ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0058.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: GIS; image classification; LiDAR; remote sensing; wetland indicator; global wetland inventory; wetland mapping
Online: 14 September 2017 (17:25:27 CEST)
Wetlands are recognized as one of the world’s most valuable natural resources. With the increasing world population, human demands on wetland resources for agricultural expansion and urban development continue to increase. In addition, global climate change has pronounced impacts on wetland ecosystems through alterations in hydrological regimes. To better manage and conserve wetland resources, we need to know the distribution and extent of wetlands and monitor their dynamic changes. Wetland maps and inventories can provide crucial information for wetland conservation, restoration, and management. Geographic Information System (GIS) and remote sensing technologies have proven to be useful for mapping and monitoring wetland resources. Recent advances in geospatial technologies have greatly increased the availability of remotely sensed imagery with better and finer spatial, temporal, and spectral resolution. This chapter presents an introduction to the uses of GIS and remote sensing technologies for wetland mapping and monitoring. A case study is presented to demonstrate the use of high-resolution light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data and aerial photographs for mapping prairie potholes and surface hydrologic flow pathways.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0100.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: wetland; endorheic; saline; fluctuations; remote sensing
Online: 4 September 2020 (11:15:58 CEST)
This study has been monitored for five years by Sentinel-2 satellite images, at different seasons of the year, of the fluctuations in the water level of the Gallocanta Lake (between the provinces of Teruel and Zaragoza, Aragón, Spain) considered a hypersaline and endorheic wetland, which has characteristics that make it unique in the geographical area in which it is located, as well as for the operation of the system. Rainfall in the area has a wide variation giving the maximums in the months of May and June and the minimums in January and February. There are considerable fluctuations in the water level from the almost total drying of the lagoon to the filling with a depth of approximately 3 meters.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0353.v3
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Artificial Wetlands, Horizontal Wetland, Subsurface Flow
Online: 21 December 2018 (10:51:11 CET)
The objective of this work is to evaluate the impact of the innovative modifications made to the conventional effluent capture and discharge devices used in subsurface flow wetlands (SSFW). The main modifications developed consist on extending the influence of the capture and discharge device in such a way that the SSFW width and height are fully covered. This improved innovative device was applied and evaluated in two subsurface flow wetlands, one on a pilot scale and one on a real scale. To evaluate the impact of the innovative device with respect to conventional one in the operational functioning of subsurface flow wetlands, the elimination of chemical oxygen demand was measured and compared. The results show that for the innovative device, the COD removal was 10% higher than for the conventional device, confirming the validity and effectiveness of the modifications implemented in the effluent capture and discharge devices used in SSFW.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0172.v2
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: artificial wetlands; horizontal wetland; subsurface flow
Online: 5 June 2018 (08:20:52 CEST)
The aim of this work is to evaluate the impact of proposed modifications to conventional capturing and discharging effluents devices in Subsurface Flow Wetland (SSFW) systems. Main modifications proposed consist on extending the influence of the capture and discharge device in such a way that the SSFW width and height are fully covered. Additionally an SSFW prototype was built as pilot including the proposed modifications and the impact of the innovative device is measured based on the efficiency of the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) removal as compared to a traditionally built SSFW. The results show that for the innovative device, the COD removal was 10% higher than for the conventional device.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0211.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: particulates; wetland; concentration; meteorological factors; removal efficiency
Online: 22 January 2019 (11:06:49 CET)
