabonese Hospital; Franceville; Gabon
Online: 7 June 2023 (03:52:24 CEST)
Objectives: Pregnant women represent a population category at high risk of severe rubella infection, capable of adversely affecting their fetus. This study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of anti-rubella antibodies in pregnant women seen in prenatal consultations at the Sino-Gabonese Friendship Hospital in Franceville Patients and Methods: A prospective, cross-sectional study was conducted at the Sino-Gabonese Friendship Hospital in Franceville, from April 3 to July 27, 2023. Using a structured and pre-established questionnaire, sociodemographic and obstetrical characteristics were obtained... Three milliliters of blood were collected from participants to measure rubella-specific IgG antibody levels using the OnSite Rapid Test Rubella IgG/IgM COMBO lateral flow immunochromatographic assay. Results were considered significant at p≤0.05. Results: The study included 107 pregnant women seen in prenatal consultations. With a mean age of 27.9±7.1 years, anti-Rubella IgG antibodies were found in 87 pregnant women, indicating an overall seroprevalence of 81.30% (95% CI: [0.72 - 0.87). Of these, 6.9% (n = 6) of the women were serum anti-Rubivirus IgM carriers. In univariate analysis, it was indicated that pregnant women in the study aged between 21-30 years (OR =0.33; 95% CI: [0.12-0.9] p=0.0027), student (OR =6.35; 95% CI: [1.39-29.09] p=0.001), or without professional status (OR =0.05; 95% CI: [0.01- 0.27] p<0.001), high school education (OR =8.24; 95% CI: [2.83-23.96] p<0.001), single (OR =0.3; 95% CI: [0.11-0.85] p=0.0021) or cohabiting OR =3.91; 95% CI: [1.21-12.64] p=0.0017) Residing in an urban area (OR =49; 95% CI: [1.43-16.75] p=0.006), in the first trimester of their pregnancy (OR = 0.29; 95% CI: [0.09-0.94] p= 0.033), with a history of spontaneous abortion (OR = 0.09; 95% CI: [1.04; 11.30] p= 0. 037), and unvaccinated (OR = 0.13; 95% CI: [0.05; 0.13] p<0.000), had an elevated risk of Rubella, After adjusting for risk factors by logistic regression, residence in a rural area (ORA = 139.87 95% CI : [1.74 -11236.216] p=0.027),and no vaccination (ORA = 43.3 95% CI: [1.13 -1662.7] p= 0.043), were identified as the only significant risk factors for Rubella for the present study population Conclusion: The high rate of susceptibility to rubella among pregnant women in the present study indicates that any short-term vaccination strategy aimed at reducing the number of susceptible women of childbearing age is imperative
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1941.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Perinatal Depression; Attachment Style; Coping Strategies; Gender Medicine; Women Health
Online: 26 May 2023 (14:42:26 CEST)
Abstract Peripartum depression (PPD) is a major complication of pregnancy and many risk factors have been associated with its development, including dysfunctional coping strategies and insecure attachment styles, both during pregnancy and postpartum. The aim of our study was to investigate the role of coping strategies in mediating the relationship between women’s attachment style and PPD in pregnancy, and one week after childbirth, in a large cohort of women. We hypothesized that the relationship between anxious and avoidant attachment and PPD would be mediated by use of maladaptive coping strategies. The assessment instruments were Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), Brief Coping Orientation for Problem Experiences (COPE), Experiences in Close Relationship Scale (ECR). The results indicated that the effect of insecure attachment styles (anxious and avoidant attachment) on antepartum depressive symptomatology was partially mediated by dysfunctional coping styles. Anxious attachment has also an indirect significant effect on postpartum depression through emotional coping; however, avoidant attachment does not seem to be significantly related to postpartum depression. Our findings revealed that not only it is important to consider attachment in understanding PPD but also that coping plays an important role in these relationships. These findings would help a preventive coping-based intervention strategy to enhance the capacity of women with insecure attachment styles to use more adaptive coping during and after pregnancy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0412.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: non-nutritive sweeteners; food frequency questionnaire; survey validation; pregnant women
Online: 6 May 2023 (10:20:17 CEST)
: Studies on the effects of non-nutritive sweeteners (NNSs) in pregnant women are scarce are conflicting. A major challenge is to accurately assess NNS intake, especially in countries where many foods and beverages have been reformulated with the progressive replacement of sugar by NNSs, due to the implementation of new nutrition labelling policies for preventing obesity. This study aimed to develop and valid a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to examine the intake of NNSs in pregnant women. This questionnaire was tested in 29 women in their eighth month of gestation, compared to a 3-day dietary records (3-DR). FFQ validity was assessed using Spearman´s correlation coefficient, Lin´s concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) and Bland-Altman plots. Spearman correlations between NNS FFQ and 3-DR ranged from 0.50 for acesulfame K to 0.83 for saccharin. The CCC ranged from 0.22 to 0.66. Bland-Altman plots showed an overestimation of saccharin, sucralose and steviol glycosides intake by the NNS FFQ, and an underestimation of acesulfame K and aspartame, compared to 3-DR. Overall, the most frequently consumed NNS was sucralose None of the participants exceeded the acceptable daily intake for any of the NNSs evaluated. The FFQ of NNSs appears to be a reasonably valid tool for assessing NNS consumption in pregnant women.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0104.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: perceived safety; women; urban science; mobile phone data; street view
Online: 6 March 2023 (13:15:01 CET)
Streets are an essential element of urban safety governance and urban design, but they are designed with little regard for possible gender differences. This study proposes a safety perception evaluation method from the female perspective based on street view images (SVIs) and mobile phone data, taking the central city of Guangzhou as an example. The method relies on crowdsourced data and uses a machine learning model to predict the safety perception map. It combines the simulation of women's walking commuting paths to analyse the areas that need to be prioritised for improvement. Multiple linear regression was used to explain the relationship between safety perception and visual elements. The results showed the following: 1) There were differences in safety perceptions across genders. Women gave overall lower safety scores and more dispersed distribution of scores. 2) Approximately 11% of the streets in the study area showed weak perceived safety, and approximately 3% of these streets have high pedestrian flows and require priority improvements. 3) Safe visual elements in SVIs included the existence of roads, sidewalks, cars, railways, people, skyscrapers, and trees. Our findings can help urban designers determine how to evaluate urban safety and where to optimise key areas. Both have practical implications for urban planners seeking to create urban environments that promote greater safety.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0408.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: mentoring; women studies; work-life balance; role management; grounded theory
Online: 22 December 2022 (02:31:23 CET)