Particulate matter is a severe source of atmospheric pollution in urban cities, and it has adverse effects on human health. This study was conducted during the whole year of 2016 to monitor the concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 on the Beijing Hanshiqiao wetland and bare land in Beijing to analyze their correlations with meteorological factors and compare the removal efficiency between two land surface types. The results indicated that (1) the PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations on the bare land were higher than those on wetland as a whole, reaching the highest value both at night and dusk and the lowest value near noon. The average concentration of PM10 was higher in winter (wetland: 137.48 μg·m-3; bare land: 164.75 μg·m-3) and spring (wetland: 205.18 μg·m-3; bare land: 244.85 μg·m-3) and the concentration of PM2.5 on the wetland also reached the higher value in winter and spring with the average of 84.52 μg·m-3 and 98.98 μg·m-3, whereas, it was higher in spring and summer on the bare land; (2) concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 were significantly positively affected by the relative humidity (P < 0.01) and negatively influenced by wind speed (P < 0.05). The relationship between PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations and temperature was found complicated: it showed a significantly negative correlation (P < 0.01) in winter and spring and was insignificant in autumn, but in summer, only the correlation between the PM10 concentration and temperature on wetland was significant (P < 0.01); (3) the removal efficiencies of PM10 and PM2.5 followed the order of spring > winter > autumn > summer on the wetland, and the removal efficiency of PM10 was greater than that of PM2.5. This study is aim to provide practical measures to improve the air quality and facilitate sustainable development in Beijing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0020.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: biomass, carbon stock, wetland, spectral radiance, SWIR
Online: 4 April 2017 (10:02:56 CEST)
The assessment of biomass carbon stocks was conducted at plot scale as a sample to estimate for all vegetation areas by using destructive sampling and or allometric equation method. Remote sensing is one of the techniques can be used to estimate and mapping biomass carbon stock for the entire areas. The objectives of the study are the identification and determine the range of electromagnetic wave of Landsat 8 satellite data that most suitable for assessing and mapping biomass carbon stock distribution. This research analyses exponential regression equation between spectral radiance values (Lλi) for with biomass measurement results on the field to find the best correlation based on the coefficient of determination value (R2). It also analyses the relationship between field biomass and NDVI value (Normal Differences Vegetation Index) from satellite data. The study area consists of 54.9% bush (Bs), 24.5% scrub (Sc), 16.8% secondary forest (Sf), while the rest (3.8%) is a water body. The with average biomass carbon stock value 4.11 tons.ha-1, 64.43 tons.ha-1, and 85.36 tons.ha-1, for strata Sc, Bs, and Sf respectively. Spectral radiance of SWIR (Shortwave Infra-Red) band 6 is determined as a spectral characteristic that can be used to estimating carbon stock with following the equation Y= 12657(EXP(-0.642(Lλband6)) with r2 = 0.75. Correlation NDVI and field biomass showed the low r2 value (0.08), so in this study, NDVI cannot be used to estimate the biomass carbon stock.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0303.v1
Subject: Biology, Forestry Keywords: Mediterranean wetland; NaCl salinity; Fraxinus angustifolia; seed germination
Online: 27 September 2019 (03:11:12 CEST)
The effect of salinity on seed germination/emergence in narrow-leaved ash (Fraxinus angustifolia) was studied both under field and laboratory conditions, in order to detect critical values to NaCl exposure. Research Highlights: Novel statistical methods in germination ecology has been applied (i) to determine the effects of chilling length and salinity (up to 150 mM NaCl) on Fraxinus angustifolia subsp. oxycarpa seed emergence, and (ii) to estimate threshold limits treating germination response to salinity as a biomarker. Background and Objectives: Salinity cut values at germination stage had relevant interest for conservation and restoration aims of Mediterranean floodplain forests in coastal areas subjected to salt spray exposure and/or saline water introgression. Results: Salinity linearly decreased germination/emergence both in the field and laboratory tests. Absence of germination was observed at 70 mM NaCl in the field and at 150 mM NaCl for 4-week (but not for 24-week) chilling. At 50 mM NaCl germination percentage was 50% (or 80%) of control for 4-week (or 24- week) chilling. Critical values for salinity were estimated between freshwater and 50 (75) mM NaCl for 4-week (24-week) chilling by Bayesian analysis. After 7-week freshwater recovery, critical cut-off values included all tested salinity levels up to 150 mM NaCl, indicating a marked resumption of seedling emergence. Conclusions: Fraxinus angustifolia is able to germinate at low salinity and to tolerate temporarily moderate salinity conditions for about two months. Prolonged chilling widened salinity tolerance.
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: sUAS; UAV; drone; multispectral; wetland; NDVI; NDWI; remote sensing
Online: 28 November 2019 (07:30:55 CET)
Mapping short-term wetland vegetation and water storage changes is valuable for monitoring the biogeochemical processes of wetland systems. Old Woman Creek National Estuarine Research Reserve is a dynamic freshwater estuary that experiences intermittent changes in water level over the course of a year. Small unmanned aerial systems (sUAS) are useful tools in monitoring changes as they are rapidly deployed, repeatable, and high-resolution. In this study, commercial quadcopters were paired with a red/green/near-infrared MAPIR Survey 3W camera to produce normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and normalized difference water index (NDWI) maps to observe short-term changes at OWC. Orthomosaics were produced for flights on 8 days throughout 2018 and early 2019. The orthomosaics were calibrated to bottom-of-atmosphere reflectance using the Empirical Line Correction method and NDVI and NDWI maps were created. The NDVI pixel values were used to generate maps of vegetation extent showing density changes over time. Identifying dominant vegetation in these maps allowed for the application of the National Estuarine Reserve System (NERRS) Classification Codes to zones of interest. NDWI provided water extent at different water levels and when paired with LiDAR and bathymetric data yielded water volume and residence time estimates. The produced maps contribute to the overall understanding of habitats affected by water inundation variations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0487.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: water quality monitoring; wetland ecosystem services; spatial variation; temporal variation
Online: 29 August 2022 (10:46:13 CEST)
Stream chemistry effectively integrates watershed ecosystem processes on both spatial and temporal scales. Streams of coastal areas integrate a more homogeneous, flat topography wherein there can be interactions between the stream and the body of water into which it drains, especially where tidal fluxes occur. The present study assessed water quality of Thompson Bayou, which comes to the campus of the University of West Florida in a wetland after flowing through 4 km of commercial and private property with associated impacts on water quality. Sampling was carried out for one year at eight discrete sites along Thompson Bayou from the UWF campus to the Escambia River. We used a portable field meter to measure temperature, pH, dissolved O2 (DO), and specific conductivity (SC). Except for temperature, all variables exhibited a spatial pattern of significant variation with distance, with consistent increases in DO and SC as the stream approached the river. These variables also exhibited a temporal pattern of significant seasonal variation, including—and especially—temperature. Data suggest that spatial and temporal patterns of water quality of Thompson Bayou are determined by (1) processing of water by the wetland, (2) interactions of the stream channel with upland forest stands, and (3) the tidal hydrology of the Escambia River.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0489.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: urban bioclimate; urban cooling; urban wetland; riparian shading; inversion layer
Online: 22 August 2020 (04:27:59 CEST)
Climate change and rapid urbanization are adversely affecting the urban environment by exacerbating the widely reported Urban Heat Island effect in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Two wetland areas with variable riparian shadings in the warm-humid conditions of urban Dhaka had been investigated through field campaigns on microclimatic parameters for their cooling potential on the surrounding urban fabric. It was observed that an inversion layer of fully saturated air develops over the water surface of wetland, suppressing evaporation from the wetland water surface layer, which was effectively reducing the heat exchange between the water surface and the air layer above it through its action as an insulating vapor blanket. Because of this effect, the wetland was unable to render as a source of coolth for the surrounding overheated urban area. This effect of the inversion layer was more pronounced in the urban wetland without riparian shading either by urban form or tree canopy. A Multiphysics simulation study conducted on the selected urban wetlands indicates the effect of differential shading pattern on the relation between fetch and inversion layer thickness. This research hypothesizes that the wetland can act as an urban adaption measure against the urban heat island effect by potentially transforming them into Urban Cooling Island (UCI) towards a favorable urban bioclimate.