The purpose of this study was to model the impact of mentoring on women’s work-life balance. Indeed, this study considered mentoring as a solution to create a work-life balance of women. For this purpose, semi-structured interviews with both mentors and mentees of Tehran Municipality were conducted and the collected data were analyzed using constructivist grounded theory. Findings provided a model of how mentoring affects women's work-life balance. According to this model, role management is the key criterion for balancing work-life of women. In this model, antecedents of role management and the contextual factors affecting role management, the constraints of mentoring in the organization, as well as the consequences of effective mentoring in the organization are described. The findings of this research contribute to the mentoring literature as well as to the role management literature and provide recommendations for organizations and for future research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0229.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome; PCOS; key concerns; diagnosis; Indian women; survey
Online: 15 September 2022 (10:37:49 CEST)
Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrinopathy that is highly prevalent in women of Indian ethnicity. Clinical practice guidelines do not adequately consider ethnic-cultural differences in the care of women with PCOS. This study aimed to explore ethnic Indian women’s experiences with PCOS diagnosis and management, their concerns and it’s impact on their quality of life (QoL). Methods: Global online survey of ethnic Indian women of reproductive age living with PCOS. Results: Respondents (n=4409) had a mean age of 26.8 (SD 5.5) years and the majority were diagnosed with one or more co-morbidities (anxiety/depression being the most common). Women waited one year on average before seeking treatment following symptom onset. Irregular periods, cysts on the ovaries and excess unwanted facial hair growth were their three major concerns. Weight and emotional concerns had the greatest impact on QoL. One-third did not receive information on long-term complications, appropriate behavioral advice to improve diet or exercise, or emotional support following diagnosis. Among those who received information at diagnosis, the majority were dissatisfied. Conclusions: Ethnic Indian women wait for a considerable time before seeking medical help for PCOS, have poor QoL relating to weight and mental health and are dissatisfied with the information and support provided at diagnosis. These gaps in care should be addressed in clinical practice and future research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0186.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: screening model; breast cancer; explainable model; machine learning; Asian women
Online: 13 June 2022 (11:06:10 CEST)
This study aimed to determine the feasibility of the development of an over-the-counter (OTC) screening model using machine learning for breast cancer screening in the Asian women population. Data were retrospectively collected from women who came to the Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia. Five screening models were developed based on machine learning methods; random forest, artificial neural network (ANN), support vector machine (SVM), elastic-net logistic regression and extreme gradient boosting (XGBoost). Features used for the development of the screening models were limited to information from the patients’ registration form. The model performance was assessed across the dense and non-dense groups. SVM had the best sensitivity while elastic-net logistic regression had the best specificity. In terms of precision, both random forest elastic-net logistic regression had the best performance, while, in terms of PR-AUC, XGBoost had the best performance. Additionally, SVM had a more balanced performance in terms of sensitivity and specificity across the mammographic density groups. The three most important features were age at examination, weight and number of children. In conclusion, OTC models developed from machine learning methods can improve the prognostic process of breast cancer in Asian women.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0096.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Hepatitis E; Associated risk factors; Pregnant women; Environment; Prevention; Senegal
Online: 7 June 2022 (08:06:52 CEST)
In West Africa, research on the hepatitis E virus (HEV) is barely covered despite the recorded outbreaks. The still low level of access to safe water and adequate sanitation is one of the main factors of HEV spread in developing countries. HEV infection induces acute or sub-clinical liver diseases with a mortality rate ranging from 0.5 to 4%. The mortality rate is more alarming (15 to 25%) among pregnant women, especially in the last trimester of pregnancy. Here, we conducted a multicentric socio-demographic and seroepidemiological survey of HEV in Senegal among pregnant women. A total of 1,227 consenting participants attending antenatal clinics responded to our questionnaire. Plasma samples were collected and tested for anti-HEV IgM and IgG by using the WANTAI HEV-IgM and IgG ELISA assay. HEV global seroprevalence was 7.9% with 0.5% and 7.4% for HEV IgM and HEV IgG, respectively. One participant's sample was IgM/IgG positive, while four were declared indeterminate to anti-HEV IgM as per the manufacturer's instructions. From one locality to another, the seroprevalence of HEV antibodies varied from 0 to 1% for HEV IgM and from 1.5 to 10.5% for HEV IgG. The data also showed that seroprevalence varied significantly by marital status (p<0.0001), by the regularity of income (p=0.0043) and by access to sanitation services (p=0.0006). These data could serve as a basis to setup national prevention strategies focused on socio-cultural, environmental and behavioral aspects for a better management of HEV infection in Senegal.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0080.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: COVID-19 reactions; ITP syndromes 2; COVID-vaccine women susceptibility
Online: 6 June 2022 (09:43:09 CEST)
Vaccination is the most promising approach for ending or containing the SARS-CoV2 pandemic. However, serious post-COVID vaccine reactions including immunocytopenia (ITP) syndrome has been increasingly reported. Several factors cause increased risks including multiple doses, age-dependent heterogeneity in immune-responses, platelet cross-reactions with microbial components, and Long-COVID syndrome. Thus, in the absence of a widely available specific therapeutics, vigilance is important while more studies are imperative. Using a structured questionnaire sent to different regions in Saudi Arabia, we conducted a comprehensive investigation on the frequency, rates, disease patterns, and patient demographics of post-COVID-19 side effects on febrile patients after three major vaccines. Results indicated the majority administered Pfizer BioNtech vaccine (81%, n=809); followed by AstraZeneca (16%, n=155); and Moderna (3%, n=34). In overall 998 participants, 74% (n=737) had no serious symptoms; however, 26.2% (n=261) revealed typical syndrome. In a focused group of 722, shortness of breath (20%), bruises or bleeding (18%), inattention (18%), GIT symptoms (17.6%), skin irritation (8.6%), and anosmia and ageusia (8%) were the most prominent. The onset time was mostly in 1-3 days in 49% (n=128), followed by 4-7 days in 21.8% (n=57), 8-14 days in 16.5% (n=43), and more than a month in 12.6% (n=33). The onsets occurred mostly after the first, second, or both doses 9%, 10%, and 7%, respectively. The frequency of symptoms was significantly higher among after Moderna ® vaccine (P-value = 0.00006) and it was significantly lower in participants who received Pfizer (P-value 0.00231). We did not find significant difference in symptoms related to differences in regions. Similarly, the region, age, gender, education, and nationality had no influence in the dose and onset timings. The findings of this study have significant clinical implications in disease management strategies, preventive measures, and vaccine development. Future vertical studies would reveal more insights into the mechanisms of post-COVID vaccine syndrome.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0034.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: autistic spectrum disorder, male to female ratio, biases, young women.
Online: 5 January 2022 (10:57:39 CET)
The ratio of males to females with ASD is generally quoted as 4:1 though it is believed that there are biases preventing females being diagnosed and that the true ratio is lower. These biases have not been clearly identified or quantified. Starting with a clinical dataset of 1711 children <18 years old four different methods were employed in an inductive study to identify and quantify the biases and calculate the proportion of females missed. A mathematical model was constructed to compare the findings with current published data. The true male to female ratio appears to be 3:4. Eighty per cent of females remain undiagnosed at age 18 which has serious consequences for the mental health of young women.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0108.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: Acute Cystitis Symptom Score; cystitis; patient-reported outcome; questionnaire; women
Online: 6 September 2021 (17:02:05 CEST)
The Acute Cystitis Symptom Score (ACSS) is a patient self-reporting questionnaire for the clinical diagnosis and patient-reported outcome (PRO) in women with acute uncomplicated cystitis (AC). The aim of the current study (part II) was the clinical validation of the Greek ACSS questionnaire. After linguistic validation according to internationally accepted guidelines and cognitive assessment (part I), the clinical validation was performed after ethical approval by using the Greek ACSS study version in 92 evaluable female participants including 53 patients with symptoms suspicious of AC and 39 controls. The clinical outcome using the ACSS questionnaire at different time points after the start of treatment was demonstrated as well. The age (mean±SD) of the 53 patients (44.7±17.0) and 39 controls (49.3±15.9) and their additional conditions at baseline visits, such as menstruation, premenstrual syndrome, pregnancy, menopause, diabetes mellitus, were comparable. There was, however, a significant difference (p<0.001) between patients and controls at baseline visit regarding sum score of the ACSS domains, such as typical symptoms and quality of life. The clinical outcome of up to 7 days showed a fast reduction of the symptom scores and improvement of quality of life. The optimal thresholds for the patient-reported outcome of successful therapy could be established. The linguistically and clinically validated Greek ACSS questionnaire can now be used for clinical or epidemiological studies and also for patient’s self-diagnosis of AC and as a PRO measure tool.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0758.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: abused women; neuropsychological sequelae; attention; memory; depression; Luria DNA battery
Online: 28 April 2021 (15:47:08 CEST)
Abstract Women victims of abuse can suffer neuropsychological sequelae that affect memory and attention, as well psychopathological disorders such as depression. These consequences affect their daily life and physical and psychological health. Objective: To analyze sequelae that affect attention and memory, as well a possible association of these sequelae to depression. Method: A total of 68 women victims of gender-based violence participated in the study. The participants were between 15 and 62 years of age and resided in Spain at the time of data collection. The Luria DNA Battery (Neuropsychological Diagnosis of Adults) by Manga and Ramos (2000); and the Beck Depression Inventory were applied. Results: Women victims of gender-based violence suffer neuropsychological sequelae, presenting low short-term memory and attentional control; and score low on the Luria-DNA battery. Of these women, 60% suffer from some relevant type of depression, and there are significant differences according to their degree of memory. Through the HJ-Biplot, a direct relationship was found between memory and attentional control with the total score of the Luria battery. On the other hand, an inverse relationship was found between short-term memory and depression. Lastly, three well-differentiated gender clusters of women victims of gender-based violence were identified. Conclusions: A lower rate of depression is observed in women victims of abuse when they have a more intact short-term memory.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0287.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Women; Knowledge; Non-health sector; Safe abortion; Addis Ababa; Ethiopia
Online: 11 February 2021 (14:03:17 CET)
Background: Health-related knowledge is among the essential factors to enable women to be aware of their rights to seek health services. However, little is known about knowledge of safe abortion care services among women of reproductive age in Ethiopia. The main purpose of the study was to assess knowledge of safe abortion care services and associated factors among women of reproductive age in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from April-June 2019 among 432 respondents. Bivariate statistics including correlation coefficients, student t-test, one-way analysis of variance, and linear regressions, and multiple linear regression analyses were used. A significant statistical test was determined at a 95% confidence interval and p-value <0.05. Results: About 65.5% had heard about safe abortion care services; media being the main source of information for 79.5%. The finding from an independent-sample t-test shows that the place where the respondents grew up (p< 0.006), history of past miscarriage, and previous information of abortion care service were significantly associated with the knowledge about safe abortion care services (p< 0.001). Conclusions: Women without prior health experiences and those with rural origin could be targeted for reproductive health information interventions including safe abortion care provision.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0352.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: vaginal; cesarean section; African American women; infant mortality; race/ethnicity
Online: 23 March 2020 (11:21:46 CET)
Objective: Racial/ethnic disparities in infant mortality (IM) continue to persist in the United States, with Black/African Americans (AA) being disproportionally affected with threefold increase in mortality compared to Whites. Epidemiologic data have identified maternal characteristics as risk IM such as eclampsia, maternal education, smoking, maternal weight, maternal SES, and family structure. Understanding the cause of causes including the method of labor and delivery and the racial heterogeneity may facilitate intervention mapping in narrowing the Black White IM risk differences. We aimed to assess the temporal/racial trends and the methods of delivery, mainly vaginal versus cesarean section (C-section) as exposure function of IM. Methods: The United States linked Birth/Infant Death records (2007-2016) were used with a cross-sectional ecologic design. The analysis involved chi squared statistic, incidence rate estimation, and period percent change. Results: Of the 40,445,070 births between 2007 and 2016, cumulative mortality incidence was 249,135 (1.16 per 1000). The IM rate was highest among Black/AA (11.41 per 1000), intermediate among Whites (5.19 per 1000), and lowest among Asian /Pacific Islanders (4.24 per 1000). The cumulative incidence rate difference, comparing vaginal to cesarean procedure was 1.73 per 1000 infants, implying excess IM with C-section. Compared to C-section, there was a 31% decreased risk of IM among mothers with vaginal delivery, rate ratio (RR) = 0.69, 95% CI 0.64-0.74. Racial disparities was observed in the method of delivery associated with IM. Black/AA mothers with vaginal delivery had a 6% decreased risk of IM compared to C-section, RR = 0.94, 95%CI 0.92-0.95, while Whites with vaginal delivery had a 38% decrease risk of IM relative to C-section, RR= 0.68, 95%CI 0.67-0.69, p<0.001. Conclusion: Infant mortality varied by race, with Black/AA disproportionally affected which is explained in part by labor and delivery procedures, suggesting reliable and equitable intrapartum assessment of Black/AA mothers during labor.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0168.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: sex differences; blood pressure; redox state; perimenopausal women; nitric oxide
Online: 12 December 2019 (09:43:23 CET)
Background: Sex differences in blood pressure (BP) exist during all reproductive life between women and men whereas a sharper increase in BP occurs after menopause which is associated with increased prevalence of cardiovascular diseases. This study examined cardiovascular and biochemical parameters in perimenopausal women (PW) aiming to investigate the influence of sex on a) office BP and for 24 hours; b) cardiac autonomic modulation; c) redox state by measuring MDA, SOD, and catalase; d) NOx- concentration. In addition, aerobic exercise training (AET) was applied for detecting changes in cardiovascular responsiveness during the menopausal transition. Methods: Thirty-one participants were enrolled, healthy PW and age-matched men. Cardiovascular and biochemical biomarkers were evaluated at baseline and after AET (8 weeks of exercise on a treadmill, three sessions/week, duration of 30-40 minutes). Results: At rest, PW presented: a) a lower diastolic BP during daytime; b) a lower absolute and normalized LF component as well as a higher HF normalized component; d) no sex differences for redox biomarkers and NOx- concentration. After AET, only PW was responsive in lowering systolic BP that was accompanied by an increase in NOx- concentration and SOD activity. Regarding HRV, both groups were responsive to the AET. Conclusions: During the menopausal transition, systolic BP was similar to men whereas cardiac autonomic modulation remained unaltered showing the influence of sex steroids on BP. In Addition, AET was fundamental during the menopause transition by preventing an elevation in BP, minimizing the effects of aging associated with estrogen deficiency on women's cardiovascular health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2055.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: sustainable cities; sustainable mobility; women-friendly cycling; spatial justice; mobility justice
Online: 29 September 2023 (04:11:16 CEST)
Cities have witnessed a booming interest in cycling in recent years. However, the implementation of cycling networks rarely followed a strategy to make them more accessible to specific social groups, such as women. To address this gap in knowledge, this paper provides a holistic perspective of women’s cycling mobility. Specifically, the study’s goal is to look into the social and environmental implications of cycling for women in Turin, Italy. Hence, this paper provides insights for ensuring a woman-friendly cycling system in a city and ensuring women’s participation as vital stakeholders in promoting a bike-friendly identity. We clarify women’s perceptions of cycling and outline the requirements for more inclusive bike infrastructures. Thus, we identify strategies to improve women’s access to bike lanes and investigate the environmental benefits of reduced air pollution by such a bike system. All this information is intended to define a more socially inclusive and environmental-friendly transport system in Turin for everyone, as depicted in Goal 11 of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1850.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Women; depression; family burden; family functioning; pandemic COVID-19; collective traumas