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: physiological indicators; reflectance spectra; Suaeda salsa; salt stress; coastal wetland
Online: 17 March 2020 (04:17:29 CET)
In order to understand the response mechanism between plant stress, physiological indicators and hyperspectral indices, pot experiments were conducted on Suaeda salsa seedlings collected from a coastal wetland area to reveal the effects of salt stress on the physiological indicators and reflectance spectra of Suaeda salsa at the canopy and leaf level. The Suaeda salsa seedlings were exposed to seven salt treatments of different concentrations (0 mmol/L (control), 50 mmol/L, 100 mmol/L, 200 mmol/L, 300 mmol/L, 400 mmol/L, and 600 mmol/L) in natural conditions. The physiological indicators of plant height, fresh weight, dry weight, leaf succulence, chlorophyll content, and carotenoid content were measured, in addition to the reflectance spectra of Suaeda salsa at both the canopy and leaf level. Firstly, the effects of salt stress on the physiological indicators and reflectance spectra were analyzed by the qualitative and quantitative methods. Then, physiological indicators sensitive to salt stress were further retrieved. Afterwards hyperspectral indices such as a/b and ((a-b)/(a+b) ) sensitive to salt stress were also extracted by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Student-Newman-Keuls (S-N-K) comparison test. Our results showed that plant height, root length, leaf succulence, biomass, Chl-a, and Chl-b were sensitive to salt stress, while carotenoids (Car) and relative water content on the root were not significantly affected by salt stress. At the salt concentration of 200 mmol/L, plant height, biomass, relative water content, leaf succulence peaked. With enhanced salt stress, physiological indicators decreased. The first-order derivative spectral reflectance has the highest correlation with salt stress, compared to the control. The spectral index most sensitive to the salt stress at the canopy level is (D903−D851)/(D903+D851), for which the multiple determination coefficient (r2) is 0.9216. While the most sensitive spectral index to the salt stress is (D442−D667)/(D442+D667) at the leaf level, for which the r2 is −0.898. In summary, the results indicated that there exists the quantitative relationship between the physiological indicators and spectra reflectance under salt stress and hyperspectral plant indices can effectively estimate the degree of salt stress. The inconsistency between the diagnostic hyperspectral plant indices at the canopy and leaf levels may be caused by the observation conditions, canopy structure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0205.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: horizontal subsurface flow wetland; N removal; first-order kinetics; model
Online: 25 August 2016 (08:48:05 CEST)
We monitored the water quality and hydrological conditions of a horizontal subsurface constructed wetland (HSSF-CW) in Beijing, China, for 2 years. We simulated the area rate constant and the temperature coefficient with the first-order kinetic model. We examined the relationships between the nitrogen (N) removal rate, N load, seasonal variations in the N removal rate, and environmental factors, such as the area rate constant, temperature, and dissolved oxygen (DO). The effluent ammonia (NH4+-N) and nitrate (NO3−-N) concentrations were significantly lower than the influent concentrations (p<0.01, n=38). The NO3−-N load was significantly correlated with the removal rate (R2=0.9566, p<0.01), but the NH4+-N load was not correlated with the removal rate (R2=0.0187, p>0.01). The area rate constants of NO3−-N and NH4+-N at 20 °C were 27.01±26.49 and 16.63±10.58 m∙yr−1, respectively. The temperature coefficients for NO3−-N and NH4+-N were estimated at 1.0042 and 0.9604, respectively. The area rate constants for NO3−-N and NH4+-N were not correlated with temperature (p>0.01). The NO3−-N area rate constant was correlated with the corresponding load (R2=0.9625, p<0.01). The NH4+-N area rate was correlated with DO (R2=0.6922, p<0.01), suggesting that the factors that influenced the N removal rate in this wetland met Liebig's law of the minimum.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0011.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: Malthusian theory; Population growth; Species protection index; Sustainability; Wetland area size
Online: 1 June 2022 (09:55:14 CEST)
The ongoing exponential growth of human population poses a risk to sustainable development goals (SDGs). Unless we understand the drivers of this growth and inform policy development accordingly, SDGs would remain a dream. One of the old theories of population growth known as the Malthusian theory predicts that resource availability drives population growth to a certain time when population growth outrun resource availability, leading to all sort of crises known as Malthusian crisis. Although the link between economic growth and population has been widely investigated while testing the theory, little is known about environmental and social factors po-tentially driving population growth. Here, because of various crises of our time recalling the Malthusian crisis, we revisited the theory by fitting structural equation models to environmental, social and economic data collected over 30-year period in South Africa. None of