Online: 27 September 2023 (08:33:42 CEST)
Purpose: This study investigated the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health, quality of life, and family functioning in a sample of the general female population, exploring difficulties encountered in managing family and work responsibilities and burden of care when taking care of a loved one. The study was moreover aimed at investigating factors capable of influencing severe depressive symptomatology in the context of socio-demographics, traumatic events, individual vulnerability, and family functioning. Method: During a weekend devoted to Mental Health initiatives (October 8-10, 2021), 211 women were interviewed (47% exposed to the 2009 L’Aquila earthquake). Results: More than 50% of the sample reported a higher complexity in managing their lives during the COVID-19 pandemic compared to their previous routine, with no statistically significant differences between working women and non-workers, although the latter obtained higher scores for depressive symptomatology and poorer quality of life. Compared to non-caregivers, women caregivers (22.3%) in charge of the care of loved ones affected by physical (10.9%) or psychiatric disabilities (11.4%) complained of a poorer quality of life, with those caring for people affected by mental disorders seeming to experience a more significant worsening. Approximately 20% of the total sample reported severe depressive symptomatology. Previous access to mental health services (O.R. 10.923), low level of education (O.R. 5.410) and difficulties in management of their everyday lives during the COVID-19 pandemic (O.R. 3.598) were found to be the main variables predictive of severe depressive psychopathology. Old age, good problem-solving skills and ability to pursue personal goals were identified as protective factors. Conclusions: The COVID-19 pandemic underlined the need for support for emotionally vulnerable women with pre-existing mental health conditions, partly reflecting the cumulative effects of traumas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1437.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: edible fats; deep frying; stir frying; RBD coconut oil; purchasing women
Online: 23 August 2023 (04:48:17 CEST)
Fat and oils plays one of the major roles in Sri Lankan modern unhealthy diet. The study was guided to collect, analyze, and interpret data about the awareness of general community on edible fat and oil products available in the market and their knowledge about healthy ways of usage. A total of 250 purchasing women were surveyed with a welldeveloped questionnaire. Results revealed that, Coconut oil (71%) is the leading supermarket oil product purchased and consumption of animal fats and oil are very limited (<3%) in Kandy. Educational level affects significantly (P<0.05) on purchasing behavior. Regardless of educational level and working status, price (73%) will be the most significant factor look at during purchasing edible oils. Total of 57% of purchasing women use the same oil for both deep frying and stir frying. Besides, 43% of women keep two different types. From all respondents, 83% use oil more than one time after first cooking. Working women prefer internet and facebook (38%) as the major food related information searching resource, while newspapers (35%) are among non-working women. All in all, lowering the price of healthy fat and community awareness programs will encourage healthy fat and oil purchasing behavior in Sri Lanka.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0711.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Primary Health Care Keywords: pornography; qualitative research; sexual behavior; sex education; sexual health; young women
Online: 9 August 2023 (09:05:39 CEST)
This study explores female university students' attitudes and concerns toward pornography, based on their experience watching it and on sexual encounters with men. It used a qualitative descriptive design. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with 22 participants between March and April 2020. Thematic data analysis was performed using COREQ reporting guidelines. Three themes emerged from the data: 1) the sexual learning process, 2) the role of pornography in women’s sexuality, and 3) sexual experiences. Participants reported how they learned about sexuality and how pornography influenced sexual experiences. Self-esteem issues and societal norms regarding hair removal, and difficulty saying “no” to unwanted or humiliating sexual practices were found. Young women were not comfortable with women’s representations in mainstream pornography. They blame pornography for negative sexual experiences and claim it influences them and young men. Participants usually assumed submissive roles during sex and permitted aggressive sexual behaviors. The study reveals valuable information on how young women learn about sex, difficulty in refusing unwanted sexual activities, and even aggressive practices. Sexual education programs should include assertiveness training to improve sexual health, consent, and well-being.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2245.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: HPV; Genotypes; lineages; India; women; cervical cancer; Andaman and Nicobar Islands
Online: 31 May 2023 (12:31:53 CEST)
Background: Human Papillomavirus causes various types of cancer in both men and women. Woman with HPV infection has a risk of developing invasive cervical cancer. Globally, HPV 16 and 18 were predominant. This study aims to find the distribution of various HPV types in South Andaman. Methods: A cross sectional study conducted among woman in South Andaman where cervical scrapes were collected after the collecting the written informed consent. Detection of HPV genotypes was carried out by using PCR assay. Further, sequencing analysis was performed using MEGA11 to identify various genotypes in this territory. Result: Of these 1000 samples, 32 were positive for HR-HPV16 and 4 were positive for HR-HPV18. Fifteen HPV genotypes were detected using molecular evolutionary analysis. Six cases were identified with multiple genotypes. Most prevalent genotype is HPV16 which belonged to Lineage-A and sub-lineage A2. HPV18 identified in South Andaman belonged to the lineage A1 to A5. Discussion: Various HPV types were identified among women in South Andaman. Global burden of cervical cancer associated with various HPV sub-lineages. HPV-16 A1 sub-lineage was globally widespread whereas sub-lineages A1, A2 and D1 was prevailing in South Andaman. Conclusion: High risk HPV identified in this study enlightening the importance of HPV vaccination among the woman in remote places. These findings will help to strengthen public health awareness programs and prevention strategies for the women in remote areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0122.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: 3R communication model; Self-sampling; medically underserved women; cervical cancer screening
Online: 7 April 2023 (09:49:43 CEST)
Human Papillomavirus (HPV) self-sampling has the potential to increase cervical cancer screening (CCS) and reduce the cervical cancer burden in Medically Underserved Women (MUW). However, interventions promoting self-sampling are limited. We examined the effectiveness of an intervention study in increasing CCS among MUW. We conducted a quasi-experimental intervention study. Face-to-face verbal approach was to recruit MUW (n=85, mean age 48.57±11.02) living in a small city in the US. Behavioral intervention based on reframing, reprioritizing, and reforming (3R model) was used to educate the women about CCS in a group format. The women completed pre-and post-intervention assessments and followed-up interviews. The primary outcome was CCS uptake. Mixed methods analyses were conducted using a t-test for the primary outcome, PROCESS for mediation analysis, and NVivo for interview data. Majority of women (75%) completed self-testing. High-risk HPV prevalent among the women was 11%, and of those, 57% followed-up with physicians for care. We found that the significant increase in the women’s post-intervention screening behaviors was mediated by the increase in knowledge (Indirect Effect [IE] = .1314; 95% CI, .0104, .4079) and attitude (IE = .2167; 95% CI, .0291, .6050) scores, (p<0.001). Interview analyses offered further explanations (see the explanations in parenthesis) why MUW found the intervention messages acceptable (encourages proactive behavior), feasible (simple and easy to understand), and appropriate (helpful and informative). Barriers including lack of trust and fear of results were identified. The findings suggest that an intervention that combines the 3R model and self-sampling may increase CCS among MUW.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0199.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Open defecation; rural women; Ghana; Environmental Health; Demographic and Health Survey
Online: 12 December 2022 (10:03:35 CET)
The study investigated determinants of open defecation among rural women in Ghana. The study extracted data from the female’s file of the 2003, 2008 and 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey (GDHS). A total of 4,284 pooled sample size of rural women aged 15-49 with complete information about the variables analyzed in the study. The outcome variable was “open defecation” (i.e., defecating in an open space rather than a toilet facility) whilst fourteen (14) key explanatory variables were used. Two regression models were built, and output reported in odds ratio. Descriptively, 42 in every 100 women aged 15-49 practised open defecation (n=1811, 95’CI=49-52). Open defecation significantly correlated with educational attainment, wealth status, religion, access to mass media, partner's education, and zone of residence. The likelihood to practice open defecation reduced among those with formal education [aOR=0.69, CI=0.56-0.85], those whose partners had formal education [aOR=0.64, CI=0.52-0.80], women in the rich wealth quintile [aOR=0.12, CI=0.07-0.20], the traditionalist [aOR=0.33, CI=0.19-0.57], and those who had access to mass media [aOR=0.70, CI=0.57-0.85]. Residents in the Savannah zone were over 21-fold higher to defecate openly [aOR=21.06, CI=15.97-27.77]. The prevalence of open defecation is disproportionately pro-poor indicating that impoverished rural women are more likely to perform it.