the social varia-bles tested predicts population growth. Instead, we found that biodiversity (species protection index) correlates positively with population growth. Biodiversity provides various resources through ecosystem goods and services to human, thus supporting population growth as pre-dicted in the Malthusian theory. However, we also found that this population growth may lead to conservation conflict as we found that biodiversity habitat (wetland area) correlates negatively with population growth, thus raising the compromising effect of population growth on life on earth. What’s more, we found a significant link between economic growth measured as GDP and population growth, further supporting the Malthusian prediction. Overall, our study re-affirms the value of biodiversity to human and suggests that the Malthusian theory should continuously be tested with predictors other than economic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0229.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: The Gulf of Mottama Wetland, Morphometric measurement, catch weight, size group
Online: 8 June 2021 (13:15:52 CEST)
The present study was conducted the status of sea bass from Kokko and Kyuntone of The Gulf of Motttama Wetland (GoMW) area in Thanatpin Township in Bago Region Myanmar from September 2019 to August 2020. Fifty specimens were monthly collected, measured and weighed. Invoices of sea bass were collected for the depot and fish sellers by monthly. In Kokko, mean value of standard length and body weight were highest in March (32.70±1.58, 660.7±112.23). The mean value of standard length was peak in January (31.39±7.16) but peak of body weight was in March (963.24±280.86) in Kyuntone villages. The lowest mean value of standard length and body weight were found in June at both study areas. According to the invoice data revealed that monthly catch weight of sea bass is most abundance in October (829.92) kg in Kokko, (339.12) kg in Kyuntone. Based on price of relations to size group, small size C < 300g (41%) was mostly abundance in Kokko and in Kyuntone small size C < 300g (35%) was second abundance. Specimens were not landed in April and May. In June, young specimens were very rarely seen in both study sites. The important roles of wetland fishes, the economic valuation of GOMW in Myanmar and samples of fishing gear and value chain of sea bass in Myanmar was expressed in this study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0426.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: karst wetland mapping; SegNet model; UAV images; fusion model; texture feature
Online: 19 February 2021 (09:44:24 CET)
Karst wetlands are being seriously damaged, and protecting it has become an important matter. Karst vegetation is the essential component of wetland and plays an important role in in the ecological functions of wetland ecosystems. Classifying karst vegetation is important for karst wetlands protection and management. This paper addressed to classify karst vegetation in Huixian National Wetland Park, located in China using the improved SegNet Deep-Learning Algorithm and UAV images. This study proposed a method to fuse single-class SegNet models using the maximum probability algorithm for karst vegetation classification, and compared with object-based RF classification and multi-class SegNet classification, respectively. This paper evaluated the performance of multi-class SegNet model and fusion of single-class SegNet model with different EPOCH values for mapping karst vegetation. A new optimized post-classification algorithm was proposed to eliminate the stitching traces caused by SegNet model prediction. The specific conclusions of this paper include the followings:(1) fusion of four single-class SegNet models produced better classification for karst wetland vegetation than multi-class SegNet model, and achieved the highest overall classification accuracy (87.34%); (2) The optimized post-classification algorithm was able to improve prediction accuracy of SegNet model, and it could eliminate splicing traces; (3) The karst wetland vegetation classifications produced by single-class SegNet model outperformed multi-class SegNet model, and improved classification accuracy(F1-Score) between 10%~25%;(4)The EPCOH values and textural feature important impact on karst wetland vegetation classifications. The SegNet model with EPCOH 15 achieved greater classification accuracy(F1-Score) than the model with EPOCH 5 or 10. The textural feature improved improves the capability of the SegNet model for mapping karst vegetation;(5) Fusion of single-class SegNet models and object-based RF model could provide high classifications results for karst wetland vegetation, and both achieved greater 87% overall accuracy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0236.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Biogeochemistry; Carbon; Carbon balance; Ecosystem; Ecosystem processes; Mangrove; Salt marsh; Wetland
Online: 10 September 2020 (11:22:38 CEST)