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0134.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Gender And Sexuality Studies Keywords: Purplewashing; gender equality; quality of life for women; International Women's Day
Online: 10 March 2022 (02:14:45 CET)
Gender parity, is an important standard to be achieved by a society in which men and women are treated equally. The distinctions in the treatment may arise from psychology, biology, or cultural norms constructed by society. Studies show the different experiences of genders across many areas including health, education, personality, life expectancy, sports, interests, political empowerment, and careers. However, we are still far from reaching the objective, because there are conducts such as gender discrimination and expressions such as the purplewashing. In relation to feminism, purplewashing is used to define a diversity of marketing and political strategies intended at promoting people, companies, associations, and other organizations through an appeal to gender equality: they use only some of the feminist values at their convenience and in its actions, they are not really supportive of gender equality. In this opinion we aimed to address some of the reasons for inequality of opportunities based on gender; purplewashing is described as an expression that takes away the visibility of women's struggle. Additionally, we touch on some actions that promote gender equality in the family, educational, and work environments. Global leaders have an unprecedented opportunity to build gender-sensitive societies and economies. The challenges facing women today are essentially the same as they were a long time ago. It is time to break the bias.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0667.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Zinc deficiency; children; non-pregnant women; national micronutrient status survey; Nepal
Online: 25 December 2020 (14:22:32 CET)
Zinc deficiency, a common malnutrition in children and women is a global public health problem.Burden of zinc deficiencyis more in countries with low meat and high cereal food consumption like Nepal. Nationally representative data on zinc status in Nepal is lacking at present. This study analysed the data from the recent Nepal National Micronutrient status survey 2016(NNMSS-2016) to determinethe prevalence of zinc deficiency and associated risk factors among children aged 6-59 months (n=1462) and non-pregnant women aged 15-49 years(n=1923) from three ecological zones, Hill, Terai, and Mountainof the country. Venous blood was collected from the participants to measure micronutrients such as zinc, markers of anaemia, vitamin A, and markers of inflammation. Stool was collected to assessthe soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) and Helicobacterpylori infection. Socio-demographic, household and other relevant information were collected by a structured questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to examine the predictors of zinc deficiency among the participants.The overall zinc deficiency in children was found to be 22.9% while it was higher in non-pregnant women (24.7%). Predictors associated with zinc deficiency among enrolled children in the study were,living in rural areas (AOR=2.25, 95% CI, [1.13, 4.49]),occurrence of diarrhoea during the two weeks preceding the survey (AOR=1.57, 95% CI, [1.07, 2.30]), household wealth quintile (AOR= 0.48, 95% CI,[0.25, 0.92]) and vitamin A status (AOR=0.49, 95% CI,[0.28, 0.85]. Risk factors associated with zinc deficiency among the non-pregnant women were being underweight (AOR=1.60, 95% CI,[1.15, 2.23]), fever occurrence during two weeks preceding the survey (AOR=1.45, 95% CI,[ 1.06, 1.99]), H. pylori in the stool (AOR=1.32, 95% CI, [1.03, 1.70]), being rich (AOR=0.64, 95% CI,[0.42, 0.98]) and being in the risk of folate deficiency (AOR=0.60, 95% CI,[0.37, 0.96]). We conclude that community focused intervention programs including health and nutrition counselling and livelihood opportunities focusing groups at high-risk may improve the zinc status in Nepal.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0219.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: women; health; psycho-emotional well-being; factors; attitudes towards parents; attachment
Online: 9 December 2020 (11:10:52 CET)
The present study is aimed to determine the predicting role of objective (lifestyle) and subjective factors of middle-aged women’s psycho-emotional health such as their attitude towards parents, attachment and separation types. Women who are overloaded with professional and family roles have high stress level, their indicators of psychological well-being and emotional level decrease when they have to give everyday care to their elderly parents. (2) Methods: Sample consists of 146 women aged 38 to 56 ( =41.1, ó=3.5), married (70.5%) and divorced (29.5%), having children of 14-28 years old; giving everyday care to elderly parents for more than 1.5 yrs. Some live separately (62.3 %), or have to cohabitate with parents (37.7%). All women evaluate their life situation as difficult and manifest signs of high psycho-emotional stress. We used methods adapted for the Russian-speaking sample: getting socio-demographic information, an interview; Attachment style and Interpersonal Guilt Questionnaires (study 1); Psychological Separation Inventory, Purpose-in-Life Test, projective methods of incomplete sentences and metaphors` analysis (study 2), mathematical statistics. (3) Results: A number of factors and indicators of women`s psycho-emotional health decrease in the situation of role overload have been identified. Among the factors there are four main types of women’s attitudes towards parents: strong (anxious), distancing, ambivalent, normative closeness, predicting low indicators of psycho-emotional health: dependence on the others` opinions and feedbacks in making decisions, a lack of meaningfulness of life; reduced sense of control over life are showing the decrease. Anxiety about future and neurotic symptoms (increased demands on oneself, irritability, reduced emotional background) distinguish these respondents. (4) Conclusions: The study confirms that middle-aged Russian women`s psycho-emotional health depends on contextual factors (difficult role-overloaded lifestyle) and factors integrating women`s attitudes towards parents, attachment and separation types. Among the most important risk factors there are a difficult life situation, conflict separation type and gilt.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0718.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: early-onset breast cancer; hereditary cancer; whole-exome sequencing; young women
Online: 31 August 2020 (09:46:26 CEST)
Young women with breast cancer represent 15% of cancer cases in Latin America. Genomic studies have found that early-onset breast-cancer cases exhibit a higher genetic susceptibility and a specific genomic signature as compared to their older counterparts. The aim of this study was to describe clinically relevant germline mutations in a cohort of young women with breast cancer. To achieve this, we analyzed hereditary-cancer genes from whole-exome sequencing data in 108 unrelated women with an extreme phenotype of breast cancer (≤40 years of age), diagnosed and treated at the National Cancer Institute of Mexico; 11% of the patients carried a pathogenic variant. BRCA2 comprised 46% of the mutations, followed by BRCA1 with 23%; PALB2 with 15%; and TP53 and RAD51C with 8 % each. This article describes a novel pathogenic mutation in RAD51C c.519dupT. The median age at diagnosis was 35 years overall; however, it was six years younger in patients with mutations. Age at diagnosis (OR=0.82, CI 95% 0.71-0.94; P= 0.008) and first-degree family history of cancer (OR=8.26, CI95% 1.35-50; P= 0.022) were the only epidemiological variables associated with mutational status. We found no differences in disease-free survival (p=0.403) or overall survival (p=0.735) among mutational status subgroups.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0211.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: prediction; model; risk score; low birthweight; pregnant women; decision curve analysis
Online: 13 April 2020 (11:15:32 CEST)
At least one ultrasound is recommended to predict fetal growth restriction and low birthweight earlier in pregnancy. However, in low-income countries imaging equipment and trained manpower are scarce. Hence, we developed and validated a model and risk score to predict low birthweight using maternal characteristics during pregnancy, for use in resource limited settings. We conducted a prospective cohort study among 379 pregnant women in South Ethiopia. A step-wise multivariable analysis was done to develop the prediction model. To improve clinical utility, we developed a simplified risk score to classify pregnant women at high- or low-risk of low birthweight. The accuracy of the model was evaluated using the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) and calibration plot. We evaluated the clinical impact of the model using a decision curve analysis across various threshold probabilities. Age at pregnancy, underweight, anemia, height, gravidity, and presence of comorbidity remained in the final multivariable prediction model. The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) of the model was 0.83 (95% confidence interval: 0.78 to 0.88). The decision curve analysis shows the model provides a higher net benefit across ranges of threshold probabilities. In general, this study showed the possibility of predicting low birthweight using maternal characteristics during pregnancy. The model could help to identify those at higher risk of having a low birthweight baby. This feasible prediction model would offer an opportunity to reduce obstetric-related complications and thus improving the overall maternal and child healthcare in low- and middle-income countries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0051.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: education for sustainable leadership; gender equality; competencies; higher education; women managers
Online: 5 September 2019 (02:55:41 CEST)
Education is an imperative key to driving sustainability and gender equity. In addition to addressing well-known female deficiencies in leadership training, it is really important to develop initiatives in sustainable leadership education for women to acquire skills, competencies and tools on leadership and to increase their self-perceptions. The purpose of this study is to assess a Women’s Leadership Program for university students. The sample consisted of 50 students enrolled in the program. A mixed-method approach was applied. Quantitative methods with a survey were conducted to evaluate the training and the achievement of leadership skills. In the data analysis, a descriptive statistics variance analysis, using a Welch statistic and T2 Dunnett test, was applied. Qualitative research methods were conducted through three focus groups to evaluate personal changes in their own-perceptions and self-confidence. Results suggest that the female students in the program reached a level of leadership knowledge with practical tools for their future. The program inspired them and confirmed changes in their personal capacities or self-confidence, including reflection about facing challenges in the work environment. The findings support the effectiveness of the specific education in breaking two barriers shown by the literature for women to getting a managerial position: lack of training and female self-confidence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0082.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Humanities Keywords: Africa, African women, Christianity, Igbo society, patriarchy, post-colonialism, feminism, womanism
Online: 27 July 2016 (04:18:57 CEST)
The African society is one of the societies with rich culture and traditions. Apart from the indigenous religion of Africa, Christianity and Islam are worshiped as the major religions of the African society. Literature reflects a great amount of influence of religions on the existing societies, people and cultures. African literature often mirrors the clash of indigenous religion with Christianity. In the writings of African authors one can find the elements of Christian beliefs and practices. The present paper, however, is focused on the African woman novelist Buchi Emecheta’s selected four novels: Second-Class Citizen (1974), The Bride Price (1976), The Slave-Girl (1977) and The Joys of Motherhood (1979). The paper attempts to discuss the impact of Christianity on the social and cultural aspects of the African society with special focus on African women. The findings reveal the positive as well as negative impacts of the new religion on African people and on the position of African women through the characters present in the selected novels. With the medium of writing and through Christianity, Emecheta seek to educate her society and improve upon the position of the African women.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0267.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Leadership Experiences; Women in Leadership; Adolescent experiences; UAE; Women; Leadership development; Qualitative research; Semi-structured interviews; Document analysis; Diary writing; Family upbringing; Cultural values; Education; Societal expectations
Online: 12 April 2023 (09:41:03 CEST)
Women have been leading organizations and communities for centuries, but their journeys in leadership have sometimes been challenging. This paper aims to reflect on women's positive and negative experiences in leadership roles and understand the factors contributing to their successes and challenges.To explore these issues, we will draw on various academic literature, including studies on gender and leadership and case studies of women in leadership positions. We will also examine the cultural and social factors that affect women's experiences in leadership, including bias and discrimination, societal expectations, and work-life balance challenges.One key theme from this analysis is the importance of role models and support networks in helping women succeed in leadership roles. Women with access to mentorship, sponsorship, and peer networks are more likely to thrive in their roles and overcome the challenges they may face. However, lacking female role models and mentors can make it difficult for women to advance in their careers and contribute to feelings of isolation and imposter syndrome.Another important theme is the need for organizations and society to address systemic biases and discrimination that prevent women from reaching their full potential. This can include initiatives such as unconscious bias training, flexible work arrangements, and policies that support gender diversity and inclusion.In conclusion, this paper highlights women's positive and negative experiences in leadership roles and emphasizes the need for ongoing efforts to support and empower women in leadership. By addressing the challenges women face and building a culture of inclusion and support, organizations and society can help unlock the full potential of women leaders and create a more equitable and just world.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0762.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Gender And Sexuality Studies Keywords: Domestic Violence; Francoism; Historical Memory; Qualitative research; Repression; Spain; Violence against Women
Online: 12 October 2023 (04:38:57 CEST)
(1) Background: Franco’s dictatorship was an authoritarian regime in Europe in the twentieth century. The political and historical context has a significant influence on the socio-cultural make-up of each era, having consequences on equality and violence against women. The objec-tive of our study is to explore and understand women’s experiences of violence against women during the Franco regime and how it affects them today; (2) Methods: This qualitative study ex-plores violence against women in Francoist Spain. Data was colleted between January and march 2022 through twenty-one interviews were carried out with female survivors of Francoism; (3) Results: Three themes emerged from the analysis: underlying social conditions that allow for vio-lence against women; forms of violence against women: from punishment to forced silence; dif-ferent standpoints about violence against women: the feminist struggle versus denial; (4) Conclu-sions: We concluded that the imposed patriarchy during Francoist repression was harmful for Spanish women for decades. Women suffered violence against women and they are still bearing the consequences, passing on attitudes that could contribute to the persistence of violence against women.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1833.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: aerobic exercise; elderly Korean women; arterial stiffness; cell adhesion molecule; oxidized-LDL
Online: 29 August 2023 (04:20:09 CEST)