Mangroves and salt marshes are among the most productive ecosystems in the global coastal ocean. Mangroves store more carbon (739 Mg CORG ha-1) than salt marshes (334 Mg CORG ha-1), but the latter sequester proportionally more (24%) net primary production (NPP) than mangroves (12%). Mangroves exhibit greater rates of gross primary production (GPP), above-ground net primary production (NPP) and plant respiration (RC) with higher PGPP/RC ratios, but salt marshes exhibit greater rates of below-ground NPP. Mangroves have greater rates of subsurface DIC production and, unlike salt marshes, exhibit significant microbial decomposition to a soil depth of 1 m. Salt marshes release more soil CH4 and export more dissolved CH4 , but mangroves release more CO2 from tidal waters and export greater amounts of POC, DOC and DIC to adjacent waters. Both ecosystems contribute only a small proportion of GPP, RE (ecosystem respiration) and NEP (net ecosystem production) to the global coastal ocean due to their small global area, but contribute 72% of air-sea CO2 exchange from the world’s wetlands and estuaries and contribute 34% of DIC export and 17% of DOC + POC export to the world’s coastal ocean. Thus, both wetland ecosystems contribute disproportionately to carbon flow of the global coastal ocean.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0148.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: degradation; dependence; local ecological knowledge; Lower Gangetic Floodplains; Ramsar Convention; wetland
Online: 8 July 2020 (11:21:50 CEST)
Unplanned urbanisation and industrialisation have severely degraded natural ecosystems, particularly wetlands. The Ganges-Brahmaputra Basin support 630 million inhabitants; yet continue to be altered rapidly, jeopardizing the region’s social and ecological integrity. By conducting qualitative interviews and participant observation in a wetland dependent village located in the Lower Gangetic Floodplains we investigated how degrading wetlands in sub-urban landscapes were affecting socio-ecological systems. Not only did the wetlands provide livelihood options, mainly fishing and farming, but also provided prestige and autonomy. Vulnerable sections of the society across class, age and gender were solely dependent on the wetland. In absence of political will to safeguard wetland health, industries emerged by altering wetlands, which hampered local community’s livelihood and lifestyle. Further, our study demonstrated that local ecological knowledge could provide qualitative baseline information for fast-tracking identification of important wetlands and creating inventories to initiate wetland conservation and management. Finally, we recommend local governance structures should be strongly tied to international or national wetland policies so that wetland functions along with human health and well-being could be sustained. We strongly advocate that contradictions in policies be resolved to strengthen efforts to conserve wetlands which provide resilience to marginal communities in the face of calamities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0095.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: interception losses; water balance; water storage capacity; wetland; sedges; Biebrza river
Online: 14 December 2017 (16:36:55 CET)
This study estimates rainfall interception losses from natural wetland ecosystems based on maximum canopy storage measurements. Rainfall interception losses play an important role in water balance, which is crucial in wetlands, and has not yet been thoroughly studied in relation to this type of ecosystem. Maximum canopy storage was measured using the weight method. Based on these measurements, daily values of interception losses were estimated and then used to calculate long term interception losses based on precipitation and potential evapotranspiration data for the 1971–2015 period. Depending mainly on the number of days with precipitation, the results show that total interception losses for the growing season as well as monthly interception losses are around 13% of gross rainfall. This value is similar to the values observed for some forests. Hence, interception losses should not be disregarded in hydrologic models of wetlands, especially because data trends in meteorological conditions (mainly number of days with precipitation) show that interception losses will increase in the future if those trends stay the same.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0098.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: rule-based classification model; wetland remote sensing; SVM; TC-Wetness; China
Online: 11 May 2017 (08:03:34 CEST)
Wetlands are among the most bio-diverse and highest productivity ecosystems on earth, making their monitoring a high priority to conservation, protection and management interests. Although visual interpretation of satellite images is generally precise for monitoring wetlands, recent works have emphasized computerized classification methods because of the reduction in analyst time. However, it is difficult to automatically identify wetland solely based on spectral characteristics due to the complexity of wetland ecosystems. The ability to extract wetland information rapidly and accurately is the basis and the key to wetland mapping at a large scale. Here we propose an operational method to map China wetlands based on Landsat TM data and ancillary data. On the basis of theoretical analysis of wetland automatic classification, we developed a revised multi-layer wetland classification scheme and a rule-based classification model. In the latter, supervised classification (SVM and decision tree) and unsupervised classification (ISODATA) methods were tested. Four Landsat TM images, representing various wetland eco-regions in China (i.e. the Sanjiang Plain in the northeast China, the North China Plain, the Zoige Plateau in the southwest China and the Pearl River Estuary in southeast China), were automatically classified. The overall classification accuracies were 86.57%, 96.00%, 84.51% and 88.30%, respectively, which we considered to be satisfactory accuracy. Our results indicate that issues such as the resolution of geographic data and the understanding of wetland samples should be carefully addressed in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0068.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: Fishermen; Lake Ziway; Small scale irrigation users; Socioeconomic benefit; Wetland ecosystem service