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of aerobic exercise on carotid to femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV), cell adhesion molecules (intracellular adhesion molecules (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecules (VCAM-1), and endothelial selectin (E-selectin), and oxidized-LDL in elderly women aged 70–85 years, and to identify the effect of and correlation with vascular stiffness. Forty participants were recruited and divided into three groups; vascular stiffness (VSG, n=14), obesity (OG, n=14), and normal (NG, n=12). All groups were given a 16-week intervention of aerobic exercise, and the data collected before and after exercise were analyzed using SPSS Ver. 23.0. Two-way repeated-measures ANOVA was used to evaluate between-group and time-dependent interaction effects. One-way ANOVA was used to evaluate between-group variations. In addition, the significance was tested using a post-hoc test (Scheffe). The within-group variations by time before and after exercise were examined using a paired t-test, and correlation analysis was performed using Pearson correlation coefficients. Simple regression analysis was performed for variables showing significant differences. The results indicated interaction effects for cf-PWV (p<.001), VCAM-1 (p<.01), E-selectin (p<.05) and oxidized LDL (p<.001). The rate of change of cf-PWV was positively correlated with that of VCAM-1 (r=.352, p<.05) and that of oxidized-LDL (r=.325, p<.05) with statistical significance. To determine the effect of the rate of change of cf-PWV on the rate of change of VCAM-1, the variables were tested, and the coefficient of determination in the regression analysis was .124, indicating that 12.4% of the tested variables fit the standard regression line. The variables for the effect of the rate of change of cf-PWV on the rate of change of oxidized LDL were also tested, and the coefficient of determination in the regression analysis was .106, indicating that 10.6% of the tested variables fit the standard regression line. Thus, the 16-week regular and consistent aerobic exercise program had significant effects on the cf-PWV, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, E-selectin, and oxidized-LDL in elderly Korean women with vascular stiffness, suggesting improvements in vascular stiffness, based on which the intervention is predicted to contribute to the prevention of vascular dysfunction by lowering the risk of cardiovascular disease due to atherosclerosis, as well as having a positive effect in the prevention of impairment of vascular endothelial cells.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0230.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Women Leadership; leadership development; identity; experience; role model; narrative; social; culture development
Online: 12 April 2023 (03:07:14 CEST)
This qualitative research study explores the experiences of three Emirati women who have achieved significant success in their higher education institutes in the (UAE). The study aims to understand how childhood and adolescent experiences shape the leadership development of these women, both positively and negatively. The study also includes interviews with family members and close colleagues of the participants to gain additional perspectives. The findings the importance of family support, role models, and mentors in shaping the leadership development of women in the UAE. The study also sheds light on the challenges and barriers that women face in leadership positions, including gender bias and discrimination. Overall, the study contributes to a deeper understanding of the experiences of Emirati women in leadership positions and provides insights into how to support their leadership development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0318.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: antenatal depression; Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale; COVID-19; women; mental health; pregnancy
Online: 19 December 2022 (03:56:31 CET)
Globally, the impact of COVID-19 on mental health has been significant. Pregnant women are known to be a vulnerable population in relation to mental health. In Australia, there was an unprecedented demand during the pandemic for mental health services, including services for pregnant women. Maternal mental health has unique and enduring features that can significantly shape a child’s overall development and poor maternal mental health can have considerable social and economic costs. This cross-sectional study evaluated antenatal depression and COVID-19 related distress in a sample of two hundred and sixty-nine pregnant women residing in Australia aged between 20 and 43 (M = 31.79, SD = 4.58), as part of a larger study. Social media advertising was used to recruit participants between September 2020 and November 2021. Prevalence rates for antenatal depression were found to be higher in this study (16.4%) compared with previous Australian prevalence rates (7%). COVID-19 distress in relation to having a baby during a COVID-19 outbreak significantly predicted antenatal depression, B = 1.46, p < .001. Results from this study suggest that mothers and families may have increased mental health vulnerabilities as a consequence of the pandemic for some time yet.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0335.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: feminism; gender; public sphere; the existence of Indonesian women; Simone de Beauvoir
Online: 14 June 2021 (08:48:16 CEST)
The issue of being pro-gender is still a controversial topic to be debated in Indonesian society. However, in the 21st Century, many women have been able to break through barriers and participate in the public sphere. It is a form of self-existence as proposed by Simone de Beauvoir on existentialist feminism. Based on these problems, this study aims to find out and answer questions about how Indonesian women exist in the public sphere in the 21st Century and find out how Indonesian women exist in the public sphere through Simone de Beauvoir's existentialist feminism paradigm. The research method used is descriptive-qualitative through a literature review of 23 journal articles, websites, and data reports with a range of 2019-2021. This study found that based on Simone de Beauvoir's feminist paradigm, Indonesian women in the 21st Century are no longer a figure other than complete. Furthermore, the data collected by the researcher shows that several gender indicators have shown that Indonesian women have been able to occupy public spaces in various aspects. Based on these results, it is hoped that it can provide information about Simone de Beauvoir's existentialist feminism thought and its relevance to the existence of Indonesian women in the public sphere in the 21st Century. However, this research has limitations, those are only about women in Indonesia, and the paradigm of feminism is limited to Simone de Beauvoir's existentialist feminism.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0059.v2
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: fear of victimization, violence, crime, geography of crime, women, informal settlements, Kenya
Online: 5 April 2021 (11:58:56 CEST)
Around one billion people live in informal settlements, globally, including over half of Nairobi, Kenya’s three million residents. The purpose of this study was to explore women’s fear of victimization within Mathare, an informal settlement in Nairobi, Kenya and how fear of victimization influences behavior. Fifty-five in-depth interviews were conducted with women in 2016. A modified grounded theory approach guided data collection and analysis. Findings suggest fear of victimization is a serious concern in informal settlements. Women have found ways to adopt their behaviors that allow them to continue to function and protect their children despite fearing victimization, but at a potential cost to their health and well-being. Thus, there is a critical need for more research focused on social, economic, structural, community, infrastructure, technological, and individual strategies to prevent violence, enhance residents’ sense of safety, and, subsequently, minimize women’s fear of victimization in informal settlements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0282.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Gender And Sexuality Studies Keywords: reproductive coercion; intimate partner violence; sexual violence; reproductive autonomy; women; family violence
Online: 13 September 2020 (12:00:14 CEST)
Background: Reproductive coercion and abuse (RCA) is a hidden form of violence against women. It includes behaviours intended to control or dictate a woman’s reproductive autonomy, for the purpose of either preventing or promoting pregnancy. Main text: In this commentary, we argue that there is a lack of conceptual clarity around RCA that is a barrier to developing a robust evidence base. Furthermore, we suggest that there is a poor understanding of the way that RCA intersects with other types of violence (intimate partner violence; sexual violence) and – as a result – inconsistent definition and measurement in research and practice. To address this, we propose a new way of understanding RCA that centres perpetrator intent and the presence of fear and control. Recommendations for future research are also discussed. Conclusion: We suggest that IPV and SV are the mechanisms through which RCA is perpetrated. In other words, RCA cannot exist without some other form of co-occurring violence in a relationship. This has important implications for research, policy and practice including for screening and identification of women in reproductive healthcare settings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0258.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: accounting profession; women; gender; inequality; glass ceiling; gendered organizations; diversity management strategies