Online: 22 July 2016 (16:02:46 CEST)
ABSTRACT This study focused for socio-economic benefit of Western shoreline of Lake Ziway ecosystem. The data collected from two woredas they are Adami Tulu Jidu Kombolch (ATJK) and Dugda woreda of fishermen and small scale irrigation users. Lake Ziway great importance food and water for both groups of respondents and additionally sources of raw material, energy, cultivation, organic fertilizers, genetic and medicinal plants. Lake Ziway also has a major economic benefit for both groups of respondents. The sampled fishermen cached mean amount of 2,524Kg per year with minimum and maximum amount of fish 504Kg and 16,800Kg per year respectively and with this fish catching they got average income of 51,398 Birr ($2,570) per year with range of 7,200 Birr ($360) and 288,000 Birr ($14,400) per year. As like of fishermen small scale irrigation also got economic benefit with their production of cereal crops, fruits and vegetables. They produce in average 13.47Quintal of cereal crop and 69.56Quintal of fruits and vegetables per year and they got average income of 7,727 Birr ($386) and with range of 13,714 Birr ($686) per year respectively. this incurred that wetland ecosystem has a lot of socio-economic benefit for the people live near by specially for developing countries like Ethiopia they are more dependent on natural ecosystem like of Lake Ziway. Because of its high importance, we have to protect and conserve and use sustainably of Lake Ziway and similar wetland ecosystems. Key Words: Wetland ecosystem service; Lake Ziway; Socioeconomic benefit; Fishermen; Small scale irrigation users
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0233.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: wetland vegetation; normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI); Landsat; precipitation; air temperature; snowmelt; extremely arid regions
Online: 28 March 2018 (06:13:23 CEST)
Based on 541 Landsat images between 1988 and 2016, the normalized difference vegetation indices (NDVIs) of the wetland vegetation at Xitugou (XTG) and Wowachi (WWC) inside the Dunhuang Yangguan National Nature Reserve (YNNR) in northwest China were calculated for assessing impacts of climate change on wetland vegetation in the YNNR. It was found that the wetland vegetation at the XTG and WWC both had shown a significant increasing trend in the past 30 years, and the increase in both annual mean temperature and peak snow depth over the Altun Mountains led to the increase of wetland vegetation. The influence of local precipitation on the XTG wetland vegetation was greater than on the WWC wetland vegetation, which demonstrates that in extremely arid regions, the major constrain to the wetland vegetation is water availability in soils which is greatly related to the surface water detention and discharge of groundwater. At both XTG and WWC, snowmelt from the Altun Mountains is the main contributor to the groundwater discharge, while local precipitation plays a less role in influencing the wetland vegetation at the WWC than at the XTG, because the wetland vegetation grows on a relatively flat terrain at the WWC, while in a stream channel at the XTG.
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: sub-surface flow constructed wetland; nutrient removal; wastewater treatment; Lactuca sativa; Medicago sativa; Phragmites australis
Online: 28 November 2016 (10:34:49 CET)
The main objective of this study was to compare the removal efficiency of nutrients using Lactuca sativa, Medicago sativa and Phragmites australis in subsurface flow constructed wetlands with horizontal flow. In order to test water quality, fabricated reactors designed and the plants cultivated in the soil while their root were inside the wastewater. A long time study carried out from spring till end of autumn (9 months) in order to evaluate the difference in removal rate based on the seasonal changes. The highest removal rate was during summer which followed by spring and autumn. Thus, the effect of plants on the removal efficiency of organic matter (COD, BOD), TSS and nutrient (P and TN) appeared to be dependent on the seasonal growth. Phragmites australis the most sensitive species in order the removal of nutrient from wastewater.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0149.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: landsat 8 OLI; Nalban Lake; East Kolkata Wetland; chlorophyll-a prediction; study points; validation points
Online: 15 August 2016 (13:51:19 CEST)