Online: 22 November 2019 (07:54:39 CET)
Considering the increasing number of women entering the accounting profession; it is timely to explore inequalities that still exist; and consider what policy processes continue to forge inequalities between men and women. Through a SLR of accounting and management journals during the period 1994-2017 we assess the different dynamics that have shaped inequalities between men and women, presenting both employee and employer perspectives of professional enhancement. The study is framed around conceptualizations of gendered organizations and highlights how cultural and social practices impact men and women differently. Our study finds there are still arrays of organization practices that have profound gendered effects. Our study shows that there are commonalities in research which include HR practices of recruitment, selection, and advancement; perceptions of women's visibility and invisibility at work; motherhood and childcare responsibilities; and discourses of the glass ceiling that constitute barriers to women's progression. Most importantly we reveal that constraints nowadays are similar to those identified in the 90s. We explored these gendered constructions and suggest relevant HR strategies that can aid women's advancement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0046.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: women household decision making; maternal mortality; sustainable development goals; developing countries; Nigeria
Online: 4 October 2019 (10:39:02 CEST)
High maternal mortality in the developing countries, particularly in Nigeria, poses serious challenge to achieving the maternal mortality target of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in the countries. Hence, there is need for multifaceted approach to curtailing the scourge. Women being the victims of maternal mortality, this study finds the effect of their household decision making power in reducing maternal mortality. The study used data from the 2013 Nigeria Health and Demographic Survey (NDHS) and logistic regression model to explore the relationship between women household decision making power and maternal mortality in Nigeria. The finding shows that women who decide and participate in household decision on own health, major purchases and visit to family and relatives were 35% (OR = 0.65, 95% CI: 0.52, 0.83), 27% (OR = 0.73, 95% CI: 0.57, 0.92), and 37% (OR = 0.63, 95% CI: 0.50, 0.80) less likely to experience maternal mortality, respectively, compared to those whose husbands alone decide. Women household decision making power is therefore instrumental to reducing maternal mortality. It is thus important for policy makers, particularly in Nigeria, to pay more attention to social and cultural factors that surround women household decision making ability for speedy reduction in maternal deaths.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0165.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS); pregnant women; questionnaire; urinary cotinine; oxidative stress parameters
Online: 15 March 2019 (14:03:35 CET)
Abstract: Background: Exposure to ETS (Environmental Tobacco Smoke) is one of the most toxic environmental exposures. Objective: To investigate the impact of ETS on physiological, biochemical, psychological indicators, on the urine antioxidant capacity (AC) and oxidative damage to lipids in a pilot sample of healthy pregnant women. Methods: The exposure to ETS was investigated by a validated questionnaire, urine cotinine and the marker of oxidative damage to lipids - 8-isoprostane concentrations using an ELISA kit. Urine AC was determined by the spectrophotometric TEAC method. From the sample of pregnant women (n=319, average age 30.84 ± 5.09 years) in 80 the levels of cotinine and oxidative stress markers were analyzed. Results: From our sample, 5 % individuals (7.4 % objectified by cotinine) were current smokers and 25 % reported passive smoking in the household (18.8 % objectified by cotinine). The Kappa was 0.78 for smokers and 0.22 for ETS exposed non-smokers. Smokers as well as non-smokers had significantly higher (p<0.05) urine AC than ETS exposed non-smokers. Non-smokers had significantly lower levels of 8-isoprostane than smokers (p<0.01) and ETS-exposed non-smokers (p<0.05). Correlations between urine levels of cotinine and AC were positive in ETS exposed non-smokers. Conclusion: The harmful effect of active and passive smoking on oxidative stress parameters has been indicated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0083.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Religion Keywords: Muslim women; Islam; political engagement; National Muslim Women’s Advisory Group; extremist ideologies
Online: 19 June 2017 (13:25:34 CEST)
The creation of the National Muslims Women’s Advisory Group (NMWAG) in 2008 by Britain’s New Labour Government was part of a strategy which sought to engage different levels of Muslim communities beneath an overarching focus on reducing ‘Islamic extremism’. To do so however, Government acknowledged that it would need to support Muslim women to overcome some of the constraints it believed were placed on Muslim women in contemporary Britain. Deeming theology and religious interpretation to be one of those constraints, Government saw the need to empower Muslim women to ‘influence and challenge’ religious and theological discourses as a priority. This article therefore offers a case study on a project that was commissioned by Government that sought to empower Muslim women to ‘influence and challenge’ theological interpretations in collaboration with the NMWAG. Having gained unprecedented access to the NMWAG, its activities and engagement with Government, this article presents previously unpublished findings from that project to focus on two key themes: Muslim women, their identity and position; and theology, leadership and the participation of women. Having explored these in detail, this article concludes by critically reflecting on the way in which Government engaged and interacted with Muslim women, the role and relative success of the NMWAG and, most importantly, the extent to which the NMWAG was able to ‘influence and challenge’ interpretations of Islamic theology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.2094.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: micronutients; functional foods; olive paste; bone mineral density; bone metabolism biomarkers; postmenopausal women
Online: 31 October 2023 (12:25:22 CET)
(1) Background : Low dietary intake of calcium, vitamin D, vitamin C and magnesium has been associated with increased risk of osteoposrosis. The purpose was to evaluate changes in biomarkers of bone metabolism, and cardiometabolic health in postmenopausal women, with high risk of osteoporosis, followed by a nutritional intervention program. (2) Method: It was a prospective randomized controlled trial. A sample of 115 apparently healthy postmenopausal women(45 -75 years of age) randomized into four groups: (I) nutritional intervention group(n=40) received daily 1000mg vitamin C, 500mg vitamin D3, 500mg calcium(Ca) and 300mg magnesium (Mg); (II) control group(n=42) received daily 500mg vitamin D3, 500mg Ca and 300mg Mg; (III) nutritional intervention group (n=18) received daily 150mg bisphosphonates, 500mg vitamin D3, 500mg Ca and 300mg Mg; and (IV) nutritional intervention group (n=15) received daily about 364 mg polyphenols via an innovative functional food (50g olive paste enriched with mountain tea extract) along with 500mg vitamin D3, 500mg Ca and 300mg Mg. Groups I -III received supplementation for a year whereas group IV for 5 months. Changes in calciregulatory hormone parathormone (PTH) were evaluated at the beginning of the study as well as at 5 and 12 months intervals. Blood levels of vitamin D, vitamin C, Ca, Mg and the lipid profile were assessed at the beginning and at the end of the study. Anthropometric indices (weight, body fat(Kg), Body Mass Index(BMI) and bone mineral density(BMD) were evaluated at the beginning and at the end of the study. Statistical analysis was performed with IBM-SPSS Statistics-21. The level of statistical significance was set at p<0.05. (3) Results: 25(OH)D3 levels were improved, in groups II, III and IV (+3,71% and +1.45% and +5.62% respectively). PTH levels were increased at the end of the intervention period, for groups I and IV. Significant positive changes recorded, in total BMD, in all four study groups. Significant beneficial changes for total cholesterol was observed in group IV (-2.07%, P<0.05) and positive changes in group I for HDL biomarker (+61.62%, P<0.05) (4) Conclusions:. Additional larger-scale clinical trials and intervention studies are considered essential, in order to fully investigate and elucidate associations between dietary components and biochemical indices of bone metabolism.