1) Landsat operational land imager (OLI) data and consequent laboratory measurements were used to predict Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentration and the trophic states for an inland lake within the East Kolkata Wetland, India; 2) The most suitable band ratio was identified by performing Pearson correlation analysis between Chl-a concentrations and possible OLI band and band ratios from the study points; 3) The results showed highest correlation coefficient from the band ratio OLI5/OLI4 with an R value of 0.85. The prediction model was then developed by applying regression analysis between the band ratio OLI5/OLI4 and Chl-a concentration of the study points. The reflectance ratios of the validation points were given as input on the prediction model and the model output was considered as predicted Chl-a values of the validation points to check the efficiency of the prediction model. The regression model between laboratory-derived Chl-a value and model-fitted Chl-a value of the validation points revealed a high correlation with an R2 value of 0.78. Trophic State Index (TSI) of the lake was also calculated from laboratory-derived Chl-a value and model-fitted Chl-a value of the validation points. The study presented a high correlation of TSI determined from predicted data with TSI from laboratory reference data (R = 0.88). The TSI values of the lake ranged from 65 to 75 which indicate that the lake is appeared to be eutrophic to hypereutrophic conditions. 4) This empirical study showed that Landsat 8 OLI imagery can be effectively applied to estimate Chl-a levels and trophic states for inland lakes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0202.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Inland saline wetland; lake; ecosystem; biodiversity; human interventions; Google Earth Engine; Normalized Difference Water Index; Restoration
Online: 13 October 2021 (13:09:59 CEST)
Globally, saline lakes occupying 23% by area 44% by volume among all the lakes might desiccate by 2025 due to agricultural diversion, illegal encroachment, pollution, and invasive species. India’s largest saline lake, Sambhar is currently shrinking at the rate of 4.23% due to illegal saltpan en-croachment. This research article aims to identify the trend of migratory birds and monthly wetland status. Birds survey was conducted for 2019, 2020 and 2021 and combined with literature data of 1994, 2003, and 2013 for visiting trend, feeding habit, migratory and resident ratio, and ecological diversity index analysis. Normalized Difference Water Index was scripted in Google Earth Engine. Results state that it has been suitable for 97 species. Highest NDWI values for the was whole study period was 0.71 in 2021 and lowest 0.008 in 2019 which is highly fluctuating. The decreasing trend of migratory birds coupled with decreasing water level indicates the dubious status for its existence. If the causal factors are not checked, it might completely desiccate by 2059 as per its future prediction. Certain steps are suggested that might help conservation. Least, the cost of restoration might exceed the revenue generation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0275.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: Accuracy Assessment, Analysis Change, Detection analysis, Environmental change, GIS and Remote Sensing, Jarmet and others wetland change,LULC, change population growth
Online: 24 July 2019 (12:04:29 CEST)
Wetlands are one of the crucial natural resources. They provide invaluable biodiversity resources, aid in water quality improvement, support ground water recharge, help in moderating climate change and support flood control. Environment is in the other hand, where we live and something, we are very familiar with our day to day life. Geographic Information Systems (GIS), Remote Sensing and Global Positioning System (GPS) were a useful tool for wetland and environmental change analysis and to improve on the classification accuracy. This study investigates population and environmental change of Jarmet wetland and its surrounding area change analysis over the period of 1972 to 2015. The purpose of this study was to show land use/ land cover change of Jarmet wetland and its surrounding environment over years as a response to population growth. For this purpose, multi-temporal satellite imageries (Landsat MSS 1972, TM1986, ETM+ 2000, 2005 and 2015 and SRTM 2000) were obtained and used for LULC change analysis, elevation analysis and change detection analysis. ERDAS Imagine 2015, ARC GIS 10.5.1, Global Mapper11, ENVI 5.0 and DNR Garmin softwares were used to process the image data and accuracy assessment analysis. The result of LULC showed that there is spatial reduction in wetland, forest, Shrubland and grassland in the period of 43 years (1972-2015) by -1,722.8 ha, -296.2 ha, -1,718.7 ha and -661.9 ha respectively, due to increase in the farmland and plantation area as a response to overpopulation, lack of environmental policy implementation and irresponsible for natural resource degradation. The accuracy assessment of LULC change are done for recent satellite image showed the overall accuracy of 84.06% with Kappa index 75.19% this means this classification is accurately classified and handle greater than 75% of error. Finally, this study suggests that create strictly natural resource conservation law, stopping illegal expansion of farmland, educating society about the value of natural resource especially wetland and create a source of income for society rather than farming.